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Integrated project delivery (IPD) in Malaysian construction industry dealing with waste issue.


The construction industry in Malaysia is currently facing many challenges, mostly related to the process inefficiency and cost ineffectiveness. This could be due to the traditional construction process that being condemned by many scholars with numerous problems and issues. The traditional construction process comprises of the tendering process, designing, constructing and handing over the of the building to the end users. In between these processes, there are some barriers that are decreasing the efficiency of the project. The inefficiency in the project can cause the waste problem in the construction. Waste in construction can be defined as the any incident of the material loses and execution of unnecessary work, which generate additional cost no value added to the product [1]. In this paper waste can be defined as the inefficiency of the construction processes, including the usage of material, time, labour and equipment. To be more precise, waste is the expenditure of effort of the using-up of the resource without any value [2]. Waste can be divided into two categories; unavoidable waste (waste by nature), and avoidable waste (waste by human) [3]. Construction waste can be categorized into two clusters; physical waste and non-physical waste [4].

Figure 1 shows the category of construction waste, this paper will discuss how IPD can generally reduce both of the physical and non-physical wastes in the construction in the following section.


Waste can be generated in many ways. In general, there are three types of waste in construction projects; material waste, time overrun and cost overrun [5]. All in all of these three factors will lead to profit losses in the project. That being said, these wastes can mostly be reduced or can be reused in the same project or in another project. IPD could solve most of this issue by implementing nine IPD principals in the construction projects. The American Institute of Architects of California Council line up the nine principles of IPD [6]


Based on a literature study, this paper will discuss the nine IPD principles to overcome the problems in construction generally focusing on how IPD can reduce waste, where IPD can minimize the cost and maximizing the value of the construction. This IPD will eliminate the barriers in between the people in the construction project.


It is only logical that the bigger construction project creates more waste, and this waste will create more losses in terms of cost, time and other physical waste. In some developed countries in Africa, it is estimated that 40% of construction waste is from rework, 30 to 40% labour and 20 to 25% waste from materials [7]. In Hong Kong, 5 to 10% of building materials will end up as waste [8]. In many countries, waste factor contributes to increasing wasteland congestion and most of the waste will not easily degrade in a short term. Figure 3 shows a classification of waste in construction projects.

According to AIA (2012), the use of IPD in a construction project is capable of reducing waste. The nine IPD principles serve as a guideline in ways that the construction team can interact in order to reduce construction wastes. Table 1 below indicates how the IPD principles can be assimilated into current construction processes that lead to project efficiency and minimizing waste.

From Table 1, it can be seen that by applying the principles of IPD, the interaction of the construction team within the project can lead to reducing the physical and non-physical waste during the construction process. Therefore, the value and efficiency of construction processes can be maximized, as well as reducing the adverse relational problems that is often mentioned in the construction industry in the long run.


IPD must be followed through with discipline and punctuality of every party in the construction team or otherwise the system will fail to achieve the promising targets. Integrated project delivery must be initiated in the early phases of project planning, way before the drawings are confirmed for the project. With commitment from owners, architects, engineers, contractors, subcontractors, suppliers and financiers, and continuous effort to IPD from the planning phase to the closing phase, efficiency and cost effectiveness in construction projects will be achieved which leads to minimization in construction wastes.


[1] Koskela, L., 1992. Application of the New Production Philosophy to Construction. CIFE Technical Report No.72, Stanford University, Calif, USA.

[2] Macomber, H. and G. Howell, 2004. Two Great Wastes in Organizations. Proceedings of the 12th Annual Conference of the International Group for Lean Construction IGLC-12, August, Denmark.

[3] Formoso, C.T., E.L. Isatto and E.H. Hirota, 1999. Method for Waste Control in the Building Industry. Proceedings of the Seventh Annual Conference of the International Group for Lean Construction IGLC-7, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA.

