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Influence of body condition score at calving on the metabolic status and production performance of Murrah buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) during the transition period.

INTRODUCTION

The transition period is characterized by a decrease in feed intake and an increase in fetal growth and homeorhetic adaptations [1], including mobilization of body reserves. The difference between the lower nutrient intake and increased energy requirements of females for maintenance, own body and fetal growth, and production of colostrum and milk for the newborn leads to a physiological imbalance called negative energy balance [2,3].

Calorimetry studies on high-producing dairy cows have estimated a negative energy balance of -22 MJ/d in the sixth week of lactation, decreasing to -9 MJ/d in the twelfth week [4]. To reduce the intensity of the negative energy balance through homeorhetic adaptations, a number of metabolic reactions are initiated, with a consequent mobilization of body reserves (especially fats) and reduction of body weight (BW). The lipolytic activity observed with the reduction of body reserves could contribute to 33% of milk yield or maintain the production of 120 to 550 kg of milk in the first weeks of production, in dairy cows [5].

The lipolytic activity is correlated with the formation of ketone bodies, which, when in excess, are negatively correlated with the animal health, causing metabolic disorders (ketosis, hypocalcemia, abomasal displasia, and fatty liver), and a reduction in immune response generated by oxidative stress [2,3].

Oxidative stress is associated with the body condition score (BCS) [6], a method to assess the body condition of the animal that is highly correlated with the mobilization of body reserves. Body condition score has the advantage of being a quick, effective, economic, and non-invasive approach. Despite its subjective nature [7], BCS is very important in the establishment of adequate production-management techniques [5,8].

The objective of this study was thus to evaluate the influence of BCS at calving on the metabolic status of female Murrah buffaloes in the transition period. Our hypothesis is that a higher BCS at calving positively influences the concentrations of metabolites in the post-calving transition period, changing the oxidative status and increasing the production performance of these animals.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Ethical aspects and location

This study was conducted in strict conformity with the recommendations of Brazil's National Council for Animal Experimentation (CONCEA). The undertaken experimental procedures were approved by the Ethics Committee in Animal Use of the School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science of the Federal University of Bahia, Bahia State, Brazil (no. 39-2014).

Animals, housing, and feeding

The experiment was conducted in a commercial dairy herd of Murrah buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis). The average milk yield per lactation (300 days in milk) of the herd was higher than 2,400 kg. Thirty-seven pregnant buffaloes (multiparous) were selected based on their BCS and on the estimated calving date. Two groups of BCS at calving were formed, as follows: i) buffaloes with a BCS >3.5 (n = 17); this group was classified and named 'high BCS at calving' (HBCS); and ii) buffaloes with a BCS[less than or equal to]3.5 (n = 20); this group was classified and named 'low BCS at calving' (LBCS). All animals were monitored during the last 30 days of gestation and the first 70 days post-calving and were kept in the same environment and under the same feeding and management conditions. Mean values for BCS at calving were 2.98[+ or -]0.9 (mean[+ or -]standard error of the mean [SEM]) and 4.21[+ or -]0.9 (mean[+ or -]SEM) for groups LBCS and HBCS, respectively.

The BCS was statistically different between the groups (p< 0.001). In the post-calving period, all buffaloes were fed chopped elephant grass (Penissetum purpureum) and a concentrate in the form of total mixed ration immediately after milking. The diet (Table 1) was formulated to meet the requirements of lactating buffaloes producing 6.0 kg/d milk with 7.0% fat and 4.2% crude protein (CP) according to the recommendations of Paul and Lal [9]. After the morning feeding, all buffaloes post-calving were kept in paddocks with Brachiaria decumbens grass (nutrient composition [g/kg dry matter {DM}]: 216.5 DM, 110.1 CP, 727.4 neutral detergent fiber [NDF], and 142.1 non-fibrous carbohydrates [NFC]). The chemical composition of elephant grass can be viewed in the footnote of Table 1.

Sample collection and chemical analysis

Feed samples were processed through a Wiley mill with 1-mm sieves (AH Thomas, Philadelphia, PA, USA) and analyzed for the DM (AOAC 950.15), ash (AOAC 942.05), ether extract (EE, AOAC 920.39), CP (Nx6.25; AOAC 984.13), and lignin (AOAC 973.18) contents according to the methods described by AOAC [10]. The NDF was analyzed using a-amylase without addition of sodium sulfide to the detergent (TE-149 analyzer, Tecnal Equipments for Laboratory Inc., Piracicaba, Brazil). The concentrations of NFC were estimated according to [11], as follows: NFC = 100 - [(% CP - % CP from urea+% urea)+ % EE+% ash+% NDF].

Milk yield and composition

Buffaloes were milked mechanically daily at 0600 h, and their milk yield was measured by an automatic milk meter (Delaval, Tumba, Sweden). Milk yield was corrected to 4.0% fat (FCM) according to Di Paolo [12]: Y = 1+0.01155 [(X-40)+(Z-31)], where Y is the amount (kg) of FCM equivalent to 1 kg of milk produced and X and Z are the grams of fat and protein present in 1 kg of milk produced, respectively. Milk samples were collected automatically (MM6, DeLaval, Sweden) once weekly (7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56, 63, and 70 days), according to the milk production of each animal in each milking. Milk samples were analyzed fresh for fat, protein, lactose, milk urea nitrogen (MUN), and somatic cell count following Campanile et al [13].

