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Information technologies and women.

INTRODUCTION

Femininity and masculinity are the main categories in human relations. Everywhere and in every culture, people categorize the people they encounter as a man or woman. The perceived normal features of masculinity and femininity and how these features affect individuals, their relationships, and society in general change according to time and place (Salzman, Matathia, & O'Reilly, 2006).

The role of man and woman in social life, the field in which they exist, and especially manipulation of the labor force according to social gender is closely related with how this relationship is socially formed. It is a general belief that men and women have different relations with technology. This relationship, which is accepted as universal, begins with the birth of a child and becomes a part of his or her social identity. This relationship that begins in family with socialization continues through educational institutions and is reinforced by mass media. For instance, a girl plays with a doll and a boy plays with a toy car. A girl has a home economics course at school, while a boy has a repair and maintenance course. In ads, while the girl plays with a Barbie, the boy plays in front of a computer. These countless examples reveal that there is a different relationship between social gender and technology. While women are considered to be related to the domestic use of technology, men are believed to be the producer of it (Timisi, 1996).

It is well known that women's opportunities of using recent information technologies are limited compared to men. Besides, if women use these technologies, they use them in order to do jobs that are considered suitable for their feminine roles, such as entering data and typing text. In short, computers are presented as advanced typewriters for women; in this way, the uses of a new technology are restrained. Technologies are not unbiased instruments as they are claimed to be. On the contrary, technologies are the instruments that regenerate the dominant social structure and relations. The woman who is considered not predisposed nor close to technology, female culture, and the feminine information produced in this culture are trivialized by dominant sexist ideology. For example, while the subject of technology history is the contributions of men to the improvement of science and technique, women's relationship with the tools and devices in terms of domestic work process in daily life and the meaning and usage value they ascribe to these devices are neglected as well as their original designs and practice. Their genuine designs about cleaning, saving, hiding and protecting are ignored (Gencel Bek & Binark, 2000). However, the field of information technology is full of opportunities for self-realization and liberty for women. Information technologies also have the potential to be used in favor of women. Thus, detecting by whom and for which purposes these recent technologies, also called new media information and communication technologies or information technologies, are used is important in order to generalize the use of these technologies for women, to detect the usage problems, and to determine whether there is a gender-related difference in use.

SOCIALIZATION AND SOCIAL GENDER

Most human behaviors are learned behaviors. Learning certain things in a certain society happens in a formation called the socialization process. The process of learning humanistic behaviors is called socialization (Ozkalp, 2000).

Socialization is the process of individuals learning the rules, norms, attitudes, and behaviors of society, and acting in line with this learning, and, therefore, gaining a personality and individuality in the society. Socialization begins with the birth of an individual and continues throughout life. Socialization is a learning process. In this process, there is a learner-teacher interaction. The teacher is society and the learner is the individual who goes through the socialization process (Icli, 2002).

Identity shows the individual's characteristics, which separate him or her from other individuals. The questions of who is the individual, what are the characteristics and roles of the individual, and what the individual can do are all related to identity. Identity is the expression of an individual's defining and positioning of himself or herself. In other words, it reflects how individuals define and position themselves in their own social world. It is a response related to who they are and where they stand. Sexual identity is an important part of one's self. A person's defining himself as a woman or a man is the inner personal connotation of femininity and masculinity revealed as personality and behavior. The cultural meanings of sexuality are considered social gender roles. After children are labeled as a girl and a boy, they start to learn and acquire the cultural meanings of sexuality. Social gender role is a group of expectations fulfilled by individuals (Dokmen, 2004).

The concept of social gender is based on the behavior patterns learned in a society and men's and women's social form of self-expression. That is, social gender is a cultural concept. It establishes the distinction between man and woman in terms of roles, behaviors, and mental and emotional features. Social gender is the sum of the differences that are set socially between man and woman and that can change according to time and cultures. The roles and responsibilities of social gender include a tense learning process that takes place in socialization (Giddens, 2000).

A newborn baby has a biological sex. It does not have a social sex yet. While growing up, society puts a series of behavioral patterns and rules appropriate for his gender in front of the child. Certain socialization factors, especially family, media, peer groups, and school, embody these expectations and models and creates environments in which the child can own them. In addition, various learning mechanisms such as conditioning, training, taking someone as a model, and identification intervene in this process (Kaypakoglu, 2004).

