Inter-country exchanges of folk medicinal practices: a case study of a folk medicinal practitioner of Savar in Dhaka District, Bangladesh.
Folk medicinal practice is the most common and one of the ancient forms of various traditional medicinal practices in Bangladesh. Folk medicinal practitioners, otherwise known as Kavirajes, can be found in almost every village of the 86,000 villages of the country, as well as in small towns and cities. Kavirajes form the first tier of primary health-care provision, particularly in rural Bangladesh, where the population is essentially poor and cannot afford or lacks access to modern medical facilities and allopathic doctors. Kavirajes essentially use simple formulations of medicinal plants or plant parts in the form of juice, paste or decoctions to treat a wide variety of ailments including complicated diseases like diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis and cancer. The formulations and practices of Kavirajes mostly remain undocumented to this day. This is an unfortunate situation from two aspects. First, the knowledge of medicinal plants and their properties are usually kept by the Kaviraj within his or her immediate family, and is transmitted through successive generations. As a result, over time, a Kaviraj can acquire considerable knowledge on the medicinal properties of plants, particularly those found in the vicinity of his or her habitat. Second, the selection of medicinal plants for treatment of the same ailment or symptoms varies widely between Kavirajes of even adjacent areas. Thus documentation of these knowledge can not only be of importance in proper identification of the medicinal plants of Bangladesh, but also can spur scientific research and conservation of these plants, which are fast disappearing because Bangladesh is a densely populated country with very little forest region left.
Towards a thorough documentation of medicinal plants used by the Kavirajes, we had been conducting ethnomedicinal surveys among the Kavirajes of the mainstream population in various parts of the country as well as tribal medicinal practitioners of the country for a number of years (Nawaz et al., 2009; Rahmatullah et al., 2009a-c; Chowdhury et al., 2010; Hasan et al., 2010; Hossan et al., 2010; Mollik et al., 2010a,b; Rahmatullah et al., 2010a-g; Akber et al., 2011; Biswas et al., 2011a-c; Haque et al., 2011; Islam et al., 2011; Jahan et al., 2011; Rahmatullah et al., 2011a,b; Sarker et al., 2011; Das et al., 2012; Rahmatullah et al., 2012ad). Besides documentation of medicinal plants, a further question asked of the Kavirajes and the tribal medicinal practitioners (TMPs) was to where and how they gained their knowledge on these plants. The answer usually has been diverse; for instance, some Kavirajes mentioned that they gained this knowledge from their ancestors, some in their dreams, some prescribe plants based on the physical appearance of the plants and color of leaves or flowers, and yet others mentioned that they have obtained this knowledge from books, but have failed to produce such books. There also had been vague references by some Kavirajes that they obtained this knowledge through apprenticeship and training with a 'guru' at Kamrup-Kamakhya, which denotes the Indian state of Assam and borders Bangladesh.
The Indian sub-continent, which presently comprises of the countries of Bangladesh, India and Pakistan, was not the same in recent or past historical periods. Although there have been occasions of the presence of numerous states in the Indian sub-continent at different historical periods, at other times of the sub-continent's history, it has formed essentially one unit like both under the Mughal rule and the later British rule in comparatively recent times. This means that the all parts of the sub-continent throughout their histories must have had different forms of exchanges and travels of the inhabitants, and these exchanges could conceivably include exchanges of information on traditional medicinal practices. Certainly this is reflected in the influence of Ayurvedic medicinal practice on folk medicine and vice-versa. Even to this date, a number of tribes exist on both sides of the border of Bangladesh and India and since these tribes are the same, there regularly occur travels between them. In earlier instances of our ethnomedicinal surveys, we have also found evidences of plant or animal materials being brought from India by tribal people or even Kavirajes. Assam and Tripura, two states of India bordering Bangladesh, regularly sees such visits to and from both the mainstream and the tribal people on the borders. Assam, from historic times, had been known to Bengal (previously a full province of the undivided Indian sub-continent, presently the eastern part being Bangladesh) as a place where various types of magic are practiced including the 'magic' of treatment with medicinal plants. This has been more so because Assam and its sister states contain huge forested regions, have low population density, and are inhabited by numerous tribes. It can be said that selection of medicinal plants for treatment of a disease is always a continuous process (Caniago and Siebert, 1998; Garro, 1986; Trotter and Logan, 1986) and such selections contain both 'etic' and 'emic' influences (i.e. can be inter-cultural or intra-cultural). As such it cannot be discounted that the process is ongoing even now, with Kavirajes from across the border in India influencing the plant selections by the Kavirajes of Bangladesh, although such instances may be relatively few.
