Indigenous Utilization of Plant Biodiversity in Malakkheil-Kotkay Village, District Shangla, Pakistan.
Ethnobotany deals with the interaction between plants and people with particular importance on traditional tribal cultures (Mesfin et al., 2013). It addresses all types of relationships between people and plants which generally highlight the importance of plants in human life, as a rich source of medicine, food, fodder, fibre and goods. Local communities use indigenous plants for the treatment of various diseases on the basis of their traditional knowledge, experience, practices, skills or on the advice of elders, hakeems and herbal practitioners (Shinwari et al., 2002). Ethnobotanists explore that how plants are used by local people as food, shelter, medicine, clothing and in religious ceremonies. Medicinal plants are cheap source and easily available to the people living in remote mountainous areas (Mahonge et al., 2006).
Due to unique geography and suitable climatic conditions, Pakistan is floristically very rich with about 6000 identified vascular plants with more than 400 medicinal species. In Pakistan 39,584 hakeems and 130,000 homoeopaths are registered and about 457 herbal dispensaries/clinics provide medication to the people with 300-350 herbal medicine manufacturing companies in the country (Shinwari and Qaiser, 2011).
The present study area Malakkheil is a small village located on the main road towards Puran Valley in district Shangla at 34[degrees]-31' to 33[degrees]-08' North latitude and 72[degrees] -33' to 73[degrees]-01' East longitude. The biodiversity of the area is in danger due to deforestations, grazing, browsing, lopping, grass cutting, torch wood extraction, illicit filling, smuggling and convertion of forest area to agricultural (cultivated) land. The general elevation of the area is 2,000 to 3,000 meters above the sea level and area comes under moist temperate region. The precipitation occurs both in the form of snow and rain. Snow fall generally starts at the end of November on the high peaks of the mountains and continues sometimes upto the middle of March. The climate here in winter season remains extremely cold while summer is moderate and very pleasant. The temperature in summer remains between 17 to 30[degrees]C, while in winter the temperature ranges from 0to18[degrees]C.
The aim of the present study is to explore the medicinal plants of the area, documentation of indigenous knowledge about these plants and their use in the treatment of different diseases.
Materials and Methods
Frequent study trips were made during years 2014-15 for the collection of medicinal plants from Malakkheil-Kotkay Valley, District Shangla, Pakistan. The collected species were dried, pressed and identified with the help of different volumes of flora of Pakistan (Ali and Qaiser, 1993-2015; Ali and Nasir, 1989-1991; Nasir and Ali, 1970-1989) and other available literature. The leaf size and life form spectra were determined after Raunkiaer (1934) and Hussain (1989). The local inhabitants, the herbalists and Hakeems (local physicians) were interviewed through simple questionnaires for collection of data about the uses of the plants. The ethno-ecological inventory of the plants consisted of botanical names, local names, medicinal uses and phenology were prepared.
