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Indigenous Utilization of Plant Biodiversity in Malakkheil-Kotkay Village, District Shangla, Pakistan.


Ethnobotany deals with the interaction between plants and people with particular importance on traditional tribal cultures (Mesfin et al., 2013). It addresses all types of relationships between people and plants which generally highlight the importance of plants in human life, as a rich source of medicine, food, fodder, fibre and goods. Local communities use indigenous plants for the treatment of various diseases on the basis of their traditional knowledge, experience, practices, skills or on the advice of elders, hakeems and herbal practitioners (Shinwari et al., 2002). Ethnobotanists explore that how plants are used by local people as food, shelter, medicine, clothing and in religious ceremonies. Medicinal plants are cheap source and easily available to the people living in remote mountainous areas (Mahonge et al., 2006).

Due to unique geography and suitable climatic conditions, Pakistan is floristically very rich with about 6000 identified vascular plants with more than 400 medicinal species. In Pakistan 39,584 hakeems and 130,000 homoeopaths are registered and about 457 herbal dispensaries/clinics provide medication to the people with 300-350 herbal medicine manufacturing companies in the country (Shinwari and Qaiser, 2011).

The present study area Malakkheil is a small village located on the main road towards Puran Valley in district Shangla at 34[degrees]-31' to 33[degrees]-08' North latitude and 72[degrees] -33' to 73[degrees]-01' East longitude. The biodiversity of the area is in danger due to deforestations, grazing, browsing, lopping, grass cutting, torch wood extraction, illicit filling, smuggling and convertion of forest area to agricultural (cultivated) land. The general elevation of the area is 2,000 to 3,000 meters above the sea level and area comes under moist temperate region. The precipitation occurs both in the form of snow and rain. Snow fall generally starts at the end of November on the high peaks of the mountains and continues sometimes upto the middle of March. The climate here in winter season remains extremely cold while summer is moderate and very pleasant. The temperature in summer remains between 17 to 30[degrees]C, while in winter the temperature ranges from 0to18[degrees]C.

The aim of the present study is to explore the medicinal plants of the area, documentation of indigenous knowledge about these plants and their use in the treatment of different diseases.

Materials and Methods

Frequent study trips were made during years 2014-15 for the collection of medicinal plants from Malakkheil-Kotkay Valley, District Shangla, Pakistan. The collected species were dried, pressed and identified with the help of different volumes of flora of Pakistan (Ali and Qaiser, 1993-2015; Ali and Nasir, 1989-1991; Nasir and Ali, 1970-1989) and other available literature. The leaf size and life form spectra were determined after Raunkiaer (1934) and Hussain (1989). The local inhabitants, the herbalists and Hakeems (local physicians) were interviewed through simple questionnaires for collection of data about the uses of the plants. The ethno-ecological inventory of the plants consisted of botanical names, local names, medicinal uses and phenology were prepared.

Results and Discussion

Medicinal plants species (84) belonging to51 families were documented from the research area used locally for the treatment of various diseases and ailments. Among these, Rosaceae with 10 species was dominant family followed by Asteraceae and Lamiaceae with 7 species each, Araceae and Polygonaceae 3 species each, Amaranthaceae 2 species and Anacardiaceae, Apiaceae, Asparagaceae Berberidaceae, Convolvulaceae and Lamiaceae were represented by one species each (Table 1 and Table 3). Major uses of these plants were curing cough, dirrhoea, tooth pain, gastro intestinal disorders, anemia, wounds healing, as tonic and controlling obesity. One species Toxicodendron succedanea (L.) Mold. (Family Anacardiaceae) found to be highly toxic causing dermatitis and majority of plants were used for multi purposes. The main collectors of these plants were men, women, children, hakeems and practitioners and were unaware, illiterate and untrained as they have no knowledge about the importance, conservation, proper collection and preservation of these medicinal plants. Most of the species were found to be threatened due to habitat degradation, deforestation, grazing, over exploitation and unscientific collection. Low income and lack of facilities increased the dependence of majority of the local communities on the available natural resources for their subsistence. Our findings agree with Ibrar et al. (2007) who reported 97 medicinal plant species from Ranyal Hills, District Shangla, Pakistan among which most of the plants are similar. Shah and Hussain (2012) reported 127 medicinal plants from Chakesar Valley, District Shangla, among these 47 (37%) were critically endangered and mostly were infrequent due to unawareness and unsustainable collection by local peoples. Ali and Qaisar (2009) reported 82 taxa used locally for various purposes. Unsustainable collection methods, poor post harvest methods, soil erosion and intense deforestation are the main causes of depletion of local flora. Khan et al. (2012) studied ethnobotonical knowledge of Poonch Valley, Azad Kashmir (Northern Pakistan) and found 56 medicinal plant species used for treatment of kidney stones, diarrhoea, respiratory disorder, asthma and rheumatism etc. Qamar et al. (2010) documented medicinal plants and their traditional uses in the Neelam Valley, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan and reported 67 medicinal plants used for treatment of 32 different diseases.

