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Initial assessment of medicinal plants across the Libyan Mediterranean Coast.

Introduction

Worldwide, between 50,000 and 80,000 flowering plants are used in traditional medicine [15]. Growing global demand for herbal, medicinal, and aromatic plants has created a new niche market for these products valued at $60 billion US per year, with an average annual growth rate of about 7 % [13]. In recent years, such medicinal plants have also been recognized as a significant source of livelihood opportunities for the rural poor, especially women, the landless poor, and marginalized farmers, and also constitute an important source of revenue for governments. In fact, due to the over- exploitation of some wild species, a number of institutes recommend that wild species be brought under cultivation [28,29]. Furthermore, medicinal plants often provide a buffer in times of low employment, crop failure, and other periods of economic stress [8]. Finally, they represent a promising opportunity for reducing rural poverty and achieving economic development in dry ecosystems because of their higher water use efficiency, relatively higher economic return per unit area compared to traditional crops, and the potential to add value through processing and marketing [20,12].

Libya lies along the southern coast of the Mediterranean in North Africa and has a total area of about 1,759,540 km2, of which more than 90 % is desert. The climate is typical Mediterranean, with erratic rainfall. Agriculture and arid and semi-arid rangelands are limited to a narrow strip along the Mediterranean coast. Nevertheless, Libya has a number of advantages in medicinal plants production, including low production costs, favorable climatic conditions, large areas of wild medicinal species, and proximity to European markets. Unfortunately, its medicinal plants have been degraded because of over-exploitation due to deforestation, cultivation, and overgrazing; the absence of adequate policies and legislation; and habitat degradation and loss attributable to climatic change and its associated intensification of drought [310,18], all of which will inevitably result in the impoverishment of a large number of people.

It is now recognized that many wild harvested medicinal plants face extinction or severe genetic loss, but detailed information on the extent of this degradation is either unavailable or poorly documented due to the limited amount of formal research undertaken on medicinal plants in Libya. Thus, much research is needed to ensure the safeguarding of highly threatened species, either within their natural habitats or in artificial settings, and to thereby protect these resources for future generations (Given, 1994). The overall objectives of this study were: 1) to assess the status of multi-purposes species, particularly medicinal plants, across the Libyan Mediterranean Coast; and 2) to present recommendations for the conservation, management, and sustainable utilization of medicinal plants in Libya.

Materials and methods

Details about the sites:

The surveyed areas experience arid, temperate winters with an average annual rainfall of 220 mm that varies from 150 mm to 300 mm. 79 sites were surveyed in the western and eastern coastal areas of Libya, covering a wide range of geographical areas and ecosystems (Figure 1). This heterogeneity consisted of seven morphological zones (namely, forest, valleys, rangelands, sabkhas [saline depressions], sand dunes, roads sides, and sea sides), each with unique flora and vegetation (Table 1). The respective zones provide environmental niches for hundreds of wild medicinal species used by indigenous communities for food and medicine.

Of the collected species, more than 70 were gathered from rangelands, mainly because of the huge area occupied by rangelands in Libya (Figure 2). In terms of species richness, valleys (wadis) were more diversified per unit area than any other geomorphologic zones. These ecosystems generally have higher fertility levels and better than average water availability.

Data collection:

Seed collection and vegetation survey of medicinal plants were conducted across seven morphological zones mentioned above. In addition to the site description, detailed ethno-botanical data and herbarium material were gathered to confirm uses and species identification. The following information was recorded during the collection missions:

Sample seed collection:

For each matured species, a small sample of seed was harvested. The collection date, collector's name, location, site number, coordinates (longitude, latitude), altitude, rainfall, habitat, aspect, slope, and soil data were recorded.

Plant characteristics:

Identification and nomenclature of plant species, including botanical name, local name, common name, and family name, were performed according to Keith [17], IPNI [14], and USDA-ARS[27]. Abundance of each species was determined quantitatively based on presence percentage according to the following scale: dominant (greater than 25 %); associated (less than 10 %); and rare (less than 5 %). Growth form (erect, semi-erect, or prostrate) and life form (trees, phanerophyte, chamaephyte, annual shrubs, perennial forbs, perennial grasses, biennial forbs, therophyte, or climbers) were assigned following Ali and Jari [1] and Sankary[26]. In addition, a close-up photograph was taken.

Herbarium sample collection: Specimens of medicinal plants collected in this study were deposited at the National Genebank in Tripoli, Libya. Percent vegetation and stone covers were measured at each site using visual estimation [21,23].

Economic uses:

The majority of the encountered wild species have a wide array of uses, including human food, feed for livestock and wildlife, fuel, medicine, and environmental uses (such as erosion control and sand dune fixation)[6,30].

[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]

Medicinal use and part of medicinal plant used:

Indigenous people actively engage in traditional healthcare practices, and local experts were interviewed to record their unique knowledge about the medicinal values of different plant species. Information on the medicinal value of plants was counterchecked against the available literature [1,2,516,7,25].

Results and discussion

The assessment undertaken during the spring and summer of 2009 and 2010 recorded 151 plant species (132 perennials, 2 biennials, and 17 annuals) belonging to 117 genera and 47 families (Table 2). Among these species, 19 are endemic, 25 are rare (19 perennials and six annuals), 15 are noteworthy species, and 10 species are under threat. 90 species (or 59.6 %) are woody plants (mainly shrubs), with 55 phanerophytes, 11 chamaephytes, and 24 trees. 88 species (58.3 %) possess at least one aspect that has a potential or actual economic use, most commonly in grazing or medicine.

31 plant communities were identified across the seven geomorphological zones where rangeland sites have the highest number with 13 different assemblages of plant species (Table 3). From an ecological and vegetation viewpoint, then, the Libyan Mediterranean Coast has a rich biodiversity, and accounts for the majority of the species found in the Libyan Mediterranean region, the richest phyto-geographical region in Libya.

The most dominant families were Chenopodiaceae (20 %), followed by Fabaceae (13 %) and Poaceae (10 %) (Table 4).

The eastern region is characterized by a more favorable climate condition, and thus more species were found (76 species) there in comparison to the rest of the country (Table 5).

Growth forms and plant parts used

Plant species were split into nine groups based on morphology (life form) and life span. The life form of the analyzed taxa exhibited a wide range of variation. Life form, which was divided into nine classes, took into account the growth of higher plants resulting from tissue initiation at the apices. Among which chamaephyte, a perennial plant that sets its dormant vegetative buds just at or above the surface of the ground; geophyte, a perennial plant that propagates by underground bulbs or tubers or corms; phanerophyte, the surviving buds or shoot apices are borne on shoots which projected into the air. Therophyte plants completed their life cycle from seed to seed and died. More than 50 species (36 %) were classified as Phanerophytes or shrubs, followed by trees and perennial forbs (Table 6).

The biodiversity delineated above is fundamental to the livelihoods of local communities, especially those residing in mountainous, arid, and semi-arid regions. This biodiversity encompasses a wealth of medicinal and other useful plants that enhance the healthcare of humans and livestock in rural areas [24]. If well-managed, these species represent good opportunities to increase and diversify the incomes of many people, as the demand for these species is increasing at both the national and international levels. The economic uses of the major collected species were recorded after consultation with local communities, experts, and several other sources (Table 7).

For the primary needs of health care, more than 80% of the world population depends on traditional medicine [22]. Our results confirm the report of WHO [29] indicating that medicinal plants are used throughout the world as home remedies, over the counter drug products and raw materials for pharmaceutical industries. For instance, trees such as pods and roots of Acacia tortilis are used to treat skin infections, allergic dermatomes, and as a vermifuge; Parkinsonia aculeata is used as an antipyretic and to treat diabetics; pods of Ceratonia siliqua are used as a laxative and have demulcent qualities. Leaves and flowering tops of Coridothymus capitatus are used as a bronchoantispasmodic and to treat asthma. Other herbs, such as Datura inoxia, are used as antispasmodics, narcotics, and hypnotics. Seeds of Citrullus colocynthis induce abortion, and are used as a laxative and a vermifuge. Leaves and flowers of Marrubium alysson are used for colds, coughs, and asthma. Seventy-eight species with medicinal benefits were found across the Libyan Mediterranean Coast (Table 8). As was previously reported, such medicinal plants have important commercial value as they represent a key source of income for many rural households. Yet, despite their significance, this sector remains marginal and traditional, characterized by a limited number of cultivated species. In light of the encroachment of desertification as well as limited water resources, developing the cultivation of medicinal plants rather than water-demanding crops will contribute to the better management of limited natural resources. Indeed, indigenous medicinal plants are better adapted to the local environment, even under stressful conditions.