Results and Discussion
Medicinal plants species (84) belonging to51 families were documented from the research area used locally for the treatment of various diseases and ailments. Among these, Rosaceae with 10 species was dominant family followed by Asteraceae and Lamiaceae with 7 species each, Araceae and Polygonaceae 3 species each, Amaranthaceae 2 species and Anacardiaceae, Apiaceae, Asparagaceae Berberidaceae, Convolvulaceae and Lamiaceae were represented by one species each (Table 1 and Table 3). Major uses of these plants were curing cough, dirrhoea, tooth pain, gastro intestinal disorders, anemia, wounds healing, as tonic and controlling obesity. One species Toxicodendron succedanea (L.) Mold. (Family Anacardiaceae) found to be highly toxic causing dermatitis and majority of plants were used for multi purposes. The main collectors of these plants were men, women, children, hakeems and practitioners and were unaware, illiterate and untrained as they have no knowledge about the importance, conservation, proper collection and preservation of these medicinal plants. Most of the species were found to be threatened due to habitat degradation, deforestation, grazing, over exploitation and unscientific collection. Low income and lack of facilities increased the dependence of majority of the local communities on the available natural resources for their subsistence. Our findings agree with Ibrar et al. (2007) who reported 97 medicinal plant species from Ranyal Hills, District Shangla, Pakistan among which most of the plants are similar. Shah and Hussain (2012) reported 127 medicinal plants from Chakesar Valley, District Shangla, among these 47 (37%) were critically endangered and mostly were infrequent due to unawareness and unsustainable collection by local peoples. Ali and Qaisar (2009) reported 82 taxa used locally for various purposes. Unsustainable collection methods, poor post harvest methods, soil erosion and intense deforestation are the main causes of depletion of local flora. Khan et al. (2012) studied ethnobotonical knowledge of Poonch Valley, Azad Kashmir (Northern Pakistan) and found 56 medicinal plant species used for treatment of kidney stones, diarrhoea, respiratory disorder, asthma and rheumatism etc. Qamar et al. (2010) documented medicinal plants and their traditional uses in the Neelam Valley, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan and reported 67 medicinal plants used for treatment of 32 different diseases.
The life form spectra showed 31 (39.74%) therophytes, 17 (21.79%) megaphanerophytes, 12 (15.38%) cryptophytes, 11 (14.10%) nanophanerophytes, 5 (6.41%) hemicryptophytes and 2 (2.56%) chamaephytes (Table 2, Fig. 1). The leaf size spectra was dominated by microphyll with 31 (39.74%) species followed by mesophyll (17 sp., 21.79%), nanophyll 14 (17.94%), macrophyll 6 (7.69%), leptophyll 5 (6.41%), megaphyll 2 (2.56%) and one (1.28%) species was aphyllous (Table 2, Fig. 2). Badshah et al. (2013); Khalik et al. (2013) and Shah and Rozina (2013) reported that therophytes were dominant life forms in their study areas which supports our findings. Hussain and Chudhary (2009) found that microphyll was the dominant leaf size in Azad Kashmir having similar climatic conditions. This is in line with our findings.
Phenology is appearance of plants in different seasons of the year. Mostly wild species of different families appeared in Malakkhiel-Kotkay, District Shangla during early summer of the year (Table 1). Some species appear throughout the year. These species become prominent in different seasons of the year thus showing seasonal dominance.
Malakkheil-Kotkay Valley occurs in district Shangla of Pakistan and is rich in plant natural resources including medicinal plants. Therefore, the present study was conducted to document the medicinal plants of the area and to collect information regarding their indigenous utilization. Abdominal problems, jaundice, fever, wound healing, cardiac problems, eye pain, kidney pain and mouth diseases are some of the diseases cured through these plants by the locals. However, due to urbanization and modernization, the knowledge of older people regarding the uses of these plants is perishing gradually and the young generation has least interest in getting information about these plants. Therefore, the present study can provide first hand information on the medicinal plants of the valley and will be helpful in further botanical studies.
The area hosts many endemic and endangered species of medicinal plants having valuable economic importance. The study confirmed that small quantity of important medicinal plants species were known while several were completely unknown to the community as a whole. It is concluded that the area possessed great potential for cultivation and harvesting of economically important plants. It is suggested that local community should provide education about the identification, collection, uses and commercialization of important plants and aware them about the economic and pharmaceutical importance of plants. Establishment of nurseries and botanic gardens may be the best exsitu conservation for sustainable utilization of plant resources of the area while local community awareness and involvement to protect these national assets will be the best in-situ conservation measures.
Conflict of Interest. The authors declare no conflict of interest.
