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Influence of drilling parameters in drilling of Hamc with vegetable based cutting fluid.


In our work on MMC the Aluminium 6061 occupies the matrix phase, Boron carbide and the M-Sand occupies the reinforcement phase which is prepared by using the stir casting method. It consists of 90wt% of Al6061, 6wt%M-Sand, 4wt% of Boroncarbide. Then the specimen is subjected to the drilling operation in the Automatic feed Drilling Machine along with the utilisation of the vegetable based cutting fluid and the parameters are optimized by the L9 orthogonal array.

U.B.Gopalkrishna gave the result that maximum weight percentage of the boron carbide which can be added to the aluminium matrix phase is 15wt%, Adding the boron carbide beyond this weight percentage may leads to the aggravate situation which includes the reduction in the tensile and compressive stress[1].

B.M.Umeshgowda found that a drill bit of diameter which has a minimum value of 6mm is required to minimize the dimensional deviation, Feed rate has a greatest impact in the cylindricity than circularity,so from the optimized condition the minimum deviation of the circularity, cylindricity and the minimum value of surface roughness areobtained [2].

R.Deepak Joel Johnson also investigated the parameters involved in the turning operation and optimized the parameters involved in the turning operation by Taguchi technique and found that feed rate have a greater influence on the surface roughness[3].

R.Deepak Joel Johnson have made a comparative study on the dry machining and the machining with cutting fluids, from which it can be accepted that the vegetable based cutting fluids tends to reduce surface roughness over the dry machining. The cutting fluids of different compositions are made, tested and the best composition is given as the optimized one in the Hardened OHNS Steel [4].

A.Muniraj evaluated that the Thrust force starts to increase at the higher feed rates, which in turn reduces the time of contact between the drill and workpiece ,were it will reduces the burnishing effect[5].

S. Senthilbabu reviewed that the Drilling of the metal matrix composites are difficult due to their abrasive characteristics and hence more work shall be done on the Drilling of the Metal Matrix Composites as the work in this section is very small [6].

T. Rajmohan used the Taguchi method with grey relational analysis was used to optimize the machining parameters with multiple performance characteristics in drilling hybrid metal matrix Al356/SiC-mica composites and it is found that the feed rate and the type of drill are the most significant factors which affect the drilling process and the performance in the drilling process can be effectively improved by using this approach [7].

Gul Tosun carried out drilling tests using high-speed steel (HSS), TiN coated HSS and solid carbide drills. The drills used were 5 mm diameter. The experimental results indicated that, the consequence of point angles on the sub-surface damage caused by the drilling operation was changed with the type of drills [8].

From the above Literatures it is found that only a very few authors have done their work about the optimized drilling techniques. The literatures which represented the machining of composites with the cutting fluid is very scarce and the machining of the Aluminium MMC is the crucial task and it is the area were the precision is required. In order to enhance the machinability of those materials our work focuses on optimizing the drilling parameters of the Aluminium Metal Matrix composite using the vegetable based cutting fluid as it reduces the toxicity and it influences the machining parameters. The parameters involved in drilling are cutting speed, feed, depth of cut, Cuttingforce, Thrust force.

2. Experimental Work:

2.1 Workpiece Preparation:

2.1. IMaterial Selection:

The specimen for the drilling operation is prepared by the stircasting method as it is the most economical method .The matrix phase in the MMC is Al6061 as it possess higher strength and good machinability characteristics, the reinforcement includes the Boron carbide and M-Sand(Manufactured sand) were the boron carbide contains the highest hardness, high melting point, low density and the M-Sand is added to enhance the thermal stability of the MMC.

2.1.2Stircasting Method:

During the process of stir casting, the furnace is heated until temperature reaches 900 degree Celsius then it is brought down to 780degree Celsius and the aluminium rods are dropped into the furnace. Those rods weigh about1800g (97% purity). Boron carbide is preheated to 250 degree Celsius and mixed with the melted Aluminium.The stirrer was made to rotate at a speed of 750rpm,in order to get a uniform composition of MMC. In the melt of base metal, boron carbideand M-Sand were poured on the furnace consequently in small amounts until entire 40g(4wt%) B4C and M-Sand60g(6wt %) is mixed. Then the stirrer is made to continuously rotate in the furnace inorder to obtain an effective mix for about fifty minutes and then it is slowed down,finally the melt is poured in the preheated die from which the casting is taken out.



2.1.3.Finishing Operation:

The required flat workpiece is obtained by removing the extrusions which have risen after solidification in the sprue and runner, using the power hacksaw and the surface finish is obtained by the machining of portable grinding machine.