[4] Nagapan, S., A.R. Ismail and A. Asmi, 2011. A Review of Construction Waste Cause Factors. Proceedings of the Asian Conference of Real Estate: Sustainable Growth Managing Challenges (ACRE), Johor, Malaysia.

[5] Nagapan, S., A.R. Ismail, A. Asmi, A.H. Memon and I. Latif, 2012. Issues on Construction Waste: The Need for Sustainable Waste Management. IEEE Colloquium on Humanities, Science & Engineering Research. 978-1-4673-4617-7/12/ pp 325-330.

[6] AIA California Council, 2010. Integrated Project Delivery: Case Studies. Sacramento, CA: AIA - California Council.

[7] Data, M., 2000. Challenges Facing the Construction Industry in Developing Countries, Proceeding of 2nd International Conference of Construction in Developing Countries, 15- 17 November, Gabarone, Botswana.

[8] Poon, C.S., T.W. Yu and L.H. Ng, 2001. A Guide for Managing and Minimizing Building and Demolition Waste. The Hong Kong Polytechnic University.

[9] Nifa, F.A.A., M.N.M. Nawi and S.A. Rahim, 2014. An IPD Framework for Sustainable Design in UUM Campus Development. Proceedings of IEEE 1st International Symposium on Technology Management and Emerging Technologies. 978-1-4799-3703-5/14/pp 291-294.

[10] Nifa, F.A.A and V. Ahmed, 2014. Process Innovation in Partnering: A Framework for Aligning Organizational Cultures in the Malaysian Construction Industry. Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Managing of Innovation and Technologym 978-1-4799-5529-9/14/pp: 442-447.

(1) Syukran Abdul Rahim, (2) Faizatul Akmar Abdul Nifa and (3) Mohd Nasrun Mohd Nawi

(1,2,3) School of Technology Management and Logistic, College of Business, Universiti Utara Malaysia, Sintok, Kedah, Malaysia


Article history:

Received 12 October 2014

Received in revised form 26 December 2014

Accepted 1 January 2015

Available online 17 February 2015

Corresponding Author: SYUKRAN Abdul Rahim, School of Technology Management and Logistic, College of Business, Universiti Utara Malaysia, Sintok, Kedah, Malaysia.


Table 1: The effects of IPD Principles in Construction
Processes [9], [10]

IPD Principles           Effect to the          Reduce/Avoid

Open communication       Communication flow     Reduce
                         without barriers,      misunderstanding and
                         everybody can talk     wrong timing
                         to anyone and get
                         the information

Mutual respect           Each party in the      Avoid delays,
                         construction project   problem, mistake,
                         understands and        wrong specification
                         respect each other's
                         capability and

Collaborative            All decisions made     Reduce inaccurate
decision making          by everyone in the     specifications,,
                         early stage of         design, material and
                         planning about every   design changing
                         part of construction

Intensified planning     Everybody aware and    Idle time reduce,
                         ready to face the      reduce shortage of
                         problem that might     material, equipment
                         happen, supply         and labour
                         arrives on time

Early goal definition    Goal been set in       Avoid delay, rework,
                         early planning,        idle time and other
                         everyone knows what    mistake
                         and when to start
                         their job on time

Multi party agreement    Each party in the      Reduce
                         team agreed to take    misunderstanding,
                         responsibility in      wrong job
                         the construction       specification,
                         project punctuality
                         timing and job to be

Shared risk and reward   Everyone responsible   Reduce mistake,
                         to any problem in      wrong tools and
                         construction and       equipment
                         earn reward for the

Early involvement of     Key participants       Reduce wrong timing,
key participant          involve in the         delay, overuse or
                         project planning       under use of
                         process and plan the   manpower and
                         action                 shortage

Organization and         The construction       Reduce item loss,
leadership               process more           late decision,
                         organized lead by      equipment shortage
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Article Details
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Author:Rahim, Syukran Abdul; Nifa, Faizatul Akmar Abdul; Nawi, Nasrun Mohd
Publication:Advances in Environmental Biology
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9MALA
Date:Mar 1, 2015
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