We learn most of our behaviors and values from social conditioning and examples. Initially, the examples and models acquired from family and the immediate area form future behaviors and attitudes of individuals. Mostly, the man acquires his shape from the first male model, the father. Similarly, the woman acquires hers from the mother, the first female model. Like it or not, the attitudes of our fathers and mothers have affected our identities and they formed both our sexual roles and our perception of the opposite sex. The conceptual and behavioral expectations of the society from man and woman are quite different. According to the generalized results of research, men display sexual roles complying mostly with success, power, autonomy, aggression, and self-realization, while women display sexual roles of supporting, relationship, help, respect, and sacrifice. It has been detected that men mostly display behaviors about practical and functional subjects (doing a job to finish work, autonomy, and self-protection). On the other hand, women display behaviors about the subjects of expression and relationship (sensitivity to others' needs, supporting, and dependency) (Navaro, 1997).

INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES

New media have begun to develop by adoption of improvements in computer and information processing to communication technologies since the 1970s. Therefore, the new media have been called information and communication technologies (Torenli, 2005).

Use of the computer increased markedly in the last decade of the twentieth century. Information technology is a field that emerged as a result of improvements in the computer sector. It includes the technology of computer hardware and software that are used to save, transmit, and process the data. However, today, information technology (IT) is not a field that is limited to configuration of software and installation of systems. With a more contemporary look, information technology has a number of components such as computer hardware, software, networks, communication technologies, workforce trained in the field, procedures, the Internet, Intranets, and communication tools. Information technology is a sector that has existed for 50 years and has the utmost importance today (Bilisim Teknolojileri Alanin Mevcut Durumu ve Gelecegi, 2009).

Information technology comprises all the technologies, including communication and computers, used in gathering, storing, processing, and transmitting information via computers and putting it into service for users. Information technology is used for all of the information services that are connected to communication and computer services. It helps us do all kind of work in every part of our life and saves us from drudgery. That is, it gives us the opportunity to spare the time for ourselves. Information technology is related to all other technologies and, as a result, by being used in many different forms, it offers seemingly unlimited impact and improvement. Information technologies enable us to obtain information, which is the raw material of information society, at any time and any place. In addition to this, it acts as an intermediary in producing new information. With the help of these technologies, society is being reshaped (Bilisim Teknolojileri, 2009).

The actions, which take place in virtual extent, such as corresponding via e-mail, chatting on MSN, searching information on websites, e-shopping, playing digital games online or offline, using ogo mobile messenger, and the iPod, and so on, have been taking hold of the time and the place traditional media occupies in our daily life and have become a natural part of our lives. Information technologies, which are also called the new media, are used and exist in all part of life such as communication between people, commerce, politics, health, career, and games (Binark, 2007).

INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES AND WOMEN

New information technologies were neither developed by women not they have been used in favor of women. Women's uses of new information technologies are mostly at the level of passive use and consumption. When producing a new appliance, an ideal user is decided. The identity of this ideal user is important. The ideal users of the appliances that are considered to be highly prestigious to use are thought to be men. Using these appliances is believed to be in men's interest and skill area, especially in terms of new information technologies. Therefore, the existing inequalities between man and woman are reinforced in the use of new information appliances. A great deal of research related to the use of information technologies by men and women suggests that these technologies maintain the sexism and power relations between men and women in daily life. Women cannot become free from the dominant sexist regime because of the problems they encounter in obtaining the technology, because they are technology illiterate and because of the dominant reflection of patriarchal culture in information technologies (Binark & Gencel Bek, 2007).

Girls and boys are directed in a different way from the beginning of their lives. Family, school, and almost all of the social mechanisms in which girls take place, trivialize women's experience and produce and design practices of technology by repeating that women are not "close" and "predisposed" to technology and they are "away from it" in many ways. Generally speaking, women represent "predisposed to the nature" and "emotional," and men represent "mind" and "technical-scientific." This categorization is a result of regeneration of patriarchal social gender ideology in every part of society. With the development and spread of information technologies, the ethnic, class, regional, and gender inequalities in obtaining and using these technologies have created the rich and the poor (Goker, 2009).