The life form spectra showed 31 (39.74%) therophytes, 17 (21.79%) megaphanerophytes, 12 (15.38%) cryptophytes, 11 (14.10%) nanophanerophytes, 5 (6.41%) hemicryptophytes and 2 (2.56%) chamaephytes (Table 2, Fig. 1). The leaf size spectra was dominated by microphyll with 31 (39.74%) species followed by mesophyll (17 sp., 21.79%), nanophyll 14 (17.94%), macrophyll 6 (7.69%), leptophyll 5 (6.41%), megaphyll 2 (2.56%) and one (1.28%) species was aphyllous (Table 2, Fig. 2). Badshah et al. (2013); Khalik et al. (2013) and Shah and Rozina (2013) reported that therophytes were dominant life forms in their study areas which supports our findings. Hussain and Chudhary (2009) found that microphyll was the dominant leaf size in Azad Kashmir having similar climatic conditions. This is in line with our findings.

Phenology is appearance of plants in different seasons of the year. Mostly wild species of different families appeared in Malakkhiel-Kotkay, District Shangla during early summer of the year (Table 1). Some species appear throughout the year. These species become prominent in different seasons of the year thus showing seasonal dominance.


Malakkheil-Kotkay Valley occurs in district Shangla of Pakistan and is rich in plant natural resources including medicinal plants. Therefore, the present study was conducted to document the medicinal plants of the area and to collect information regarding their indigenous utilization. Abdominal problems, jaundice, fever, wound healing, cardiac problems, eye pain, kidney pain and mouth diseases are some of the diseases cured through these plants by the locals. However, due to urbanization and modernization, the knowledge of older people regarding the uses of these plants is perishing gradually and the young generation has least interest in getting information about these plants. Therefore, the present study can provide first hand information on the medicinal plants of the valley and will be helpful in further botanical studies.


The area hosts many endemic and endangered species of medicinal plants having valuable economic importance. The study confirmed that small quantity of important medicinal plants species were known while several were completely unknown to the community as a whole. It is concluded that the area possessed great potential for cultivation and harvesting of economically important plants. It is suggested that local community should provide education about the identification, collection, uses and commercialization of important plants and aware them about the economic and pharmaceutical importance of plants. Establishment of nurseries and botanic gardens may be the best exsitu conservation for sustainable utilization of plant resources of the area while local community awareness and involvement to protect these national assets will be the best in-situ conservation measures.

Conflict of Interest. The authors declare no conflict of interest.


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Shafqat Ali Khan, Fazal Hadi *, Muhammad Ibrar and Ulfat Samreen

Department of Botany, University of Peshawar, Peshawar, Pakistan

(received March 13, 2017; revised November 2,2017; accepted November 29, 2017)

* Author for correspondence; E-mail:
Table 1. Plant species with their botanical names, life forms, leaf
size, phenology, part used and ethnobotanical uses in
Malakkheil-Kotkay Valley, District Shangla, Pakistan

Family             Botanical name        Vern. name     Life    Leaf
                                                        form    size

Araceae            Acorus calamusL.      Skhawaja       Th      Meg

                   Arisaemaflavum        Marjarai       Cr      Mac
                   (Forsk.) Schott

                   Arisaema              Marjarai       Cr      Meg

Asteraceae         Artemisia             Tarkha         Th      Mic
                   vulgaris L

                   Artemisia             Jawkay         Th      Mic
                   brevifolia Wall

                   Heliantus             Nwarparas      Th      Mic
                   annuus L.

                   Taraxacum             ZiarrGulay     Th      Mac
                   officinale Weber.

                   Xanthium              Gishkay        Th      Mac
                   stramarium L.

                   Tagetes minuta L.     Hamesha        Th      Na

                   Fragaria vesica L.    Zmakintoot     Th      Na

Lamiaceae          Mentha longifolia     Valanay        Cr      Mic
                   L. (Huds)

                   Menthapiperata        Podina         Cr      Mic
                   (SM.) L.