Body condition score, body weight, and clinical parameters

During the study, BCS was evaluated using the body-condition scoring method for Murrah buffaloes according to Anitha et al [7]. A graph was used for the classification of condition on a scale of 1 to 5 using 0.5-point subunits. Measurements were taken weekly by two trained evaluators pre-calving (-28, -21, and -7 days), on the calving date, and post-calving (+7, + 14, +21, +28, +35, +42, +49, +56, +63, and +70 days). The BW was obtained on the same days and used to determine the changes in body condition score and in body weight (BWC). Rectal temperature and heart rate (beats/min, using a stethoscope) were also measured.

Analysis of metabolic status indices

Blood samples were drawn weekly pre-calving (-28, -21, and -7 days), on the calving date, and post-calving (+7, +14, +21, and +28 days). Immediately after collection, samples were centrifuged at 2,000x g for 15 min at room temperature to obtain the plasma. Plasma samples were sent to the laboratory and analyzed for complete blood count (erythrocytes, hemoglobin, and hematocrit); mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), by the cyanmethemoglobin colorimetric technique; mean corpuscular volume (MCV), by the micro-hematocrit method; and leukogram (leukocytes, segmented neutrophils, red blood cells, lymphocytes, and neutrophils), by the MayGrunwald Giemsa method. The serum was transferred to plastic tubes that were identified and stored at -20[degrees]C until analyses. Analyses were performed using commercial kits in an automatic biochemistry analyzer (BioSystems, Foster City, CA, USA). Blood samples were harvested to measure the serum glucose (K048, Bioclin, Belo Horizonte, Brazil), total protein (K031, Bioclin, Brazil), albumin (K040, Bioclin, Brazil), total cholesterol (K083, Bioclin, Brazil), urea (K056, Bioclin, Brazil), triglycerides (K117, Bioclin, Brazil), calcium (K051, Bioclin, Brazil), and phosphorus (K068, Bioclin, Brazil).

Urine samples were collected from all animals approximately four hours after the morning feeding, when the buffaloes urinated spontaneously. Urine aliquots of 10 mL were immediately diluted with 40 mL 0.036 N sulfuric acid and stored at -20[degrees]C for later analyses pre-calving (-28, -21, and -7 days), at calving (until 24 h post-calving), and post-calving (+7, +14, +21, +28, +35, +42, +49, +56, +63, and +70 days). The urine pH values were determined using a digital pH meter (MB-10, Marte Cientifica, MG, Brazil). In these samples, we determined the concentrations of urea (fixed-time kinetic method; K056, Bioclin, Brazil); uric acid (UA; enzymatic colorimetric method --K139, Bioclin, Brasil); calcium (Ca; end point colorimetric method--Arzenazo III--K051, Bioclin, Brazil); and sulfur (S) and chlorine (Cl; mercury thiocyanate colorimetric method --K050, Bioclin, Brazil). Potassium (K) was determined using a MH 9180 ion-selective device (MH LabISE 9180, Belo Horizonte, Brazil).

Statistical analysis

The data were analyzed by the PROC MIXED procedure of SAS [14], according to the model of repeated measures over time, with normality of residuals and homogeneity of variances checked by the PROC UNIVARIATE procedure. The model was used to estimate the effect of physiological stage (week), BCS group (Group 1: BCS>3.5, or HBCS; Group 2: BCS[less than or equal to]3.5, or LBCS), and their interaction on oxidative-status indices:

[Y.sub.ijk] = [mu]+[W.sub.i]+[BCS.sub.j]+[(WxBCS).sub.ij]+[e.sub.ijk]

Where [Y.sub.ijk] = dependent variable; [mu] = overall mean of the population; [W.sub.i] = mean effect of the physiological stage (weeks) (i = pre-calving, post-calving) with the physiological stage as a repeated factor; [BCS.sub.j] = mean effect of BCS group (j = 1 and 2); and [e.sub.ijk] = unexplained residual element assumed as independent and normally distributed. For each analyzed variable, the buffaloes from both BCS groups were subjected to three covariance structures: compound symmetry, autoregressive order, and unstructured covariance. The data were analyzed on sampling days relative to the calving date, with day 0 representing the calving date.

RESULTS

BCS and clinical parameters

The HBCS group had a higher average BW and BCS than LBCS group in the pre- (p = 0.001) and post-calving (p = 0.001) periods (Table 2). There was an effect of weeks (p = 0.001) and an interaction effect between weeks and groups for BW (p = 0.001) and BCS (p = 0.001) during the pre-calving period (Figure 1A, 1B). However, there was no difference between the groups for BWC pre- and post-calving. There were week effects (p = 0.001) on BWC pre-calving (Figure 1C). HBCS buffaloes exhibited higher BCS values than the LBCS group during the pre- (p = 0.001) and post-calving (p = 0.001) periods (Table 2).

