Integrating field "micromechatronics & nanomechatronics"--integrated part in nanosciences and nanotechnologies.
Micro-Mechatronics and Nano-Mechatronics ([micro]M & nM) are the most representative and advanced interdisciplinary fields of engineering and the youngest of the integrated sciences. Currently, they are developing at very fast pace, because of their impact in the fields of physics, solid mechanics, fluid mechanics, optics, pneumatics, electro techniques, thermodynamics, all of them intermingled, interdisciplinary and integrated on one hand with the sciences of electronics, informatics and applied mathematics and on the other hand with chemical, biological, psycho-sociology, economy sciences and arts in general.
Micro-Mechatronics (jM) and Nano-Mechatronics (nM) penetrate daily in other new mechatronic subfields, as well as micro-nano-robotics, mechatronic micro-nano-technology mechatronics and medical micro-nano-technique.
This evolution and development at the Micro and Nano scale of Mechatronics cannot be conceived out of the evolution and of the development of components and micro-nano-components and micro-nano-technologies of the materials, intelligently coupled and architected on the basis of dedicated, special and efficient software, integrated into a competent, useful and successful design.
The work shows concepts, applications, laboratory experiments and an original point of view on the current and future problematic of [micro]M & nM, in both a formative and an informative scope.
2. THE CONCEPTS OF MICROMECHATRONICS ([micro]M) AND NANO-MECHATRONICS (nM)
The integration of [micro]M & nM in the advanced fields of Nano-sciences and Nano-technologies requires a discussion over the concepts, theories and scientific accomplishments, with tangible examples of applications in research projects taken on by the author and by the dedicated institute.
The concepts of [micro]M & nM (Amerongen, 2006) were initiated and developed as a consequence of the rapid development of micro-nano-mechatronic structures and micro-nano-structures, as well as due to the perfecting of the perfecting of the micronano-programming, micro-nano-command and micro-nanocontrol.
The concepts of [micro]M & nM have developed through the synergetic mingling of the micro-nano-structures matrices and of the principles and laws that coordinate the movement of masses, the carriers of electrical charges and the informational transfer at superior logical levels and in the micro-nanotechnological integration and fusion of all micro-nanocomponents.
The concepts of [micro]M & nM synthesize the simple, mixed and complex phenomena, diverse structures, integrated links of all constitutive sciences and computer sciences and informational technology, subordinated to the generative ensemble at a micro and nano- scale of high and total quality.
The implementation of de [micro]M & nM concepts (Gheorghe, 2008), in technical and technological applications, arguments their contribution to the evolution and the development of Nano-sciences and Nano-technologies, justified by the favorable immediate effects on the superior quality of products and services, high work productivity, rapid increase in the comfort of life in as a whole, carrying out lasting economic efficiency and the computer management of all processes in industry, economy and society.
3. APPLICATIONS OF [micro]M& nM APPROACHED IN RESEARCH PROJECTS
A first application in the realization of a micro-mechatronic structure with digital micro-nano-control of the process, shown in fig. 1
In this application, of advanced micro-nano-mechatronic micro-nano-system, (Taniguchi, 2000) the micro-nano-control is carried out discreetly over time, taking the form of digital micro-nano-control, where the variable is monitored and compared to the reference variable, the signals are exposed to a sampling with an identical and synchronic rate (cadence), the result of the comparison is also a digital-binary signal that conserves its digital shape even after processing, the and the algorithm on the basis of which the micro-nano-control is realized is implemented into a memory, through a program, where the A/D and D/A transform analogical variables in digital signals and vice-versa.
[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]
Another application of the micro-nano-robotic micro-nanosystem with reaction image and force is depicted in figure 2.
[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]
This micro-nano-robotic micro-nano-system is used for the development of experiments through autonomous injecting where the micro-nano-robot characterizes a hybrid micro-nanocontroller that combines the visual micro-nano-system and the micro-nano-control of the precision position by recognizing the detection model of the nuclei of embryos and the ultra precise auto focus scheme.
For improving the performance of the micro-nano-robotic micro-nano-system, a new concept of cell capacitate micronano-sensor with multi-axial NEMS is carried out for ensuring the force reaction in real time. (Brugger, 2003) This cell NEMS sensor is designed for the researches on characterizing bio-membrane properties.
Laboratory experiments show that [micro]M, nM, robotics and MEMS & NEMS micro-nano-technologies can carry out a determining role in the biological studies with the task of automated bio manipulation of bio molecules and bio cells.
In the experiments carried out in the laboratory "a new micro-nano-robotic hybrid" is depicted in figure 3, base don the nano-robotic manipulation of structuring increased nanomaterials and that could be used for complex 3D nano-devices. The advantages of nano-robotic assembly will certainly be found certainly in the next future in the science of nanomaterials, bio-nano-technologies and nano-electronics.
