Injection safety and vaccine administration errors at an employee influenza vaccination clinic--New Jersey, 2015.
Reuse of syringes for multiple patients, with or without reuse of needles, is recognized as a serious infection control breach that poses risks for bloodborne pathogen transmission (1-3). Upon investigation additional concerns regarding vaccine administration and storage and handling were identified for this event. The nurse used only two multiple dose vials of vaccine (10 doses/vial) to administer vaccines to 67 adult participants; thus, participants did not receive the recommended dose of influenza vaccine. The health services company had shipped the vaccine to the nurse's home, where it was stored in her home refrigerator without temperature monitoring until the event. Vaccine doses were then transported from the nurse's home to the vaccination site using a styrofoam container and cold packs. After the event, unused vaccine doses were transported back to the nurse's home and stored in her refrigerator before being shipped back to the health services company in a container with cold packs.
In response to these injection safety and vaccine administration errors, the NJDOH, in consultation with CDC, recommended notification and testing of the New Jersey business employees who participated in the vaccination clinic for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis C virus, and hepatitis B virus. Postexposure prophylaxis with hepatitis B vaccine and readministration of influenza vaccination were also recommended. NJDOH sent an e-mail on October 2, informing the participants of the potential bloodborne pathogen exposures and recommendations for testing and vaccination. Certified follow-up letters also were sent. A dedicated NJDOH phone number and e-mail address were created to assist the affected patients. The West Windsor Health Department collaborated with an urgent care center to perform blood draws and administer the vaccines on October 5 and 6; HIV and mental health counselors were available on-site. NJDOH also provided letters for participants to bring to their private physicians outlining the situation, risk assessment, and public health recommendations. Forty-seven of 67 participants received services through the urgent care center and the West Windsor Health Department; an unknown number of participants received treatment from their private health care providers. Follow-up clinics were arranged at 1 month and at 4 months for hepatitis B vaccination and testing.
Recommendations for appropriate injection safety and vaccine storage, handling, and administration were not followed at the influenza vaccination clinic (1-6). Response to this event required rapid and extensive communication and coordination among public health partners, including CDC, NJDOH, the New Jersey State Board of Nursing, and the West Windsor Health Department, as well as private entities. The contracted nurse voluntarily surrendered her license within 1 week of the initial report.
Approximately 17% of adults receive an annual influenza vaccine at their workplace (7,8). Influenza vaccination has been demonstrated to reduce illnesses, medical provider visits, lost work days, and antibiotic use among working adults (7,9). Although vaccination events outside of traditional health care settings can increase access to vaccines, training and oversight of health care personnel, and vaccine storage and handling can present special challenges. Companies providing vaccination services should ensure their employees and contracted staff adhere to established guidelines for infection prevention, and vaccine storage, handling, and administration (1-6). CDC recommends that, if possible, vaccine be delivered directly to the vaccination clinic site. If this is not possible, CDC recommends transporting influenza vaccine using a suitable portable refrigerator or a passive cooling system specifically designed and tested to maintain appropriate temperatures. A calibrated temperature monitoring device with a current and valid certificate of calibration testing and continuous monitoring and recording capabilities should be used to monitor the temperature of the storage unit or transport container (4). The temperature of the vaccine should be regularly monitored and recorded at appropriate intervals based on the type of vaccine storage unit and method of transport.
Many different presentations of influenza vaccine are available, including manufacturer-prefilled syringes for single-dose administration, which might reduce the opportunity for vaccination errors. When multiple-dose influenza vaccine vials are used, vaccinators should ensure that they administer the correct vaccine dosage; in addition, no more than 10 doses should be drawn up immediately before administering vaccine (4). Safe injection practices, including the correct site identification and needle length, should be followed (1,3,5,6). Providers should review additional guidance in the Vaccine Storage and Handling Toolkit (4) and General Recommendations on Immunizations Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) (6). Businesses should familiarize themselves with recommended guidelines and ensure that these guidelines are followed by the immunization service provider they choose. The Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (https://vaers.hhs.gov/index) accepts reports of adverse events that occur after vaccination, including reports of vaccination errors.
(1.) CDC. Injection safety. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, CDC; 2015. Available at http://www.cdc.gov/injectionsafety.
(2.) Guh AY, Thompson ND, Schaefer MK, Patel PR, Perz JF. Patient notification for bloodborne pathogen testing due to unsafe injection practices in the US health care settings, 2001-2011. Med Care 2012;50:785-91.
(3.) CDC. CDC grand rounds: preventing unsafe injection practices in the US health-care system. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2013;62:423-5.
(4.) CDC. Vaccine storage and handling toolkit. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, CDC; 2014. Available at http://www. cdc.gov/vaccines/recs/storage/toolkit/storage-handling-toolkit.pdf.
(5.) CDC. Vaccine administration: recommendations and guidelines. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, CDC; 2015. Available at http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/recs/vac-admin/default.htm.
(6.) CDC. General recommendations on immunizations: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Recomm Rep 2011;60(No. RR-2).
(7.) Partnership for Prevention. Give productivity a shot in the arm: how influenza immunization can enhance your bottom line. Washington, DC: Partnership for Prevention; 2015. Available at http://www.prevent.org/ flu/executive-summary.aspx.
(8.) Lu PJ, O'Halloran A, Ding H, Williams WW, Bridges CB, Kennedy ED. National and state-specific estimates of place of influenza vaccination among adult populations--United States, 2011-12 influenza season. Vaccine 2014;32:3198-204.
(9.) Bridges CB, Thompson WW, Meltzer MI, et al. Effectiveness and cost-benefit of influenza vaccination of healthy working adults: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2000;284:1655-63.
Laura Taylor, PhD ; Rebecca Greeley, MPH ; Jill Dinitz-Sklar, MPH ; Nicole Mazur, MPH ; Jill Swanson, MPH ; JoEllen Wolicki, BSN ; Joseph Perz, DrPH ; Christina Tan, MD ; Barbara Montana, MD 
 New Jersey Department of Health, Communicable Disease Service;  West Windsor Health Department, New Jersey;  Immunization Services Division, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, CDC;  Division of Healthcare Quality and Promotion, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, CDC.
Corresponding author: Laura Taylor, firstname.lastname@example.org, 609-826-5964.
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|Title Annotation:||Notes from the Field|
|Author:||Taylor, Laura; Greeley, Rebecca; Dinitz-Sklar, Jill; Mazur, Nicole; Swanson, Jill; Wolicki, JoEllen;|
|Publication:||Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report|
|Date:||Dec 18, 2015|
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