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Influence of Dietary Beef Tallow and Calcium Supplementation on Ca and P Absorption Rate and Performance of Broiler Chickens.

Byline: SEYED ALI TABEIDIAN, MASOUD GHAFOORI, YADOLLAH BAHRAMI, VAHEID CHEKANI-AZAR AND ALIREZA LOTFI

ABSTRACT

The effects of different levels of dietary fat on calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) absorption growth performance, Ca and P percentages of plasma, bone and ash were studied in broiler chickens (Ross 308) during 56-days rearing period. A total of 360 one-day-old chicks randomly assigned to eight experimental groups, three replicates (10 birds per each) of both sex. The experimental groups with a 4 x 2 factorial design received either four levels of fat (0, 2, 4 and 6% of diet) or two levels of Ca (1 or 2% of diet). The results showed that administration of different fat levels to broiler diets were significantly improved growth performance (P less than 0.01). Also Ca and P concentration of plasma, bone and ash were increased (P less than 0.01) with the exception of bone ash (BA) (P greater than 0.01). The interaction between fat and Ca for bone P and plasma Ca and P was detected (P less than 0.01).

There were no interactions detected for feed intake, feed efficiency, carcass weight, ash P and bone Ca and P (P greater than 0.05).

From these results, it was concluded that a combination of 2% animal fat and 1 or 2% Ca provides more suitable performance in broiler chickens and this combination could improve Ca and P absorption; however, higher levels of supplemented fat may decrease absorption rate. (c) 2011 Friends Science Publishers

Key Words: Fat; Calcium; Phosphorus; Performance; Broiler chicks

INTRODUCTION

Chicken meat in terms of value and proportion of protein amino acids is superior to motton or beef. Chicken meat is better digested than other meat that is very important from medical viewpoints (Hulan et al., 1984; Ghafoor et al., 2010). Also, the cholesterol content of chicken meat is lower than other livestock meat (Crespo and Esteve-Garcia, 2001). Moreover, performance of broilers can be highly affected by different fat origins supplemented to diets (Gomes and Polin, 1976). Tallow has traditionally been used in poultry diets and there has been a great use of tallow in blended oil for poultry (Tabeidian et al., 2005). Tallow has include about 42.5% SFA and only 1% Unsaturated Fatty

Acids (UFA) that all of them are n-6 fatty acids (Sadeghi and Tabeidian, 2005). Beef tallow, because of its high cholesterol content couldn't be supplemented alone or without other completive supplements (Rezaei and Monfaredi, 2010). Fascina et al. (2009) reported that dietary supplementation of tallow with vegetable oil (50:50) for starter broilers is the suitable approach for obtain more weight gain and lower feed conversion ratio.

Effects of varying dietary Ca and available phosphorus (AP) on chickens performance and Ca metabolism, has been the topic of continuing research (Choct et al., 2000). Shafy and McDonal (1990 and 1991) reported that increasing dietary Ca caused a defect in absorption of other minerals, particularly magnesium, manganese and zinc and may lead to deficiency of some other minerals.

Calcium reacts with fat in the digestive tract resulting in the formation and excretion of Ca soaps (Whitehead et al., 1971; Whitehead and Fisher, 1975). The formation of insoluble soaps from divalent cations and fatty acids is an important aspect of poultry nutrition, because it influences both fatty acid metabolism and availability of Ca. Inclusion of appropriate levels of Ca and P in diets improved feed conversion and weight gain in birds than groups had Ca shortage, which high calcium diet could reduce food intake, weight loss and delayed sexual maturation in broiler chickens (Kubena et al., 1974).