During our ethnomedicinal surveys, we came across a female Kaviraj who claimed to have received her folk medicinal training from Assam in India. Since this appeared to be an interesting instance, the objective of the present study was to interview and document the medicinal formulations of this particular Kaviraj in Savar of Dhaka district in Bangladesh.
Materials and Methods
Informed consent was initially obtained from the Kaviraj, namely Aziza Khanam, age around 50 years, and who practices in Savar on the outskirts of Dhaka city in Dhaka district of Bangladesh. The Kaviraj claimed that she obtained her training in Assam state of India, which borders Bangladesh and where she served a period of several years as an apprentice to a 'guru'. Consent was obtained that the information that she provided would be provided readily without any reservations and that such information may be disseminated in national or international publications. Actual interviews were conducted in the Bengali language (same language spoken by the Kaviraj as well as the interviewers) with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire and the guided field-walk method of Martin (1995) and Maundu (1995). In this method, the Kaviraj took the interviewers on guided field-walks through areas from where she collected her medicinal plants, pointed out the plants, and described their uses. All plant materials were collected on the spot, dried and brought back for identification by Mr. Manjur-Ul-Kadir Mia, ex-Curator and Principal Scientific Officer of the Bangladesh National Herbarium at Dhaka.
Results and Discussion
The Kaviraj used a total of 31 formulations for treatment of various ailments, which included fever (including dengue and malarial fever), helminthiasis, gastrointestinal disorders (diarrhea, dysentery, constipation, and gastric problems), diabetes, skin diseases, pain, respiratory tract disorders (coughs, asthma), cuts and wounds, liver problems, edema, urinary tract infections, kidney stones, whitish discharge in urine of women, sexual weakness, hair loss, and measles. The results are shown in Table 1. A total of 36 plant species belonging to 31 families were used in her formulations. This is shown in Table 2. Besides medicinal plants, the Kaviraj also used bovine milk, meat of Bengal fox and spider web in her formulations, which will be discussed later. An interesting aspect of some formulations of this Kaviraj was that dosage varied according to age (see for instance Serial Number 1), which has been seldom seen in interviews with other Kavirajes in our various ethnomedicinal surveys. It is possible that this consciousness of dosage variation according to age is a particular sophistication learned from Assam and reflects a more refined form of practice of folk medicine.
Nyctanthes arbor-tristis was used by the Kaviraj for treatment of fever and helminthiasis (Serial Number 1). In Indian traditional medicines, the plant is also used for fever, and 50% ethanolic extract of leaves, flowers, seeds and roots were observed to be inhibitory to Entamoeba histolytica in rats (Khare, 2007). The indigenous people of Chittoor district of Andhra Pradesh in India use the roots of this plant for the treatment of fever (Sah and Verma, 2012). In other scientific studies, leaf extract of the plant has been shown to have analgesic, antipyretic and immunostimulant activities (Saxena et al., 1987; Puri et al., 1994), which properties could be beneficial in reducing fever, and pain associated with particularly dengue fever. Scoparia dulcis was used by the Kaviraj for treatment of diabetes and gastrointestinal problems (Serial Number 2). In Indian traditional medicine, the plant is also used for treatment of diabetes, and it is known to contain an anti-diabetic compound amellin in its leaves and stems. Modern scientific research has also found the relevancy of this plant as an anti-diabetic. Important scientific findings of the plant's anti-diabetic efficacy include increase of glucose transport properties in L6 myotubes by extract of the plant (Beh et al., 2010); anti-diabetic effect observed with scoparic acid D isolated from the plant in streptozotocin diabetic male Wistar rats (Latha et al., 2009); antihyperlipidemic effect (reduction of blood glucose, serum and tissue cholesterol, triglycerides, free fatty acids, phospholipids, and LDL-cholesterol) of aqueous extract of the plant reported in streptozotocin diabetic rats (Pari and Latha, 2006); anti-oxidant effect reported for aqueous extract of the plant in streptozotocin diabetic rats (Pari and Latha, 2005); reported increase in total circulating erythrocytes membrane insulin binding sites and significant increase in plasma insulin by aqueous extract of plant in streptozotocin diabetic male Wistar rats using circulating erythrocytes as a model system (Pari et al., 2004); protective action of plant extract against oxidative stress induced by streptozotocin in male Wistar rats and in Rat insulinoma cell lines (RINm5F) and isolated islets (Latha et al., 2004); protective role of plant extract on brain antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation in streptozotocin diabetic male Wistar rats (Pari and Latha, 2004); modulatory role of plant extract in oxidative stress-induced lipid peroxidation in streptozotocin diabetic rats (Latha and Pari, 2003); free radical scavenging activity reported for plant extract (Babincova and Surivong, 2001); hypoglycemic activity of aqueous extract of plant as demonstrated by reduction in blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin in alloxan diabetic rats (Pari and Venkateswaran, 2002).