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Shafqat Ali Khan, Fazal Hadi *, Muhammad Ibrar and Ulfat Samreen
Department of Botany, University of Peshawar, Peshawar, Pakistan
(received March 13, 2017; revised November 2,2017; accepted November 29, 2017)
* Author for correspondence; E-mail: email@example.com
Table 1. Plant species with their botanical names, life forms, leaf size, phenology, part used and ethnobotanical uses in Malakkheil-Kotkay Valley, District Shangla, Pakistan Family Botanical name Vern. name Life Leaf form size Araceae Acorus calamusL. Skhawaja Th Meg Arisaemaflavum Marjarai Cr Mac (Forsk.) Schott Arisaema Marjarai Cr Meg jacquemontii Blume Asteraceae Artemisia Tarkha Th Mic vulgaris L Artemisia Jawkay Th Mic brevifolia Wall Heliantus Nwarparas Th Mic annuus L. Taraxacum ZiarrGulay Th Mac officinale Weber. Xanthium Gishkay Th Mac stramarium L. Tagetes minuta L. Hamesha Th Na Fragaria vesica L. Zmakintoot Th Na Lamiaceae Mentha longifolia Valanay Cr Mic L. (Huds) Menthapiperata Podina Cr Mic (SM.) L. Mentha arvensis L Podina Cr Mic Ajuga bracteosa Booti Th Mes Wall.ex Benth. Prunella Parharbotay H Na vulgaris L. Saxifragaceae Bergenia ciliata Mukanpat H Mes (Haw.) Sternb Alliaceae Allium cepa L. Pyaz Cr Na Allium sativum L. Oga Cr Na Apiaceae Buniumpersicum Kali zeri Th Na B. fedtsc Coriandrum Dhanya Th Na sativum L. Plantaginaceae Plantago Jabai Th Mes lanceolata L. Plantago major L. Ghatajabai Th Mes Ranunculaceae Aconitum violaceum Zahar Mora Cr Mes Jacq. ex Stap Anemone Torabooti Cr Mes coronaria L. Chenopodiaceae Chenopodium Chaweray Th Mic album L. Chenopodium Skhabotay Th Mes murale L. Urticaceae Urtica dioca L. Jalbang Th Mic Rosaceae Rubus elipticus Gooraj NP Mic Smith. Rosa brunonii L. Khurach NP Lep Rosa indica L. Gulab NP Mic Rubusfruiticosus L. Gobanai NP Mic Pyrus communis L. Nashpati MP Mic Pyrus malus L. Manra MP Mes Pyruspashia Tango MP Mic Buch-Ham ex. D Prunus domestica L. Aloocha MP Mes Prunuspersica (L.) Shaitalo MP Mic Batsch Sorbaria tomentosa SraBakayana NP Mic (Lindl.) L. Fabaceae Indigofera Ghureja NP Na gerardiana Wall. Desmodium elegans Spin NP Mic DC. ghwareja Polygonaceae Polygonum Palpolak H Mes aviculare L. Rumex hastatus L. Tarukay Ch Mic Rumex dentatus L. Shalkhay Th Mes Ebenaceae Diospyrus kaki L Sur Amlok MP Mic Diospyrus lotus L TurAmlok MP Mic Moraceae Morus nigra L. Toor toot MiP Mi Morus alba L. Spin toot MiP Mi Adiantaceae Adiantum incisum Sumbal Cr Na Forsk. Amaranthaceae Amaranthus Ganhar Th Mic viridis L. Caprifoliaceae Viburnum Gutla MP Mes nervosum L. Berberidaceae Berberis lyceum Kwaray NP Na Royle. Cannabinaceae Cannabis sativa L. Bhang Th Na Caryophyllaceae Stellaria media Oulalai Th Na (L.) Cyr. Fagaceae Quercusincana Banj MP Mic (Husskn.) H.N Platanaceae Platanus Chinar MP Mac orientalis L. Simarubaceae Ailanthus Shandai MP Mic altissima (Mill.) Swing. Salicaceae Salix tetraspermum Kharwala MP Na Roxb.Pl.Corom Eleagnaceae Ealeagnus umbellata Ghanamranga NP Mic Thumb. Pinaceae Pinus wallichiana Pewoch MP Lep L. Pteridiaceae Dryopteris Kwanjay H Lep odontoloma (Moore) Violaceae Viola biflora L. Banafsha Th Mic Podophyllaceae