                   Mentha arvensis L     Podina         Cr      Mic

                   Ajuga bracteosa       Booti          Th      Mes
                   Wall.ex Benth.

                   Prunella              Parharbotay    H       Na
                   vulgaris L.

Saxifragaceae      Bergenia ciliata      Mukanpat       H       Mes
                   (Haw.) Sternb

Alliaceae          Allium cepa L.        Pyaz           Cr      Na

                   Allium sativum L.     Oga            Cr      Na

Apiaceae           Buniumpersicum        Kali zeri      Th      Na
                   B. fedtsc

                   Coriandrum            Dhanya         Th      Na
                   sativum L.

Plantaginaceae     Plantago              Jabai          Th      Mes
                   lanceolata L.

                   Plantago major L.     Ghatajabai     Th      Mes

Ranunculaceae      Aconitum violaceum    Zahar Mora     Cr      Mes
                   Jacq. ex Stap

                   Anemone               Torabooti      Cr      Mes
                   coronaria L.

Chenopodiaceae     Chenopodium           Chaweray       Th      Mic
                   album L.

                   Chenopodium           Skhabotay      Th      Mes
                   murale L.

Urticaceae         Urtica dioca L.       Jalbang        Th      Mic

Rosaceae           Rubus elipticus       Gooraj         NP      Mic

                   Rosa brunonii L.      Khurach        NP      Lep

                   Rosa indica L.        Gulab          NP      Mic

                   Rubusfruiticosus L.   Gobanai        NP      Mic

                   Pyrus communis L.     Nashpati       MP      Mic

                   Pyrus malus L.        Manra          MP      Mes

                   Pyruspashia           Tango          MP      Mic
                   Buch-Ham ex. D

                   Prunus domestica L.   Aloocha        MP      Mes

                   Prunuspersica (L.)    Shaitalo       MP      Mic

                   Sorbaria tomentosa    SraBakayana    NP      Mic
                   (Lindl.) L.

Fabaceae           Indigofera            Ghureja        NP      Na
                   gerardiana Wall.

                   Desmodium elegans     Spin           NP      Mic
                   DC. ghwareja

Polygonaceae       Polygonum             Palpolak       H       Mes
                   aviculare L.

                   Rumex hastatus L.     Tarukay        Ch      Mic

                   Rumex dentatus L.     Shalkhay       Th      Mes

Ebenaceae          Diospyrus kaki L      Sur Amlok      MP      Mic

                   Diospyrus lotus L     TurAmlok       MP      Mic

Moraceae           Morus nigra L.        Toor toot      MiP     Mi

                   Morus alba L.         Spin toot      MiP     Mi

Adiantaceae        Adiantum incisum      Sumbal         Cr      Na

Amaranthaceae      Amaranthus            Ganhar         Th      Mic
                   viridis L.

Caprifoliaceae     Viburnum              Gutla          MP      Mes
                   nervosum L.

Berberidaceae      Berberis lyceum       Kwaray         NP      Na

Cannabinaceae      Cannabis sativa L.    Bhang          Th      Na

Caryophyllaceae    Stellaria media       Oulalai        Th      Na
                   (L.) Cyr.

Fagaceae           Quercusincana         Banj           MP      Mic
                   (Husskn.) H.N

Platanaceae        Platanus              Chinar         MP      Mac
                   orientalis L.

Simarubaceae       Ailanthus             Shandai        MP      Mic
                   (Mill.) Swing.

Salicaceae         Salix tetraspermum    Kharwala       MP      Na

Eleagnaceae        Ealeagnus umbellata   Ghanamranga    NP      Mic

Pinaceae           Pinus wallichiana     Pewoch         MP      Lep

Pteridiaceae       Dryopteris            Kwanjay        H       Lep
                   odontoloma (Moore)

Violaceae          Viola biflora L.      Banafsha       Th      Mic

Podophyllaceae     Podophyllum           Kakorra        Th      Mic
                   hexandrum Royle.

Fumariaceae        Fumaria indica        Papra          Th      Lep

Geraniaceae        Geranium              SraJarai       Th      Mic
                   wallichianum Oliv.

Juglandaceae       Juglans regia L.      Ghoz           MP      Mic

Cucurbitaceae      Memordica             Karela         Th      Mes
                   charantia L.

Brassicaceae       Nasturtium            Talmera        Th      Mac
                   officinale R.
                   Br. Brassica
                   compistress L.