Among the medicinal plants, the Lamiaceae, Fabaceae, and Asteraceae families were the most prevalent, accounting for 12, 10, and 8 %, respectively, of the total (Figure 3). With regard to the biological spectrum for the visited sites, data indicated that Phanerophytes (shrubs) and perennial forbs were the most dominant life-form type, representing more than 55 % of all species encountered during the collection missions (Figure 4).

Major medicinal plants were organized into three classes depending on their families, life form, used parts, and types of uses (Boukef, 1986; El-Darier and El-Mogaspi, 2009). The medicinal uses of different plant species are given in Table 9.

[FIGURE 3 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 4 OMITTED]

Conclusion and Recommendations

This initial assessment of the status of medicinal plants has confirmed the vast richness of the plant biodiversity of Libya, which furnishes an incredible array of traditional uses with high economic potential. From an ecological point of view, medicinal plants are well adapted to dry conditions, consume less water than most crops, and offer considerably higher returns. If effectively developed, the industry could substantially improve the livelihoods of a large number of the rural poor. The diagnostic assessment of the current medicinal plants sector in Libya revealed several deficiencies, however, and to promote this sector the following recommendations are offered for the consideration of those parties involved, either directly or indirectly, in the production and commercialization of medicinal plants in Libya:

Establish a national strategy for the promotion of medicinal plants in Libya.

Support the conservation, management, and sustainable utilization of medicinal plants in Libya through conservation, cultivation, and propagation.

Promote in situ conservation of precious genetic resources that are threatened by human encroachment and climate change.

Compile a national database on indigenous medicinal plants in order to assess their use, status, and means of cultivation.

Promote the domestication and cultivation of new medicinal plants to help reduce the over-exploitation of plant biodiversity in natural habitats.

Establish extension programs on the importance and conservation of medicinal plants for rural people.

Develop a clear policy for the protection, production, transportation, and marketing of raw medicinal plant materials that is sensitive to the needs of the rural poor, who depend upon such natural resources for income.

Improve public awareness of the importance of medicinal plants, and build on traditional knowledge and cultural heritage.

Establish or strengthen market linkages for small farmers by working with small and medium sized-enterprises, traders, and other market intermediaries involved in medicinal plants.

Conduct value-chain analyses of medicinal plants so as to understand constraints along the chain and thereby identify opportunities for value-added benefits to small growers as well as the capacity-building needs; investment gaps; and policy, institutional, and marketing issues that must be addressed.

Acknowledgments

The authors greatly appreciate the support of the Libyan government in funding this research, along with the invaluable assistance and cooperation provided by the Agricultural Research Center, the Libyan genebank in Tripoli, and many colleagues and friends.

References

[1.] Ali, S.I. and S.M.H. Jari, 1979. Flora of Libya. Department of Botany, Al Fateh Univ, Tripoli, Libya.

[2.] Al-Oudat, M., A.K. Salkini and J. Tiedemann, 2005. Major Plant Species in Khanasser Area, Syria (Al-Hass and Shbeath Mountains). AECS & ICARDA, Aleppo, Syria.

[3.] Ben-Mahmoud, K.R., S. Mansur and A. AL-Gomati, 2000. Land degradation and desertification in Libya. Proceeding of the Desertification in the third Millennium, Land Degradation and Desertification Research Unit, Libyan Center for Remote Sensing and Space Science, Tripoli, Libya.

[4.] Boukef, M.K., 1986. Plants in Tunisian traditional medicine. Agency of Cultural and Technical Cooperation. ISBN: 92-9028-085-9, pp: 350. (French).

[5.] Boulos, L., 1983. Medicinal plants of North Africa. References publication, Inc. Algonac, Michigan, pp: 286.

[6.] Brown, D., 1995. Encyclopaedia of herbs and their uses. Dorling Kindesley, London.

[7.] Brummitt, R.K., 1992. Vascular Plant Families and Genera. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, London.

[8.] Das, M., 2008. Impact of climate change on medicinal plants, In: Impact Assessment of Climate Change for Research Priority Planning in Horticultural Crops, Eds., Lal, S.S., P.M. Govindakrishnan, V.K. Dua, J.P. Singh and S.K. Pandey, Published by Central Potato Research Institute & ICAR, Shimla, India, pp: 185-190.

[9.] El-Darier, S.M. and F.M. El-Mogaspi, 2009. Ethnobotany and Relative Importance of Some Endemic Plant Species at El-Jabal El-Akhdar Region (Libya). World Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 5(3): 353-360.

[10.] El-Tantawi, A., 2005. Climate change in Libya and desertification of Jifara Plain: Using Geographical Information System and Remote Sensing Techniques. PhD. thesis. Johannes Gutenberg Univ., Mainz, Germany, pp: 246.

[11.] Given, D.R., 1994. Principles and Practice of Plant Conservation. Chapman and Hall, London, UK.

[12.] IFAD., 2007. The role of herbs, medicinal and aromatic plants (HMAPs) in improving livelihoods of the rural poor in the NENA region. Proceedings of the workshop organized by the Near East and North Africa division jointly with ICARDA.

[13.] IFAD., 2008. IFAD Thematic Priorities for the Near East and North Africa. Near East and North Africa Division Program Management Department, pp: 25.

[14.] IPNI (International Plant Name Index), 2009. International Plant Name Index. www.ipn org.

[15.] IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature), 2007. Why Conserve and Manage Medicinal Plants? www.iucn.org/themes/ ssc/sgs/mpsg/main/why.html

[16.] Jafri, S.M.H. and A. El-Gadi, 1986. Flora of Libya. Department of Botany, Al- Faateh Univ., Tripoli, Libya, 25: 144.

[17.] Keith, H.G., 1995. A preliminary check list of Libyan flora. Ministry of Agriculture and Agrarian Reform, government of the Libyan Arab Republic, Tripoli, Libya.

[18.] Laloo, R.C., L. Kharlukhi, S. Jeeva and B.P. Mishra, 2005. Status of medicinal plants in the disturbed and undisturbed sacred forests of Meghalaya, northeast India: population structure and regeneration efficacy of some important species, Department of Botany, school of life sciences, North-eastern Hill Unive, Shillong 793 022, India.

[19.] Marinelli, J., 2005. Plant: The Ultimate Visual Reference to plants and flowers of the World. Dk Publishing Inc., New York, pp: 200.

[20.] Neffati, M. and A.O. Belgacem, 2006. A multidisciplinary study of herbal, medicinal and aromatic plants in Southern Tunisia: a new approach, Regional Consultation on Linking Producers to Markets: Lessons Learned and Successful Practices Cairo, Egypt January 29-February 2, 2006, pp: 1-14.

[21.] Owensby, C.E., 1973. Modified step-point system for botanical composition and basal cover estimates. Journal of Rangelands Management, 26: 302-303.

[22.] Pierngeli, G., G. Vital and R. Windell, 2009. Antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity of Chromolaena odorata (L.f). King and Robinson and Uncaria perrottetii (A.Rich) Merr. Extracts. Journal of medicinal plants Research, 3(7): 511-518.

[23.] Ripley, T.H., F.M. Johnson and W.H. Moore, 1963. A modification of the line intercept method for sampling understory vegetation. Journal of Range Management, 16: 9-11.

[24.] Roberson, E., 2008. Nature's Pharmacy, Our Treasure Chest: why we must conserve our natural heritage, Published by Center for Biological Diversity, Tucson, AZ 85702, 2008, pp: 1-19.

[25.] Saganuwan, S.A., 2010. Some medicinal plants of Arabian Pennisula. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 4(9): 766-788.

[26.] Sankary, M.N., 1982. Ecology, flora and range management of arid and very arid zones of Syria, their conservation and development. Faculty of Agriculture, Aleppo Univ., Syria (Arabic).

