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Information literacy skills and awareness of electronic information resources as influencing factors of their use by postgraduate students in two Universities in South-West Nigeria.

Introduction

Information is the bedrock to the development of any society. It is the major factor applied in decision making and helps to reduce the level of uncertainty. The idea and application of technology in handling of information which is also known as information technology, came into being in the Mid-twentieth, 20th century as a result of the proliferation of print information resources also known as information explosion. This gave rise to the invention of electronic information resources such as computers, CD-ROM databases, the internet, electronic mails, Online Access Public Catalogue etc to reduce the bulkiness of print information resources as well as proper handling of information for accessibility.

One of the areas that has been affected with this trend of information management is the area of education, in the sense that it facilitates teaching, learning, training of manpower and research in at various levels of formal educational institutions most especially the higher institutions. Agboola (2003) noted that using Information and Communications Technology (ICT), it is possible for researcher in his office to access the full text digital contents of local libraries and databases using computers and the internet. This has given room for the libraries and information centres attached to these institutions of learning to play significant roles in the management of information within and beyond the environment they operate, whereby reducing the use of print resources to satisfy the information needs and enabling them to integrate the use of print resources with the acquisition and utilization of electronic information resources such as CD-ROM databases, E-books, electronic journals, locally stored databases(OPAC), electronic mails and the internet to meet the information needs of their user.

Information literacy is a competence, a set of skills possessed by an individual to interact with information through of the use information resources in making rational decision. Association of College and Research libraries (2002) reveal that information literacy is a set of abilities requiring individuals to recognize when information is needed and have the ability to locate, evaluate, and use effectively the needed information searching, and evaluation. It is a vital ability for the modern information-intensive world, enabling personal, economic, social and cultural development.

In the Nigerian university environment, the coming of electronic information resources and their awareness have tremendously changed information handling and management. Ani and Ahiauzu(2008) assert that electronic information resources have gradually become a major resource in every university community. (Ehikamenor, 2003, Jagboro, 2003: Shuling 2006; Tsakonas and Papatheodorou, 2006) agree that electronic information resources are provided in electronic form and these include CD-ROM database, online databases, online journals, OPACs, internet and other computer-based electronic networks.

Statement of the problem

The world is a global village, because the use of the internet and other electronic information resources to search for information which contributes to knowledge is highly becoming more relevant to the world and it has no limitation to time, accessibility and location. Such purpose cannot be accomplished without acquiring good skills in the ability to search, locate, identify, retrieve, evaluate and use information.

It has been observed that some postgraduate students in Nigerian Universities have poor information literacy skills and awareness of electronic information resources which could be due to inadequate end user training, poor search skills, mass irrelevant information, slow internet connectivity, the need to filter the results from the search of information, failure to find information, inaccessibility of some information sources etc. This therefore raises a question of what could be done to assist postgraduate students with these challenges. It is based on this backdrop that this study set to evaluate Information literacy skills and awareness of electronic information resources as influencing factors of their use by postgraduate students in two Universities in South-West Nigeria.

Objectives of the study

This study is set out to achieve the following objectives:

i. To ascertain the level of information literacy skills acquired by the postgraduate students in two selected universities in south-west Nigeria;

ii. To ascertain the level of awareness of the availability of electronic information resources by postgraduate students in two selected universities in south-west Nigeria;

iii. To investigate the type of electronic information resources widely used by the postgraduate students in two selected universities in south-west Nigeria;

iv. To determine the extent of utilization of electronic information resources by the postgraduate students in two selected universities in south-west Nigeria for their academic pursuit;

v. To identify the problems encountered by the postgraduate students of two selected universities in the south-west Nigeria, in the utilization of electronic information resources.

Scope of the study

The study focused on Information literacy skills and awareness of electronic information resources as influencing factors of their use by postgraduate students in two Universities in south-west Nigeria. The study covered two universities in the south-west, Nigeria namely; the University of Ibadan, Ibadan and Lagos state university, Ojo Lagos state.