Smith et al. (2003) investigated effect of adding animal fat with different levels of calcium on the performance of poultry and found that consumption of animal fat with 1.5% Ca, decreased food consumption

compared to those received 0.93% Ca. However, high consumption of animal fats containing large amounts of saturated fatty acids such as palmitic acid and stearic acid is associated with high intake of calcium causes a type of reaction between fatty acid and calcium which results in the formation of insoluble soap and non-use of nutrients by poultry and eventually will excreted through feces (Sibbald and Price, 1977). On the other hand, Taylor and Dacke (1984) were documented that vitamin D is an essential component in the diet, which can play a main role to raise the concentrations of Ca and P in the plasma to normal levels found within the body so that these minerals can contribute to their vital roles in bone metabolism (Edwards, 2002; Meng et al., 2004).

The objective of presented experiment was evaluation of effect of different levels of animal fat or in combination with calcium source on Ca and P absorption rate of diet, plasma and bone ash and also, performance of broiler chickens.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Birds, diets and housing: Three hundred sixty one-day-old broiler chicks (Ross 308) provided from Ross Breeders Co. in East Azerbaijan, Iran were randomly assigned, according to their initial body weights, to eight treatment groups, three replicates of 15 birds each. The birds received a diet with either 4 levels of beef tallow (BT= 0, 2, 4 and 6% of diet) or two levels of Ca (1 or 2% of diet) in a 4 x 2 factorial arrangement. Fat (BT) and Ca were obtained from Iranian commercial companies.

The broilers fed on a starter diet until 21 days of age, a grower diet from day 21 to day 42 and eventually a finishing diet from 42-d to 56-d (Table I). Ingredients and chemical compositions of the diets are shown in Table I.

The diets of eight experimental treatments formulated using the user- friendly feed formulation (UFFDA) program (AFF16.ZIP, Stand-alone program for Windows) according to NRC (1994) guidelines and contained 20.85, 18.12 and 16.30% (starter, grower and finisher periods, respectively) protein and 12.11 MJ/kg (2900 kcal/kg) ME. Small amounts of the basal diet were first mixed with the respective amounts of Ca (1 and 2%) as a small batch, with a larger amount of the basal diet until the total amount of respective diets were homogeneously mixed. The diets and fresh water were offered ad libitum.

The experiment was conducted between 29 July and 23 September 2009. At weekly intervals, feed intake (FI) and body weight were determined on group basis as replicates of each treatment. Food consumption for each replicate group was measured weekly and body weight gain and feed efficiency (FE) were calculated. As a consequence, carcass weight (CW) was determined.

Measurement: At the end of the presented experiment, 2 males and 2 females of each cage from each treatment group (12 birds) were randomly slaughtered without exert a fasting program. Carcasses were cleaned thoroughly, feathers (wet), feet and visceral organs being removed and were kept at 4degC for 18 h. Cold carcass yield was calculated as cold carcass weights divided by body weights at slaughter. The results in the current study presented as a mean of both sex of birds.

Bone samples were removed from the femur and tibia of cold carcasses. Samples were dried in oven for about 24 h and were placed in Soxhelt apparatus for extraction of fat for about 16 h, then oven dried again at temperatures of 105degC and after cooling were placed in desiccators. Ashes after eight h were prepared and bone ash weight was measured. Amount of bone ash was calculated based on percentage scale. Bone ash was analyzed by the AOAC method to measure calcium and phosphorus that was performed by electro-thermal atomic absorption spectrophotometry, using a Shimadzu AA-680 (Shimadzu Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). Bone Ca and P were determined in percentage according to the ratio of bone ash (Association of Official Analytical chemists, 1990).

For evaluating the blood Ca and P concentrations, blood sampling were performed in ages of 21, 41 and 55 days for a duration of 4-5 h. Blood samples were taken from the wing vein by injection into the vacuum tubes and collected in non-heparinzed tubes by puncturing the brachial vein. All samples were kept at room temperature for 2 h and then at 4degC overnight. Blood samples were centrifuged for 10 min at 580 x g and serum was isolated and stored at [?]80degC. Serum calcium and phosphorus levels were determined from 4 mL aliquots of ready samples using standard colorimetric methods. Commercial kits (kone commercial kit, japan) was used for measurment of Ca by means of a flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS, Shimadzu Corporation, Shimadzu AA-680, Tokyo, Japan) and determination of P by an autoanalyzer (ALCYON-300, Autoanalyser, American) using the ammonium molybdate procedure.