[27.] USDA-ARS., 2010. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, USA. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/tax_search.pl.

[28.] WHO, IUCN and WWF., 1993. Guidelines on the Conservation of Medicinal Plants. Publications Officer, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Gland, Switzerland, pp: 38.

[29.] WHO., 1998. Quality control for medicinal plants materials, WHO Bull, pp: 115.

[30.] Wiersema, H. and B. Leon, 1999. World Economic Plants, a Standard Reference. CRC Press, London, UK.

Corresponding Author

Louhaichi, M., International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA) P.O. Box 5466, Aleppo--Syria

(1) Louhaichi, M., (1) Salkini, A.K., (2) Estita, H.E. and (2) Belkhir, S.

(1) International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA) P.O. Box 5466, Aleppo-Syria

(2) Agricultural Research Center (ARC)--El Baida, P.O. Box 395-Libya

Louhaichi, M., Salkini, A.K., Estita, H.E., and Belkhir, S.; Initial Assessment of Medicinal Plants across the Libyan Mediterranean Coast
Table 1: Characteristics of the surveyed sites in the Mediterranean
coast of Libya

Geographic         Site                 East
type

Forest

Degraded           Al Koof              21[degrees] 18' 47.02"
                   Jardas               21[degrees] 46' 53.00"
Protected          Herdanem             20[degrees] 40' 46.84"
                   Al-Zarda             22[degrees] 05' 55.51"
                   Belghra              21[degrees] 40' 37.45"
                   Al-Arkoob Abyad      22[degrees] 09' 34.01"
Artificial         Slenta               21[degrees] 22' 28.96"

Valleys

Jabal Al-Akhdar                         Wadi Al-Koof
                   30                   60
                   Slook                20[degrees] 33' 02.45"
                   Sadd Al Qatara       20[degrees] 23' 59.24"
                   Darnah               22[degrees] 36' 38.34"
Jabal Al-Gharbi                         Hera
                   15                   30
                   Al-Ramel             13[degrees] 35' 31.81"

Rangelands

Protected          Abu Ghelann          13[degrees] 01' 42.93"
                   Ein Toube            13[degrees] 02' 09.04"
                   Reserve Shaafeen     13[degrees] 49' 58.01"
                   Reserve Al Toyoor    11[degrees] 32' 47.11"
                     Montazah Tala      10[degrees] 59' 16.58"
Unprotected        The foot of Jabal    13[degrees] 02' 47.77"
                   Al Gharbi
                   South Mezda          13[degrees] 04' 01.96"
                   Mizdah               13[degrees] 03' 00.46"
                   Sadadeh              14[degrees] 56' 15.47"
                   Om Rezam             22[degrees] 56' 23.03"
                   Mrassasa             23[degrees] 46' 14.66"
Depressions        West Jardas          21[degrees] 46' 39.47"
                   Al-Herabeh           11[degrees] 30' 31.90"

Sabkha

                   Hiesha Jadida        15[degrees] 13' 21.88"
                     Al Jbebeneh        11[degrees] 32' 47.11"
                     Al-Qaminis         19[degrees] 57' 16.08"

Sand dunes

                   West slook           20[degrees] 21' 02.99"
                   Nafad                14[degrees] 44' 00.74"
                   Maghzar Sabbet       11[degrees] 49' 22.19"

Road sides

                   Qarnada              21[degrees] 54' 24.62"
                   Al Athron            22[degrees] 05' 44.30"

Sea sides

                   Sail Amer            21[degrees] 51' 43.99"
                     Tubroq             23[degrees] 57' 57.46"

Geographic         Site                 Nourth
type

Forest

Degraded           Al Koof              32[degrees] 34' 52.90"
                   Jardas               32[degrees] 31' 21.97"
Protected          Herdanem             32[degrees] 35' 00.84"
                   Al-Zarda             32[degrees] 47' 33.71"
                   Belghra              32[degrees] 42' 18.79"
                   Al-Arkoob Abyad      32[degrees] 50' 03.06"
Artificial         Slenta               32[degrees] 36' 03.20"

Valleys

Jabal Al-Akhdar                         21[degrees] 34' 26.15"
                   30
                   Slook                31[degrees] 33' 02.66"
                   Sadd Al Qatara       32[degrees] 01' 47.46"
                   Darnah               32[degrees] 42' 14.40"
Jabal Al-Gharbi                         13[degrees] 01' 42.03"
                   15
                   Al-Ramel             32[degrees] 46' 54.08"

Rangelands

Protected          Abu Ghelann          32[degrees] 15' 40.55"
                   Ein Toube            32[degrees] 10' 38.08"
                   Reserve Shaafeen     32[degrees] 36' 38.23"
                   Reserve Al Toyoor    32[degrees] 54' 38.99"
                     Montazah Tala      31[degrees] 52' 05.09"
Unprotected        The foot of Jabal    32[degrees] 20' 17.09"
                   Al Gharbi
                   South Mezda          31[degrees] 19' 29.82"
                   Mizdah               31[degrees] 24' 06.65"
                   Sadadeh              31[degrees] 35' 07.48"
                   Om Rezam             32[degrees] 33' 47.70"
                   Mrassasa             32[degrees] 05' 50.82"
Depressions        West Jardas          32[degrees] 26' 30.80"
                   Al-Herabeh           31[degrees] 42' 22.93"

Sabkha

                   Hiesha Jadida        31[degrees] 30' 12.47"
                     Al Jbebeneh        32[degrees] 54' 38.99"
                     Al-Qaminis         31[degrees] 42' 27.09"

Sand dunes

                   West slook           31[degrees] 38' 20.80"
                   Nafad                31[degrees] 31' 49.84"
                   Maghzar Sabbet       32[degrees] 46' 00.70"

Road sides

                   Qarnada              32[degrees] 43' 47.35"
                   Al Athron            32[degrees] 52' 19.75"

Sea sides

                   Sail Amer            32[degrees] 54' 33.19"
                     Tubroq             32[degrees] 04' 37.27"

Geographic         Site                 Altitude                 Aspect
type                                    (m)

Forest

Degraded           Al Koof              302                      S
                   Jardas               691                      W
Protected          Herdanem             32                       N
                   Al-Zarda             386                      E
                   Belghra              527                      W
                   Al-Arkoob Abyad      488                      S
Artificial         Slenta               825                      N

Valleys

Jabal Al-Akhdar                         32[degrees] 42' 43.12"
                   30
                   Slook                70                       E
                   Sadd Al Qatara       209                      S/E
                   Darnah               101                      F
Jabal Al-Gharbi                         32[degrees] 25' 58.51"
                   15
                   Al-Ramel             122                      F

Rangelands

Protected          Abu Ghelann          258                      W
                   Ein Toube            606                      E
                   Reserve Shaafeen     383                      W
                   Reserve Al Toyoor    17                       F
                     Montazah Tala      491                      N
Unprotected        The foot of Jabal    204                      F
                   Al Gharbi
                   South Mezda          437                      F
                   Mizdah               443                      F
                   Sadadeh              19                       F
                   Om Rezam             133                      Ft
                   Mrassasa             91                       F
Depressions        West Jardas          594                      F
                   Al-Herabeh           640                      F

Sabkha

                   Hiesha Jadida        45                       F
                     Al Jbebeneh        17                       F
                     Al-Qaminis         12                       F

Sand dunes

                   West slook           72                       F
                   Nafad                90                       F
                   Maghzar Sabbet       35                       F

Road sides

                   Qarnada              645                      F
                   Al Athron            19                       F

Sea sides

                   Sail Amer            3                        F
                     Tubroq             1                        F

Geographic         Site                 Slope       Percent Cover
type                                    (%)
                                                 Stones    Vegetation
Forest

Degraded           Al Koof              5        10        30
                   Jardas               8        60        10
Protected          Herdanem             5        25        40
                   Al-Zarda             5        20        75
                   Belghra              5        25        40
                   Al-Arkoob Abyad      7        20        65
Artificial         Slenta               5        5         60

Valleys

Jabal Al-Akhdar                         392      F         0
                   30
                   Slook                5        2         10
                   Sadd Al Qatara       30       50        40
                   Darnah               0        5         75
Jabal Al-Gharbi                         141      F         0
                   15
                   Al-Ramel             0        0         10