The HBCS group showed a higher urine pH value (p = 0.033) than the LBCS group pre-calving (7.76 vs 7.86, respectively) (Figure 1D, Table 2). There was an effect of weeks (p = 0.001) for the urine pH and heart rate values (p = 0.029) during the post-calving period.

Milk yield and composition

There were no differences for milk yield, FCM, total solids, solids nonfat, protein, and lactose between the groups (Table 3). However, the HBCS group had a higher milk fat content (p = 0.007) and milk fat yield (p = 0.027) than the LBCS group (Table 3). There were week effects for the milk protein and lactose concentrations. The HBCS group had a higher MUN content (p = 0.001) than the LBCS buffaloes (28.7 vs 21.2, respectively) (Figure 2C, Table 3). There was a week effect in the lactation period for milk casein concentration, casein as a percentage of crude protein, and MUN (Figure 2B).

Metabolic parameters

There were no differences in the concentrations of erythrocytes, hematocrit, segmented neutrophils, red blood cells, and lymphocytes between the groups in the pre-calving period (Table 4). In the same way, no differences were detected for the concentrations of MCHC, hemoglobin, red blood cells, and lymphocytes between the BCS groups post-calving. However, the HBCS group exhibited higher concentrations of erythrocytes (p = 0.001) and hematocrit (p = 0.012) post-calving and higher levels of MCHC (p = 0.002) and hemoglobin (p = 0.004) pre-calving (Table 4). The HBCS group showed lower concentrations of MCV (p = 0.001), leukocytes (p = 0.001), and neutrophils (p = 0.032) pre- and post-calving (MCV [p = 0.001], leukocytes [p = 0.016], and neutrophils [p = 0.034]). There was a week effect in the post-calving period for the concentrations of erythrocytes, hematocrit, and leukocytes and in the pre-calving period for hemoglobin and leukocytes.

No differences were observed for the concentrations of glucose, urea, triglycerides, and phosphorus between the two groups pre- and post-calving (Table 5). The HBCS group presented higher total plasma protein (p = 0.035), albumin (p = 0.036), and globulin (p = 0.046) in the pre-calving period. However, the LBCS group showed a higher total cholesterol (p = 0.029) and calcium (p = 0.003) post-calving. There was an effect of weeks on the concentrations of glucose (p = 0.040) in the pre-calving period and for concentrations of urea (p = 0.004) and total cholesterol (p = 0.005) post-calving.

Urinary concentrations of K, S, Ca, urea, and uric acid did not differ between the two groups during the pre- and post-calving periods (Table 6). Likewise, there was no difference for the Cl concentration between the groups pre-calving. How ever, the LBCS group showed a higher Cl content (p = 0.010) pre-calving. There was a week effect for the concentrations of urea pre- (p = 0.007) and post-calving (p = 0.014). There was an interaction effect between weeks and BCS groups for the K concentration (p = 0.030) post-calving.

DISCUSSION

It is known that transition dairy cows with a high BCS lose more BW and body condition than leaner cows [15,16]. Over time, buffalo rearing has shifted from a backyard activity to commercial farms and big companies. The immense popularity of buffalo milk and meat-based products has allowed buffalo production to follow the dairy cattle industry. However, in order for this species to perform optimally under the pressure of intensive production systems, buffalo breeds must be improved and research should be conducted with a clear focus on the transition between different physiological stages and alternations in the lipid metabolism [13,17]. The BCS at calving explains the concept of homeorhesis, which was defined decades ago as a set of metabolic alterations in the animal that has a genetic key to safeguard important biological functions such as the survival of the newborn (through milk provision) or reproduction [18].

During the pre- and post-calving periods, the HBCS group had higher BW and BCS than the LBCS buffaloes. These results are related to the method adopted and the correlation between BW and BCS [7,16]. We observed that the BW loss and the BCS change (65.2 kg and 0.78 points for HBCS vs 51.5 kg and 0.64 points for LBCS) of the groups during the transition found between the pregnant non-lactating and lactating non-pregnant physiological stages (Figure 1C) was mainly due to the increase in BCS before delivery.

The animals from the HBCS group lost 9.6% of their initial BW, while the LBCS animals lost 9.0% of their weight (Table 2) in the pre-calving period. The recommended BCS at calving for dairy cows may be different for dairy buffaloes due to differences in metabolism between the species. The endocrine profiles change [17] and the lipolysis and lipogenesis are regulated to increase the lipid reserves during pregnancy; moreover, the lipid metabolism is regulated by homeostatic and homeorhetic mechanisms [18]. Lacetera et al [19] concluded that, after calving, cows that showed an elevated BCS at calving and high lipid mobilization displayed a more pronounced alteration in oxidative status. These conditions may make the cows more sensitive to oxidative stress. In female beef cattle, blood somatropin concentrations are lower and the insulin concentration is higher when compared with dairy-purpose breeds. Breeds have shown decreased milk production according to their dry matter intake [20]. In this study, we have shown that BW and BCS were lower for the LBCS group, indicating that bubaline females present a similar physiological and metabolic pattern to that of female beef cattle.

We measured some clinical parameters regarding oxidative stress during the change in physiological stage and there was no difference in RT between the groups. Rectal temperature is an important measurement in the physiological assessment; it is correlated with oxidative stress and albumin production [21]. Celi et al [22] evaluated oxidative stress in dairy cows in the transition period and observed lower plasma albumin concentrations near calving in comparison with a higher concentration at 21 days post-calving, indicating that the cows were under oxidative stress.