The socialization formed by new technologies is not unbiased in terms of gender. Females get little support to internalize these new technologies. There are very few female models and experts related to these new technologies. Economic- and time-related limitations cause women to not connect with these technologies. The expenses of purchasing and operating these technologies become a greater burden for women's income compared to men's. Further women have many responsibilities at home and in family that limit their available time. Women rarely have a personal computer of their own. They share them with husbands or fathers. The internalization and use of information technologies are limited for women in terms of place and time (Birke & Henry, 1997; Dorer, 2006).

The aim of the study "Information Technologies and Women" is to detect the position of women in possessing information technologies, which have a patriarchal structure, how they reach these technologies, usage rates, frequency and aim, the personal gains of women as a result of using these technologies and the difference in these gains between men and women. In order to fulfill this aim, the subjects of socialization, social gender, information technologies, and women were dealt with. The relationship of women with information technologies and the differences in these relationships compared to men were examined and the findings were analyzed.

FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION

In the study "Information Technologies and Women," in which the relationship between women and information technologies are questioned, the subject group was composed of 1,100 people, 550 women and 550 men between the ages of 16 and 64 living in Eskisehir. The subjects completed a questionnaire of 25 questions by interview method and the following results have been acquired. The questionnaire was prepared based upon the questions in the survey "2008 Information Technologies Use of Residents" conducted by Turkey Statistics Institute. The sample was selected homogeneously among the people using computers and the Internet at home, at work, or in Internet cafes who are at least high or junior high school graduates and between the ages of 16 and 64. The data were analyzed by using cross and frequency charts. The data were evaluated under the main titles of: the profiles of the people who took the questionnaire (IT possession status, duration of IT use, frequency of use and access type), purpose of the Internet and computer use, the websites they enter, users' relationship with IT, and personal gains after IT use. Under these titles, the sexual differences were analyzed and some suggestions that can be in favor of women are opened to discussion in line with the results.

As indicated in Table 1, 40.9% of the people who were randomly picked as sampling and took the questionnaire are between the ages of 25-34, 20% of them are between 45-54, 17.3% of them are between 16-24 and 35-44, and 4.5% of them are between the ages of 55-64. The rate of the university or college graduates is 73.6%, and 26.4% of them are graduates of high school or equivalent. Nearly 61% (60.9%) of the people are married and the remaining 39.1% were single. The overwhelming majority (84.5%) were employed, while the remaining 15.5% were unemployed.

Regarding ownership of information technologies, all of the women and men who took the questionnaire have cell phones. DVD-VCD players are owned in nearly equal numbers by women (81%) and men (80%). Nearly three quarters (74%) of the women and 69% of the men own a digital camera. Seventy percent of the women own desktop computer, compared to 80% of men. Similarly, 34% of women own a laptop computer, as compared to 47% of men. Differences in game console ownership were more dramatic: 0.7% of woment and 16% of men.

When the question of "who bought your personal computer?" was asked, 32.7% women responded "I bought it myself," compared to 61.8% of men; 30.9% of the women responded "My spouse or partner bought it," compared to 7.3% for men. The responses for the question "Where do you use your computer most?" were "at work" (54.5% for women and 50.9% for men), "at home" (45.5% for women and 49.1% for men), and "at the Internet cafe" (12.7% for men and 1.8% for women). The responses for the question "Where do you use the Internet most?" were "at home" (50.9% for women and 66% for men), "at work" (43.6% for women and 34% for men), and "at the Internet cafe" (13.2% for men and 3.6% for women).

The responses for the question "How long have you been using your computer?" were "for more than one year" (96.4% for women and 94.5% for men), "every day" (87.3% for women and 90.9% for men), and "once a week" (9.1% for both women and men). Just over half (50.9 %) of women stated that they learned their computer skills by trial error, while slightly more than two thirds (67.3%) of men responded similarly. Twenty percent of women responded that they learned computer skills in an official course, while about half as many men (10.9%) responded similarly. The rate of the people who learned their computer skills at an adult learning center was 14.5% for women and 9.1% for men. Lastly, the percentage of the women who have received help from a friend or a relative while learning her computer skills is 12.7%, and that of men is 10.9%.

As indicated in Table 2, among the people who took the questionnaire, women defined their purpose of using computer as communication (MSN, e-mail, chat) with the rate of 78.2%, as a part of their job with the rate of 72.2%, doing research with a rate of 71%, surfing on the Internet with the rate of 63.7%, and typing with the rate of 47.3%. Men defined their purpose of using computer as surfing on the net with a rate of 79.9%, communication (MSN, e-mail, chat) with a rate of 76.3%, as a part of their job with a rate of 61.7%, playing games with the rate of 54.4%, and doing research with 50.9%.