Statistical analysis: The current study was performed with four levels of fat and two levels of Ca in three replicates and a total of 24 experimental units in a completely randomized design with 2 x 4 factorial method was used. The following design model was used for experiment: Y ij = M + Fi + Cj + FiCj +E ijk.

Yij: observed value M: mean of observations Fi: animal fat level Cj: dietary Ca level FiCj: interaction of dietary animal fat and Ca Eijk: effect of experimental error.

The data were analyzed by MSTAT-C statistical software (MSTAT-C) with fat and Ca as main effects.

RESULTS

Inclusion of 2% dietary fat (BT) in diets resulted in a higher FI (P less than 0.05), CW and FE (P less than 0.01). On the other hand, higher dietary Ca inclusions (1 vs. 2% of diet) had not

Table I: Diet ingredients in starter period

Ingredients (%)###1###2###3###4###5###6###7###8

Yellow corn###62.69###62.30###53.57###56###50###50###40.44###43.19

Soybean meal###30.33###30###31###30.31###30.88###32###30.58###32.89

Fishmeal###3###3###3###3###3###3###3###3

Beef tallow###0###0###2###2###4###4###6###6

Barley###0###0###7###3###3.85###5###10###7.77

Wheatbran###0###0###0###0###4.80###0###6.50###0

Dicalciumphosphate###1.50###4.1###1.29###4.11###1.29###4###1.23###3.60

Oystershell###1.09###2.1###1.23###2.20###1.22###2.18###1.26###2.53

Salt###0.36###0.30###0.36###0.36###0.36###0.36###0.36###0.36

Vitamin/mineral premix2###0.50###0.50###0.50###0.50###0.50###0.50###0.50###0.50

Lysine###0.20###0###0.05###0###0###0###0###0

DL-Methionine###0.30###0.30###0.10###0.30###0.10###0.30###0.11###0.11

Total###100###100###100###100###100###100###100###100

Calculated nutrient content

ME3 (Kcal/kg)###2900###2900###2900###2900###2900###2900###2900###2900

Cmde protein (%)###20.85###20.85###20.85###20.85###20.85###20.85###20.85###20.85

Calcium(%)###1###2###1###2###1###2###1###2

Available P (%)###0.50###1###0.50###1###0.50###1###0.50###1

Sodium(%)###0.18###0.18###0.18###0.18###0.18###0.18###0.18###0.18

Cnidefiber(%)###3.50###3.40###3.70###3.60###4###3.60###4.30###3.70

Priceoflkgdiet(Rials)###2170###2160###2040###2120###1980###2110###1920###2020

Treatments of 1,3,5 and 7 are considered for 1% calcium level and Treatments of 2, 4, 6 and 8 used for 2% Ca levels. 2Composition of vitamin and trace element premix was as follows per kilogram of premix: vitamin A, 9,000,000 IU; vitamin D3, 2,000,000 IU; vitamin B1, 1,800 mg; vitamin B2, 6,600 mg; vitamin B3, 10,000 mg; vitamin B6, 3,000 mg; vitamin B12,15 mg; vitamin E, 18,000 mg; vitamin K3, 2,000 mg; vitamin B9, 1,000 mg; vitamin B5, 30,000 mg; vitamin H2, 100 mg; folic acid, 21 mg; nicotinic acid, 65 mg; biotin, 14 mg; choline chloride, 500,000 mg; Mn, 100,000 mg; Zn, 85,000 mg; Fe, 50,000 mg; Cu, 10,000 mg; I, 1,000 mg; Se, 200 mg. 3 ME= metabolizable energy