Cassia fistula was used by the Kaviraj for treatment of eczema and coughs (Serial Number 3). The leaves of this plant have been mentioned in Ayurvedic literature to be used as an anti-microbial and for coughs and to treat skin disorders like ringworm infections as well as general skin infections (Rizvi et al., 2009; Neelam et al., 2011). In fact, eczema has been described in Ayurveda as 'vicharchika' and the plant is used as the first step in Ayurveda for treatment of eczema (Kaur and Chandola, 2010). To be noted is that the Kaviraj prescribed topical application of leaves fried in mustard oil for treatment of eczema. Oil not only has an anodyne effect, but it also helps to spread the ingredients smoothly over the skin and will further be beneficial in the absorption of lipidsoluble phytochemicals through the skin. As such, the use of oil in topical applications shows that the Kaviraj is quite knowledgeable about the values of oil for topical applications. Also to be noted is that a related species, Cassia tora, is also used in Ayurveda for the treatment of ringworm, coughs and bronchitis (Mazumder et al., 2005). The treatment of eczema with Musa paradisiaca fruit seems to be a novelty of Assam traditional medicine, because in our experiences we have not observed use of fruits of this plant for the same purpose in Bangladesh. Piper cubeba and Piper nigrum was used by the Kaviraj for treatment of asthma (Serial Number 4). In Ayurveda, Piper cubeba is known as 'kankola' and in the Unani traditional medicine system of India it is known as 'kabaabchini'. In both systems of traditional medicines, the plant is used for treatment of coughs and asthma (Khare, 2007). Notably, the plant is also used in Indonesian traditional medicines for treatment of asthma, which treatment has been validated by isolation of tracheopasmolytic compounds from the fruits (Wahyono et al., 2003). Piper nigrum, known in Ayurveda as 'maricha' and in Unani as 'safed' is also considered anti-asthmatic in both systems of traditional medicine. In vitro anti-asthmatic activity of fruit extract of Piper nigrum has also been reported (Parganiha et al., 2011).
Anti-edematogenic and analgesic activities have been reported for Ficus benghalensis (Mahajan et al., 2012), used by the Kaviraj for toothache and strengthening the base of teeth (Serial Number 5). Analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties have been reported for the plant Chromolaena odorata (Vaisakh and Pandey, 2012), a plant used by the Kaviraj for treatment of cuts and wounds to stop bleeding and pain (serial Number 7). Ayurvedic tradition supports the use of Allium sativum for reduction of lipid levels in blood, i.e. loss of obesity, which is precisely the same purpose for which the plant was used by the Kaviraj (Serial 8). Leaf extract of Mangifera indica (another plant used in combination with Allium sativum and Capsicum frutescens by the Kaviraj to reduce fat in the body) reportedly caused inhibition of lipid metabolic enzymes (Moreno et al., 2006). Root bark of Moringa oleifera is used for analgesic purposes in Indian traditional medicinal system; the Kaviraj used bark of the plant for treatment of joint pain (Serial Number 10). In Bangladesh, the common use of the plant by Kavirajes is for treatment of diabetes; the other described uses of leaves of the plant by the Kaviraj for treatment of constipation and liver problems have been possibly picked up from Assam. It is to be noted that the seed oil of this plant is a traditional remedy in Assam for joint pain (Nath et al., 2011). Leaves of Coccinia grandis (used by the Kaviraj for treatment of diabetes, Serial Number 12) are known for their anti-diabetic properties both traditionally, as well as being validated in scientific reports (Tamilselvan et al., 2011).