As indicated in Table 3, for the statements of "I don't share my computer" and "I cannot take my turn to use computer because of the others at home," which render the use status of the people who took the questionnaire, women and men said "yes" at the same rate. However, for the statement of "I don't have time to use computer at home," they said "yes" with a rate of 17.3% for women and 11.3% for men. As for the possessing the computer at home, they said that the computer belongs to them with rate of 36.5% for women and 66% for men. They said "yes" for the statement of "I cannot use the computer at home comfortably as it doesn't belong to me" with a rate of 11.5% for women and 1.9% for men, and for "Using computer is a waste of time" with a rate of 17.3% for women and 22.6% for men, and for "I don't like to use computer at home" with a rate of 19.2% for women and 26.4% for men, and finally for "The computer has an important place at home" with a rate of 57.7% for women and 62.3% for men.

As indicated in Table 4, the top four purposes of men and women for using the Internet are reading newspapers and magazines, sending-receiving e-mail, using the Internet as a source of information, and instant messaging. There is little difference between men and women in the top four purposes of using the Internet. While the fifth rank for women was to research health issues, for men it was downloading and listening to music. Playing games online with other players is in the 11th rank for men with a rate of 10.8%, while it is not one of the purposes of using the Internet for women.

As indicated in Table 5, when the people who took the questionnaire were asked what websites they entered, the top five answers of the women were 60% search engines (60%), educational sites (54.5%), mass media (52.7%), health sites (50.9%), and e-mail sites (38.2%). On the other hand, the top five answers of the men were search engines (63.6%), mass media (60%), sports sites (52.7%), e-mail sites (39.9%), and sites containing technical information (38.2%). When asked about the goods and services that they ordered or bought via the Internet, the top two answers of women were book-magazine and educational material, and reservations for holidays or trips; the third rank belongs to health-beauty and personal care products, with a rate of 18.2%. On the other hand, the top three answers of men were electronic tools, with 34.6%, additional hardware for computers and video games, with a rate of 32.7%, and household goods with 27.4%. Nearly half (47.3%) of the women and somewhat fewer (45.5%) of the men noted that they do not use the Internet for online shopping. For the question "For what purpose do you use the Internet while communicating with the governmental offices and institutions?", the rate of "to get information from their websites" was 65.5% for women and 54.5% for men. The second was "to fill out and send a form," with a rate of 40% for women and 27.3% for men. The rate of the women's response "I do not use the Internet while communicating with government offices and institutions" is 29.1%, while the rate of men's is 40%.

As indicated in Table 6, when the relationship between the participants and IT was questioned, they said "yes" for the statement "information technologies hold an important part in my life" with a rate of 76.4% for women and 85.5% for men. For the statement "I do not like IT products but I need to use them," the response was "yes" with a rate 40% for women and 18.2% for men. In addition, the response was "yes" for the statement "I feel myself distant from information technologies," with a rate of 25.5% for women and 9.1% for men. The rate of the "yes" response for the statement "I hesitate to use IT products" was 21.8% for women and 7.3% for men. For the statement "My IT usage is limited because I do not know enough," the response was "yes" with a rate 40% for women and 23.6% for men. The rate of the "yes" response for the statement "I do not hesitate to examine IT products and I seize all of its opportunities" was 56.4% for women and 80% for men. Moreover, the response was "yes" for the statement "I follow new information technologies closely" with a rate of 38.2% for women and 61.8% for men. And finally, for the statement "I always buy new IT products," the response was "yes" with a rate 34.5% for women and 49.1% for men.

As indicated in Table 7, when the personal gains of the people were questioned, they said "yes" for the statement "It made my life easier," with a rate of 89.1% for women and 85.5% for men. For the statement "It saved time," the response was "yes" with a rate of 87.3% for women and 85.5%% for men. In addition, the response was "yes" for the statement "It enabled me to have a job and profession," with a rate of 20% for both women and men. The rate of the "yes" response for the statement "It was a good free time activity" was 83.6% for women and 78.2% for men. For the statement "It eased my access to information," the response was "yes" with a rate 89.1% for women and 85.5% for men. The rate of the "yes" response for the statement "It enabled me to communicate" was 65.5% for women and 49.1% for men. Moreover, the response was "yes" for the statement "It had contributions to my education," with a rate of 61.8% for women and 60% for men. For the statement "It enhanced my vocational knowledge," the response was "yes" with a rate 76.4% for women and 63.6% for men. In addition, the response was "yes" for the statement "It made my housework easier," with a rate of 29.1% for women and 14.5% for men. For the statement "It helped me find a partner and friends," the response was "yes" with a rate of 12.7% for women and 20% for men. Moreover, the response was "yes" for the statement "It improved my communication and language skills," with a rate of 41.8% for women and 54.5% for men. And finally, for the statement "It helped me know different cultures," the response was "yes" with a rate 50.9% for women and 60% for men.