The HBCS group had a higher urine pH value than the LBCS group pre-calving. Alterations in urinary pH were associated with increased urinary production of Ca, and the metabolic acidosis could have increased the Ca reabsorption of bones and intestines; the Ca absorption has been attributed an increase in the synthesis of 1,25 (OH) 2 D3 [18]. Nevertheless, we did not observe differences in Ca excretion in the urine between the BCS groups (Table 6).

Milk yield was expected to change with the evaluated BCS. However, no differences were detected in milk yield between both BCS groups, although the HBCS group produced 0.75 kg more. Experiments with dairy cows [5,8,23] have shown that animals with a high BCS at calving had a higher milk fat content. This result may be related to the greater mobilization of body reserves in animals with a higher BCS due to the greater mobilization of body fat (non-esterified fatty acid) from the adipose tissue into the bloodstream [23]. This change can contribute to increasing the group of fatty acids that form the milk fat, thus favoring the capture of long-chain fatty acids from the blood to the mammary gland and resulting in greater incorporation of the milk [23]. Anitha et al [7] evaluated a BCS classification system in Murrah buffaloes in different BCS groups and reported that BCS at calving influenced the milk composition (group 1: 2.5 to 2.99; group 2: 3.0 to 3.49; group 3: 3.5 to 3.99; and group 4: 4.0 to 4.49, which had milk fat contents of 5.82%, 6.80%, 7.76%, and 8.46%, respectively). Mushtaq et al [24] evaluated a system for the classification of BCS in Nili-Ravi buffaloes and the group with an average BCS of 3.0 presented a milk fat content of 4.56%.

The HBCS group showed a higher MUN content (p = 0.001) than LBCS did. Several factors can change the MUN content, especially nutrition, with an increase in protein intake or an increase in ruminal-degraded protein [25]. The body protein from catabolism and the deamination of the excess dietary protein can contribute to the pool of blood urea nitrogen. As the blood is secreted from the mammary gland, urea is diffused into and out of the gland, coming into balance with the blood urea. This process allows MUN to be an excellent predictor of the blood urea and urinary N [26]. The HBCS group showed higher concentrations of erythrocytes and hematocrit post-calving and greater concentrations of MCHC and hemoglobin pre-calving (Table 4). Physiologically, at the end of pregnancy, the number of red blood cells increases as a result of the erythropoietic effect of the chorionic placental somatotropin, progesterone, and prolactin [18]. The erythropoietic effect is the formation of red blood cells, white blood cells (lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, granulocytes, neutrophils, and basophils) and platelets. Similarly, the increased blood volume is a response to the placental uterine circulation and to fetal development, maintaining the tissue oxygenation and blood pressure at adequate levels. However, the nutritional condition can alter the blood volume, the erythropoietic effect, and milk yield. High-producing animals exhibit lower concentrations of blood erythrocytes [27].

The HBCS group showed lower concentrations of leukocytes during the pre- and post-calving periods and a lower level of segmented neutrophils post-calving. Leukocytes participate in the protection of the host against the pathogen and in the monitoring and removal of non-self antigens. The increased blood leukocyte concentrations can be attributed to the lower nutritional condition of the LBCS group at calving. This occurs because an efficient immune response is based on the interaction and on the balance between different types of cells and their products. As the calving date approaches, the total number of leukocytes increases, mainly as a result of the absolute increase in number of neutrophils [28].

High neutrophil levels were shown by LBCS group pre- (p = 0.032) and post-calving (p = 0.034). The decline in nutritional status and increase in oxidative stress can increase the neutrophil concentration, which is explained by the fact that the phagocytosis of the microorganisms is the main function of neutrophils [28]. This represents one of the main lines of defense of the host against pathogens; leukocytes, mainly, are often produced on a large scale in hosts with bacterial load.

The concentrations of urinary metabolites were similar between both groups in the present experiment, except for Cl (mg/dL), which differed between the groups post-calving. The K and Cl concentrations are necessary to maintain the osmotic pressure and acid-base regulation [29]. In the peripartum, there is a positive correlation between the concentrations of calcium, phosphorus, and albumin in the blood [30]. The low concentrations of calcium and phosphorus in the blood observed in the negative energy balance are possibly necessary to sustain milk production [31]. Fiore et al [32] found differences in the blood concentrations of K, Cl, and Ca between the pre- and post-calving periods.

CONCLUSION

Buffaloes during the transition period showed some variations in oxidative status related to their metabolic status. After calving, the buffaloes that had high BCS and lipid mobilization showed a more pronounced change in their oxidative status, but improved production performance. These conditions can make buffaloes less sensitive to oxidative stress.

https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.17.0223

CONFLICT OF INTEREST

We certify that there is no conflict of interest with any financial organization regarding the material discussed in the manuscript.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The authors thank Mr. Urbano Antonio Souza Filho, the dairy company Bufalissima, for their technical assistance and for allowing the use of their animals.