Oxalidaceae        Oxalis corniculata    Tarokay        Th      Na

Paeoniaceae        Paeonia emodii        Mamekh         Cr      Mes
                   Wall. Ex Royle

Papaveraceae       Papaver somniferum    Khashkhash     Th      Mic

Solanaceae         Datura stramonium     Harhanda       Ch      Mac

                   Solanum nigrum L.     Kachmacho      Th      Mic

Araliaceae         Hedera helix L.       Palol          MP      Mic

Cuscutaceae        Cuscuta reflexa       Benakai        Th      Ap

Hippocastinaceae   Plectranthus          Sperkay        NP      Mic
                   rugosus L

Portulaceae        Portulaca             Warkharay      Th      Mes
                   oleracea L.

Rhamnaceae         Ziziphus sativa       Markhanai      MP      Na

Euphorbiaceae      Ricinus communis L.   Arhanda        NP      Mac

Scrophulariaceae   Verbascum thapsus     Kharghwag      Th      Mac

Valerianaceae      Valerianajatamansi    Shingatai      Cr      Mes

Anacardiaceae      Toxicodendron         Rakhkal        MP      Mes
                   (L.I. Mold).

Family             Botanical name        Fl-Fr       Part used

Araceae            Acorus calamusL.      Apr-Oct     Rhizomes

                   Arisaemaflavum        May-July    Roots
                   (Forsk.) Schott

                   Arisaema              May-July    Fruits
                   jacquemontii                      and
                   Blume                             rhizome

Asteraceae         Artemisia             Apr-Nov     WP
                   vulgaris L

                   Artemisia             Apr-Nov     Inflo-
                   brevifolia Wall                   rescence

                   Heliantus             July-Sep    Seeds &
                   annuus L.                         leave

                   Taraxacum             Feb-May     Leaves
                   officinale Weber.

                   Xanthium              Apr-Nov     WP
                   stramarium L.

                   Tagetes minuta L.     Apr-Oct     WP

                   Fragaria vesica L.    May-July    Fruit

Lamiaceae          Mentha longifolia     Aug-Sep     WP
                   L. (Huds)

                   Menthapiperata        Jul-Sep     Leaves
                   (SM.) L.

                   Mentha arvensis L     May-Oct     Leaves

                   Ajuga bracteosa       Apr-May     Leaves
                   Wall.ex Benth.

                   Prunella              Jun-Oct     WP
                   vulgaris L.

Saxifragaceae      Bergenia ciliata      Apr-May     Leaves &
                   (Haw.) Sternb                     rhizome

Alliaceae          Allium cepa L.        Apr-July    Bulb &

                   Allium sativum L.     Apr-July    Bulb &

Apiaceae           Buniumpersicum        Apr-May     Seeds
                   B. fedtsc

                   Coriandrum            Mar-May     Leaves &
                   sativum L.                        fruits

Plantaginaceae     Plantago              May-Sep     Leaves &
                   lanceolata L.                     seed

                   Plantago major L.     July-Sep    Leaves &

Ranunculaceae      Aconitum violaceum    Mar-July    Roots
                   Jacq. ex Stap

                   Anemone               Mar-July    Leaves
                   coronaria L.

Chenopodiaceae     Chenopodium           Apr-Sep     Leaves &
                   album L.                          shoots

                   Chenopodium           Apr-Sep     Leaves &
                   murale L.                         young

Urticaceae         Urtica dioca L.       May-Oct     WP

Rosaceae           Rubus elipticus       Oct-Nov     Fruit

                   Rosa brunonii L.      Jun-July    Flower

                   Rosa indica L.        Mar-Aug     Flower

                   Rubusfruiticosus L.   May-Sep     Fruit

                   Pyrus communis L.     Mar-Aug     Fruits

                   Pyrus malus L.        Apr-May     Fruit

                   Pyruspashia           Mar-Apr     Fruit &
                   Buch-Ham ex. D                    leaves

                   Prunus domestica L.   Aug-Sep     Fruit

                   Prunuspersica (L.)    Apr-May     Fruit

                   Sorbaria tomentosa    Sept-Nov    Inilo-
                   (Lindl.) L.                       rescence

Fabaceae           Indigofera            June-Sep    Leaves,
                   gerardiana Wall.                  shoots &

                   Desmodium elegans     Aug-Oct     Leaves
                   DC. ghwareja

Polygonaceae       Polygonum             July-Aug    WP
                   aviculare L.