Stems of Mikania cordata was used by the Kaviraj for treatment of blood dysentery. In India, the plant is more used for treatment of itches and wounds, while in Bangladesh the plant is used in dyspepsia, dysentery, and gastric ulcer (Chowdhury et al., 2011). Centella asiatica, used by the Kaviraj to increase memory (Serial Number 15), has been described in Ayurvedic medical texts as a plant used for improving memory and overcoming mental confusion (Khare, 2007). This claim has also been scientifically validated (Jared, 2010). In Bangladesh, the plant is mostly used for treatment of gastrointestinal disorders, so the memory enhancer treatment has most probably been Assam-derived. Boerhavia coccinea, used by the Kaviraj for treatment of edema (Serial Number 16) is used by the inhabitants of the northeast region of Brazil for the same purpose (Agra et al., 2008). The use of Commelina benghalensis for treatment of abscess (Serial Number 17) is not known, but a related species, Commelina diffusa is used in Asia including the tribes of Amarkantak region of Madhya Pradesh in India for treatment of abscess (Isaac and Brathwaite, 2007; Srivastava et al., 2012). Flowers of Leucas aspera are given to children for common colds and coughs in Indian traditional medicine, the Kaviraj of Bangladesh did the same but used the leaves of this plant for treatment of the same ailment in adults (Serial Number 18). The common use of this plant in Bangladesh by other Kavirajes is for the treatment of pain. It is possible that the Kaviraj's treatment with flowers has been derived from Assam, and treatment with leaves being her own modification.
Kalanchoe pinnata was used by the Kaviraj to treat kidney stones (Serial Number 19); it is interesting that while no such uses has been reported for traditional medicinal systems of India, the plant is used for treatment of bladder stones in ethnomedicinal practices of Trinidad and Tobago (Lans, 2006). The leaves of Piper betle are used for treatment of constipation in children in India (Shalini et al., 2012); the Kaviraj used it to treat constipation in adults (Serial Number 20). In Ayurveda, the leaves of the plant are considered as carminative. Cynodon dactylon was used by the Kaviraj for treatment of diverse diseases like whitish discharge in urine of women, gastric problems, sexual weakness, and to stop bleeding from cuts and wounds (Serial Number 21). In Ayurveda, the plant is used to treat cuts and wounds, and for diseases like menorrhagia and burning micturation. In the Siddha system of medicine in India, the plant is believed to bring relief from chronic diseases (Ram et al., 2009). Thus this treatment by the Kaviraj strongly indicates Indian influences. Azadirachta indica (Serial Numbers 6 and 22) is used in Ayurveda for treatment of gum inflammation and for skin problems like acne; the Kaviraj prescribed this species for treatment of the same conditions. The hepatoprotective potential of Clerodendrum infortunatum (synonym of Clerodendrum viscosum) has been reported (Sannigrahi et al., 2009); the Kaviraj used the plant to treat liver problems (Serial Number 23).
In Ayurveda, oil containing fruit juice of Phyllanthus emblica are used to prevent hair loss; the Kaviraj used it for the same purpose (Serial Number 24). Peel extracts of Punica granatum reportedly possess anti-bacterial and anti-fungal activities (Abdollahzadeh et al., 2011), which may explain the use of the leaves of this plant for treatment of skin sores (Serial Number 25). Naphthalene is a pesticide, which can kill head lice. Its application in coconut oil for treatment of head lice (Serial Number 26) shows an innovation on the part of the Kaviraj, but any resultant toxic effects on the person on whom the naphthalene is applied remains to be scientifically determined. This is the first time that we have come across this mode of therapy in Bangladesh, and so this could have possibly originated from Assam. Roots of Bombax ceiba, as used by the Kaviraj (Serial Number 27) are also used traditionally in India to treat sexual weakness (Verma et al., 2011). Although the use of Cyperus kyllinga for treatment of diarrhea appears to be novel (Serial Number 28), a related species, Cyperus rotundus, is considered anti-diarrheal in Ayurveda.
The use of spider webs to stop bleeding (Serial Number 29) and is practiced in many countries of the world. However, it is unscientific and can lead to infections. The Kaviraj used the meat of the Bengal fox to treat rheumatic pain (Serial Number 30); members of the Nyishi and Galo tribes in Arunachal Pradesh of India (near the Bangladesh border with India) use the fat of this animal for treatment of rheumatism (Chakravorty et al., 2011). The use of cow milk for treatment of measles (Serial Number 31) is quite an uncommon procedure and not previously observed by us in our numerous ethnomedicinal surveys, and so could reflect either the Kavirajes own innovation or something borrowed from Assam.