Podophyllum Kakorra Th Mic hexandrum Royle. Fumariaceae Fumaria indica Papra Th Lep (HaussKan) Geraniaceae Geranium SraJarai Th Mic wallichianum Oliv. Juglandaceae Juglans regia L. Ghoz MP Mic Cucurbitaceae Memordica Karela Th Mes charantia L. Brassicaceae Nasturtium Talmera Th Mac officinale R. Br. Brassica compistress L. Oxalidaceae Oxalis corniculata Tarokay Th Na L. Paeoniaceae Paeonia emodii Mamekh Cr Mes Wall. Ex Royle Papaveraceae Papaver somniferum Khashkhash Th Mic L. Solanaceae Datura stramonium Harhanda Ch Mac L. Solanum nigrum L. Kachmacho Th Mic Araliaceae Hedera helix L. Palol MP Mic Cuscutaceae Cuscuta reflexa Benakai Th Ap Roxb. Hippocastinaceae Plectranthus Sperkay NP Mic rugosus L Portulaceae Portulaca Warkharay Th Mes oleracea L. Rhamnaceae Ziziphus sativa Markhanai MP Na Gaertn. Euphorbiaceae Ricinus communis L. Arhanda NP Mac Scrophulariaceae Verbascum thapsus Kharghwag Th Mac (Linn). Valerianaceae Valerianajatamansi Shingatai Cr Mes Jones. Anacardiaceae Toxicodendron Rakhkal MP Mes succedanea (L.I. Mold). Family Botanical name Fl-Fr Part used Araceae Acorus calamusL. Apr-Oct Rhizomes Arisaemaflavum May-July Roots (Forsk.) Schott Arisaema May-July Fruits jacquemontii and Blume rhizome Asteraceae Artemisia Apr-Nov WP vulgaris L Artemisia Apr-Nov Inflo- brevifolia Wall rescence Heliantus July-Sep Seeds & annuus L. leave Taraxacum Feb-May Leaves officinale Weber. Xanthium Apr-Nov WP stramarium L. Tagetes minuta L. Apr-Oct WP Fragaria vesica L. May-July Fruit Lamiaceae Mentha longifolia Aug-Sep WP L. (Huds) Menthapiperata Jul-Sep Leaves (SM.) L. Mentha arvensis L May-Oct Leaves Ajuga bracteosa Apr-May Leaves Wall.ex Benth. Prunella Jun-Oct WP vulgaris L. Saxifragaceae Bergenia ciliata Apr-May Leaves & (Haw.) Sternb rhizome Alliaceae Allium cepa L. Apr-July Bulb & leaves Allium sativum L. Apr-July Bulb & leaves Apiaceae Buniumpersicum Apr-May Seeds B. fedtsc Coriandrum Mar-May Leaves & sativum L. fruits Plantaginaceae Plantago May-Sep Leaves & lanceolata L. seed Plantago major L. July-Sep Leaves & seeds Ranunculaceae Aconitum violaceum Mar-July Roots Jacq. ex Stap Anemone Mar-July Leaves coronaria L. Chenopodiaceae Chenopodium Apr-Sep Leaves & album L. shoots Chenopodium Apr-Sep Leaves & murale L. young shoots Urticaceae Urtica dioca L. May-Oct WP Rosaceae Rubus elipticus Oct-Nov Fruit Smith. Rosa brunonii L. Jun-July Flower Rosa indica L. Mar-Aug Flower Rubusfruiticosus L. May-Sep Fruit Pyrus communis L. Mar-Aug Fruits Pyrus malus L. Apr-May Fruit Pyruspashia Mar-Apr Fruit & Buch-Ham ex. D leaves Prunus domestica L. Aug-Sep Fruit Prunuspersica (L.) Apr-May Fruit Batsch Sorbaria tomentosa Sept-Nov Inilo- (Lindl.) L. rescence Fabaceae Indigofera June-Sep Leaves, gerardiana Wall. shoots & roots Desmodium elegans Aug-Oct Leaves DC. ghwareja Polygonaceae Polygonum July-Aug WP aviculare L. Rumex hastatus L. Apr-May Leaves Rumex dentatus L. May-June Leaves Ebenaceae Diospyrus kaki L July-Aug Fruit Diospyrus lotus L June-July Fruit Moraceae Morus nigra L. June-July Fruits Morus alba L. June-July Fruits Adiantaceae Adiantum incisum Apr-Sept Leaves Forsk. Amaranthaceae Amaranthus