Review of Literature

In the twenty first century, information literacy has many roles to play in different sectors in societies that embraced it. Today's information society transcends all political social and economic boundaries. In modern learning environment with abundance of information resources and format, information skills become crucial (Vaiciuniene and Gedviliene, 2008).Information Literacy gives leverage for proper decision making by an individuals and organization at large most especially an individual or a group that are ICT complaints. Bundy (2004) reveals that information literacy is the foundation for the independent learning and lifelong study. He also adds that information literacy enables learners to engage critically with content and extend their investigations, become more self-directed and assume greater control over their learning.

Postgraduate students are the category of students that engage themselves mainly on research (theoretical and practical) in every higher institution of learning in the world that runs postgraduate studies. This necessitated the need for postgraduate students to be enlightened on information literacy and on the long run possess information literacy skills in order to use print and electronic information sources to meet his or her information needs as well as manage any information that comes his or her way in the course of his or her academics pursuit.

Information literacy also shortened as IL was for the first time the brain child of Paul Zurkoswski in the United States of America in the early 1970's. Paul Zurkoswski was the president of United States Information Industry Association; he opined that people who are trained in the application of information resources to their work and who have learned the techniques and skills for utilizing the wide range of information tools as well as primary sources of molding information solutions to their problems can be called information literates. Since the early 1970s many definitions of information literacy has been defined. Bruce (2002) noted that Information Literacy is a foundational approach to learning and education as an essential component of the information age. Information literacy is the ability to locate, evaluate, manage and use information from a range of sources not only for problem solving, but also for decision making and research (Ojedokun and Lumade, 2005; p.117). Julien (2002) observes that information literacy is the ability to make efficient and effective use of information sources and that an information literate person today should possess specific online searching skills, which include the ability to select appropriate search terminology, construct a logical search strategy and evaluate information appropriately. Information literacy entails individuals' ability to know when there is need for information, how and where to get the information and using such information effectively to accomplish a specific purpose (Abdulwahab Amusa and Umma, 2009; p. 3).

Electronic information resources according to the Dictionary for Library and Information Science are materials consisting of data or computer programmes conceded for reading and manipulation by the computer use of a peripheral device directly connected to the computer or remotely via a network such as the internet. Electronic information resources include: Electronic records, Electronic Journals, Electronic magazine, Electronic newsletter and Electronic book. Electronic information resources are provided in electronic form and these include CD-ROM database, online journals, Online Public Access Catalogues (OPACS), internet and other computer-based electronic networks (Ehikhamenor, 2003; Jagboro, 2003; Shulling, 2006; Tsakonas and Papatheodorou, 2006).

Electronic information has tremendously contributed to the development of higher education. In the higher education environment such as the university, the postgraduate students use the electronic resource of the library and beyond the institution they find themselves for learning and research. The internet and the World Wide Web provide scholars with fast and easy access to electronic information resources located around the globe. Academic staff members exchange research ideas with colleagues and connect to each other by monitoring electronic bulletin boards, chat rooms, social networks such as twitter, LinkedIn etc and list serve on area of their academic interests. All of these are made possible with the various innovations of Information Technology. Omogbemi et al (2004) writing on the benefits of the internet submits that students offering correspondence course all over Africa have the benefit of the use of e-mail and World Wide Web to obtain advice and reading material from online. It is now a feasible option to embark on postgraduate studies online.

Information literacy skills and awareness of electronic information resources work together in higher education. For postgraduate students to use electronic information resources they must be aware of EIR through information literacy programme which in turn make them to acquire the skills to identify their information need, search, evaluate and use information in electronic information resources for their learning and research and to update their knowledge. On the other hand the use of electronic resources highly depends on the awareness of EIR and information literacy skills of postgraduate students in higher education. Togia and Tsigillis (2009) reveal that the growth of information in electronic format forces students to learn how to find, select and use wide variety of resources. In the same vein, sefeh and Nosrat (2007) carried a survey to investigate the relationships between awareness and use of digital resources among students in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. A questionnaire was design with descriptive method was randomly used for survey. 250 users of the Medical libraries and information centers affiliated to Isfahan university of Medical Sciences were taken for survey. The results were founding the paper titled "Awareness and use of digital resources in the libraries of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Iran" that 70 percent of students were aware of digital resources, but 69 percent have used them; 62 percent were aware of offline databases and 19 percent were only using them through Central library LAN network. About 70 percent were aware of online databases, accessible via Central library web site and 53 percent have used them In total 87 percent of students felt that the available data met their information needs.

