Industry's role in protection of environment.
The contemporary civilization is characterized by an exceedingly fast development of science and technology. The outstanding achievements in various fields have as a consequence resulted in the creation of big industrial centers in many countries with production, satisfying the ever increasing needs of the global population.
Although amazing achievements have been obtained in the contemporary industry, its rapid development stirs up greater and greater anxiety, because the industrial enterprises constitute a source of negative phenomena menacing health or even creating a serious danger to life. The phenomena which at this moment concern more and more the specialists, are the air pollution and the surface water pollution which appear with a particular intensity in the big urban agglomerations as a result of significant concentration of industries.
Air and water pollution brings about not only damages of great social significance but also losses of an economical feature which can be more or less estimated in money. Such losses get an ever increasing significance in the economy of highly industrialized countries because they cannot be omitted when the consequences caused by the influence of the negative phenomena accompanying the development of the contemporary industry is analysed. This concern in the recent past has, however, started getting attention in the developing countries of the world. The present state of environment in the country much like other development and third world countries is dismal and causes can be briefly stated as:
The rapid depletion of renewal resources without significant efforts for the development of alternative resources. Depletion of renewable resources through deforestation, loss of genetic diversity, wildlife, pastures, rangelands soil erosion, salination and waterlogging. Increasing threat to environment and natural health from industrial effluents, toxic wastes, pesticides, chemicals poor sanitation and garbage disposal. Absence of environmental awareness, education and training, lack of enforcement of existing laws relating to the environment and inadequate coordination efforts at different levels.
In Pakistan more than 60 per cent of the land has either already or is likely to be affected by the desertification. The suspended sediment load/KM sq. of drainage basin in the country is one of the largest in the world. This is a clear indicator of the intensity of soil erosion which has affected as much as 1.2 million hectares of land so far. Salt effected soil are estimated to be 4.2 million hectares while another 2 million hectares are water-logged. Though much of the initial thrust on the environmental issues was based on concern about natural resources preservation and pollution control, but now this concern has brought a new dimension to the issue by emphasizing the correlation between environment and economic development.
Most of the industries developed in this country have unfortunately given little attention to the control and management of their industrial wastewaters and gaseous omissions. At present the liquid industrial wastes are either discharged into natural bodies of water without proper treatment or applied to land without scientific and technical considerations.
Industrial waste waters when discharged untreated into water bodies result in serious water pollution. the most serious result is the threat to human health that it causes, which alone makes it essential that the industrial wastes be effectively treated. A few industries such as tanneries and slaughterhouses some times discharge wastes containing bacteria.
In addition to their hazardous effects on human health, the industrial waste discharges exert significant impact on streams resulting in deterioration of their water quality and subsequent use in terms of aesthetic aspects, economy and ecology. Both organic and inorganic chemicals in extremely low concentrations may be poisonous to fresh fish and other smaller aquatic micro-organisms.
The city of Karachi has the largest number of industries of various and specialised categories. However, except for the National Refinery none of the industries have any arrangement for wastewaters treatment or for controlling the gaseous emissions. The operating units of State Petroleum Refining & Petrochemical Corporation (Pvt.) Limited (PERAC) are National Refinery and National Petrocarbon Limited.
The refineries are designed on latest technologies keeping in view all the environmental aspects. National Refinery has installed analyzers and control regulators to monitor and regulate the gaseous emissions which meet the international API standards. A water effluent treatment plant in collaboration with British Petroleum has been installed, which treats 5 lakh (IG) of waste water per day from refinery units. National Petrocarbon, Carbon Black Plant has recently installed additional filter bags and monitoring equipment to contain the emissions of carbon black.
Suggestions to Control the Pollution
Control of production wastes and pollution should not be considered a mere legal requirement. The pollution level in an industry is really a measure of its productive efficiency, the higher the pollution level, the lower the productive efficiency. In general it would be feasible to control the pollution at its source and following steps can be taken by the industries to control the pollution. a) Towards effective water pollution
control, the need at each industrial
unit level is to reduce the quantity and
strength of the waste waters being
produced, in this regard, conservation
of waste water and its reuse may be
extremely promising, as savings could
also be made by the reuse of treated
effluents instead of fresh water. b) The major use of water in the manufacturing
process is for cooling purposes
and for this, industries should
consider reuse of their effluents. c) The strength of the waste may be reduced
by many ways including process
changes, equipment modification,
neutralization and equalization and
byproduct recovery. d) The concept of by-product recovery
and use must be considered by the industries
as in many instances it may
lead to economic gains. e) Adequate control measures can be
adopted for harmful emissions from
various industries. Immediate problem
of vital importance in many industries
is that of the particular matter.
The acrosols can, however, be effectively
collected through the use of dust
collectors installed at the source. f) Change in the fuel may also prove
effective in controlling pollution. Natural
gas in this sense is the best alternative.
However, where its availability is
limited, oil and coke may be preferred
Besides the above steps there is a need to create environmental awareness amongst the people of the country so that a collective effort which is essential to protect our environment is brought out. The resources available both with public and private media i.e press, radio, television should be utilized to the maximum. School programmes, training courses should be developed to achieve awareness. This is not only the need of today but is the responsibility placed on us for creating a better future for the next generation.
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|Title Annotation:||Pakistan; Industry|
|Date:||Jun 1, 1991|
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