May-Nov WP viridis L. Caprifoliaceae Viburnum Mar-June Fruit nervosum L. Berberidaceae Berberis lyceum Apr-Sep Roots & Royle. barks Cannabinaceae Cannabis sativa L. July-Sep Leaves & young shoots Caryophyllaceae Stellaria media May-June WP (L.) Cyr. Fagaceae Quercusincana May-Aug Leaves, (Husskn.) H.N seeds Platanaceae Platanus Apr-May Bark orientalis L. Simarubaceae Ailanthus Apr-Sep Seeds altissima (Mill.) Swing. Salicaceae Salix tetraspermum Jan-Mar WP Roxb.Pl.Corom Eleagnaceae Ealeagnus umbellata Apr-May Flowers Thumb. Pinaceae Pinus wallichiana Feb-Apr Resin L. Pteridiaceae Dryopteris Young odontoloma (Moore) shoots Violaceae Viola biflora L. May-June Flower Podophyllaceae Podophyllum May-June Rhizome hexandrum Royle. Fumariaceae Fumaria indica Mar-May WP (HaussKan) Geraniaceae Geranium June-Sep Leaves & wallichianum Oliv. rhizome Juglandaceae Juglans regia L. May-June Leaves, fruits & bark Cucurbitaceae Memordica June-July Fruits charantia L. Brassicaceae Nasturtium May-Oct Leaves officinale R. Br. Brassica compistress L. Oxalidaceae Oxalis corniculata June-Sep WP L. Paeoniaceae Paeonia emodii Apr-June Roots Wall. Ex Royle Papaveraceae Papaver somniferum Apr-June Leaves, L. fruits & seeds Solanaceae Datura stramonium June-Aug Root & L. flowers Solanum nigrum L. July-Sept Fruits Araliaceae Hedera helix L. Oct-Nov WP Cuscutaceae Cuscuta reflexa May-Aug WP Roxb. Hippocastinaceae Plectranthus Aug-Oct Leaves rugosus L Portulaceae Portulaca June-Sept WP oleracea L. Rhamnaceae Ziziphus sativa Apr-May Fruit Gaertn. Euphorbiaceae Ricinus communis L. July-Aug Seeds Scrophulariaceae Verbascum thapsus June-Aug WP (Linn). Valerianaceae Valerianajatamansi July-Aug Rhizome Jones. Anacardiaceae Toxicodendron May-June Fruit succedanea (L.I. Mold). Family Botanical name Ethnobotanical uses Araceae Acorus calamusL. Cough, dyspepsia, flatulence, colic and diarrhoea. Arisaemaflavum Stomach problems and (Forsk.) Schott kill worms in Cattels. Arisaema Fruits and rhizomes jacquemontii are poisonous and Blume cause sedation. Very small quantity is used during meal for relieving body pain. Also used in small quantities in various preparations by "Hakeems" for psychic and nervous disorders. Asteraceae Artemisia Intestinal worms and vulgaris L skin diseases. Artemisia Respiratory brevifolia Wall stimulant, Intestinal worms, purgative and earache. Heliantus High fever, asthma & annuus L. lung problems. Taraxacum Leaves are ground and officinale Weber. are taken & roots with a glass of milk as tonic. Decoction of roots is used orally to cure the disorder of kidney and liver. Xanthium Leaves are used for stramarium L. treatment of asthma. Stem ash is used as pain killer. The plant is also used as fuel. Leaves are grazed by cattle Tagetes minuta L. Injuries and wounds. Fragaria vesica L. Its edible fruits are carminative and laxative and thus improve digestion. Lamiaceae Mentha longifolia Vomiting, flatulence L. (Huds) and indigestion. Menthapiperata Loss of appetite and (SM.) L. acidity. Mentha arvensis L Against pimples on the Face and as astringent. Ajuga bracteosa Treatment of fever, Wall.ex Benth. vomiting and stomachache