2.2. Cutting fluid preparation:

The cutting fluid composition is taken from the previous work [4] which is C40P10W50, were Coconut Oil ,P-Peanut Oil ,W-Water, the emulsifier used is A4140 which enhanced the proper mix of those Oilsand ahigh speed stirrer is used.

2.3. Selection of the Drill Bit:

From the Literature it is perceived that HSS drills are not suitable for drilling of MMC, due to its high hardness 24HRB. So, Carbide coated drills are preferred here with a diameter of 6mm to reduce the oversize.

2.4. Design of Experiments:

The Design of experiment of drilling operation is done using taguchi methodology and the significant factor is found out using ANOVA analysis, here for our experiment we have taken the input parameters as the cutting parameters i.e cutting speed and feed and output parameters are cutting force and torque.

In the table above the drilling parameters taken for our experiment is cutting speed and it is calculated using the spindle speed of the machine and the feed is taken as the second parameter for our experimentation. Each parameter is varied for three levels and by using taguchi L9 orthogonal array the experimental works are carried out.

Design of experiments using Taguchi's L9 Array with the measured Cutting Force and Torque are in the table 3 and the experiments was done on the auto feed drilling machine with the aid of cutting fluid in order to find the optimized one.


The parameters taken into the consideration are Cutting Speed, Feed, Cutting Force, Torque, , the Analysis was carried out using the MINITAB 17 statistical to find the optimized value and its influence on the feed rate since it has the more influence than any other parameter in drilling



The Main Effects plots(Fig 3 & Fig 4) visualizes cutting force and Torque when the process is carried out at different Cutting Speed and Torque in which the peak value is taken for finding the optimized parameter.By the Taguchi Technique, it is found that feed has a greater influence on the cutting force and torque which is inferred from the ANOVA.From the Delta Values calculated based on the SN ratio it is found that the optimized parameters are cutting speed is 15.07m/min and feed is 0.05mm/rev for the output parameter cutting force and the optimized parameters for torque is cutting speed 15.07m/min and feed 0.2mm/rev.


The Interpolation Plots are used to find the behaviour of the Cutting forces and Torque at the various cutting speeds From the Fig 5 it is found that there would be a greater cutting forces at higher feed and higher cutting speed ,In the Fig 6 it is found that Maximum Torque would present at Moderate Cutting Speed and at a Greater feed.

ANOVA analysis is carried out to know the relative effect of individual parameters on the cutting force and torque.

From the ANOVA analysis it was found that the value of F is greater than 2 ,for all the input parameters versus Cutting Force and thus the experiment is valid and effective ,the value of F obtained is 106.53 for the feed , the model is sufficiently accurate as the R-Sq value is 98.3%, R-Sq(adj)=96.7% ,with the standard error of 1.216.

Analysis of variance is done for each of the output parameters individually table 5 shows the results attained for the output parameter torque here the torques is checked for the significant value thus, the F value for torques also comes greater than 2(F>2) so, it proves that our experiment is valid, since the F value found to be higher for feed when compared with cutting speed for both the output parameters, it is clearly proves that the feed has the more influence on the cutting force as well as torque.

Confirmation test is carried out to showcase the optimized parameter gives good results in terms of lower cutting force and reduced torque values. The Results of the confirmation test is compared with the dry drilling operation to prove, better values can be obtained by using vegetable based cutting fluid.

The confirmation test gives the better values of cutting force and torque and the usage of vegetable based cutting fluid gives significantly better values when compare with dry drilling operation.


The following conclusions were made from the experimental analysis done to find the influence of drilling parameters:

* It is found that the feed is having more influence on the cutting force as well as the torque, it is noted that by reducing the feed value the output parameter considered here gets better values

* The usage of cutting fluid significantly reduces the cutting force and torque values for the optimized drilling parameters.

* The optimized parameters for the drilling of HAMC using the vegetable based cutting fluid arecutting speed 15.07m/min, feed 0.05mm/rev for cutting force and 15.07m/min cutting speed and 0.2 feed for the torque.


[1.] Effect of Boron Carbide Reinforcement on Aluminium Matrix Composites,Gopal krishna U B, Sreenivas Rao K V& Vasudeva B

[2.] Optimization 2014. of process parameters in drilling Al-Si3N4 metal matrix composites material usingTaguchitechnique,B.M.Umeshgowda,H.V.Ravindra,H.R.Gurupavan,G.Ugrasen,G.V.Naveen, Prakash, Procedia Materials Science, 5: 2207-2214.