REFERENCES

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[16.] Roche JR. Milk production responses to pre- and post-calving dry matter intake in grazing dairy cows. Livest Sci 2007;110: 12-24.

[17.] Bauman DE. Regulation of nutrient partitioning during lactation: Homeostasis and homeorhesis revisited. In: Cronje PB, editor. Ruminant physiology: digestion, metabolism, growth and reproduction. Wallingford, UK: CAB International; 2000. p. 311-28.

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Nelson Carvalho Delfino (1), Lucas Fialho de Aragao Bulcao (1), Henry Daniel Ruiz Alba (1), Mauricio Xavier da Silva Oliveira (1), Filipe Pinheiro Soares de Queiroz (1), Gleidson Giordano Pinto de Carvalho (1), Francisco Palma Renno (2), and Jose Esler de Freitas Junior (1) *

* Corresponding Author: Jose Esler de Freitas Junior Tel: +55-71-3283-6719, Fax: +55-71-3823-6718, E-mail: jose.esler@ufba.br

(1) Department of Animal Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, Federal University of Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA, 40.170-110, Brazil

(2) Department of Animal Nutrition and Production, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, University of Sao Paulo (USP), Pirassununga, SP 13635-900, Brazil

ORCID

Nelson Carvalho Delfino

https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8241-2409

Lucas Fialho de Aragao Bulcao

https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8699-1172

Henry Daniel Ruiz Alba

https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8916-2238

Filipe Pinheiro Soares de Queiroz

https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7428-1931

Gleidson Giordano Pinto de Carvalho

https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4108-6782

Francisco Palma Renno

https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3275-3483

Jose Esler de Freitas Junior

https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1559-0149

Submitted Mar 24, 2017; Revised May 31, 2017; Accepted Jul 11, 2017

Caption: Figure 1. Body weight (BW) (A), body condition score (BCS) (B), change body weight (CBW) (C), and urinary pH values (D), in buffaloes with low body score condition at calving (HBCSC) (Group 1: mean of BCSC = 2.98), and high body score condition at calving (LBCSC) (Group 2: mean of BCSC = 4.21). * p<0.05, between LBCSC and HBCSC groups.

Caption: Figure 2. Milk yield (A), casein content (B), milk urea nitrogen (MUN) (C), and milk fat content (D), in buffaloes with low body score condition at calving (HBCSC) (Group 1: mean of BCSC = 2.98), and high body score condition at calving (LBCSC) (Group 2: mean of BCSC = 4.21). * p<0.05, between LBCSC and HBCSC groups.
Table 1. Ingredients proportion and chemical-bromatological
composition of concentrate

Item                                  Diet

Ingredients (% of DM)
  Grass (Penissetum purpureum) (1)    80.0
  Ground corn                         11.0
  Soybean meal                        3.60
  Cottonseed                          3.60
  Urea                                0.8
  Limestone                           0.4
  Mineral (2)                         0.6
Chemical composition (% DM)
  Dry matter                          38.1
  Crude protein                       11.4
  Neutral detergent fiber             65.3
  Non-fiber carbohydrates (3)         12.5
  Ether extract                       2.9

DM, dry matter; CP, crude protein; NDF, neutral detergent fiber;
NFC, non-fiber carbohydrates.

(1) Nutrient composition (g/kg DM): 250.1 DM, 71.0 CP, 768.2 NDF,
and 115.1 NFC.

(2) kg of the product contains: 190 g of Ca, 60 g of P, 20 g of S,
20 g of Mg, 35 g of K, 70 g of Na, 15 mg of Co, 700 mg of Fe, 10 mg
of Cr, 700 mg of Cu, 40 mg of I, 1,600 mg of Mn, 19 g of Se, 2,500
mg of Zn, 200,000 lU of Vit A, 50,000 IU of Vit [D.sub.3], 1,500 IU
of Vit E.

(3) Estimated according to Hall [33].

Table 2. Body weight, body condition score and clinical parameters
in the prepartum and postpartum periods for the groups of body
condition score at calving (mean[+ or -]standard error of the mean)

                                   Group (1)

Item                     HBCSC                  LBCSC

BW (kg)
  Prepartum       676.5 [+ or -] 17.8    571.5 [+ or -] 19.8
  Postpartum      611.3 [+ or -] 14.6    520.0 [+ or -] 19.0
CBW (kg)
  Prepartum       -4.50 [+ or -] 2.32    -6.30 [+ or -] 6.03
  Postpartum       2.52 [+ or -] 1.15     1.84 [+ or -] 1.42
BCS (unity)
  Prepartum        4.28 [+ or -] 0.06     3.63 [+ or -] 0.08
  Postpartum       3.50 [+ or -] 0.08     2.99 [+ or -] 0.11
CBCS (unity)
  Prepartum       -0.050 [+ or -] 0.04   -0.120 [+ or -] 0.05
  Postpartum      -0.015 [+ or -] 0.01   -0.017 [+ or -] 0.01
RT ([degrees]C)
  Prepartum        38.6 [+ or -] 0.09     38.4 [+ or -] 0.10
  Postpartum       38.2 [+ or -] 0.06     38.2 [+ or -] 0.06
pH, urine
  Prepartum        7.76 [+ or -] 0.03     7.87 [+ or -] 0.03
  Postpartum       7.33 [+ or -] 0.09     7.37 [+ or -] 0.13
HR (beat/min)
  Prepartum        77.0 [+ or -] 3.39     75.7 [+ or -] 4.16
  Postpartum       68.8 [+ or -] 1.12     71.7 [+ or -] 1.41