CONCLUSION

In the study "Information Technologies and Women," in which the relationship between women and information technologies was examined, the subject group was composed of 1,100 people, 550 women and 550 men between the ages of 16-64 living in Eskisehir, Turkey. They responded to a questionnaire of 25 questions by interview method.

All of the participants who took the questionnaire had cell phones. Many also possess DVD-VCD players, digital cameras, desktop computers and laptop computers. There is no significant difference between men's and women's possession of IT products.

Nearly one third (32.7%) of the women and 61.8% of the men who took the questionnaire and have a personal computer at home stated that they bought their computer by themselves. However 30.9% of the women and 7.3% of the men noted that their spouses or partners bought their computer. The people in the subject group told that their primary use of computer is at work, then secondly at home, but they also stated that they use the Internet mostly at home and secondly at work. The people have been active users of the Internet and computer for more than a year and the frequency of use is "every day" for 87.3% of the women and 90.9% of the men. A majority of the participants have specified that they learned how to use the Internet and computer by themselves through trial and error. No gender difference was observed about the purchase of the computer except that one out of three women noted that their spouses or partners bought the computer.

Women's computer use tended to be for communication (MSN, e-mail, chat), work purposes, research, surfing on the Net, and typing, while men used computers mostly for surfing on the Internet, communication (MSN, e-mail, chat), work purposes, playing computer games, and research. If compared to earlier studies, these results indicate that women are getting used to information technologies and women have started to use technology for work or educational purposes in accordance with their education level. The results also show that they are closing the gap in using IT, and it is a positive result in terms of women.

Women and men have equally responded "Yes" to the statements "I do not share my computer" and "I cannot take my turn to use the computer because of others" to explain participants' computer use status. Women stated that they do not have time to use a computer and that they cannot use a computer comfortably because it does not belong to them with a higher rate compared to men. These results show that although women take roles in work life, they still keep their traditional roles at home and they allocate less time for their privacy.

The rate of men who own a computer at home is twice as high as the rate of women who own a computer at home. Even if not everyone has a personal computer, men and women participants all noted that information technologies have a very important part in their lives and that they need to use information technologies by responding as "yes" with a rate above 50% to the statement "computer holds an important place at home." In addition, they responded "yes" with a lower rate to the statements "I do not like using computer at home" and "I feel sorry for the time I spent on the computer."

When the purposes of women and men to use the Internet are taken into consideration, it can be seen that among most responses are reading an online newspaper or magazine, sending-reading e-mail, finding information, and instant messaging. There is not a major difference between men and women in terms of these primary purposes. However, according to women, the other purpose of use can be researching educational and health issues while men listed downloading music and video chat on the Internet as their other uses. Playing multiplayer games online is not a purpose of use for women, but it has a rate of 10.8% for men among their purposes of Internet use. These data denote that women who attend institutional and work life use the Internet for nearly the same purposes as men and that women have improved themselves. The data also indicates that women have shown positive improvement in using information technologies.

The top five websites that women visit are search engines, educational sites, online media, sites about health issues, and e-mail sites. Men, on the other hand, visit mostly search engines, online media, sports, e-mail and sites on technical information, respectively. When asked about the goods and services that they ordered or bought via the Internet, the top three answers of women were book-magazine and educational material, reservations for holidays or trips; and health-beauty and personal care products. On the other hand, the top three answers of men were electronic tools, additional hardware for computers and video games and household goods. No significant difference was noted between men and women in terms of the websites they entered, except that women entered educational and health sites and men entered sports sites and websites that include technical information. These data indicate that Internet technology maintains and continues the sexism in daily life and the discrimination between men and women as it was revealed in a great deal of previous research on Internet use of men and women (Guzel, 2007). Further, men preferred to buy electronic gadgets, additional computer hardware and video games, while women preferred books-magazines and educational materials, online reservations for holidays, health-beauty and personal care products via the Internet.