However, virtual libraries, internets, e-journal and web-based information system provide services to enable information users who are predominantly students to handle and manage information in the areas of their interest. This cannot be achieved or made possible without adequate information literacy skills and awareness of EIR.

Methodology

The descriptive survey research method was adopted for the study and structured questionnaire was used to collect the data. The target population for this study comprised the postgraduate students of the University of Ibadan, Oyo State and the postgraduate students of the Lagos State University, Ojo, Lagos State which is made up of seven thousand seven hundred and forty eight (7748) and eight hundred and eighty five (885) respectively. A total of four hundred and seven(407) respondents were sampled from the population of the University of Ibadan, while a total of one hundred and seventeen (117) respondents were sampled from the population of the Lagos State University with a grand total of five hundred and twenty four (524) respondents from both universities under study.

Data Analysis and Interpretation of findings

This study examined "Information Literacy skills and awareness of Electronic Information Resources as influencing factors of their use by postgraduate students in two Universities in south-west Nigeria". Four hundred and seven (407) copies of questionnaire were distributed randomly to postgraduate students of the University of Ibadan out of which a total of three hundred and fifty nine (359) respondents completed and returned them. While one hundred and seventeen (117) copies of questionnaire were distributed randomly to postgraduate students of the Lagos State University out of which a total of one hundred and six (106) respondents completed and returned them for analysis.

The analysis and the interpretation of data were based on the responses by the respondents. Data collected from the questionnaire were analyzed using frequency counts and simple percentage.

Demographic Variables
Table 1: Distribution of the respondents by Name of University

Name of University       Frequency   Percentage

Lagos State University      106         22.8
University of Ibadan        359         77.2
Total                       465        100.0


Table 1 above shows that 106(22.8%) of the respondents were from Lagos State University, while 359(77.2%) were from University of Ibadan.
Table 2: Distribution of the respondents by Faculty

Faculty                    Frequency   Percentage

Arts                          37          8.0
Engineering                    8          1.7
Law                           12          2.6
Sciences                      85          18.3
Social sciences               70          15.0
Centre for physical            9          1.9
  planning
Management sciences           51          11.0
Basic medical sciences        41          8.8
Education                     63          13.5
Agriculture and forestry      57          12.3
Technology                    32          6.9
Total                         465        100.0


Table 2 above shows that 37(8.0%) of the respondents were in Arts, 8(1.7%) were in Engineering, 12(2.6%) were in Law, 85(18.3%) were in Sciences, 70(15.0%) were in Social sciences, 9(1.9%) were in Centre for physical planning, 51(11.0%) were in Management sciences, 41(8.8%) were in Basic medical sciences, 63(13.5%) were in Education, 57(12.3%) were in Agriculture and forestry, while 32(6.9%) were in Technology. The result then showed that the faculty of Sciences has the highest number of respondents, with 85 respondents out of 465 respondents which represented 18.3% of the entire respondents. While the faculty of Engineering has the lowest number of respondents, with 8 respondents out of 465 respondents which represented 1.7% of the entire respondents, which were captured during the administration of the questionnaire.
Table 3: Distribution of the respondents by Sex

Sex      Frequency   Percentage

Male        300         64.5
Female      165         35.5
Total       465        100.0


From Table 3, it was shown that 300 respondents were male who represented the 64.5% of the entire respondents. While 165 respondents were female who represented 35.5% of the entire respondents. The result then showed that more males were captured during the administration of the questionnaire than the females.
Table 4: Distribution of the respondents by Age