Rangelands

Protected          Abu Ghelann          8        20        60
                   Ein Toube            3        10        70
                   Reserve Shaafeen     6        15        40
                   Reserve Al Toyoor    0        0         20
                     Montazah Tala      28       15        45
Unprotected        The foot of Jabal    0        20        40
                   Al Gharbi
                   South Mezda          0        3         7
                   Mizdah               0        50        2
                   Sadadeh              0        55        3
                   Om Rezam             0        35        5
                   Mrassasa             0        5         10
Depressions        West Jardas          0        15        15
                   Al-Herabeh           0        5         18

Sabkha

                   Hiesha Jadida        0        2         45
                     Al Jbebeneh        0        0         20
                     Al-Qaminis         0        3         45

Sand dunes

                   West slook           0        0         10
                   Nafad                0        0         5
                   Maghzar Sabbet       0        0         8

Road sides

                   Qarnada              0        10        20
                   Al Athron            0        45        40

Sea sides

                   Sail Amer            0        10        10
                     Tubroq             0        0         5

Table 2: List of multi-purpose plants and their uses collected during
the collection missions of the Mediterranean coast of Libya in the
spring and summer of 2009 and 2010

Scientific name                      Author

Acacia cyclops                       A. Cunn. ex G. Don
Acacia farnesiana                    (L.) Willd.
Acacia Karroo                        Hayne
Acacia ligulata                      A.Cunn. ex Benth.
Acacia neriifolia                    A.Cunn. ex Benth.
Acacia nilotica                      (L.) Delile
Acacia oswaldii                      F. Muell.
Acacia salign                        (Labill.) H. L. Wendl.
Acacia sclerosperma                  F. Muell.
Acacia tortilis                      (Forssk.) Hayne
Acacia victoriae                     Benth.
Aeluropus lagopoides                 (L.) Thwaites
Alcea rosea                          L.
Amaranthus hybridus                  L. Engl
Anabasis articulata                  (Forssk.) Moq.
Anvillea garcini                     (Burm.f.) DC.
Arbutus pavarii                      Pamp.
Argania spinosa                      (L.) Skeels.
Argyrolobium uniflorum               (Decne.) Jaub. & Spach
Arnebia tetrastigma                  Forssk.
Artemisia campestre                  L.
Artemisia herba-alba                 Asso
Arthrocnemum glaucum                 (Del.) Ungern-Sternb.
Arthrocnemum perenne                 (Mill.) Moss.
Asparagus aphyllus                   L.
Asparagus stipularis                 Forssk.
Atriplex halimus                     L.
Atriplex leucoclada                  Boiss.
Atriplex nummularia                  Lindl.
Atriplex semibaccata                 R.Br.
Balanites aegyptiaca                 (L.) Del.
Bassia indica                        (Wight) A.J.Scott.
Bassia muricata                      (L.) Asch.
Bassia scoparia                      (L.) A.J. Scott.
Blackiella inflata                   (F. Muell.) Aell.)
Caesalpinia gilliesii                (Hook.) D. Dietr.
Calligonum arich                     Le Houer.
Calligonum comosum                   L'Her.
Capparis spinosa                     L.
Carthamus lanatus                    L.
Ceratonia siliqua                    L.
Chenopodium murale                   L.
Cistus salvifolius                   L.
Citrullus colocynthis                (L.) Schrader
Cleome arabica                       L.
Cupressus sempervirens var.          (A. Camus) Silba
dupreziana
Cyperus rotundus                     L.
Dactylis glomerata subsp.            (Roth) Nyman
hispanica
Datura innoxia                       Mill.
Deverra tortuosa                     (Desf.) DC.
Dodonaea viscosa                     (L.) Jacq.
Ecballium elaterium                  (L.) A. Rich.
Enchylaena tomentosa                 R.Br.
Ephedra alata                        Decne.
Eryngium campestre                   L.
Euphorbia dendroides                 L.
Fagonia microphylla                  Pomel
Festuca arundinacea                  Schreb.
Globularia alypum                    L.
Halocnemum strobilaceum              (Pall.) M. Bieb.
Haloxylon articulatum                (Moq.) Bunge
Haloxylon salicornicum               (Moq.) Bge.
Hammada schmittiana                  (Pomel) Botsch.
Hammada scoparia                     (Pomel) Iljin
Haplophyllum tuberculatum            (Forsk.) Juss.
Helianthemum lippii                  (L.) Dum.Cours.
Hyparrhenia hirta                    (L.) Stapf
Imperata cylindrica                  (L.) Raeuschel
Juniperus phoenicea                  L.
Kickxia aegyptiaca                   (L.) Nabelek
Launaea nudicaulis                   (L.) Hooker fil.
Lavandula multifida                  L.
Lawsonia inermis                     L.
Limoniastrum guyonianum              Dur. ex Boiss.
Limonium lobatum                       (L. f.) Chaz.
Limonium pruinosum                   L.
Limonium tubiflorum                  (Del.) O. Kuntze
Lonicera etrusca                     Santi
Lycium shawii                          Roem. & Schult.
Lygeum spartum                       Loefl. ex L.
Macrochloa tenacissima               (Loefl. ex L.) Kunth
Maireana brevifolia                  (R.Br.) Paul G.Wilson
Marrubium alysson                    L.
Marrubium vulgare                    L.
Matricaria aurea                     (Loefl.) Sch. Bip.
Mesembryanthemum nodiflorum          L.
Moricandia arvensis                  (L.) DC.
Myrtus communis                      L.
Neurada procumbens                   L.
Nicotina glauca                      R. Graham
Nitraria retusa                      (Forsk.) Asch.
Noaea mucronata                      (Forssk.) Asch. &
                                     Schweinf
Ocimum basilicum                     L.
Olea europea var. oleaster           (Hoffmgg. & Link) D. C
Panicum turgidum                     Forssk.
Parkinsonia aculeata                 L.
Peganum harmala                      L.
Pennisetum ciliare                   (L.) Link
Pennisetum setaceum                  (Forssk.) Chiov.
Pergularia tomentosa                 L.
Periploca laevigata                  Ait.
Phagnalon rupestre                   (L.) DC.
Phalaris truncata                    Guss. ex Bertol.
Phillyrea angustifolia               L.
Phlomis floccosa                     D. Don
Piptatherum miliaceum                (L.) Coss.
Pistacia atlantica                   Desf.
Pistacia lentiscus                   L.
Pituranthos tortuosus                (DC.) Benth. ex Asch.
                                     & Schweinf
Plantago lanceolata                  L.
Polygonum equisetiforme              Sm.
Prosopis juliflora                   (Sw.) DC.
Reaumuria vermiculata                L.
Retama raetam                        (Forsk.) Webb et Benth.
Rhamnus lycioides subsp. Oleoides    (L.) Jahand. & Maire
Rhanterium suaveolens                Desf.
Ricinus communis                     L.
Rumex pictus                         Forssk.
Ruta chalepensis                     L.
Salicornia fruticosa                 (L.) A. J. Scott
Salsola delileana                    Botsch.
Salsola kali                         L.
Salsola longifolia                   Forssk.
Salsola tetragona                    Del.
Salsola tetrandra                    Del.
Salvia fruticosa                     Mill.
Sarcopoterium spinosum               (L.) Spach
Satureja thymbra                     L.
Scirpus littoralis                   Schrad.
Scrophularia canina                  L.
Searsia tripartita                   (Ucria) Moffett.
Simmondsia chinensis                 (Link) Scheneider
Spartium junceum                     L.
Stipa legascae                       Roem. & Schult.
Stipagrostis plumosa                 (Linn.) Munro
Stipagrostis pungens                 (Desf.) De Winter
Suaeda sp.
Suaeda vera                          Forssk. ex JF Gmel.
Suaeda pruinosa                      Lange.
Suaeda vermiculata                   Forssk.
Tamarix boveana                      Bunge
Tamarix sp.
Tetraena alba                        (L. f.) Beier & Thulin
Teucrium polium                      L.
Thymelea hirsuta                     (L.) Endl.
Thymus capitatus                     (L.) Hoffmanns. & Link
Traganum nudatum                     Del.
Trifolium repens                     L.
Typha domingensis                    Pers.
Viburnum tinus                       L.
Ziziphus lotus                       (L.) Desf.