Tonsillitis, throat pain, throat swelling. Prunella Wounds, injuries, vulgaris L. acnes and wrinkles. Saxifragaceae Bergenia ciliata Ulcer, piles, (Haw.) Sternb vertigo, headache, wounds. Alliaceae Allium cepa L. Cholera, diarrhoea, dysentery and acnes. Allium sativum L. Obesity, acnes, earache. Apiaceae Buniumpersicum Stomach and abdominal B. fedtsc pain. Coriandrum Joints pain, sativum L. headache, cold and flu. Plantaginaceae Plantago Sores, wounds and lanceolata L. inflammation shealing, laxative, mouth diseases and dysentery. Plantago major L. Fresh leaves are wrapped around the boils, after a day or two the pus drains out and the heal fills up within three days. Leaves are chopped and used for skin discoloration caused by injury. Seeds are used in dysentery. Ranunculaceae Aconitum violaceum Rheumatism, gout Jacq. ex Stap (Joints pains). Anemone Headache and dental coronaria L. pain. Chenopodiaceae Chenopodium The young shoots are album L. cooked in milk, and are eaten with maize (corn) bread, as a local vegetable. Chenopodium Indigestion, piles, murale L. dysentery young and grippe. Urticaceae Urtica dioca L. It is used as a local vegetable (Sag), for curing constipation, also used in pulmonary diseases. Smoked as cigarette for the curing of asthma and also for urticaria. Rosaceae Rubus elipticus Fruits are edible and Smith. are considered as tonic and are used as aphrodisiac. Fruits are carminative and are also used for diarrhoea and looseness of bowel. Rosa brunonii L. The powder of petals is stomach tonic, hedge plant, honey bee species. Rosa indica L. Heart diseases, eye diseases, constipation, leucorrhoea and skin diseases. Rubusfruiticosus L. Used to improve digestion power. Pyrus communis L. Anemia, obesity, constipation, diabetes and colitis. Pyrus malus L. Anemia, gout, muscle pain, bleeding gums, weak memory and dandruff Pyruspashia Wood used for walking Buch-Ham ex. D sticks, combs and as fuel. Leaves and twigs lopped for fuel. The ripe fruits are chewed to cure the injuries of the tongue. Prunus domestica L. Used for digestion and asperients; useful in biliousness and heart of body. Prunuspersica (L.) Demulcent, laxative, Batsch and refrigerant, often added to cathartic decoctions for improvement of flavor. Sorbaria tomentosa Mixed with mustard (Lindl.) L. oil and applied on the newborn child skin to remove skin rashes and also applied to the wound as an antiseptic agent. Fabaceae Indigofera Combat headache and gerardiana Wall. chest pain. The dried powdered root is taken with a glass of water to cure scabies. Powdered dried leaves are also taken with a glass of milk for stomach disorders. Desmodium elegans The paste is layered DC. ghwareja on the infection and use against Eczema. Polygonaceae Polygonum Powdered root mixed aviculare L. to sugar, eaten with glass of milk as a tonic by female. Rumex hastatus L. The leaves are used as local vegetable, which enhances digestion. It is also used as refrigerant in cooling drinks. Rumex dentatus L. Leaves cooked as vegetables that act as diuretic, astringent. The paste is applied externally to soothe the irritation caused by nettle