Generally, the positioning of nano-robots and of the nanorobotic manipulating devices depends generally on the matrix of nano-actuators and of the sensoric and the miniaturization architecture of MEMS and NEMS. (Considine, 2005)
For the movement at a nano- resolution, it is generated using different principles for auctioning, especially electrostatic, electro-magnetic and piezoelectric ones.
After the performed study and the researches carried out for nano-robotic applications, micro-actuators are used as it follows (table 1, table 2):
The experimental data obtained in the laboratory written in table 3:
[FIGURE 3 OMITTED]
Tab. 1. The characterization of linear microactuators Crt. Functioning Type of Volume No principle movement ([mm.sup.3]) 0 1 2 3 1 piezoelectric linear 22,5x11,5x1,4 2 magnetical linear 0,3x0,3x0,4 3 electrostatic linear 350 Crt. Speed Movement No ([s.sup.-1]) Force (N) (m) 0 4 5 6 1 4500 300 0,8x[10.sup.-3] 2 900 2,2x[10.sup.-6] 1x[10.sup.-4] 3 4800 0,8x[10.sup.-7] 5x[10.sup.-6] Power Crt. Resolution density No (m) (w/[m.sup.3]) 0 7 8 1 5x[10.sup.-8] 800 2 10x[10.sup.-8] 3500 3 10x[10.sup.-8] 220 Tab. 2. The characterization of rotation microactuators Crt. Functioning Type of Volume No principle movement ([mm.sup.3]) 0 1 2 3 1 piezoelectric rotation [pi]/4x1,4x0,4 2 magnetic rotation 2x3,5x0,5 3 electrostatic rotation [pi]/4x0,[5.sup.2]x2,8 Crt. Speed Torsion Movement No (rad/[s.sup.-1]) moment (rad.) 0 4 5 6 1 30 1,8x[10.sup.-11] 0,5 2 160 1x[10.sup.-6] 2[pi] 3 35 2x[10.sup.-7] 2[pi] Power Crt. Resolution density No (rad.) (w/[m.sup.3]) 0 7 8 1 6/40[pi] 3500 2 5/36[pi] 3200 3 -- 950 Tab. 3. Experimental data obtained in the laboratory force resolution direction 10 [micro]N 0.005 [micro]N yx 15 [micro]N 0.007 [micro]N yx 20 [micro]N 0.009 [micro]N yx 25 [micro]N 0.01 [micro]N yx
For using an optimal actuator, during the design work, the movement range, the force, the movement, the speed (displacing frequency), power, resolution, precision, the flexibility coefficient corresponding to the robot, the robustness, the loading capacity and so on have to be considered.
For the micro-nano-manipulation functions, determined on the basis of the study and of the researches that were carried out, these were selected and stated according to table 4:
Tab. 4. The selecting of micro-nano-manipulation function Crt. no. Functions * The micro-nano-manipulation involved 1 Nano-manipulation * Micro-nano-manipulation of nano-tubes through intermolecular control forces and surface control forces and their micro-nano-positioning in the 3D coordinates 2 Nano-instrumentation * Electrical properties: their placing between two probes; * Mechanical properties: blending or stretching 3 Nano-fabrication * Disposal induced through an electrons flow * Shape modification: deformation by bending, shape bending and fixing * Destructive fabrication: breaking 4 Nano-assembling * Welding, with an electron flow * Bending through mechanical and chemical synthesis
The work underlies, in synthesis, the concepts, theories, scientific attainments, applications and laboratory experiments in the advanced integrated field of Micro-Mechatronics and Nano-Mechatronics, of Micro-Nano-Robotics and Micro-Nano-Technologies that are an integrated part of Nano-sciences and Nano-technologies that characterizes in the future the development in the field of Intelligent Advanced Engineering.
Amerongen, van J; Jongkind W. (2006). Mechatronics in the Netherlands Transaction Mechatronics, vol. 1, nr. 2. pag.106-110
Gheorghe, I. Gheorghe; (2008). Engineer's Handbook of Precision Mechanics, Mechatronics and Integronics, CEFIN Publishing House, ISBN 978-973-87042-6-8, Romania
Norio, Taniguchi; (2000). Nanotechnologies. integrated processing systems for ultra-fine and ultra-precise products; Technic Publishing House, ISBN 973-31-1508-8, Romania
Brugger, J., Microfabricated tools for nanoscience, Journal of Micromechatronics and Microengineerings, 2003, (4), vol. 3. pp. 161-197.
Considine, Douglas M.: Process Instruments and controls handbook, 2005, New York, USA
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|Author:||Gheorghe, Ion Gheorghe; Vaduva, Vlad|
|Publication:||Annals of DAAAM & Proceedings|
|Date:||Jan 1, 2010|
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