Age Range        Frequency   Percent
21-25 years         78        16.8
26-30 years         244       52.5
31-35 years         107       23.0
36-40 years         26         5.6
Above 41 years      10         2.2
Total               465       100.0


Table 4 above shows that 78 (16.8%) of the respondents were between 21-25 years, 244(52.5%) were between 26-30 years, 107(23.0%) were between 31-35 years, 26(5.6%) were between 36-40 years while 10(2.2%) were above 41 years. The result showed that the highest number of the respondent that enrolled for postgraduates studies in the two Universities under study were between 26-30 years which represented 52.5% of the entire respondents. While the lowest number of respondents that enrolled for postgraduate studies in the two Universities under study were above 41 years which represented 2.2% of the entire respondents.
Table 5: Distribution of the respondents by the level
of study

Level of Study   Frequency   Percent

PGD                 18         3.9
MASTERS             430       92.5
M.PHIL               4         .9
PHD                 13         2.8
Total               465        100


Table 5 above shows that the two Universities under study had total number of 430 masters students who represented 92.5% of the entire respondents. This is followed by 18 (3.9%) PGD students, while 13(2.8%) PHD students followed and Lastly 4(.9%) M.Phil students. The result showed that Master students have the highest frequency of respondent by level of study.

Research Question 1(a): How do you rate your Information Literacy?
Table 6: Table showing the Information Literacy courses offered
by the respondents.

S/N   Information literacy    Universities
      courses                                Yes     No

1     E-library instruction   LASU           59      47
                                             55.7%   44.3%
                              U.I            171     188
                                             47.6%   52.4%
2     Use of library          LASU           73      33
                                             68.9%   31.1%
                              U.I            217     142
                                             60.4%   39.6%
3     Research methodology    LASU           103     3
                                             97.2%   2.8%
                              U.I            330     29
                                             91.9%   8.1%
4     Use of computer         LASU           75      31
                                             70.8%   29.2%
                              U.I            187     172
                                             52.1%   47.9%
5     Use of internet         LASU           57      49
        websites                             53.8%   46.2%
                              U.I            189     170
                                             52.6%   47.7%
6     Communication skills    LASU           53      53
                                             50.0%   50.0%
                              U.I            220     139
                                             61.3%   38.7%


The result from table 6 showed that more respondents from LASU were taught Elibrary instruction. While more respondents from UI were not taught E-Library instruction. Also, more respondents from both LASU and UI are taught use of library, research methodology, use of computer, and use of internet websites.

Lastly, it was observed that the number of respondents from LASU that were taught communication skills were equal to the number of respondents that were not taught communication skills, while there were more respondents in UI that were taught communication skills.

Research Question 1(b): How do you rate your Levels of information literacy skills?
Table 7: The Levels of information literacy skills of the
respondents.

S\N   Information       Universities
      literacy                         SD     D      A       SA
      skills

7     Formulating       LASU           --     --     56      50
        questions                                    52.8%   47.2%
        according       U.I            2      15     207     135
        to needs                       .6%    4.2%   57.7%   37.6%
8     Identifying       LASU           --     --     58      48
        relevant                                     54.7%   45.3%
        sources of      U.I            --     9      191     159
        information                           2.5%   53.2%   44.3%
9     Innovating        LASU           --     4      61      41
        successful                            3.8%   57.5%   38.7%
        information     U.I            --     33     219     107
        search                                9.2%   61.0%   29.8%
        strategies
10    Accessing         LASU           --     3      58      45
        information                           2.8%   54.7%   42.5%
        sources         U.I            1      10     218     130
                                       .3%    2.8%   60.7%   36.2%
11    Evaluating        LASU           --     1      73      32
        information                           .9%    68.9%   30.2%
                        U.I            1      19     222     117
                                       .3%    5.3%   61.8%   32.6%
12    Organizing        LASU           --     8      65      33
        information                           7.5%   61.3%   31.1%
        for practical   U.I            8      22     210     119
        application                    2.2%   6.1%   58.5%   33.1%
13    Using             LASU           1      1      67      37
        information                    .9%    .9%    32.2%   34.9%
        for decision    U.I            9      14     171     165
        making and                     2.5%   3.9%   47.6%   46.0%
        problems
        solving


From Table 7, it was observed that there is high level of information literacy skills among the respondents from the two Universities under study. Bruce (2002) noted that Information literacy is a foundational approach to learning and education as an essential component of the information age. To this end Julien (2004) posited that information literacy is the ability to make efficient and effective use of information sources and that an information literate person today should possess specific online searching skills, which include the ability to select appropriate search terminology, construct a logical strategy and evaluate information appropriately.