Scientific name                      Common name

Acacia cyclops                       Coastal wattle
Acacia farnesiana                    Sweet acacia
Acacia Karroo                        Sweet thorn
Acacia ligulata                      Umbrella bush
Acacia neriifolia                    Oleander wattle
Acacia nilotica                      Babul acacia
Acacia oswaldii                      Umbrella acacia
Acacia salign                        Milkweed
Acacia sclerosperma                  Silver bark wattle
Acacia tortilis                      Umbrella thorn Acacia
Acacia victoriae                     Bramble wattle
Aeluropus lagopoides                 Mamoncillo
Alcea rosea                          Hollyhock
Amaranthus hybridus                  Smooth pigweed
Anabasis articulata                  Jointed anabasis
Anvillea garcini                     Guayache
Arbutus pavarii                      Guitarfish
Argania spinosa                      Argan
Argyrolobium uniflorum
Arnebia tetrastigma
Artemisia campestre                  Wormwood
Artemisia herba-alba                 Wormwood
Arthrocnemum glaucum                 Glasswort
Arthrocnemum perenne                 Chickenclaws
Asparagus aphyllus                   Prickly asparagus
Asparagus stipularis                 Thorny asparagus
Atriplex halimus                     Saltbush
Atriplex leucoclada                  Saltbush
Atriplex nummularia                  Old man saltbush
Atriplex semibaccata                 Australian saltbush
Balanites aegyptiaca                 Egyptian balsam
Bassia indica                        Indian bassia
Bassia muricata                      Five-spine-bassia
Bassia scoparia                      Fireweed. kochia
Blackiella inflata                   Little saltbush
Caesalpinia gilliesii                Yellow bird of paradise
Calligonum arich                     Arta
Calligonum comosum                   Abal
Capparis spinosa                     Common caper
Carthamus lanatus                    Saffron thistle
Ceratonia siliqua                    Carob
Chenopodium murale                   Australian-spinach
Cistus salvifolius                   Snow fountain
Citrullus colocynthis                Bitter cucumber
Cleome arabica                       Tamachek
Cupressus sempervirens var.          Tarout
dupreziana
Cyperus rotundus                     Nut grass
Dactylis glomerata subsp.            Barnyard grass
hispanica
Datura innoxia                       Jimson weed
Deverra tortuosa                     Loder's gazelle
Dodonaea viscosa                     Hopbush
Ecballium elaterium                  Squirting cucumber
Enchylaena tomentosa                 Ruby salt bush
Ephedra alata                        White shrubby
Eryngium campestre                   Sea holly
Euphorbia dendroides                 Tree spurge
Fagonia microphylla
Festuca arundinacea                  Tall fescue
Globularia alypum                    Cebollada
Halocnemum strobilaceum              Yan jie mu
Haloxylon articulatum                R'meth
Haloxylon salicornicum               Saxaul
Hammada schmittiana                  Wormwood subdesertic
                                     steppes
Hammada scoparia
Haplophyllum tuberculatum            Oarn el-gazal
Helianthemum lippii                  Sun-rose plants
Hyparrhenia hirta                    Coolatai grass
Imperata cylindrica                  Cogongrass
Juniperus phoenicea                  Phoenician juniper
Kickxia aegyptiaca
Launaea nudicaulis                   Bold-Leaf launaeae
Lavandula multifida                  Fernleaf lavender
Lawsonia inermis                     Henna
Limoniastrum guyonianum              Limoniastrum
Limonium lobatum                     Grow Sea lavender
Limonium pruinosum                   Frosty sea lavender
Limonium tubiflorum
Lonicera etrusca                     Honeysuckle
Lycium shawii                        Awsaj
Lygeum spartum                       Lygeum
Macrochloa tenacissima               Esparto grass
Maireana brevifolia                  Blue bush
Marrubium alysson                    White horehound
Marrubium vulgare                    Horehound
Matricaria aurea                     Golden chamomile
Mesembryanthemum nodiflorum          Senderleaf ice plant
Moricandia arvensis                  Violet cabbage
Myrtus communis                      Common myrtle
Neurada procumbens                   Camel's thorn
Nicotina glauca                      Tree tobacco
Nitraria retusa                      Salt tree
Noaea mucronata
Ocimum basilicum                     Sweet basil
Olea europea var. oleaster           Wild olive
Panicum turgidum                     Harmal shrub
Parkinsonia aculeata                 Jerusalem thorn
Peganum harmala                      Harmal shrub
Pennisetum ciliare                   Buffelgrass
Pennisetum setaceum                  Fountaingrass
Pergularia tomentosa                 Baram-milk
Periploca laevigata                  Periploca of the woods
Phagnalon rupestre                   Rock phagnalon
Phalaris truncata                    Canary grass
Phillyrea angustifolia               False olive
Phlomis floccosa
Piptatherum miliaceum                Smilograss
Pistacia atlantica                   Mount atlas pistache
Pistacia lentiscus                   Mastic tree
Pituranthos tortuosus
Plantago lanceolata                  Narrow-leaf plantain
Polygonum equisetiforme              Horse-tail khotweed
Prosopis juliflora                   Algaroba
Reaumuria vermiculata                Molleih, hong sha shu
Retama raetam                        White broom
Rhamnus lycioides subsp. Oleoides    Arcot
Rhanterium suaveolens                A'rfej
Ricinus communis                     The castor oil plant
Rumex pictus                         Dock. hebrew
Ruta chalepensis                     Aleppo rue
Salicornia fruticosa                 Glasswort
Salsola delileana
Salsola kali                         Prickly saltwort
Salsola longifolia
Salsola tetragona
Salsola tetrandra
Salvia fruticosa                     Greek sage
Sarcopoterium spinosum               Thorny burnet
Satureja thymbra                     Pink savory
Scirpus littoralis                   Three-square bulrush
Scrophularia canina                  French figwort
Searsia tripartita                   Sumac
Simmondsia chinensis                 Jojoba
Spartium junceum                     Spanish broom
Stipa legascae                       Feather grass
Stipagrostis plumosa                 Desert grass
Stipagrostis pungens                 Three-awn grass
Suaeda sp.
Suaeda vera                          Swejda
Suaeda pruinosa                      Risultati della ricerca
Suaeda vermiculata                   Sea-blight
Tamarix boveana                      Tamariu alacanti
Tamarix sp.                          Tamarix
Tetraena alba                        Syrian bean caper
Teucrium polium                      Felty germander
Thymelea hirsuta                     Hairy thymelaea
Thymus capitatus                     Conehead-thyme
Traganum nudatum
Trifolium repens                     White clover
Typha domingensis                    Narrow-leaved Cumbungi
Viburnum tinus                       Laurustinus viburnum
Ziziphus lotus                       Lotus jujube