Table II: Diet ingredients in grower period

Jugredients rio)###1###2###3###4###5###6###7###8

Yelloweom###64.14###6659###58.64###62.41###46.57###5116###41###45.62

Soybean meal###21.24###22.02###20.96###23.34###20.65###23.10###20.40###22.75

Fishmeal###4###4###4###4###4###4###4###4

Beef tallow###0###0###2###2###4###4###6###6

Barley###5###0###5###1.27###15###10###15###10

Wheat bran###2.36###0###6.2###0###6.61###0.84###10.40###40.68

Dicalciumphosphate###1.4###4.12###1.4###4.10###1.35###4.07###1.33###4.06

Oystershell###1.07###2.14###1.07###2.14###1.09###2.15###1.09###2.15

Salt###0.22###0.21###0.22###0.22###0.21###0.22###0.21###0.22

Vitamin/mineral premix2###0.50###0.50###0.50###0.50###0.50###0.50###0.50###0.50

###0###0.30###0###0###0###0###0###0

DL-Methionine###0.01###0.08###0.02###0.02###0.02###0.02###0.02###0.02

Total###100###100###100###100###100###100###100###100

Calculated nutrient content

ME3 (lCcaI./kg)###2900###2900###2900###2900###2900###2900###2900###2900

Crudeprotein (%)###18.12###18.12###18.12###18.12###18.12###18.12###18.12###18.12

Calcium(%)###1###2###1###2###1###2###1###2

Available P (%)###0.50###1###0.50###1###0.50###1###0.50

Sodium(%)###0.13###0.13###0.13###0.13###0.13###0.13###0.13###0.13

Crudefiber(%)###3.4###3###3.17###3.1###4###3.4###4.30###3.7

Priceoulkgdiet(Rials)###1930###2100###1880###1990###1820###1930###1770###1880

Treatments of 1,3,5 and 7 are considered for 1% calcium level and Treatments of 2, 4, 6 and 8 used for 2% Ca levels. 2Composition of vitamin and trace element premix was as follows per kilogram of premix: vitamin A, 9,000,000 IU; vitamin D3, 2,000,000 IU; vitamin B1, 1,800 mg; vitamin B2, 6,600 mg; vitamin B3, 10,000 mg; vitamin B6, 3,000 mg; vitamin B12,15 mg; vitamin E, 18,000 mg; vitamin K3, 2,000 mg; vitamin B9, 1,000 mg; vitamin B5, 30,000 mg; vitamin H2, 100 mg; folic acid, 21 mg; nicotinic acid, 65 mg; biotin, 14 mg; choline chloride, 500,000 mg; Mn, 100,000 mg; Zn, 85,000 mg; Fe, 50,000 mg; Cu, 10,000 mg; I, 1,000 mg; Se, 200 mg. 3 ME= metabolizable energy significant effect on improved performance (P greater than 0.05). Also, the interaction between fat and Ca for FI, CW and FE was not detected. Carcass weight highly improved to a higher extent only with an increase in dietary fat, not with a higher dietary Ca level.

Similarly and vice versa, feed efficiency significantly decreased to a lowly by increasing dietary fat and decline was not significant when a higher Ca level was fed (Table IV).

Amounts of Ca in bone, ash and plasma were decreased with higher dietary fat and Ca levels (P less than 0.05); however, plasma Ca did not significantly increased with higher level of dietary Ca. In contrast to the conclusion of Ca content, amount of P decreased in bone and ash (P less than 0.05) and plasma (P greater than 0.05) samples when level of Ca was a,b,c,d Means along the rows with no common superscript are significantly different (P less than 0.05). 1Values are means of twelve observations per treatment (2 hens and 2 roosters of each cage). FI= feed intake, FE= feed efficiency, CW= carcass weight, Ca= calcium, P= phosphorus, 1F1-F4= fat levels, C1- C4=calcium levels. P: NS= P greater than 0.05; = P less than 0.05; = P less than 0.01