Overall, it can be concluded that the various formulations used by the Kaviraj in the present survey can be classified into three groups--first, formulations which are common in Bangladesh and may have local origins; second, formulations, which show Indian traditional medicinal influences and could have originated from various Indian traditional medicinal systems and come to the Kaviraj via Assam, where she obtained her training; and third, some which may be considered as the Kavirajes own innovations. Our survey strongly suggests that folk medicinal practices in Bangladesh is closely related to folk medicinal practices in India, at least with areas in India close to the Bangladesh border. Irrespective of the origin, it is of importance that the formulations be studied scientifically with the objective of discovering novel and better medicines. Scientific reports have already validated the Kavirajes use of some of the plants, and more scientific research can lead to more validations and spur conservation efforts to save the plant and animal species.
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(1) Sophia Hossain, (2) Safayat Mahmud, (1) Mohammed Rahmatullah
(1) Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Development Alternative, Dhanmondi, Dhaka-1205, Bangladesh.
(2) UniMed UniHealth Pharmaceuticals, Lalmatia, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
Corresponding Author: Professor Dr. Mohammed Rahmatullah, Pro-Vice Chancellor University of Development Alternative House No. 78, Road No. 11A (new) Dhanmondi R/A, Dhaka-1205 Bangladesh Phone: 88-01715032621; Fax: 88-02-8157339; E-mail: email@example.com
Table 1: Formulations used for treatment of various diseases by the Assam-trained Kaviraj of Savar in Dhaka district, Bangladesh. Serial Ailment with Formulation and dosage Number symptoms 1 Fever including For fever, leaves of Nyctanthes dengue fever and arbor-tristis L. (Oleaceae) are malarial fever, macerated with rhizomes of Zingiber helminthiasis. officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae) to obtain juice, which is strained and taken with honey twice daily in the morning and evening. For children aged 6 months to 2 years, 3 leaves are macerated, for children aged 2-5 years, 5 leaves are macerated, and for persons above 5 years age, 7 leaves are macerated. For children, the amount of honey is Y teaspoonfuls, for adults it is 1 teaspoonful. For helminthiasis, leaves are macerated with table salt and taken in the morning on an empty stomach. Dosage is 3 leaves for children aged 6 months to 2 years, 5 leaves for children aged 2-5 years, and 7 leaves for persons above 5 years. 2 Gastric problems, One handful of leaves of Scoparia dulcis dysentery, L. (Scrophulariaceae) is washed, diabetes. macerated to obtain juice, which is strained and taken with water twice daily in the morning and evening (one spoonful of juice each time). 3 Eczema, waist For eczema, young leaves of Cassia pain, coughs and fistula L. (Fabaceae) are macerated and whooping coughs. fried in mustard oil [oil obtained from seeds of Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. (Cruciferae)] and applied to affected areas (1). Alternately, one large fruit of Musa paradisiaca L. (Musaceae) is macerated with table salt and applied to affected area and the area tied with a piece of cloth overnight. In the morning, the affected area is washed with water (2), and the concoction mentioned in (1) is applied. Application 2 is done for one day only followed by application 1 till cure. For waist pain, a piece of stem (1 inch) of Cassia fistula is tied around the waist. For coughs and whooping coughs, pulp of a ripe fruit of Cassia fistula is sucked. 4 Asthma. About 25g of Piper cubeba L. (Piperaceae) whole plant is mixed with a small amount of camphor [obtained from the wood of Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J. Presl. (Lauraceae), macerated and taken in the morning on an empty stomach for 21 days. Alternately, 50g of seeds of Piper nigrum L. (Piperaceae) is mixed with 250g taal-mishri [crystalline sugar obtained from the sap of Borassus flabellifer L. (Arecaceae)] and the mixture is macerated and taken with honey and warm water at night for 21 days. 5 Toothache, Sap obtained from young leaves of Ficus loosening of benghalensis L. (Moraceae) is applied to tooth. base of tooth. 