                         p-value (2)

Item              Group     Week    Inter

BW (kg)
  Prepartum       <0.001   <0.001   0.003
  Postpartum      <0.001   0.457    0.956
CBW (kg)
  Prepartum       0.352    <0.001   0.050
  Postpartum      0.777    0.588    0.994
BCS (unity)
  Prepartum       <0.001   <0.001   <0.001
  Postpartum      <0.001   0.696    0.966
CBCS (unity)
  Prepartum       0.346    0.155    0.052
  Postpartum      0.703    0.740    0.032
RT ([degrees]C)
  Prepartum       0.191    0.246    0.285
  Postpartum      0.278    0.190    0.156
pH, urine
  Prepartum       0.033    0.368    0.746
  Postpartum      0.795    <0.001   0.346
HR (beat/min)
  Prepartum       0.616    0.173    0.898
  Postpartum      0.184    0.029    0.811

BW, body weight; CBW, change in body weight; BCS, body condition
score; CBCS, change in body condition score; RT, rectal
temperature; HR, heart rate.

(1) HBCSC, high body score condition at calving (mean of the
group = 4.21); LBCSC, low body condition score at calving
(mean of the group = 2.98).

(2) Probability values for group, week, and interaction between
group x week (Inter).

Table 3. Milk yield and composition in buffaloes according to groups
of body condition score at calving (mean [+ or -] standard error of
the mean)

                                         Group (1)

Item                           HBCSC                 LBCSC

Production (kg/d)
  Milk production        7.64 [+ or -] 0.34    6.80 [+ or -] 0.41
FCM (4.0%) (3)          11.62 [+ or -] 0.66    9.84 [+ or -] 0.55
  Fat                   0.500 [+ or -] 0.02   0.423 [+ or -] 0.03
  Protein               0.371 [+ or -] 0.01   0.317 [+ or -] 0.01
  Lactose               0.373 [+ or -] 0.02   0.342 [+ or -] 0.02
  TDE                    1.23 [+ or -] 0.08    1.05 [+ or -] 0.08
  NFDE                  0.852 [+ or -] 0.06   0.728 [+ or -] 0.06
Composition (g/100 g)
  Fat                    6.43 [+ or -] 0.22    5.70 [+ or -] 0.28
  Protein                4.80 [+ or -] 0.14    4.85 [+ or -] 0.16
  Lactose                4.71 [+ or -] 0.07    4.79 [+ or -] 0.09
  TDE                   15.39 [+ or -] 0.19   15.21 [+ or -] 0.22
  NFDE                  10.58 [+ or -] 0.09   10.71 [+ or -] 0.10
  Casein (%)             3.89 [+ or -] 0.12    3.92 [+ or -] 0.14
  Casein (% da CP)      80.93 [+ or -] 0.38   80.42 [+ or -] 0.44
  MUN (mg/dL)            28.7 [+ or -] 1.68    21.2 [+ or -] 1.97
  SCC (unit/mL)         344.7 [+ or -] 105    347.3 [+ or -] 135

                               p-value (2)

Item                    Group     Week    Inter

Production (kg/d)
  Milk production       0.491    0.809    0.974
FCM (4.0%) (3)          0.051    0.165    0.287
  Fat                   0.027    0.310    0.327
  Protein               0.100    0.737    0.314
  Lactose               0.404    0.157    0.335
  TDE                   0.173    0.466    0.928
  NFDE                  0.296    0.569    0.980
Composition (g/100 g)
  Fat                   0.007    0.755    0.095
  Protein               0.899    <0.001   0.504
  Lactose               0.374    <0.001   0.473
  TDE                   0.497    0.166    0.182
  NFDE                  0.404    0.711    0.213
  Casein (%)            0.925    0.012    0.113
  Casein (% da CP)      0.374    <0.001   0.367
  MUN (mg/dL)           <0.001   <0.001   0.899
  SCC (unit/mL)         0.941    0.536    0.900

FCM, fat-corrected milk; TDE, total dry extract; NFDE,
non-fat dry extract; CP, crude protein; MUN, milk urea
nitrogen; SCC, somatic cell count.

(1) HBCSC, high body score condition at calving (mean of the
group = 4.21); LBCSC, low body condition score at calving
(mean of the group = 2.98).

(2) Probability values for group, week, and interaction between
group x week (Inter).

(3) Fat-corrected milk = (((fat - 40)+(protein - 31)) x 0.01155+1)
x prod; where "Fat" is the fat content (g/kg), "Protein" is the
protein content (g/kg) and "Prod" is milk production (kg).