Scientific name                      Uses

Acacia cyclops                         AF, FP, IP (tannin production)
Acacia farnesiana                    AF, MP, HF, OP, FP
Acacia Karroo                        AF, FP, IP, SF
Acacia ligulata                      AF, FP
Acacia neriifolia                    AF, FP, SHP
Acacia nilotica                      AF, MP, HP, IP (tannin, gum,
                                     wood)
Acacia oswaldii                      AF, FP
Acacia salign                        AF, MP, HF, EC, FP, BP
Acacia sclerosperma                  AF, FP, WB, EC
Acacia tortilis                      AF, FP, EC
Acacia victoriae                     AF, IP, EC, WB
Aeluropus lagopoides                 AF, IS
Alcea rosea                          HF, MP, OP
Amaranthus hybridus                  AF, MP
Anabasis articulata                  MP, IP (soap)
Anvillea garcini                     AF, MP
Arbutus pavarii                      AF, HF, MP, FP, BP
Argania spinosa                      MP, IP (argan oil)
Argyrolobium uniflorum               ISF, SF
Arnebia tetrastigma                  AF, MP
Artemisia campestre                  SF
Artemisia herba-alba                 AF, MP, FP, AP
Arthrocnemum glaucum                 IS
Arthrocnemum perenne                 IS
Asparagus aphyllus                   MP
Asparagus stipularis                 HF
Atriplex halimus                     AF, HF, SF, HP, EC
Atriplex leucoclada                  AF
Atriplex nummularia                  AF, OP, EC, HP
Atriplex semibaccata                 AF
Balanites aegyptiaca                 MP
Bassia indica                        AF, SF
Bassia muricata                      AF, SF
Bassia scoparia                      AF
Blackiella inflata                   AF, SF, IS
Caesalpinia gilliesii                OP, ISF
Calligonum arich                     AF, MP, SF
Calligonum comosum                   AF, MP, SF
Capparis spinosa                     AF, MP, HF, EC, BP
Carthamus lanatus                    MP
Ceratonia siliqua                    AF, MP, FP, IP, SHP
Chenopodium murale                   MP
Cistus salvifolius                   OP, IP (essential oil)
Citrullus colocynthis                MP
Cleome arabica                       AF, MP
Cupressus sempervirens var.          AFFP, AP, IP (wood)
dupreziana
Cyperus rotundus                     MP
Dactylis glomerata subsp.            AF
hispanica
Datura innoxia                       MP
Deverra tortuosa                     MP, HF (soup powder),
                                     IP (essential oil)
Dodonaea viscosa                     OP, HP
Ecballium elaterium                  MP
Enchylaena tomentosa                 AF, MP
Ephedra alata                        AF, MP
Eryngium campestre                   AF, MP
Euphorbia dendroides                 OP
Fagonia microphylla                  MP
Festuca arundinacea                  AF
Globularia alypum                    MP
Halocnemum strobilaceum              MP
Haloxylon articulatum                FP
Haloxylon salicornicum               FP
Hammada schmittiana                  AF, SF
Hammada scoparia                     FP
Haplophyllum tuberculatum            MP, IR, FP
Helianthemum lippii                  AF
Hyparrhenia hirta                    AF, EC
Imperata cylindrica                  AF, MP
Juniperus phoenicea                  AP, IP (cosmetic uses, essential
                                     oil), AFFP
Kickxia aegyptiaca                   AF
Launaea nudicaulis                   MP
Lavandula multifida                  MP, AP, BP
Lawsonia inermis                     MP, IP (henna)
Limoniastrum guyonianum              AF, IS
Limonium lobatum                     IS
Limonium pruinosum                   IS
Limonium tubiflorum                  IS
Lonicera etrusca                     BP, AP, OP
Lycium shawii                        MP, SS
Lygeum spartum                       AF
Macrochloa tenacissima               SF, EC, IP (paper)
Maireana brevifolia                  AF
Marrubium alysson                    MP
Marrubium vulgare                    FAA, BP, OP, MP
Matricaria aurea                     MP, AP, IP (cosmetic product,
                                     essential oil chamomile)
Mesembryanthemum nodiflorum          MP
Moricandia arvensis                  MP, HF, OP
Myrtus communis                      MP, OP, AP, FP
Neurada procumbens                   MP, HF (Bedouin)
Nicotina glauca                      MP
Nitraria retusa                      MP, AF
Noaea mucronata                      AF, FP, EC
Ocimum basilicum                     AP, MP, OP, AF, HF (mild flavor
                                     in vegetable)
Olea europea var. oleaster           GS, IP, MP
Panicum turgidum                     AF, MP, EC, HF, SF
Parkinsonia aculeata                 AF, MP, OP, FP, BP
Peganum harmala                      MP
Pennisetum ciliare                   AF
Pennisetum setaceum                  AF
Pergularia tomentosa                 MP
Periploca laevigata                  AF, MP, OP
Phagnalon rupestre                   MP
Phalaris truncata                    AF
Phillyrea angustifolia               OP, AP
Phlomis floccosa                     MP
Piptatherum miliaceum                AF
Pistacia atlantica                   AF, FAA, MP, FP, IP (gum)
Pistacia lentiscus                   AF, MP, FP, IP (gum/resin)
Pituranthos tortuosus                MP
Plantago lanceolata                  AF, MP
Polygonum equisetiforme              AF, MP
Prosopis juliflora                   AF, FP
Reaumuria vermiculata                MP (for human and animal)
Retama raetam                        AF, SF, MP, FP
Rhamnus lycioides subsp. Oleoides    OP, AF
Rhanterium suaveolens                SF
Ricinus communis                     MP, IP (castrol oil), AF
Rumex pictus                         MP, HF
Ruta chalepensis                     AF, MP
Salicornia fruticosa                 IS
Salsola delileana                    AF
Salsola kali                         AF
Salsola longifolia                   AF
Salsola tetragona                    AF, FP
Salsola tetrandra                    AF, FP, IS
Salvia fruticosa                     AP, MP, IP (essential oil), HF
Sarcopoterium spinosum               MP, HP, FP
Satureja thymbra                     MP, AP, BP
Scirpus littoralis                   AF, IS
Scrophularia canina                  MP
Searsia tripartita                   AF, IP (tanning), HF, FP
Simmondsia chinensis                 MP, FP
Spartium junceum                     AF, MP, AP, BP, OP
Stipa legascae                       AF, SF
Stipagrostis plumosa                 AF
Stipagrostis pungens                 SF, IP (tent, basket, carpet,
                                     shoes)
Suaeda sp.                           IS
Suaeda vera                          IS
Suaeda pruinosa                      IS
Suaeda vermiculata                   IS
Tamarix boveana                      SF, HP, AF
Tamarix sp.                          SF, HP, AF
Tetraena alba                        MP, IP (medicinal soap), IS
Teucrium polium                      AF, MP, EC, AP, BP
Thymelea hirsuta                     SF, MP, IP (fiber)
Thymus capitatus                     AF, MP, HF, BP, EC
Traganum nudatum                     FP, IS
Trifolium repens                     AF, ISF
Typha domingensis                    OP, MP, HF, IP
Viburnum tinus                       HP
Ziziphus lotus                       AF, MP, BP, HF (acid drink)

Abbreviations:

AF = Animal Feed
HF = Human Food
MP = Medicinal Plant
FP = Fuel Plant
AP = Aromatic Plant
OP = Ornamental Plant
BP = Bee Plant
EC = Erosion Control
IP = Industry Plant
HP = Hedge Plant
SHP = Shade Plant
IR = Insect Repellent
AFFP = Afforestation
ISF = Improve Soil Fertility
SS = Soil Stabilization
SF = Sand Fixation
WB = Wind Break
FAA = Food Additives
IS = Indicator of Soil Salinity
GS = Graft Stock

Table 3: List of plant communities per geomorphological zones

Geormorphological   Plant communities
zones

Forest              Juniperus phoenicea and Pistacia lentiscus
                    o
                    Searsia tripartita and Periploca laevigata
                    Arbutus pavarii
                    Ceratonia siliqua and Pistacia lentiscus
                    Arbutus pavarii and Juniperus phoenicea
                    Sarcopoterium spinosum and Pinus halepensis

Valleys (wadis)     Juniperus phoenicea and Pistacia lentiscus
                    Atriplex nummularia and Suaeda vera
                    Ziziphus lotus
                    Capparis spinosa and Nicotina glauca
                    Acacia farnesiana and Acacia victoriae
                    Retama raetam and Imperata cylindrica

Rangelands          Atriplex nummularia and Periploca laevigata
                    Acacia victoriae
                    Macrochloa tenacissima and Pistacia lentiscus
                    Aeluropus lagopoides and Pituranthos tortuosus
                    Atriplex halimus
                    Retama raetam
                    Haloxylon salicornicum
                    Haloxylon articulatum and Lavandula multifida
                    Artemisia herba-alba and Ziziphus lotus
                    Ziziphus lotus and Lycium shawii
                    Thymelea hirsuta and Atriplex halimus
                    Haloxylon salicornicum
                    Stipagrostis pungens

Sabkha              Retama raetam
                    Aeluropus lagopoides and Pituranthos tortuosus
                    Thymelea hirsuta

Sand dunes          Retama raetam and Ziziphus lotus
                    Retama raetam and Panicum turgidum
                    Artemisia campestre and Stipagrostis pungens

Road sides          Acacia Karroo
                    Atriplex halimus

Sea sides           Pistacia lentiscus and Euphorbia dendroides
                    Chenopodium murale

Table 4: Number of species of the most dominant families sound during
the collection missions of Mediterranean coast of Libya during
the spring and summer of 2009 and 2010

Family                 Species                %

Chenopodiaceae         31                     20
Fabaceae               19                     13
Poaceae                15                     10
Lamiaceae              9                      6
Asteraceae             8                      5
Zygophyllaceae         4                      3
Plumbaginaceae         4                      3

Table 5: Number of collection sites and species per geographic area.