Considering the relationship between information technologies and the people who took the questionnaire, women stated that information technologies hold an important part in their lives. However, they also state that they do not like IT products but they need to use them, that they feel themselves distant from IT, that they hesitate to use IT products, and their use is limited as they do not know enough. These data suggest that women's technology phobia continues. That women responded "yes" and men "no" to the statements "I do not hesitate to examine IT products and I seize all of its opportunities" and "I follow new information technologies closely and buy new IT products" also supports this idea.

When the personal gains of the people were questioned, no gender difference was noted on the statements "it made my life easier," "it saved time," "it enabled me to have a job and a profession," "It eased my access to information," and "It had contributions to my education." However, women said "yes" with a higher rate compared to men for the statements "It was a good free time activity," "It enabled me to communicate," "It enhanced my vocational knowledge," and "It made my housework easier." On the other hand, men responded "yes" at a higher rate for the statements "It enabled me to find a partner and friends," "It improved my communication and language skills," and "It helped me know different cultures." These results points out that women use information technologies, but they cannot get rid of their traditional roles while using them.

When the general findings of the study were evaluated, no obvious difference between men and women was recognized in terms of their age, education level, occupation, and marital status. However, it was observed that the use of information technologies increases in accordance with higher education levels and work status of both men and women. In conclusion, it was detected that women value information technologies as an important part of their lives, use them, and gradually are catching up with men on IT use, but they still feel hesitation and fear when using information technologies.

In this case, what women should do is to discover the opportunities that technologies offer in a way that goes beyond the sexist limitations and to use technologies to their advantage. In order to achieve this goal, the following steps should be taken:

Women's self-esteem when using the new communication technologies such as computer and computer networks should be reinforced and promoted.

* Women's prejudice that "new information technologies are only for men" should be broken.

* Some educational programs that have the principle of "teaching by doing and using" should be established and practiced for the purpose of increasing women's computer literacy.

* The differences in using new information technologies between men and women should be highlighted.

* The preferences of women related to communication types and tools should be revealed (Binark & Gencel Bek, 2007).

Women's use of information technology is beneficial for strengthening themselves. Women can take greater advantage of the opportunities of information technologies as they achieve a higher level of education, participate in work and public life more, as they shed their traditional roles, and gain self-confidence. They can make up for their differences from men in social life by improving themselves.

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Emine Demiray, Open Education Faculty, Anadolu University Yunusemre Campus, 26470 Eskisehir, Turkey. Telephone: +90 222 335 0581, ext. 2336. E-mail: edemiray@anadolu.edu.tr Web: http://home.anadolu.edu.tr/~edemiray
Table 1. Profiles of the Respondents

Profiles                Criteria          Women    Men    Total

                          16-24            70      120     190
                                          12.7%   21.8%   17.3%
                          25-34            220     230     450
                                           40%    41.8%   40.9%
                          35-44            110     80      190
                                           20%    14.5%   17.3%
                          45-54            140     80      220
                                          25.5%   14.5%    20%
                          55-64            10      40      50
                                          1.8%    7.3%    4.5%
                          Total            550     550    1,100
                                          100%    100%    100%
Education Level        High school         80      210     290
                                          13.5%   38.2%   26.4%
                   College-University      470     340     810
                        and above         85.5%   61.8%   73.6%
                          Total            550     550    1,100
                                          100%    100%    100%
Marital status           Married           370     300     670
                                          67.3%   54.5%   60.9%
                         Single            180     250     430
                                          32.7%   45.5%   39.1%
                          Total            550     550    1,100
                                          100%    100%    100%
Work status                Yes             460     470     930
                                          83.6%   85.5%   84.5%
                           No              90      80      170
                                          16.4%   14.5%   15.5%
                          Total            550     550    1,100
                                          100%    100%    100%

Table 2. Purpose of Computer Use

Purpose                           Women

Communication                      430
(MSN, e-mail, chat)               78.2%

As a part of your job              400
                                  72.7%

Research                           390
                                   71%

Internet (surfing)                 350
                                  63.7%

Typing                             260
                                  47.3%

Playing games                      200
                                  36.4%

Listening to music                 150
                                   31%

Watching movies                    140
                                  23.7%

Purpose                            Men

Internet (surfing)                 440
                                  79.9%

Communication                      420
(MSN, e-mail, chat)               76.3%

Work                               340
                                  61.7%

Playing games                      300
                                  54.4%

Research                           280
                                  50.9%

Listening to music                 210
                                  38.3%

Watching movies                    160
                                  29.1%

Typing                              90
                                  16.4%

Note: * The sum of the columns is not equal to 100% as more
than one item can be checked.