Table 4. Weekly means values of hemogram for the different groups of
body condition score at calving (mean [+ or -] standard error of
the mean)

                              Group (1)

Item                            HBCSC

Erythrocytes
  Prepartum              8.34 [+ or -] 0.50
  Postpartum             6.47 [+ or -] 1.12
Hematocrit
  Prepartum              34.9 [+ or -] 1.05
  Postpartum             33.9 [+ or -] 0.72
MCHC
  Prepartum              34.8 [+ or -] 0.62
  Postpartum             32.3 [+ or -] 0.96
Hemoglobin
  Prepartum              6.47 [+ or -] 0.33
  Postpartum             13.1 [+ or -] 1.18
MCV
  Prepartum              47.0 [+ or -] 2.82
  Postpartum             50.4 [+ or -] 0.99
Leukocyte
  Prepartum            9,181.8 [+ or -] 1,179
  Postpartum            10,562.7 [+ or -] 841
Segmented neutrophil
  Prepartum             4,703.9 [+ or -] 763
  Postpartum            5,008.9 [+ or -] 570
Red blood cell
  Prepartum              3.85 [+ or -] 0.50
  Postpartum             8.34 [+ or -] 1.12
Lymphocytes (%)
  Prepartum              38.9 [+ or -] 5.40
  Postpartum             32.2 [+ or -] 2.59
Neutrophils (%)
  Prepartum             4,629 [+ or -] 1,200
  Postpartum            5,008 [+ or -] 2,444

                              Group (1)

Item                            LBCSC

Erythrocytes
  Prepartum              6.67 [+ or -] 0.57
  Postpartum             5.86 [+ or -] 0.47
Hematocrit
  Prepartum              34.3 [+ or -] 0.93
  Postpartum             32.4 [+ or -] 0.96
MCHC
  Prepartum              33.8 [+ or -] 0.36
  Postpartum             34.7 [+ or -] 1.26
Hemoglobin
  Prepartum              5.86 [+ or -] 0.34
  Postpartum             11.1 [+ or -] 1.59
MCV
  Prepartum              54.1 [+ or -] 1.61
  Postpartum             52.5 [+ or -] 1.23
Leukocyte
  Prepartum             11,167.4 [+ or -] 705
  Postpartum           11,152.1 [+ or -] 1,084
Segmented neutrophil
  Prepartum             4,834.2 [+ or -] 396
  Postpartum            5,466.4 [+ or -] 732
Red blood cell
  Prepartum              4.24 [+ or -] 0.57
  Postpartum             6.67 [+ or -] 0.47
Lymphocytes (%)
  Prepartum              42.3 [+ or -] 2.83
  Postpartum             36.9 [+ or -] 3.13
Neutrophils (%)
  Prepartum             4,870 [+ or -] 1,160
  Postpartum            5,466 [+ or -] 1,298

                               p-value (2)

Item                   Group    Week    Inter

Erythrocytes
  Prepartum            0.531    0.540   0.112
  Postpartum           <0.001   0.001   0.630
Hematocrit
  Prepartum            0.277    0.393   0.958
  Postpartum           0.012    0.016   0.476
MCHC
  Prepartum            0.002    0.323   0.894
  Postpartum           0.053    0.947   0.893
Hemoglobin
  Prepartum            0.004    0.001   0.636
  Postpartum           0.204    0.318   0.470
MCV
  Prepartum            <0.001   0.189   0.022
  Postpartum           <0.001   0.771   0.970
Leukocyte
  Prepartum            0.001    0.029   0.192
  Postpartum           0.016    0.036   0.319
Segmented neutrophil
  Prepartum            0.336    0.977   0.939
  Postpartum           0.034    0.287   0.259
Red blood cell
  Prepartum            0.562    0.789   0.767
  Postpartum           0.535    0.536   0.113
Lymphocytes (%)
  Prepartum            0.305    0.049   0.976
  Postpartum           0.847    0.321   0.193
Neutrophils (%)
  Prepartum            0.032    0.976   0.947
  Postpartum           0.034    0.287   0.259

MCHC, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration; MCV,
mean corpuscular volume.

(1) HBCSC, high body score condition at calving (mean of
the group = 4.21); LBCSC, low body condition score at calving
(mean of the group = 2.98).

(2) Probability values for group, week, and interaction between
group x week (Inter).

Table 5. Weekly mean values of blood metabolites of different
groups of body condition score at calving (mean [+ or -]
standard error of the mean)

                                          Group (1)

Item                              HBCSC                LBCSC

Glucose (mg/dL)
  Prepartum                 65.4 [+ or -] 3.77   73.1 [+ or -] 2.79
  Postpartum                74.3 [+ or -] 2.61   73.6 [+ or -] 3.22
Total protein (mg/dL)
  Prepartum                 8.42 [+ or -] 0.27   7.35 [+ or -] 0.19
  Postpartum                8.51 [+ or -] 0.21   8.13 [+ or -] 0.27
Albumin (mg/dL)
  Prepartum                 3.02 [+ or -] 0.10   2.88 [+ or -] 0.07
  Postpartum                3.07 [+ or -] 0.05   2.99 [+ or -] 0.06
Globulin (mg/dL)
  Prepartum                 5.33 [+ or -] 0.23   4.51 [+ or -] 0.17
  Postpartum                5.41 [+ or -] 0.19   4.98 [+ or -] 0.24
Urea (mg/dL)
  Prepartum                 19.5 [+ or -] 2.58   23.6 [+ or -] 1.74
  Postpartum                44.3 [+ or -] 3.77   38.5 [+ or -] 4.64
Total cholesterol (mg/dL)
  Prepartum                 20.3 [+ or -] 1.09   21.0 [+ or -] 0.68
  Postpartum                26.8 [+ or -] 3.01   34.5 [+ or -] 3.69
Triglycerides (mg/dL)
  Prepartum                 32.7 [+ or -] 7.45   35.5 [+ or -] 4.91
  Postpartum                41.0 [+ or -] 3.43   41.7 [+ or -] 4.23
Calcium (mg/dL)
  Prepartum                 10.3 [+ or -] 0.77   10.2 [+ or -] 0.50
  Postpartum                7.23 [+ or -] 0.62   9.76 [+ or -] 0.76
Phosphorus (mg/dL)