sting. Ebenaceae Diospyrus kaki L fruit have high content makes the immature fruit and bitter. Diospyrus lotus L Carminative, purgative and flatulence. Moraceae Morus nigra L. Tonsillitis, pharyngitis throat pain. Morus alba L. Treatment of jaundice and Hepatitis Adiantaceae Adiantum incisum Diarrhoea, Dysentery, Forsk. Jaundice. Amaranthaceae Amaranthus Eye diseases. viridis L. Caprifoliaceae Viburnum Curing of nervosum L. stomachache. Berberidaceae Berberis lyceum Back pain, bone Royle. fractures, wounds. Cannabinaceae Cannabis sativa L. Loss of appetite & body inflammation. Caryophyllaceae Stellaria media The decoction of (L.) Cyr. plant is considered as purgative. Fagaceae Quercusincana The powdered fruit is (Husskn.) H.N given to children before going to bed for curing of enuresis and diarrhoea., for a period of three weeks. Platanaceae Platanus Powdered dried bark orientalis L. is taken with a glass of milk twice in a day to control diarrhoea. Simarubaceae Ailanthus The ripened seeds are altissima crushed to extract (Mill.) Swing. oil, which is used for the treatment of a skin disease, "urticaria" locally called larrama. Salicaceae Salix tetraspermum Thin flexible Roxb.Pl.Corom branches are bent for making baskets. Leaves are eaten by cattle and the wood is used for fuel and other domestic purposes. Eleagnaceae Ealeagnus umbellata The decoction of Thumb. flowers is heads & fruit used twice a day to combat the heart problem, cough and chest pain and fruits are edible. Pinaceae Pinus wallichiana Locally 3-4 drops of L. resin are mixed with mustard oil and is applied to the ruptured skin as a healing agent. Pteridiaceae Dryopteris It is used as a local odontoloma (Moore) vegetable and is believed to improve digestive power. Violaceae Viola biflora L. Diaphoretic, antipyretic, febrifuge, cancer, epilepsy and nervous disorders. Podophyllaceae Podophyllum Hepatic stimulant, hexandrum Royle. purgative and emetic. Fumariaceae Fumaria indica Jaundice, urinary (HaussKan) tract & bladder inflammation. Geraniaceae Geranium Peptic ulcer, wallichianum Oliv. toothache and eye diseases. Juglandaceae Juglans regia L. Bark (Dandasa) is used for cleaning and sparkling teeth. Decoction of leaves is given in eczema and intestinal worms. Cucurbitaceae Memordica Obesity, breast charantia L. cancer & diabetes. Brassicaceae Nasturtium Its leaves and young officinale R. shoots are boiled in Br. Brassica water and are taken compistress L. as local vegetable for the treatment of constipation and stomachache. Oxalidaceae Oxalis corniculata Bleeding, fever, L. liver, Intestinal, stomach and urinary inflammation. Paeoniaceae Paeonia emodii Back pain, joint pains Wall. Ex Royle bone fracture, hysteria, colic diseases, epilepsy. Papaveraceae Papaver somniferum Cough, L. asthma, gout, Influenza, flu & pain. Solanaceae Datura stramonium Decoction of fresh L. root is taken orally twice a day for a week to treat fever. Drops of the decoction are also applied to the ear for the treatment of earache. Solanum nigrum L. Mouth sores, joint swelling, skin diseases and mouth ulcers. Araliaceae Hedera helix L. Anti-diabetes. Cuscutaceae