Table 3. Use Status of Respondents

                                                     Women

Use Status                                         Yes     No

I do not share my computer                         110     410
                                                  21.2%   78.8%

I cannot take my turn to use the computer          40      480
because of the others at home                     7.7%    92.3%

I don't have time to use computer at home          90      430
                                                  17.3%   82.7%

The computer at home belongs to me                 190     330
                                                  36.5%   63.5%

I cannot use the computer at home comfortably      60      460
as it doesn't belong to me                        11.5%   88.5%

Using computer is a waste of time                  90      430
                                                  17.3%   82.7%

I don't like to use computer at home               100     420
                                                  19.2%   80.8%

The computer has an important pace at home         300     220
                                                  57.7%   42.3%

                                                       Men

Use Status                                         Yes     No

I do not share my computer                         110     420
                                                  20.8%   79.2%

I cannot take my turn to use the computer          40      490
because of the others at home                     7.5%    92.5%

I don't have time to use computer at home          60      470
                                                  11.3%   88.7%

The computer at home belongs to me                 350     180
                                                   66%     34%

I cannot use the computer at home comfortably      10      520
as it doesn't belong to me                        1.9%    98.1%

Using computer is a waste of time                  120     410
                                                  22.6%   77.4%

I don't like to use computer at home               140     390
                                                  26.4%   73.6%

The computer has an important pace at home         330     200
                                                  62.3%   37.7%

* 30 women and 20 men have computer at home.

* The sum of the columns is not equal to 100% as more
than one item can be checked.

Table 4. Purposes of Using the Internet

Purposes of Using the Internet                   Women

Reading online newspapers and                     400
magazines, downloading news                      72.8%

Receiving-sending e-mail                          390
                                                 70.9%

Using the Internet as a source of                 300
information                                      54.5%

Instant messaging (MSN, Chat)                     250
                                                 45.4%

Researching on health issues                      230
                                                 41.8%

Video chat via the Internet                       150
                                                 27.3%

Downloading and listening to music                140
                                                 25.4%

Finding information about goods and               100
services                                         18.2%

Searching for information about                   100
educational activities                           18.2%

Using travel and accommodation services           80
                                                 14.6%

Online banking                                    80
                                                 14.6%

Watching and downloading movie, short             60
movie and video files (except for web TV)        10.9%

Looking for and applying to jobs                  40
                                                 7.2%

Other information searching and online            40
services                                         7.2%

Sharing the text or video that you have           40
created yourself with a website                  7.2%

Downloading software                              20
                                                 3.6%

Making online phone calls                         20
                                                 3.6%

Downloading and updating computer and             20
video games                                      3.6%

Listening to web radio and watching web           20
TV                                               3.6%

Playing games online with other players            0
                                                  0%

Purposes of Using the Internet                    Men

Reading online newspapers and                     390
magazines, downloading news                      70.8%

Receiving-sending e-mail                          370
                                                 67.2%

Using the Internet as a source of                 220
information                                       40%

Instant messaging (MSN, Chat)                     210
                                                 38.1%

Downloading and listening to music                180
                                                 32.8%

Video chat via the Internet                       170
                                                  31%

Finding information about goods and               150
services                                         27.3%

Online banking                                    130
                                                 23.6%

Researching on health issues                      100
                                                 18.2%

Downloading and updating computer and             80
video games                                      14.6%

Playing games online with other players           60
                                                 10.8%

Using travel and accommodation services           60
                                                 10.8%

Sharing the text or video that you have           50
created yourself with a website                   9%

Searching for information about                   50
educational activities                            9%

Watching and downloading movie, short             30
movie and video files (except for web TV)        5.4%

Looking for and applying to jobs                  30
                                                 5.4%

Listening to web radio and watching web           30
TV                                               5.4%

Other information searching and online            30
services                                         5.4%

Downloading software                              20
                                                 3.6%

Making online phone calls                         10
                                                 1.8%

* The sum of the columns is not equal to 100% as more than one
item can be checked.