Research Question 2: How do you rate your level of awareness of availability of Electronic Information Resources?
Table 8: Table showing the rating of the Levels of Awareness of
Availability of EIR respondents.

S\N   Levels of        Universities
      awareness of                    SD      D        A       SA
      availability
      of EIR

14    The level of     LASU           3       19       28      55
        awareness                     2.8%    17.9%4   26.4%   51.9%
        of the
        availability   U.I            21      106      131     101
        of EIR in                     5.8%    29.5%    36.5%   28.1%
        my
       institution
       of higher
       learning is
       very high

15    The level of     LASU           3       18       45      40
        awareness                     2.8%    17.0%    42.5%   37.7%
        of the
        availability   U.I            13      98       173     75
        of EIR in                     3.6%    27.3%    48.2%   20.9%
        my
        institution
        of higher
        learning is
        high
16    The level of     LASU           16      44       30      16
        awareness                     15.1%   41.5%    28.3%   15.1%
        of the
        availability   U.I            26      153      133     47
        of EIR in                     7.2%    42.6%    37.0%   13.1%
        my
        institution
        of higher
        learning is
        moderate
17    The level of     LASU           33      54       14      5
        awareness                     31.1%   50.9%    13.2%   4.7%
        of the
        availability   U.I            85      166      64      44
        of EIR in                     23.7%   46.2%    17.8%   12.3%
        my
        institution
        of higher
        learning is
        low
18    The level of     LASU           40      46       11      9
        awareness                     37.7%   43.4%    10.4%   8.5%
        of the
        availability   U.I            139     129      40      51
        of EIR in                     38.7%   35.9%    11.1%   14.2%
        my
        institution
        of higher
        learning is
        very low


From Table 8 above, it was observed that there is high level of awareness of availability of Electronic information resources among the respondents from the two Universities under study. This supports Asefeh and Nosrat (2007) survey to investigate the relationships between awareness and use of digital resources among students in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. The results revealed in the paper titled "Awareness and use of digital resources in the libraries of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Iran" that 70 percent of students were aware of digital resources, but 69 percent have used them; 62 percent were aware of offline databases and 19 percent were only using them through Central library LAN network. About 70 percent were aware of online databases, accessible via Central library web site and 53 percent have used them In total 87 percent of students felt that the available data met their information needs.
Table 9: indicating the availability of EIR in the higher
institutions of respondents

S\N   Electronic         Universities
      information                       No        Yes
      Resources
      Centers/
      Depositories

19    Cyber cafe         LASU           26        80
                                        24.5%     75.5%
                         U.I            68        291
                                        18.9%     81.1%
20    Libraries          LASU           21        85
                                        19.8%     80.2%
                         U.I            95        264
                                        26.5%     73.5%
21    Multimedia room    LASU           95        11
                                        89.6%     10.4%
                         U.I            341       18
                                        95.0%     5.0%
22    The university's   LASU           100       6
        data bank                       94.3%     5.7%
                         U.I            349       10
                                        97.2%     2.8%
23    Wireless LAN       LASU           73        33
                                        68.9%     31.1%
                         U.I            175       184
                                        48.7%     51.3%