[3.] Optimization 2014. of cutting parameters and fluid application parameters during turning of OHNS steel, Procedia Engineering, 97: 172-177, R. Deepak Joel Johnson, K. Leo Dev Wins, Anil Raj, B. Anuja Beatrice

[4.] Comparative Study of Dry Turning And Turning With Different Compositions of Lubricationg Oil in Hardened OHNS Steel, Journal of Applied science and research,ISSN:1819-544X,R. Deepak Joel Johnson, K.Arun Prasath, M.R.Vennimaal, S.Thanigaivel

[5.] Evaluation 2013. of thrust force and surface Roughness in drilling of al/sic/gr hybrid Metal matrix composite , A. Muniaraj, Sushil Lal Das, K. Palanikumar , International Journal of Latest Research in Science and Technology, 2(4): 4-8.

[6.] Parameters 2012. involved in drilling of Al based metal matrix composites - A Review, S.Senthilbabu, Dr.B.K.Vinayagam International Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology, 1: 4.

[7.] Optimization 2012. of machining parameters in drilling hybrid aluminium metal matrix composites, T. Rajmohan, K. Palanikumar, M. Kathirvel , Trans. Nonferrous Met. Soc. China, 22: 1286-1297.

[8.] Gul Tosun, Mehtap Muratoglu, 2004. "The drilling of an Al/SiCp metal-matrix composites, Part I: microstructure" in composites science and technology, 64: 299-308.

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(1) R. Deepak Joel Johnson, (2) M.R. Vennimaal, (3) T. Selvaprasath, (4) S. Thanigaivel, (5) A. Swarnapraba

(1) Assistant Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, M.Kumarasamy College of Engineering, India

(2,3,4,5) UG Student,Department of Mechanical Engineering, M.Kumarasamy College of Engineering, India.

Received 25 April 2016; Accepted 28 May 2016; Available 5 June 2016

Address For Correspondence: R. Deepak Joel Johnson, Assistant Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, M.Kumarasamy College of Engineering, India
Table 1: Stir casting Machine Specification

Operating Voltage     400V-440V , 3Phase
Power Consumption     12KW
Capacity              2kg
Retort                S.S AISI310
Dimension of Retort   100mm*300mm(Inner Diameter*Depth)
Maximum Temperature   900 Degree Celsius
Pouring               Motorized-Automatic
Skin Temperature      75 Degree Celsius

Table 2: Drilling Parameters and its levels

Factors/ Levels        1       2       3

Cutting Speed(m/min)   15.07   22.61   30.15
Feed(mm/rev)           0.05    0.125   0.2

Table 3: The Experimental Table showing the Cutting Force and
Torque for Nine run experiment.

Exp No   Cutting        Feed       Cutting Force   Torque
         Speed(m/min)   (mm/rev)   (N)             (N-mm)

1        15.07          0.05       94.87           0.72
2        15.07          0.125      258.23          1.92
3        15.07          0.2        652.112         2.46
4        22.61          0.05       182.178         2.03
5        22.61          0.125      321.164         1.76
6        22.61          0.2        891.99          3.19
7        30.15          0.05       211.79          2.91
8        30.15          0.125      401.101         0.86
9        30.15          0.2        928.12          2.58

Table 4: ANOVA Table for Cutting force.

Source           DF             Seq SS              Adj SS    Adj MS

Cutting Speed    2              34.538              34.538    17.269
Feed             2              314.976             314.976   157.488
Residual Error   4              5.913               5.913     1.476
Total            8              355.427
S = 1.216        R-Sq = 98.3%   R-Sq(adj) = 96.7%

Source           F        P

Cutting Speed    11.68    0.021
Feed             106.53   0.0000
Residual Error
S = 1.216

Table 5: ANOVA Table for Torque.

Source           DF             Seq SS        Adj SS

Cutting Speed    2              18.41         18.41
Feed             2              53.21         53.21
Residual Error   4              93.12         93.12
Total            8              164.74
S = 1.825        R-Sq = 97.3%   R-Sq(adj) = 96.0%

Source           Adj MS   F      P

Cutting Speed    9.207    2.40   0.697
Feed             26.605   3.14   0.405
Residual Error   23.280
S = 1.825

Table 6: Confirmation Test for the optimized parameters
and with dry drilling operation

Drilling Type    Cutting        Feed(mm/rev)   Cutting
                 Speed(m/min)                  force(N)

With Vegetable   15.07          0.05           94.87
based Cutting
Dry Drilling     15.07          0.05           120.63

Drilling Type    Cutting        Feed(mm/rev)   Torque(N-mm)

With Vegetable   15.07          0.2            0.72
based Cutting
Dry Drilling     15.07          0.2            2.81
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Author:Johnson, R. Deepak Joel; Vennimaal, M.R.; Selvaprasath, T.; Thanigaivel, S.; Swarnapraba, A.
Publication:Advances in Natural and Applied Sciences
Date:Jun 15, 2016
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