Table 5. Web Sites Entered by Respondents

The Web Sites                       Women

Search engines                       330
                                     60%

Educational sites                    300
                                    54.5%

Mass media sites                     290
                                    52.7%

Health sites                         280
                                    50.9%

E-mail sites                         210
                                    38.2%

Banking sites                        180
                                    32.8%

Sites about culture-art              170
                                    30.9%

Game-entertainment sites             120
                                    21.8%

Shopping sites                        80
                                    14.5%

Children sites                        70
                                    12.7%

Law sites                             70
                                    12.7%

Sites containing technical            40
information                          7.3%

Sites about Turkey                    40
                                     7.3%

Sports sites                          30
                                     5.5%

Asking about dept                     20
                                     3.6%

Sites about other countries           10
                                     1.8%

Financial sites                       0
                                      0%

The Websites                         Men

Search engines                       350
                                    63.6%

Mass media sites                     330
                                     60%

Sports sites                         290
                                    52.7%

E-mail sites                         220
                                    39.9%

Sites containing technical           210
information                         38.2%

Game-entertainment sites             190
                                    34.5%

Educational sites                    150
                                    27.3%

Banking sites                        150
                                    27.3%

Sites about culture-art              110
                                     20%

Shopping sites                       100
                                    18.2%

Financial sites                       60
                                    10.9%

Asking about dept                     50
                                     9.1%

Health sites                          50
                                     9.1%

Sites about Turkey                    30
                                     5.5%

Law sites                             30
                                     5.5%

Children sites                        20
                                     3.6%

Sites about other countries           10
                                     1.8%

* The sum of the columns is not equal to 100% as more than one
item can be checked.

Table 6. Relationship Between Respondents and Information
Technologies

                                           Women            Men
Relationship With
Information Technologies               Yes     No       Yes     No

Information technologies hold          420     130      470     80
an important place in my life         76.4%   23.6%    85.5%   14.5%

I do not like IT products but I        220     330      100     450
need to use them                       40%     60%     18.2%   81.8%

I feel myself distant from             140     410      50      500
information technologies              25.5%   74.5%    9.1%    90.9%

I hesitate to use IT products          120     430      40      510
                                      21.8%   78.2%    7.3%    92.7%

My IT usage is limited because         220     330      130     420
I do not know enough                   40%     60%     23.6%   76.4%

I do not hesitate to examine IT        310     240      440     110
products and I seize all of its       56.4%   43.6%     80%     20%
opportunities

I follow new information               210     340      340     210
technologies closely                  38.2%   61.8%    61.8%   38.2%

I always buy new IT products           190     360      270     280
                                      34.5%   65.5%    49.1%   50.9%

* The sum of the columns is not equal to 100% as more than one
item can be checked.

Table 7. Personal Gains of Respondents After Using
Computer and Internet

                                      Women        Men

Personal Gains                    Yes     No       Yes     No

It made my life easier            490     60       470     80
                                 89.1%   10.9%    85.5%   14.5%

It saved time                     480     70       470     80
                                 87.3%   12.7%    85.5%   14.5%

It enabled me to have a job       110     440      110     440
and profession                    20%     80%      20%     80%

It was a good free time           460     90       430     120
activity                         83.6%   16.4%    78.2%   21.8%

It eased my access to             490     60       470     80
information                      89.1%   10.9%    85.5%   14.5%

It enabled me to                  360     190      270     280
communicate                      65.5%   34.5%    49.1%   50.9%

It had contributions to my        340     210      330     220
education                        61.8%   38.2%     60%     40%

It enhanced my vocational         420     130      350     200
knowledge                        76.4%   23.6%    63.6%   36.4%

It made my housework              160     390      80      470
easier                           29.1%   70.9%    14.5%   85.5%

It helped me find a               70      480      110     440
partner and friends              12.7%   87.3%     20%     80%

It improved my                    230     320      300     250
communication and                41.8%   58.2%    54.5%   45.5%
language skills

It helped me know                 280     270      330     220
different cultures.              50.9%   49.1%     60%     40%

* The sum of the columns is not equal to 100% as more than
one item can be checked.
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Title Annotation:SPOTLIGHT ARTICLE
Author:Demiray, Emine
Publication:Distance Learning
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Jan 1, 2010
Words:7502
Next Article:Global perspectives in open and distance learning and open learning resources.
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