From Table 9 above, it was observed that EIR in LASU are most available for postgraduate access and use in Libraries as indicated by its respondents which represented 85(88.5%), next to cybercafe 80(75%) of the entire LASU respondents. This supports 0buh (2007) that informed library users know that libraries have resources that are more comprehensive and scholarly sites than most Websites provide. While UI respondents indicated that EIR is mostly available for postgraduate access and use in cyber cafe which represented 291(81.1%). Obuh (2007) asserts that cyber cafes are mostly readily available access to the electronic resources by the users. Students as well have access to this opportunity, though majority access through the commercial cybercafes (Oduwole, 2004). Also in LASU and UI, EIR are least available for postgraduate access and use in the University's Data bank which represented 100(94.3%) and 349 (97.2) respectively followed by multi-media room and wireless LAN

Research Question Three: What types of Electronic Information Resources are widely used by postgraduate students in your institution of higher learning?
Table 10: Types of Electronic Information Resources widely used by
the respondents.

S\N   Types of        Universities
      EIRs                           SD      D       A       SA

24    Internet        LASU           --      1       39      66
                                             .9%     36.8%   62.3%
                      U.I            --      2       99      258
                                             .6%     27.6%   71.9%
25    CD-ROM          LASU           3       10      40      53
                                     2.8%    9.4%    37.7%   50.0%
                      U.I            18      81      136     124
                                     5.0%    22.6%   37.9%   34.5%
26    E-journals      LASU           1       15      42      48
                                     .9%     14.2%   39.6%   45.3%
                      U.I            7       35      165     152
                                     1.9%    9.7%    46.0%   42.3%
27    E-libraries     LASU           3       13      50      40
                                     2.8%    12.3%   47.2%   37.7%
                      U.I            17      53      161     128
                                     4.7%    14.8%   44.8%   35.7%
28    Search          LASU           --      1       60      45
        Engines                              .9%     56.6%   42.5%
                      U.I            3       14      119     223
                                     .8%     3.9%    33.1%   62.1%
29    Mailing list    LASU           1       63      30      12
                                     .9%     59.4%   28.3%   11.3%
                      U.I            29      170     91      69
                                     8.1%    47.4%   25.3%   19.2%
30    Online          LASU           1       22      65      18
        databases                    .9%     20.8%   61.3%   17.0%
                      U.I            20      92      167     80
                                     5.6%    25.6%   46.5%   22.3%
31    Site maps       LASU           6       72      16      12
                                     5.7%    67.9%   15.1%   11.3%
                      U.I            34      178     84      63
                                     9.5%    49.6%   23.4%   17.5%
32    Online public   LASU           11      66      18      11
        access                       10.4%   62.3%   17.0%   10.4%
        catalogue     U.I            50      175     86      48
        (OPAC)                       13.9%   48.7%   24.0%   13.4%


Table 10 above indicates that Search Engines are most widely used EIRs by postgraduate students from LASU, followed by the Internet while Site maps are least used EIRs by postgraduate students followed by Online Public Access Catalogue (OPAC). In UI, the Internet is the most widely used EIR by postgraduate students, followed by the Search Engines; While Online Public Access Catalogue (OPAC) is the least used EIR by postgraduate students followed by Site maps. This corroborates Ojedokun and Owolabi (2003) Oduwole (2004) Badu and Markwei (2005) that the coming out of electronic information resources has transformed the handling and management of information in the academic environment of some African countries especially in Nigeria. Academics in developing countries are fast embracing the internet as a source of information for teaching and research. Some studies have revealed the use of the internet, e-mail and search engines for research purposes.

Research Question Four: To what extent is Electronic Information Resources Utilized by Postgraduate students of The Lagos State University and The University of Ibadan for their academic pursuit?
Table 11: Showing if the Postgraduate students of the Lagos State
University and the University of Ibadan utilize Electronic
Information Resources or Not.