                   Rumex hastatus L.     Apr-May     Leaves

                   Rumex dentatus L.     May-June    Leaves

Ebenaceae          Diospyrus kaki L      July-Aug    Fruit

                   Diospyrus lotus L     June-July   Fruit

Moraceae           Morus nigra L.        June-July   Fruits

                   Morus alba L.         June-July   Fruits

Adiantaceae        Adiantum incisum      Apr-Sept    Leaves

Amaranthaceae      Amaranthus            May-Nov     WP
                   viridis L.

Caprifoliaceae     Viburnum              Mar-June    Fruit
                   nervosum L.

Berberidaceae      Berberis lyceum       Apr-Sep     Roots &
                   Royle.                            barks

Cannabinaceae      Cannabis sativa L.    July-Sep    Leaves &

Caryophyllaceae    Stellaria media       May-June    WP
                   (L.) Cyr.

Fagaceae           Quercusincana         May-Aug     Leaves,
                   (Husskn.) H.N                     seeds

Platanaceae        Platanus              Apr-May     Bark
                   orientalis L.

Simarubaceae       Ailanthus             Apr-Sep     Seeds
                   (Mill.) Swing.

Salicaceae         Salix tetraspermum    Jan-Mar     WP

Eleagnaceae        Ealeagnus umbellata   Apr-May     Flowers

Pinaceae           Pinus wallichiana     Feb-Apr     Resin

Pteridiaceae       Dryopteris                        Young
                   odontoloma (Moore)                shoots

Violaceae          Viola biflora L.      May-June    Flower

Podophyllaceae     Podophyllum           May-June    Rhizome
                   hexandrum Royle.

Fumariaceae        Fumaria indica        Mar-May     WP

Geraniaceae        Geranium              June-Sep    Leaves &
                   wallichianum Oliv.                rhizome

Juglandaceae       Juglans regia L.      May-June    Leaves,
                                                     fruits &

Cucurbitaceae      Memordica             June-July   Fruits
                   charantia L.

Brassicaceae       Nasturtium            May-Oct     Leaves
                   officinale R.
                   Br. Brassica
                   compistress L.

Oxalidaceae        Oxalis corniculata    June-Sep    WP

Paeoniaceae        Paeonia emodii        Apr-June    Roots
                   Wall. Ex Royle

Papaveraceae       Papaver somniferum    Apr-June    Leaves,
                   L.                                fruits &

Solanaceae         Datura stramonium     June-Aug    Root &
                   L.                                flowers

                   Solanum nigrum L.     July-Sept   Fruits

Araliaceae         Hedera helix L.       Oct-Nov     WP

Cuscutaceae        Cuscuta reflexa       May-Aug     WP

Hippocastinaceae   Plectranthus          Aug-Oct     Leaves
                   rugosus L

Portulaceae        Portulaca             June-Sept   WP
                   oleracea L.

Rhamnaceae         Ziziphus sativa       Apr-May     Fruit

Euphorbiaceae      Ricinus communis L.   July-Aug    Seeds

Scrophulariaceae   Verbascum thapsus     June-Aug    WP

Valerianaceae      Valerianajatamansi    July-Aug    Rhizome

Anacardiaceae      Toxicodendron         May-June    Fruit
                   (L.I. Mold).

Family             Botanical name        Ethnobotanical uses

Araceae            Acorus calamusL.      Cough, dyspepsia,
                                         flatulence, colic and

                   Arisaemaflavum        Stomach problems and
                   (Forsk.) Schott       kill worms in

                   Arisaema              Fruits and rhizomes
                   jacquemontii          are poisonous and
                   Blume                 cause sedation. Very
                                         small quantity is
                                         used during meal for
                                         relieving body pain.
                                         Also used in small
                                         quantities in various
                                         preparations by
                                         "Hakeems" for psychic
                                         and nervous

Asteraceae         Artemisia             Intestinal worms and
                   vulgaris L            skin diseases.

                   Artemisia             Respiratory
                   brevifolia Wall       stimulant, Intestinal
                                         worms, purgative and

                   Heliantus             High fever, asthma &
                   annuus L.             lung problems.

                   Taraxacum             Leaves are ground and
                   officinale Weber.     are taken & roots
                                         with a glass of milk
                                         as tonic. Decoction
                                         of roots is used
                                         orally to cure the
                                         disorder of kidney and

                   Xanthium              Leaves are used for
                   stramarium L.         treatment of asthma.
                                         Stem ash is used as
                                         pain killer. The
                                         plant is also used as
                                         fuel. Leaves are
                                         grazed by cattle

                   Tagetes minuta L.     Injuries and wounds.

                   Fragaria vesica L.    Its edible fruits are
                                         carminative and
                                         laxative and thus
                                         improve digestion.