Geographic area     Sites        Species      Medicinal species

Eastern area        48           76           44
Western area        30           65           33
Middle area         1            10           1
Total               79           151          78

Table 6: Number of species in each life form for all species collected
during the collection missions of Mediterranean coast of Libya
during the spring and summer of 2009 and 2010

Life form                    Number of species      %

Trees                        24                     16
Phanerophyte (shrubs)        55                     36
Chamaephyte (semi-shrubs)    11                     7
Annual shrubs                4                      3
Perennial forbs              24                     16
Perennial grasses            17                     11
Biennial forbs               2                      1
Therophyte (annual forbs)    11                     8
Climbers                     3                      2
Total                        151                    100

Table 7. Economic uses of the maior collected species in Libya.

Species                 Animal       Human        Medicinal
                        feed         food

Acacia cyclops          [check]                   [check]
Acacia farnesiana       [check]
Acacia victoriae        [check]                   [check]
Balanites aegyptiaca    [check]      [check]      [check]
Capparis spinosa        [check]                   [check]
Ceratonia siliqua       [check]      [check]      [check]
Parkinsonia aculeata    [check]      [check]      [check]
Prosopis juliflora      [check]
Searsia tripartita      [check]      [check]      [check]
Spartium junceum                                  [check]
Ziziphus lotus          [check]                   [check]

Species                 Fuel         Bee          Aromatic
                                     forage

Acacia cyclops          [check]
Acacia farnesiana       [check]      [check]
Acacia victoriae        [check]
Balanites aegyptiaca    [check]
Capparis spinosa                     [check]
Ceratonia siliqua       [check]
Parkinsonia aculeata    [check]      [check]
Prosopis juliflora      [check]      [check]
Searsia tripartita      [check]                   [check]
Spartium junceum                     [check]
Ziziphus lotus          [check]      [check]

Species                 Ornamental   Erosion      Dune
                                     control      fixation

Acacia cyclops                       [check]
Acacia farnesiana       [check]      [check]      [check]
Acacia victoriae
Balanites aegyptiaca                 [check]      [check]
Capparis spinosa
Ceratonia siliqua       [check]
Parkinsonia aculeata    [check]      [check]
Prosopis juliflora                   [check]      [check]
Searsia tripartita
Spartium junceum        [check]      [check]
Ziziphus lotus                       [check]

Species                 Hedge        Shade        Afforestation

Acacia cyclops
Acacia farnesiana
Acacia victoriae
Balanites aegyptiaca
Capparis spinosa
Ceratonia siliqua                    [check]
Parkinsonia aculeata
Prosopis juliflora                   [check]      [check]
Searsia tripartita
Spartium junceum                                  [check]
Ziziphus lotus          [check]

Species                 Soil         Food         Industrial
                        improver     additive     uses

Acacia cyclops          [check]
Acacia farnesiana       [check]      [check]      [check]
Acacia victoriae        [check]      [check]      [check]
Balanites aegyptiaca
Capparis spinosa                     [check]      [check]
Ceratonia siliqua                    [check]      [check]
Parkinsonia aculeata
Prosopis juliflora                                [check]
Searsia tripartita                   [check]      [check]
Spartium junceum                     [check]      [check]
Ziziphus lotus                       [check]

Table 8: List of medicinal plants collected from Mediterranean
coast of Libya during the spring and summer of 2009 and 2010

Scientific name                Author

Acacia farnesiana              (L.) Willd.
Acacia nilotica                (L.) Delile
Acacia salign                  (Labill.) H. L. Wendl.
Acacia tortilis                (Forssk.) Hayne
Alcea rosea                    L.
Amaranthus hybridus            L. Engl
Anabasis articulata            (Forssk.) Moq.
Anvillea garcini               (Burm.f.) DC.
Arbutus pavarii                Pamp.
Argania spinosa                (L.) Skeels.
Arnebia tetrastigma            Forssk.
Artemisia herba-alba           Asso
Asparagus aphyllus             L.
Asparagus stipularis           Forssk.
Balanites aegyptiaca           (L.) Del.
Calligonum arich               Le Houer.
Calligonum comosum             L'Her.
Capparis spinosa               L.
Carthamus lanatus              L.
Ceratonia siliqua              L.
Chenopodium murale             L.
Citrullus colocynthis          (L.) Schrader
Cleome arabica                 L.
Cyperus rotundus               L.
Datura innoxia                 Mill.
Deverra tortuosa                 (Desf.) DC.
Ecballium elaterium            (L.) A. Rich.
Enchylaena tomentosa           R.Br.
Ephedra alata                  Decne.
Eryngium campestre             L.
Fagonia microphylla            Pomel
Globularia alypum              L.
Halocnemum strobilaceum        (Pall.) M. Bieb.
Haplophyllum tuberculatum      (Forsk.) Juss.
Launaea nudicaulis             (L.) Hooker fil.
Lavandula multifida            L.
Lawsonia inermis               L.
Lycium shawii                    Roem. & Schult.
Marrubium alysson              L.
Marrubium vulgare              L.
Matricaria aurea               (Loefl.) Sch. Bip.
Mesembryanthemum nodiflorum    L.
Moricandia arvensis            (L.) DC.
Myrtus communis                L.
Neurada procumbens             L.
Nicotina glauca                R. Graham
Nitraria retusa                (Forsk.) Asch.
Ocimum basilicum               L.
Olea europea var. oleaster     (Hoffmgg. & Link) D. C
Panicum turgidum               Forssk.
Parkinsonia aculeata           L.
Peganum harmala                L.
Pergularia tomentosa           L.
Periploca laevigata            Ait.
Phagnalon rupestre             (L.) DC.
Phlomis floccosa               D. Don
Pistacia atlantica             Desf.
Pistacia lentiscus             L.
Pituranthos tortuosus          (DC.) Benth. ex Asch. & Schweinf.
Plantago lanceolata            L.
Polygonum equisetiforme        Sm.
Reaumuria vermiculata          L.
Retama raetam                  (Forsk.) Webb et Benth.
Ricinus communis               L.
Rumex pictus                   Forssk.
Ruta chalepensis               L.
Salvia fruticosa               Mill.
Sarcopoterium spinosum         (L.) Spach
Satureja thymbra               L.
Scrophularia canina            L.
Simmondsia chinensis           (Link) Scheneider
Spartium junceum               L.
Tetraena alba                    (L. f.) Beier & Thulin
Teucrium polium                L.
Thymelea hirsuta               (L.) Endl.
Thymus capitatus               (L.) Hoffmanns. & Link
Typha domingensis              Pers.
Ziziphus lotus                 (L.) Desf.