  Prepartum                 8.27 [+ or -] 1.17   8.25 [+ or -] 0.77
  Postpartum                7.93 [+ or -] 0.30   7.74 [+ or -] 0.37

                                  p-value (2)

Item                        Group   Week    Inter

Glucose (mg/dL)
  Prepartum                 0.087   0.275   0.659
  Postpartum                0.183   0.040   0.336
Total protein (mg/dL)
  Prepartum                 0.035   0.351   0.517
  Postpartum                0.366   0.552   0.854
Albumin (mg/dL)
  Prepartum                 0.036   0.297   0.225
  Postpartum                0.111   0.298   0.473
Globulin (mg/dL)
  Prepartum                 0.046   0.303   0.525
  Postpartum                0.315   0.415   0.715
Urea (mg/dL)
  Prepartum                 0.327   0.635   0.804
  Postpartum                0.022   0.005   0.278
Total cholesterol (mg/dL)
  Prepartum                 0.156   0.601   0.417
  Postpartum                0.029   0.004   0.280
Triglycerides (mg/dL)
  Prepartum                 0.245   0.126   0.989
  Postpartum                0.618   0.997   0.320
Calcium (mg/dL)
  Prepartum                 0.684   0.172   0.718
  Postpartum                0.003   0.532   0.793
Phosphorus (mg/dL)
  Prepartum                 0.427   0.131   0.267
  Postpartum                0.125   0.250   0.290

(1) HBCSC, high body score condition at calving
(mean of the group = 4.21); LBCSC, low body condition score
at calving (mean of the group = 2.98).

(2) Probability values for group, week, and interaction
between group x week (Inter).

Table 6. Urine metabolites concentrations during the prepartum
and postpartum periods (mean [+ or -] standard error of the mean)

                                       Group (1)

Item                       HBCSC                  LBCSC

K (mg/dL)
  Prepartum         159.5 [+ or -] 23.4    150.3 [+ or -] 25.8
  Postpartum        135.0 [+ or -] 22.3    150.2 [+ or -] 24.9
Cl (mg/dL)
  Prepartum          89.7 [+ or -] 10.2     96.8 [+ or -] 10.1
  Postpartum         58.7 [+ or -] 6.88     83.8 [+ or -] 8.73
S (mg/dL)
  Prepartum          8.56 [+ or -] 2.10    10.18 [+ or -] 2.14
  Postpartum         12.3 [+ or -] 2.50     12.7 [+ or -] 2.78
Ca (mg/dL)
  Prepartum          7.47 [+ or -] 1.15     6.03 [+ or -] 1.13
  Postpartum        12.44 [+ or -] 1.40    13.44 [+ or -] 1.72
Urea (mg/dL)
  Prepartum         176.4 [+ or -] 33.7    260.8 [+ or -] 34.2
  Postpartum        1,162.4 [+ or -] 112   1,204.4 [+ or -] 141
Uric acid (mg/dL)
  Prepartum          3.85 [+ or -] 0.50     4.22 [+ or -] 0.57
  Postpartum         12.3 [+ or -] 2.50     12.7 [+ or -] 2.78

                           p-value (2)

Item                Group    Week    Inter

K (mg/dL)
  Prepartum         0.940    0.880   0.840
  Postpartum        0.090    0.190   0.030
Cl (mg/dL)
  Prepartum         0.490    0.100   0.350
  Postpartum        <0.001   0.150   0.510
S (mg/dL)
  Prepartum         0.630    0.350   0.980
  Postpartum        0.890    0.280   0.590
Ca (mg/dL)
  Prepartum         0.360    0.280   0.130
  Postpartum        0.840    0.630   0.790
Urea (mg/dL)
  Prepartum         0.170    0.007   0.050
  Postpartum        0.941    0.014   0.714
Uric acid (mg/dL)
  Prepartum         0.562    0.787   0.767
  Postpartum        0.899    0.286   0.592

(1) HBCSC, high body score condition at calving (mean of the
group = 4.21); LBCSC, low body condition score at calving
(mean of the group = 2.98).

(2) Probability values for group, week, and interaction between
group x week (Inter).
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Author:Delfino, Nelson Carvalho; Bulcao, Lucas Fialho de Aragao; Alba, Henry Daniel Ruiz; Oliveira, Maurici
Publication:Asian - Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Article Type:Report
Date:Nov 1, 2018
Words:7158
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