S/N   Utilization of   University   No      Yes
      EIRs

31    Do you utilize
        Electronic     LASU         2       104
      Information                   11%     23.3%
        Resources?     U.I          16      343
                                    88.9%   73.7
                       Total        18      447
                                    100%    100%


Table 11 above showed that the two Universities under Study had a total number of 447 postgraduate students who utilize Electronic Information Resources, EIR while 18 postgraduate students don't utilize Electronic Information Resources, EIR. This supports Okiki (2011) that Electronic Information Resources are products of Information and Communications Technologies and they have been found relevant to the learning and research process in Universities.
Table 12: Showing how frequent the respondents utilize Electronic
Information Resources

S/N   Statement       University   Never    Rarely   Often    Very
                                                              Often

32    How often do    LASU         1        4        65       36
        you utilize                20.0%    12.5%    26.3%    19.9%
        Electronic    U.I          4        28       182      145
        Information                80.0%    87.5%    73.7%    80.1%
        Resources?
                      Total        5        32       247      181
                                   100.0%   100.0%   100.0%   100.0%


Table 12 above showed that 36(19.9%) respondents from LASU utilized EIRs very often, 65(26.3%) utilized EIRs often, 4(12.5%) rarely utilized EIRs and 1 (20.0%) never utilize EIRs. While 145(80.1%) respondents from UI utilized EIRs very often, 182(73.7%) utilized EIRs often, 28(87.5) rarely utilized EIRs and 4(80.0%) never utilize EIRs. From the result we could deduce that the frequency of utilization of EIRs is very high. According to Hall and Parsons (2001), dependence, coupled with easy access to technology, points towards students spending a substantial quantity of time on Internet/online.
Table 13: Showing the number of years the respondents have been
Using Electronic Information Resources

S/N   Statement       University   Less     1-2     3-4     Above
                                   than 1   years   years   5
                                   year                     years

33.   For how long                 7        9       22      68
        have you      LASU         17.5%    18.0%   24.2%   23.3%
        been using    U.I          33       41      69      216
        Electronic                 82.5%    82.0%   75.8%   76.1%
        Information
        Resources?
                                   40       50      91      284
                      Total        100%     100%    100%    100%


Table 13 showed that 68(23.3%) respondents from LASU have used EIRs for 5 years and above, 22(24.2%) have used EIRs for 3-4 years, 9 (18.0%) have used EIRs for 1-2 years and 7(17.5%) have used EIRs for less than 1 year. While the breakdown of UI respondents are as follows: 216(76.1%) have used EIRs for 5 years and above, 69 (75.8%) used EIRs for 2-3 years, 41(82.0%) have used EIRs for 1-2 years and 33(82.5%) have used EIRs for less than 1 year.
Table 14: Table showing the rating of the Motivation to use
Electronic Information sources by the respondents

S\N   Motivation       University
      to use EIR                    SD     D     A       SA

34    Research\        LASU         --     1     26      79
        Project\                           .9%   24.5%   74.5%
        Dissertation   U.I          1      --    90      266
                                    .3%          25.1%   74.1%
35    Searching for    LASU         --     --    34      71
        new ideas                                32.1%   67.0%
                       U.I          --     --    148     193
                                                 41.2%   53.8%
36    Writing term     LASU         1      --    28      71
        paper                       .9%          26.4%   67.0%
                       U.I          3      --    166     173
                                    .8%          46.2%   48.2%
37    Quality of       LASU         --     --    40      63
        resources                                37.7%   59.4%
                       U I          4      --    174     142
                                    1.1%         48.5%   39.6%
38    Quality          LASU         --           39      65
        access to                                36.8%   61.3%
        information    U.I          3            146     192
                                    .8%          40.7%   53.5%
39    Doing course     LASU         --           42      63
        assignment                               39.6%   59.4%
                       U.I          3            183     160
                                    .8%          51.0%   44.6%
40    Pleasure         LASU         4            46      50
                                    3.8%         43.4%   47.2%


Table 14 indicated that Research/Project/Dissertations, Searching for new ideas and Doing course assignments mostly motivated the respondents from LASU to use EIRs, while research/ Project/ Dissertations mostly motivated the respondents from UI to use EIRs. Some respondents added that social networking, news and current affairs motivated them to us EIRs Valentine (2008) reveals that students in tertiary institution looked for the fastest way that would lead to satisfactory results when doing research going for Electronic information resources first.