Scientific name                Family

Acacia farnesiana              Fabaceae
Acacia nilotica                Fabaceae
Acacia salign                  Fabaceae
Acacia tortilis                Fabaceae
Alcea rosea                    Malvaceae
Amaranthus hybridus            Amaranthaceae
Anabasis articulata            Chenopodiaceae
Anvillea garcini               Asteraceae
Arbutus pavarii                Ericaceae
Argania spinosa                Sapotaceae
Arnebia tetrastigma            Boraginaceae
Artemisia herba-alba           Asteraceae
Asparagus aphyllus             Asparagaceae
Asparagus stipularis           Asparagaceae
Balanites aegyptiaca           Balanitaceae
Calligonum arich               Polygonaceae
Calligonum comosum             Polygonaceae
Capparis spinosa               Capparaceae
Carthamus lanatus              Asteraceae
Ceratonia siliqua              Fabaceae
Chenopodium murale             Chenopodiaceae
Citrullus colocynthis          Cucurbitaceae
Cleome arabica                 Capparaceae
Cyperus rotundus               Cyperaceae
Datura innoxia                 Solanaceae
Deverra tortuosa               Apiaceae
Ecballium elaterium            Cucurbitaceae
Enchylaena tomentosa           Chenopodiaceae
Ephedra alata                  Ephedraceae
Eryngium campestre             Apiaceae
Fagonia microphylla            Zygophyllaceae
Globularia alypum              Globulariaceae
Halocnemum strobilaceum        Chenopodiaceae
Haplophyllum tuberculatum      Rutaceae
Launaea nudicaulis             Asteraceae
Lavandula multifida            Lamiaceae
Lawsonia inermis               Lythraceae
Lycium shawii                  Solanaceae
Marrubium alysson              Lamiaceae
Marrubium vulgare              Lamiaceae
Matricaria aurea               Asteraceae
Mesembryanthemum nodiflorum    Aizoaceae
Moricandia arvensis            Brassicaceae
Myrtus communis                Myrtaceae
Neurada procumbens             Neuradaceae
Nicotina glauca                Solanaceae
Nitraria retusa                Zygophyllaceae
Ocimum basilicum               Lamiaceae
Olea europea var. oleaster     Oleaceae
Panicum turgidum               Poaceae
Parkinsonia aculeata           Fabaceae
Peganum harmala                Zygophyllaceae
Pergularia tomentosa           Asclepiadaceae
Periploca laevigata            Asclepiadaceae
Phagnalon rupestre             Asteraceae
Phlomis floccosa               Lamiaceae
Pistacia atlantica             Anacardiaceae
Pistacia lentiscus             Anacardiaceae
Pituranthos tortuosus          Apiaceae
Plantago lanceolata            Plantaginaceae
Polygonum equisetiforme        Polygonaceae
Reaumuria vermiculata          Tamaricaceae
Retama raetam                  Fabaceae
Ricinus communis               Euphorbiaceae
Rumex pictus                   Polygonaceae
Ruta chalepensis               Rutaceae
Salvia fruticosa               Lamiaceae
Sarcopoterium spinosum         Rosaceae
Satureja thymbra               Lamiaceae
Scrophularia canina            Scrophulariaceae
Simmondsia chinensis           Simmondsiaceae
Spartium junceum               Fabaceae
Tetraena alba                  Zygophyllaceae
Teucrium polium                Lamiaceae
Thymelea hirsuta               Thymelaeaceae
Thymus capitatus               Lamiaceae
Typha domingensis              Typhaceae
Ziziphus lotus                 Rhamanaceae

Scientific name                Life-form

Acacia farnesiana              Tree
Acacia nilotica                Tree
Acacia salign                  Tree
Acacia tortilis                Tree
Alcea rosea                    Biennial forb
Amaranthus hybridus            Therophyte
Anabasis articulata            Phanerophyte
Anvillea garcini               Perennial forb
Arbutus pavarii                Tree
Argania spinosa                Tree
Arnebia tetrastigma            Perennial forb
Artemisia herba-alba           Phanerophyte
Asparagus aphyllus             Climber
Asparagus stipularis           Phanerophyte
Balanites aegyptiaca           Tree
Calligonum arich               Phanerophyte
Calligonum comosum             Phanerophyte
Capparis spinosa               Phanerophyte
Carthamus lanatus              Perennial forb
Ceratonia siliqua              Tree
Chenopodium murale             Therophyte
Citrullus colocynthis          Perennial forb
Cleome arabica                 Perennial forb
Cyperus rotundus               Perennial forb
Datura innoxia                 Therophyte
Deverra tortuosa               Phanerophyte
Ecballium elaterium            Perennial forb
Enchylaena tomentosa           Phanerophyte
Ephedra alata                  Phanerophyte
Eryngium campestre             Perennial forb
Fagonia microphylla            Chamaephyte
Globularia alypum              Perennial forb
Halocnemum strobilaceum        Phanerophyte
Haplophyllum tuberculatum      Perennial forb
Launaea nudicaulis             Perennial forb
Lavandula multifida            Phanerophyte
Lawsonia inermis               Tree
Lycium shawii                  Phanerophyte
Marrubium alysson              Perennial forb
Marrubium vulgare              Perennial forb
Matricaria aurea               Therophyte
Mesembryanthemum nodiflorum    Therophyte
Moricandia arvensis            Chamaephyte
Myrtus communis                Tree
Neurada procumbens             Therophyte
Nicotina glauca                Phanerophyte
Nitraria retusa                Phanerophyte
Ocimum basilicum               Therophyte
Olea europea var. oleaster     Phanerophyte
Panicum turgidum               Perennial grass
Parkinsonia aculeata           Tree
Peganum harmala                Perennial forb
Pergularia tomentosa           Climber
Periploca laevigata            Phanerophyte
Phagnalon rupestre             Chamaephyte
Phlomis floccosa               Perennial forb
Pistacia atlantica             Tree
Pistacia lentiscus             Tree
Pituranthos tortuosus          Chamaephyte
Plantago lanceolata            Perennial forb
Polygonum equisetiforme        Perennial forb
Reaumuria vermiculata          Chamaephyte
Retama raetam                  Phanerophyte
Ricinus communis               Annual shrub
Rumex pictus                   Therophyte
Ruta chalepensis               Perennial forb
Salvia fruticosa               Perennial forb
Sarcopoterium spinosum         Phanerophyte
Satureja thymbra               Chamaephyte
Scrophularia canina            Chamaephyte
Simmondsia chinensis           Phanerophyte
Spartium junceum               Phanerophyte
Tetraena alba                  Phanerophyte
Teucrium polium                Chamaephyte
Thymelea hirsuta               Phanerophyte
Thymus capitatus               Phanerophyte
Typha domingensis              Perennial grass
Ziziphus lotus                 Phanerophyte

Table 9: Plant part used and medicinal uses of the major medicinal
plants recorded during the collection missions in Libya

Species                        Part used

Acacia tortilis                Pods and roots
Parkinsonia aculeata           Aerial parts
Ceratonia siliqua              Pods
Argania spinosa                Oil of seeds
Periploca laevigata            The root powder
Thymus capitatus               Leaves and flowering tops
Searsia tripartita             Seeds
Ruta chalepensis               Aerial parts
Deverra tortuosa               Leaves, roots and stem extracts
Halocnemum strobilaceum        Oil of seeds
Sarcopoterium spinosum         Roots
Tetraena alba                  Plant extracts
Lavandula mutifida             Oil from flower
Datura inoxia                  All parts of plants
Citrullus colocynthis          incite abortion
Marrubium alysson              Leaves and flowers
Carthamus lanatus              Aerial parts
Cleome arabica                 Leaves
Mesembryanthemum nodiflorum    Seeds
Typha domingensis              Rootstocks
Rumex pictus                   Roots, stem, fruits, leaves

Species                        Medicinal use

Acacia tortilis                Treat skin infections, allergic
                                 dermatomes
Parkinsonia aculeata           Antipyretic and to treat diabetics
Ceratonia siliqua              Laxative and have demulcent qualities
Argania spinosa                lowers blood pressure
Periploca laevigata            Treat dyspepsia, constipation and
                                 hepalosplenomegales
Thymus capitatus               Bronchoantispasmodic and to treat asthma
Searsia tripartita             Stomach disease
Ruta chalepensis               Anti-inflammatory, antipyretic,
                                 analgesic
Deverra tortuosa               Potential nutritional and antifungal
                                 uses
Halocnemum strobilaceum        Applied on head for hair loss
Sarcopoterium spinosum         Treat stomachaches, toothache,
                                 gingivitis, oligouria
Tetraena alba                  Therapeutic use; Wounds healing, dental
                                 caries, diabetes
Lavandula mutifida             Antiseptic and aromatherapy
Datura inoxia                  Antispasmodic, narcotic and hypnotic
Citrullus colocynthis          Laxative and vermifuge
Marrubium alysson              Used against colds, coughs and asthma
Carthamus lanatus              Anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect
Cleome arabica                 Arthritis, rheumatism
Mesembryanthemum nodiflorum    Antipoetic
Typha domingensis              Used as a diuretic for increasing
                                 urination
Rumex pictus                   Sedative, spasmogenic
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Article Details
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Title Annotation:Original Article
Author:Louhaichi, M.; Salkini, A.K.; Estita, H.E.; Belkhir, S.
Publication:Advances in Environmental Biology
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:6LIBY
Date:Jan 1, 2011
Words:7422
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