Table III: Diet ingredients in finisher period

lngredients(%)###1-1###2###3###4###5###6###7###8

Yellow corn###66.90###69.80###58.74###60.97###49.28###56###43.74###48.33

Soybean meal###17.19###19.23###16.90###19.27###16.30###19###16.34###18.72

Fishmeal###3###3###3###3###3###3###3###3

Beef tallow###0###0###2###2###4###4###6###6

Barley###5###0.50###9###7.63###15###6.74###15###10

Wheat bran###4.53###0.32###7###0###8.76###4.14###12.6###6.85

Dicalciumphosphate###1.4###4.12###1.4###4.10###1.35###4.07###1.33###4.06

Oystershell###1.13###2.19###1.13###2.2###1.15###2.2###1.15###2.21

###0.17###0.17###0.17###0.17###0.17###0.17###0.17###0.17

Vitamin/mineral premix2###0.50###0.50###0.50###0.50###0.50###0.50###0.50###0.50

Lysine###0###0###0###0###0###0###0###0

DL-Methionine###0###0###0###0###0###0###0###0

Total###100###100###100###100###100###100###100###100

Cakvlated nutrient content

ME3 (Kcallkg)###2900###2900###2900###2900###2900###2900###2900###2900

Crudeprotein(%)###16.30###16.30###16.30###16.30###16.30###16.30###16.30###16.30

Calcium(%)###1###2###1###2###1###2###1###2

Available P (%)###0.50###1###0.50###1###0.50###1###0.50###1

Sodium(%)###0.11###0.11###0.11###0.11###0.11###0.11###0.11###0.11

Crude fiber (%)###3.4###3###3.7###3.1###4###3.4###4.30###3.6

Price of 1kg diet (Rials)###1790###1890###1740###1850###1680###1800###1640###1750

Treatments of 1, 3, 5 and 7 are considered for 1% calcium level and Treatments of 2, 4, 6 and 8 used for 2% Ca levels. 2Composition of vitamin and trace element premix was as follows per kilogram of premix: vitamin A, 9,000,000 IU; vitamin D3, 2,000,000 IU; vitamin B1, 1,800 mg; vitamin B2, 6,600 mg; vitamin B3, 10,000 mg; vitamin B6, 3,000 mg; vitamin B12,15 mg; vitamin E, 18,000 mg; vitamin K3, 2,000 mg; vitamin B9, 1,000 mg; vitamin B5, 30,000 mg; vitamin H2, 100 mg; folic acid, 21 mg; nicotinic acid, 65 mg; biotin, 14 mg; choline chloride, 500,000 mg; Mn, 100,000 mg; Zn, 85,000 mg; Fe, 50,000 mg; Cu, 10,000 mg; I, 1,000 mg; Se, 200 mg. 3 ME= metabolizable energy

Table IV: Effects of different levels of fat, Ca and their interactions on performance traits, Ca and P concentrations of plasma and bone ash of broilers

Fat level (%)###FI###FE###CW###NS Bone ash###Bone###Bone P###Ash Ca###Ash P###Plasma Ca###Plasma P

###(g/bird/d)###(g:g)###(g)###(%)###Ca (%)###(%)###(%)###(%)###(mg/100 UL)###(mg 100 dL)

0###691.79b###1.93a###2024c###50.54ns###23.32a###8.62b###49.60a###19.38a###10.65a###6.600b

2###72.06a###1.85###2190be###50.83ns###22.66b###8523b###46796b###19.12b###10.25a###6567b

4###72.10a###1.79###2264b###49.89ns###22.10c###9.268a###42.37c###16.98b###9.550b###7.117b

6###69.64b###1.85###2455a###49.89ns###20.70d###8.590d###42.69c###17166###8.867c###8.5KV