Lamiaceae          Mentha longifolia     Vomiting, flatulence
                   L. (Huds)             and indigestion.

                   Menthapiperata        Loss of appetite and
                   (SM.) L.              acidity.

                   Mentha arvensis L     Against pimples on
                                         the Face and as

                   Ajuga bracteosa       Treatment of fever,
                   Wall.ex Benth.        vomiting and
                                         Tonsillitis, throat
                                         pain, throat

                   Prunella              Wounds, injuries,
                   vulgaris L.           acnes and wrinkles.

Saxifragaceae      Bergenia ciliata      Ulcer, piles,
                   (Haw.) Sternb         vertigo, headache,

Alliaceae          Allium cepa L.        Cholera, diarrhoea,
                                         dysentery and acnes.

                   Allium sativum L.     Obesity, acnes,

Apiaceae           Buniumpersicum        Stomach and abdominal
                   B. fedtsc             pain.

                   Coriandrum            Joints pain,
                   sativum L.            headache, cold and

Plantaginaceae     Plantago              Sores, wounds and
                   lanceolata L.         inflammation
                                         shealing, laxative,
                                         mouth diseases and

                   Plantago major L.     Fresh leaves are
                                         wrapped around the
                                         boils, after a day or
                                         two the pus drains
                                         out and the heal
                                         fills up within three
                                         days. Leaves are
                                         chopped and used for
                                         skin discoloration
                                         caused by injury.
                                         Seeds are used in

Ranunculaceae      Aconitum violaceum    Rheumatism, gout
                   Jacq. ex Stap         (Joints pains).

                   Anemone               Headache and dental
                   coronaria L.          pain.

Chenopodiaceae     Chenopodium           The young shoots are
                   album L.              cooked in milk, and
                                         are eaten with maize
                                         (corn) bread, as a
                                         local vegetable.

                   Chenopodium           Indigestion, piles,
                   murale L.             dysentery
                                         young and grippe.

Urticaceae         Urtica dioca L.       It is used as a local
                                         vegetable (Sag), for
                                         curing constipation,
                                         also used in
                                         pulmonary diseases.
                                         Smoked as cigarette
                                         for the curing of
                                         asthma and also for

Rosaceae           Rubus elipticus       Fruits are edible and
                   Smith.                are considered as
                                         tonic and are used as
                                         aphrodisiac. Fruits
                                         are carminative and
                                         are also used for
                                         diarrhoea and
                                         looseness of bowel.

                   Rosa brunonii L.      The powder of petals
                                         is stomach tonic,
                                         hedge plant, honey
                                         bee species.

                   Rosa indica L.        Heart diseases, eye
                                         leucorrhoea and skin

                   Rubusfruiticosus L.   Used to improve
                                         digestion power.

                   Pyrus communis L.     Anemia, obesity,
                                         diabetes and colitis.

                   Pyrus malus L.        Anemia, gout, muscle
                                         pain, bleeding gums,
                                         weak memory and

                   Pyruspashia           Wood used for walking
                   Buch-Ham ex. D        sticks, combs and as
                                         fuel. Leaves and
                                         twigs lopped for
                                         fuel. The ripe fruits
                                         are chewed to cure
                                         the injuries of the

                   Prunus domestica L.   Used for digestion
                                         and asperients;
                                         useful in biliousness
                                         and heart of body.

                   Prunuspersica (L.)    Demulcent, laxative,
                   Batsch                and refrigerant,
                                         often added to
                                         cathartic decoctions
                                         for improvement of

                   Sorbaria tomentosa    Mixed with mustard
                   (Lindl.) L.           oil and applied on
                                         the newborn child
                                         skin to remove skin
                                         rashes and also
                                         applied to the wound
                                         as an antiseptic

Fabaceae           Indigofera            Combat headache and
                   gerardiana Wall.      chest pain. The dried
                                         powdered root is
                                         taken with a glass of
                                         water to cure
                                         scabies. Powdered
                                         dried leaves are also
                                         taken with a glass of
                                         milk for stomach

                   Desmodium elegans     The paste is layered
                   DC. ghwareja          on the infection and
                                         use against Eczema.

Polygonaceae       Polygonum             Powdered root mixed
                   aviculare L.          to sugar, eaten with
                                         glass of milk as a
                                         tonic by female.

                   Rumex hastatus L.     The leaves are used
                                         as local vegetable,
                                         which enhances
                                         digestion. It is also
                                         used as refrigerant
                                         in cooling drinks.