Research Question Five: What are the problems encountered by postgraduate students of The Lagos State University and The University of Ibadan in the Utilization of Electronic Information Resources?
Table 15: Showing the problems encountered by the respondents in
the use of Electronic information resources.

S\N   Problems         University
                                    SD      D       A       SA
41    Few computers    LASU         2       5       33      66
        connected                   1.9%    4.7%    31.1%   62.3%
        to the         U.I          11      83      112     153
        internet                    3.1%    23.1%   31.2%   42.6%
42    Power outage     LASU         -       5       27      74
                                    %       4.7%    25.5%   69.8%
                       U.I          4       13      121     221
                                    1.1%    3.6%    33.7%   61.6%
43    Inability to     LASU         3       31      27      45
        navigate                    2.8%    29.2%   25.5%   42.5%
        some           U.I          20      99      149     91
        websites                    5.6%    27.6%   41.5%   25.3%
44    Lack of IT       LASU         6       83      11      6
        skills                      5.7%    78.3%   10.4%   5.7%
                       U.I          78      173     63      45
                                    21.7%   48.2%   17.5%   12.5%
45    Slow internet    LASU         1       35      55      15
        connectivity                .9%     33.0%   51.9%   14.2%
                       U.I          8       73      149     129
                                    2.2%    20.3%   41.5%   35.9%

46    Failure to       LASU         8       81      8       9
        find                        7.5%    76.4%   7.5%    8.5%
        information    U.I          43      207     69      40
                                    12.0%   57.7%   19.2%   11.1%

47    High cost of     LASU         2       67      24      13
        access                      1.9%    63.2%   22.6%   12.3%
                       U.I          30      156     112     61
                                    8.4%    43.5%   31.2%   17.0%
48    Problem of       LASU         7       73      21      5
        credibility                 6.6%    68.9%   19.8%   4.7%
        of             U.I          37      191     97      34
        information                 10.3%   53.2%   27.0%   9.5%
49    Too many         LASU         7       75      15      9
        information                 6.6%    70.8%   14.2%   8.5%
                       U.I          46      219     49      45
                                    12.8%   61.0%   13.6%   12.5%


From Table 4.15, it could be inferred that Power outage was ranked the highest problem encountered by both respondents of LASU and UI. This was followed by few computers connected to the internet by the respondents from LASU, while slow internet connectivity was ranked the second highest among the problems encountered by the respondents from UI. Moreover, lack of IT skills was ranked the lowest problem encountered by LASU respondents while too many information was ranked the lowest problem by UI respondents. Lastly some respondents from the two universities under study indicated that other problems encountered by them in the use of Electronic Information Resources were: financial constraints to access the internet, public assault by Agents of Criminal Investigation Department (CID) at the cybercafe because of online fraudsters "Yahoo boys", inactive Online Public Access Catalogue (OPAC) system in the University of Ibadan Library, and time constraints.

Conclusion/Recommendations

From this research work, it is concluded that Information Literacy Skills and awareness of Electronic Information Resources are very relevant to postgraduate students of the University of Ibadan and the Lagos State University. This is due to the fact that ICT knowledge and handling are embraced by the members of the University community including, the respondents of the two Universities under study for their various academic pursuit.

While it is commendable that, the Management of the universities should provide adequate supply of power that will smoothly run the academic activities of these Universities; the Federal Government of Nigeria should provide adequate funds for the building of capital projects in the public universities such as ICT centers where students can have free access and use of Electronic Information Resources; the Universities should be staffed with more ICT compliant staff to impart more ICT skills on students; the Electronic Information Resources in the ICT centers and the libraries should be periodically evaluated, upgraded and maintained by the Universities management; Damaged or Outdated Electronic Information Resources in the ICT centre, University Libraries, University databanks etc should be replaced with new ones and there should be installation of effective internet connectivity in the Universities.

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Chukwuemeka Ogbonnaya. Azubuike

Department of Library, Archival and Information Studies

University of Ibadan

Oyo State, Nigeria

<azubuike_chukwuemeka@yahoo.com, +234 8033523989>
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