6 To strengthen base Four leaves of Azadirachta indica A. of tooth. Juss. (Meliaceae) are chewed daily in the morning. 7 To stop bleeding Leaves of Chromolaena odorata (L.) King and pain from & H. Rob. (Asteraceae) are rubbed onto external cuts and cuts and wounds. wounds. 8 To reduce fat in Young leaves of Mangifera indica L. the body. (Anacardiaceae) are mashed with cloves of garlic [Allium sativum L. (Liliaceae)] and fruits of Capsicum frutescens L. (Solanaceae) and eaten. 9 To keep body cool. Stems of Abroma augusta L.f. (Sterculiaceae) are soaked in water overnight and then taken the following morning on an empty stomach. 10 Constipation, For constipation and liver problems, liver problems, leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam. joint pain. (Moringaceae) are fried and eaten. For joint pain, juice is extracted from boiled or raw bark and one cup of the juice is taken in the morning for 7 consecutive days. 12 Burning sensations Leaves of Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt. in the body, (Cucurbitaceae) are applied to areas of diabetes. the body with burning sensations. For diabetes, leaves are either taken in the macerated form or fried and eaten. 13 Gastric problems, Three leaves of Scindapsus aureus gastric ulcer. (Linden & Andre) Engl. (Araceae) are taken and the vein in the middle of each leaf is removed. The leaves are then macerated with water, which is then strained and taken in the morning on an empty stomach. This is continued for 7 days. 14 Blood dysentery, One handful of young stems of Mikania blood coming out cordata Burm.f. (Asteraceae) is from anus. macerated to obtain juice (about one glass), which is then taken with sugar or molasses every morning for 3 days on an empty stomach. 15 To increase Y cup of juice obtained from macerated memory. leaves of Centella asiatica (L.) Urb. (Umbelliferae) is taken in the morning. 16 Edema (legs, Leaves of Boerhavia coccinea Mill. body). (Nyctaginaceae) are fried and taken with rice in the afternoon for three consecutive days. 17 Abscess. Leaves and stems of Commelina benghalensis L. (Commelinaceae) are macerated with rhizomes of Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae), seeds of Coriandrum sativum L. (Umbelliferae) and table salt. The mixture is applied to the top of the abscess or the whole abscess for 3 days. 18 Common cold. For adults, the leaves of Leucas aspera (Willd.) Link. (Lamiaceae) are to be fried and eaten for 3 consecutive days. For children, flowers are macerated with honey and juice obtained from rhizomes of Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae) and orally administered for 3 consecutive days. 19 Urinary tract 4-5 leaves of Kalanchoe pinnata (Lam.) infections, kidney Pers. (Crassulaceae) are macerated and stones. rubbed onto the lower abdomen in case of urinary tract infections. For kidney stones, juice obtained from macerated 7-8 leaves (about 1 glass) is taken with sugar or honey in the morning on an empty stomach for 1 month. 20 Constipation. One leaf of Piper betle L. (Piperaceae) is macerated and Piper betle: Paan pata taken with table salt once daily. 21 Whitish discharge One handful of leaves of Cynodon in urine of women, dactylon (L.) Pers. (Poaceae) is gastric problems, macerated and the juice obtained is sexual weakness, taken with water (one glass) in the to stop bleeding morning for 7 consecutive days. from external cuts and wounds. 22 Acne. Equal amount of leaves of Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr. (Rutaceae) and Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Meliaceae) are macerated together and applied to acnes once daily. The mixture is to be applied for 20 minutes each time. 23 Liver problems. One handful of leaf buds of Clerodendrum viscosum Vent. (Verbenaceae) is macerated and taken with honey or sugar in the morning for 3 consecutive days. 24 Hair loss. 1 kg of fruits of Phyllanthus emblica L. (Euphorbiaceae) is heated with coconut oil [oil obtained from fruit pulp of Cocos nucifera L. (Arecaceae)] and then cooled and applied to the head at night. 