                   Rumex dentatus L.     Leaves cooked as
                                         vegetables that act
                                         as diuretic,
                                         astringent. The paste
                                         is applied externally
                                         to soothe the
                                         irritation caused by
                                         nettle sting.

Ebenaceae          Diospyrus kaki L      fruit have high
                                         content makes the
                                         immature fruit and

                   Diospyrus lotus L     Carminative,
                                         purgative and

Moraceae           Morus nigra L.        Tonsillitis,
                                         pharyngitis throat

                   Morus alba L.         Treatment of jaundice
                                         and Hepatitis

Adiantaceae        Adiantum incisum      Diarrhoea, Dysentery,
                   Forsk.                Jaundice.

Amaranthaceae      Amaranthus            Eye diseases.
                   viridis L.

Caprifoliaceae     Viburnum              Curing of
                   nervosum L.           stomachache.

Berberidaceae      Berberis lyceum       Back pain, bone
                   Royle.                fractures, wounds.

Cannabinaceae      Cannabis sativa L.    Loss of appetite &
                                         body inflammation.

Caryophyllaceae    Stellaria media       The decoction of
                   (L.) Cyr.             plant is considered
                                         as purgative.

Fagaceae           Quercusincana         The powdered fruit is
                   (Husskn.) H.N         given to children
                                         before going to bed
                                         for curing of
                                         enuresis and
                                         diarrhoea., for a
                                         period of three

Platanaceae        Platanus              Powdered dried bark
                   orientalis L.         is taken with a glass
                                         of milk twice in a
                                         day to control

Simarubaceae       Ailanthus             The ripened seeds are
                   altissima             crushed to extract
                   (Mill.) Swing.        oil, which is used
                                         for the treatment of
                                         a skin disease,
                                         "urticaria" locally
                                         called larrama.

Salicaceae         Salix tetraspermum    Thin flexible
                   Roxb.Pl.Corom         branches are bent for
                                         making baskets.
                                         Leaves are eaten by
                                         cattle and the wood
                                         is used for fuel and
                                         other domestic

Eleagnaceae        Ealeagnus umbellata   The decoction of
                   Thumb.                flowers is heads &
                                         fruit used twice a
                                         day to combat the
                                         heart problem, cough
                                         and chest pain and
                                         fruits are edible.

Pinaceae           Pinus wallichiana     Locally 3-4 drops of
                   L.                    resin are mixed with
                                         mustard oil and is
                                         applied to the
                                         ruptured skin as a
                                         healing agent.

Pteridiaceae       Dryopteris            It is used as a local
                   odontoloma (Moore)    vegetable and is
                                         believed to improve
                                         digestive power.

Violaceae          Viola biflora L.      Diaphoretic,
                                         febrifuge, cancer,
                                         epilepsy and nervous

Podophyllaceae     Podophyllum           Hepatic stimulant,
                   hexandrum Royle.      purgative and emetic.

Fumariaceae        Fumaria indica        Jaundice, urinary
                   (HaussKan)            tract & bladder

Geraniaceae        Geranium              Peptic ulcer,
                   wallichianum Oliv.    toothache and eye

Juglandaceae       Juglans regia L.      Bark (Dandasa) is
                                         used for cleaning and
                                         sparkling teeth.
                                         Decoction of leaves is
                                         given in eczema and
                                         intestinal worms.

Cucurbitaceae      Memordica             Obesity, breast
                   charantia L.          cancer & diabetes.

Brassicaceae       Nasturtium            Its leaves and young
                   officinale R.         shoots are boiled in
                   Br. Brassica          water and are taken
                   compistress L.        as local vegetable
                                         for the treatment of
                                         constipation and

Oxalidaceae        Oxalis corniculata    Bleeding, fever,
                   L.                    liver, Intestinal,
                                         stomach and urinary

Paeoniaceae        Paeonia emodii        Back pain, joint pains
                   Wall. Ex Royle        bone fracture,
                                         hysteria, colic
                                         diseases, epilepsy.

Papaveraceae       Papaver somniferum    Cough,
                   L.                    asthma, gout, Influenza,
                                         flu & pain.

Solanaceae         Datura stramonium     Decoction of fresh
                   L.                    root is taken orally
                                         twice a day for a
                                         week to treat fever.
                                         Drops of the
                                         decoction are also
                                         applied to the ear
                                         for the treatment of

                   Solanum nigrum L.     Mouth sores, joint
                                         swelling, skin
                                         diseases and mouth

Araliaceae         Hedera helix L.       Anti-diabetes.