Cuscuta reflexa Anti-diabetes, Roxb. general body tonic and Anti-dandruff. Hippocastinaceae Plectranthus Mouth sores, pain and rugosus L throat swelling. Portulaceae Portulaca Abdominal pain and oleracea L. skin inflammation. Rhamnaceae Ziziphus sativa Weak immune system, Gaertn. heart diseases, ulcer, inflammation, cold and flu. Euphorbiaceae Ricinus communis L. Earache & fever. Scrophulariaceae Verbascum thapsus Wounds, burns, bone (Linn). fracture and cough and antiseptic. Valerianaceae Valerianajatamansi Insomnia, anxiety, Jones. delirium tremens, hysteria, cholera, snake bite, asthma, ulcers, tremors, headache and eurosis. Anacardiaceae Toxicodendron Poisonous. Cause succedanea dermatitis (L.I. Mold). Table 2. Life forms and leaf size classes of the plants of Malakkheil-Kotkay, District Shangla, Pakistan Life-form classes No. of Percentage Leaf size species classes Therophytes 31 39.74 Microphyll Megaphanerophytes 17 21.79 Mesophyll Nanophanerophytes 11 14.10 Nanophyll Cryptophytes 12 15.38 Macrophyll Hemicryptophytes 05 6.41 Leptophyll Chamaephytes 02 2.56 Megaphyll Aphyllous Life-form classes No. of Percentage species Therophytes 31 39.74 Megaphanerophytes 17 21.79 Nanophanerophytes 14 17.94 Cryptophytes 06 7.69 Hemicryptophytes 05 6.41 Chamaephytes 02 2.56 01 1.28 Table 3. Family wise check list of flora of Malakkheil Kotkay, District Shangla, Pakistan S.no. Family No. of species 1 Aracaeae 3 2 Eleagnaceae 1 3 Ebenaceae 2 4 Asteraceae 6 5 Pinaceae 1 6 Adiantaceae 1 7 Lamiaceae 6 8 Pteridiaceae 1 9 Amaranthaceae 1 10 Saxifrigaceae 1 11 Voilaceae 1 12 Caprifoliaceae 1 13 Alliaceae 2 14 Podophyllaceae 1 15 Berberidaceae 1 16 Apiaceae 2 17 Fumariaceae 1 18 Araliaceae 1 19 Plantaginaceae 2 20 Geraniaceae 1 21 Cuscutaceae 1 22 Ranunculaceae 2 23 Moraceae 2 24 Chenopodiaceae 2 25 Urticaceae 1 26 Juglandaceae 1 27 Hippocastinaceae 1 28 Rosaceae 10 29 Cucurbitaceae 1 30 Cannabinaceae 1 31 Fabaceae 2 32 Brassicaceae 1 33 Caryophyllaceae 1 34 Polygonaceae 3 35 Oxalidaceae 1 36 Fagaceae 1 37 Simarubaceae 1 38 Papavernaceae 1 39 Platnaceae 1 40 Salicaceae 1 41 Solanaceae 2 42 Valerianaceae 1 43 Anacardiaceae 1 44 Portulacaceae 1 45 Paeoniaceae 1 46 Serophulariaceae 1 47 Rhamnaceae 1 48 Euphorbiaceae 1 Fig. 1. Life form spectrum of different plant species of Malakkheil-Kotkay, District Shangla, Pakistan. No. of species Percentage Therophytes 31 39.74 Chamaephytes 2 2.56 Megaphanerophytes 17 21.79 Hemicryptophytes 5 6.41 Nanophanerophytes 11 14.1 Cryptophytes 12 15.38 Note: Table made from bar graph. Fig. 2. Leaf size spectrum of different plant species of Malakkheil-Kotkay, District Shangla, Pakistan. No. of species Percentage Microphyll 31 39.74 Leptophyll 5 6.41 Nanophyll 14 17.94 Mesophyll 17 21.79 Macrophyll 6 7.69 Megaphyll 2 2.56 Aphyllous 1 1.28 Note: Table made from bar graph.
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|Author:||Khan, Shafqat Ali; Hadi, Fazal; Ibrar, Muhammad; Samreen, Ulfat|
|Publication:||Pakistan Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research Series B: Biological Sciences|
|Date:||Mar 1, 2019|
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