Totalaverage###70.82+-1.76###179+-0.17###3233+-202###5028+-1.10###22.20+-1.06###8.76+-1.38###45.36+-3.27###18.16+-1.25###9.83+-0.84###7.22+-1.05

Ca level

1###71.15ns###1.80ns###2232ns###50.165ns###22.483a###8.898a###46.203a###18.465a###9.808ns###7.342ns

2###70.51ns###1.78ns###223ns###50.396ns###21.911b###8.6246b###44.525b###17.850b###9.850ns###7.092ns

Totalaverage###70.82+-1.76###1.79+-0.17###3233+-202###50.28+-1.10###22.20+-1.06###8.76+-1.38###45.36+3.27###18.16+1.25###9.83+0.84###7.22+1.05

Interaction

F12 C13###69 39ns###1 92ns###2023ns###50.29ns###23.62ns###8 810cd###50.05ns###19.41ns###10.43ns###6 333c

F2.C1###72.93ns###1.92ns###2130ns###51.67ns###22.76ns###8.497e###47.36ns###19.77ns###9.867ns###6.867c

F3.C1###72.26ns###1.79ns###2267ns###48.81ns###22.38ns###9.420a###43.53ns###17.20ns###9.700ns###7.933b

F4.C1###70.01ns###1.56ns###2507ns###49.89ns###21.17ns###8.863bc###43.87ns###17.48ns###9.233ns###8.233ab

F1.C2###70.19ns###1.94ns###2025ns###50.80ns###23.02ns###8.513e###49.14ns###19.35ns###10.87ns###6.867c

F2.C2###71.20ns###1.78ns###2250ns###50.00ns###22.56ns###8.550de###46.23ns###18.47ns###10.63ns###6.267c

F3.C2###71.95ns###1.79ns###2262ns###50.90ns###21.83ns###9.117b###41.21ns###16.75ns###9.400ns###6.300c

F4.C2###68.68ns###1.60ns###2404ns###49.88ns###20.24ns###8.317e###41.52ns###16.83ns###8.500ns###8.933a

Totalaverage###70.82+-1.76###1.79+0.17###3233+-202###50.28+-1.10###22.20+-1.06###8.76+-1.38###45.36+-3.27###18.16+-1.25###9.83+-0.84###7.22+-1.05

DISCUSSION

Based on the results, the most effective fats in increasing of FI were 4 and 2% levels (72.10 and 72.06, respectively) and the significant effect was detected with comparison of these effective groups and 6% dietary fat group. Also, food efficiency was affected by different levels of fat. Crespo and Esteve-Garcia (2002) reported that increasing dietary fat (animal fat, olive oil, sunflower oil and flax oil) from 6 to 10% dietary levels significantly reduced food intake on broilers. But, Atteh and Leeson (1983) were previously reported a non-significant increase in FI rate by broilers when fat percentage of diets was increased. Because the younger birds to digest and absorb fat chicks have not evolved enough so they cannot properly use the fat (Leeson and Atteh, 1995).

Contrarily, the adult broilers have the better system of digestion and absorption of fat, because of the higher physiological capacity of the digestion and absorption systems for fat accompanying with a increased rate in activity of bile and pancreatic lipase secretion (Polin and Hussein, 1982; Hulan et al., 1984; Meng et al., 2004).

In the presented study, increase in the levels of fat in the diet from 0% up to 6% caused the chicken to meet their energy needs. It can be concluded that 2% fat could well meet the energy needs. In the current project, the diets were formulated based on equal energy amount while adding fat to diets improves the physical form of food and preventing waste of nutrients and increasing food intake in broiler diets due to sufficiently increased fat in the diet is justified. The results of some studies have shown that dietary fat improves feed conversion rate, because of Cholcystokinin hormone secretion and prolonged gastrointestinal transit time of food and thus increasing the presence of enzymes in digestion and absorption canals and subsequently their further effects (Hulan et al., 1984; Scheideler and Baughman, 1989; Crespo and Esteve Garcia, 2002). The results from the present study not showed that the interaction of calcium and fat levels on FI, FE and live weight was non-significant (Table IV).