25 Skin sores. Leaves of Punica granatum L. (Punicaceae) are macerated, mixed with coconut oil [oil obtained from fruit pulp of Cocos nucifera L. (Arecaceae)] and applied to sores for 7 consecutive days. 26 Head lice. Oil obtained from fruit pulp of Cocos nucifera L. Cocos nucifera: Narkel (Arecaceae) is mixed with 4 powdered balls of naphthalene and applied to the head. A piece of cloth is tied tightly to the head and kept in place for 3-4 hours. The hair is then combed and shampooed. 27 Sexual weakness. Roots of Bombax ceiba L. (Bombacaceae) and roots of Borassus flabellifer L. (Arecaceae) are macerated together and taken with honey once daily in the morning for 7 consecutive days. 28 Diarrhea. Tubers of Cyperus kyllinga Endl. (Cyperaceae) are washed, macerated and taken with sugar. Dosage is 1 tuber for children and 2 for adults. 29 To stop bleeding Spider (any type) web is held onto cuts from external cuts and wounds. and wounds. 30 Rheumatic pain. The meat of Bengal fox (Vulpes bengalensis LC) is cooked and eaten (one piece of meat for 7 consecutive days). 31 Measles. Raw cow milk is applied to whole body. Serial Local name of plants/ingredients Number used 1 Nyctanthes arbor-tristis: Sheuli, Shefali Zingiber officinale: Ada 2 Scoparia dulcis: Chini shakkor 3 Cassia fistula: Bandor lori, Bandor lathi Brassica juncea: Shorisha Musa paradisiaca: Bichi kola 4 Piper cubeba Cof chini, Kabab chini Cinnamomum camphora: Korpur Piper nigrum: Kalo gol morich Borassus flabellifer: Taal 5 Ficus benghalensis: Bot 6 Azadirachta indica: Neem 7 Chromolaena odorata: Ful khori 8 Mangifera indica: Aam Allium sativum: Roshun Capsicum frutescens: Morich 9 Abroma augusta: Ulot kombol 10 Moringa oleifera: Sojne gach 12 Coccinia grandis: Telakochu 13 Scindapsus aureus: Money plant 14 Mikania cordata: Jarmany lota 15 Centella asiatica: Thankuni pata 16 Boerhaavia coccinea: Kunil ibba 17 Commelina benghalensis: Kanai Zingiber officinale: Ada Coriandrum sativum: Dhonae 18 Leucas aspera: Dondo kolosh Zingiber officinale: Ada 19 Kalanchoe pinnata: Pathorkuchi 20 Piper betle: Paan pata 21 Cynodon dactylon Dubla ghas 22 Aegle marmelos: Bael Azadirachta indica: neem 23 Clerodendrum viscosum: Bite gach 24 Phyllanthus emblica: Amloki Cocos nucifera: Narkel 25 Punica granatum: Dalim gach Cocos nucifera: Narkel 26 Cocos nucifera: Narkel 27 Bombax ceiba: Shimul gach Borassus flabellifer: Taal 28 Cyperus kyllinga: Vadaleya gach 29 30 Vulpes bengalensis: Shiyal 31 Table 2: Medicinal plants used by the Kaviraj of Savar in Dhaka district, Bangladesh. Serial Number Plant Family 1 Mangifera indica Anacardiaceae 2 Scindapsus aureus Araceae 3 Borassus flabellifer Arecaceae 4 Cocos nucifera Arecaceae 5 Chromolaena odorata Asteraceae 6 Mikania cordata Asteraceae 7 Bombax ceiba Bombacaceae 8 Commelina benghalensis Commelinaceae 9 Kalanchoe pinnata Crassulaceae 10 Brassica juncea Cruciferae 11 Coccinia grandis Cucurbitaceae 12 Cyperus kyllinga Cyperaceae 13 Phyllanthus emblica Euphorbiaceae 14 Cassia fistula Fabaceae 15 Leucas aspera Lamiaceae 16 Cinnamomum camphora Lauraceae 17 Allium sativum Liliaceae 18 Azadirachta indica Meliaceae 19 Ficus benghalensis Moraceae 20 Moringa oleifera Moringaceae 21 Musa paradisiaca Musaceae 22 Boerhaavia coccinea Nyctaginaceae 23 Nyctanthes arbor-tristis Oleaceae 24 Piper betle Piperaceae 25 Piper cubeba Piperaceae 26 Piper nigrum Piperaceae 27 Cynodon dactylon Poaceae 28 Punica granatum Punicaceae 29 Aegle marmelos Rutaceae 30 Scoparia dulcis Scrophulariacese 31 Abroma augusta Sterculiaceae 32 Capsicum frutescens Solanaceae 33 Centella asiatica Umbelliferae 34 Coriandrum sativum Umbelliferae 35 Clerodendrum viscosum Verbenaceae 36 Zingiber officinale Zingiberaceae
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|Title Annotation:||Original Article|
|Author:||Hossain, Sophia; Mahmud, Safayat; Rahmatullah, Mohammed|
|Publication:||American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture|
|Date:||Oct 1, 2012|
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