Cuscutaceae        Cuscuta reflexa       Anti-diabetes,
                   Roxb.                 general body tonic
                                         and Anti-dandruff.

Hippocastinaceae   Plectranthus          Mouth sores, pain and
                   rugosus L             throat swelling.

Portulaceae        Portulaca             Abdominal pain and
                   oleracea L.           skin inflammation.

Rhamnaceae         Ziziphus sativa       Weak immune system,
                   Gaertn.               heart diseases,
                                         ulcer, inflammation,
                                         cold and flu.

Euphorbiaceae      Ricinus communis L.   Earache & fever.

Scrophulariaceae   Verbascum thapsus     Wounds, burns, bone
                   (Linn).               fracture and cough
                                         and antiseptic.

Valerianaceae      Valerianajatamansi    Insomnia, anxiety,
                   Jones.                delirium tremens,
                                         hysteria, cholera,
                                         snake bite, asthma,
                                         ulcers, tremors,
                                         headache and eurosis.

Anacardiaceae      Toxicodendron         Poisonous. Cause
                   succedanea            dermatitis
                   (L.I. Mold).

Table 2. Life forms and leaf size classes of the plants of
Malakkheil-Kotkay, District Shangla, Pakistan

Life-form classes   No. of    Percentage   Leaf size
                    species                classes

Therophytes         31        39.74        Microphyll
Megaphanerophytes   17        21.79        Mesophyll
Nanophanerophytes   11        14.10        Nanophyll
Cryptophytes        12        15.38        Macrophyll
Hemicryptophytes    05        6.41         Leptophyll
Chamaephytes        02        2.56         Megaphyll

Life-form classes   No. of    Percentage

Therophytes         31        39.74
Megaphanerophytes   17        21.79
Nanophanerophytes   14        17.94
Cryptophytes        06        7.69
Hemicryptophytes    05        6.41
Chamaephytes        02        2.56
                    01        1.28

Table 3. Family wise check list of flora of Malakkheil Kotkay,
District Shangla, Pakistan   Family             No. of species

1       Aracaeae           3
2       Eleagnaceae        1
3       Ebenaceae          2
4       Asteraceae         6
5       Pinaceae           1
6       Adiantaceae        1
7       Lamiaceae          6
8       Pteridiaceae       1
9       Amaranthaceae      1
10      Saxifrigaceae      1
11      Voilaceae          1
12      Caprifoliaceae     1
13      Alliaceae          2
14      Podophyllaceae     1
15      Berberidaceae      1
16      Apiaceae           2
17      Fumariaceae        1
18      Araliaceae         1
19      Plantaginaceae     2
20      Geraniaceae        1
21      Cuscutaceae        1
22      Ranunculaceae      2
23      Moraceae           2
24      Chenopodiaceae     2
25      Urticaceae         1
26      Juglandaceae       1
27      Hippocastinaceae   1
28      Rosaceae           10
29      Cucurbitaceae      1
30      Cannabinaceae      1
31      Fabaceae           2
32      Brassicaceae       1
33      Caryophyllaceae    1
34      Polygonaceae       3
35      Oxalidaceae        1
36      Fagaceae           1
37      Simarubaceae       1
38      Papavernaceae      1
39      Platnaceae         1
40      Salicaceae         1
41      Solanaceae         2
42      Valerianaceae      1
43      Anacardiaceae      1
44      Portulacaceae      1
45      Paeoniaceae        1
46      Serophulariaceae   1
47      Rhamnaceae         1
48      Euphorbiaceae      1

Fig. 1. Life form spectrum of different plant
species of Malakkheil-Kotkay, District
Shangla, Pakistan.

                    No. of species      Percentage

Therophytes               31             39.74
Chamaephytes               2              2.56
Megaphanerophytes         17             21.79
Hemicryptophytes           5              6.41
Nanophanerophytes         11             14.1
Cryptophytes              12             15.38

Note: Table made from bar graph.

Fig. 2. Leaf size spectrum of different plant species
of Malakkheil-Kotkay, District Shangla,

             No. of species      Percentage

Microphyll         31             39.74
Leptophyll          5              6.41
Nanophyll          14             17.94
Mesophyll          17             21.79
Macrophyll          6              7.69
Megaphyll           2              2.56
Aphyllous           1              1.28

Note: Table made from bar graph.
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Author:Khan, Shafqat Ali; Hadi, Fazal; Ibrar, Muhammad; Samreen, Ulfat
Publication:Pakistan Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research Series B: Biological Sciences
Geographic Code:9PAKI
Date:Mar 1, 2019
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