Effect of different levels of fat and Ca on the bone ash content was not significant (P greater than 0.05). Crespo and Esteve Garcia (2002) while investigating the effect of fat supplementation on the basal diet including wheat and soybean on broiler chicks during 28 days were found that bone ash for chicks that were not taking supplements of fat, were significant. Therefore, it was concluded that the inclusion of fat in diet accompanying to Ca causes a reaction between fatty acid and Ca, which results in the formation of insoluble soap and non-use of nutrients, which eventually could excreted through feces (Sibbald and Price, 1977). Julian et al. (1983) previously documented that increasing lipid levels up to 9% in diets of one-day-old broiler chickens, which fed 3 week, had not significant effects on bone ash and bone P content.

The results indicated that the effect of fat and Ca levels on the rate of bone Ca and P was significant (P less than 0.01). Increase in the dietary fat and Ca, decreased Ca averages in ash and bone. The lowest rate of bone Ca (20.70%) was observed in 6% levels beef tallow compared with 0% fat levels (23.32%). Atteh and Leeson (1983) reported that increasing dietary fat in broiler chicken feed decreased bone Ca content, but had not significant effect on bone P and Mg. In another study, Atteh and Leeson (1985) reported that addition of palmitic acid, which is a predominant saturated fatty acid, decreased the rate of bone calcium in compared to the control diet lacking fatty acid. Senkoylu (1990) reported that adding high levels of tallow to chickens feed increased dietary fat, while decreased Ca absorption in gastrointestinal domain. Also, digestion and absorption of tallow associated to vitamin D3 decreased because of decreasing Ca, which is linked to vitamin D3 (Edwards, 2002; Meng et al., 2004).

Although bone P had highest content in samples of groups fed on 4% fat than other group samples, but ash P showed lowest content in 4% dietary fat groups.

Effect of different levels of fat on plasma Ca and P was significant (P less than 0.01). So that plasma Ca content decreased and plasma P concentration increased with increasing fat from 0 to 6% in diet, while addition of Ca to diets containing fat had not significant effects on blood Ca and P concentrations. Overall, the interaction between fat and Ca was only detected for bone P and plasma Ca and P (P less than 0.01). Gardiner and Whitehead (1975) in their study on the supplementation of diet with palmitic acid (0 and 10%) and three Ca levels (0.4, 0.7 and 1%) found that adding 10% palmitic acid to broiler chicks diets containing 0.4 and 0.7 calcium decreased bone ash content. The decreasing manner in bone ash Ca was decreased due to reduced Ca storage due to saponification of Ca with fatty acid, especially palmitic and stearic acids. Reduction of Ca decresaes the Ca: P ratio.

In conclusion, consumption of animal fat at 6% in diet improves broiler performance as noted in terms of best FE and highest CW. This supplementation meets the energy needs of bird by high amounts of animal fat intake and increased blood level of Ca and P. Therefore, a diet low in fat with a sufficient Ca:P ratio should be formulated. Acknowledgment: The support of Islamic Azad University, Khorasgan Branch is gratefully acknowledged. The presented study was summarized from the project of doctorate thesis numbered by 1665. The authors would like to express their gratitude to Dr. Javad Pourreza, Distinguished Professor of Animal Science for his valuable support and scientific assistance during the experimental period.

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Department of Animal Science, Khorasgan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran

Young Researchers Club, Khorasgan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran

Department of Animal Science, Kashmar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kashmar, Iran

Department of Animal Science, Shabestar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shabestar, Iran
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Author:Tabeidian, Seyed Ali; Ghafoori, Masoud; Bahrami, Yadollah; Chekani-Azar, Vaheid; Lotfi, Alireza
Publication:International Journal of Agriculture and Biology
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:7IRAN
Date:Aug 31, 2011
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