Indigenous Cultural Tourism as part of the Birdsville/Strzelecki experience.
Cultural heritage and tourism survey of the Birdsville and Strzelecki tracks
In 2001, Heritage South Australia and the Australian Heritage Commission jointly funded a survey to identify places of historic heritage significance at national, state and local level in a strip approximately one hundred kilometres wide (50km either side) along the Birdsville and Strzelecki Tracks. The survey area included the three main settlements of Marree, Innamincka and Birdsville as well as Burke and Wills' sites in Queensland. This part of outback South Australia is one of the last regions to be surveyed under the State's systematic heritage survey program that was begun in the late 1970s. This survey differed from all previous South Australian regional heritage surveys in several respects. The project area extended over the state border into Queensland in two places (Birdsville itself, and the Burke and Wills sites near Nappa Merrie). And, for the first time, a regional heritage survey was combined with a tourism strategy based on heritage management principles. This is also unusual in the tourism world, where heritage management considerations are not a common starting point for regional tourism development strategies.
The primary objectives of the Birdsville and Strzelecki Tracks Historic Heritage Survey were to assess cultural heritage resources associated with the Birdsville and Strzelecki Tracks, to test assessment methodologies and recommend places for listing in national, state and local heritage registers, and to contribute to developing a regional heritage tourism strategy for the Lake Eyre Basin (1). Although the term 'cultural heritage' at face value could be expected to include Indigenous heritage, it was clear for this survey that it meant (non-Indigenous) 'historic heritage', with 'contact history' (2) being the only referent where Indigenous cultural heritage would fit within the brief.
Potential themes relevant to the survey area were identified as Indigenous/non-Indigenous contact, exploration, pastoralism, transport and communications, social life and organisations (hotels, settlements and outback general stores) and the geology and natural history of the region. The project brief specified (Anon. 2001) that recommendations should be restricted to places of significant interest, and that these might
... include a building, an industrial site, a monument, a ruin, a vacant area which may be of archaeological significance, a burial place, a garden, a plantation, a geological site or a variety of other places.
The brief also required that recommendations be developed for the heritage tourism potential of significant heritage places throughout the survey area. The heritage tourism strategy was supported by the Australian Heritage Commission which is responsible for historic, Indigenous and natural heritage at the national level. The heritage survey documentation was required (Anon. 2001) to
... include how these places are currently being used or managed, their condition, recommendations about potential and suitability of these heritage places for use in heritage tourism itineraries and how they might be used thematically, and in conjunction, with natural and/or indigenous heritage places in the Survey Area. (3)
This requirement reflected the broader ambit and interests of the Australian Heritage Commission which has been supporting an integrated approach to heritage management since the 1998 Heritage Convention. (4) However, as the heritage survey itself was confined to places of historic significance in the post-settlement period, the links with Indigenous or natural heritage places could only be indicated in a general way. As part of the survey, consultations were held with pastoralists, mining industry, national parks and residents of the three towns. Four Indigenous community members were included in the consultations as active members of the wider community, but no specific consultation was held with Indigenous groups about places significant to them. This was the case even with the known Indigenous contact sites such as the Lutheran missions to the Dieri at Killalpaninna, Kopperamanna and Bucaltaninna, and massacre sites such as that at Koonchera waterhole on Clifton Hills Station.
The three places in the region that are on the Register of the National Estate are Burke and Wills Dig Tree Reserve on Nappamerry Station in Queensland, the Koonchera Dune (listed for its natural environment features) and the Cooper Creek floodplain on the Strzelecki Track (AHC 2002a). While the last is mentioned primarily for its natural environmental features, the Australian Heritage Places Inventory notes (AHC 2002b) that the:
[Australian Heritage] Commission has determined that this place has Indigenous values of national estate significance. The Commission is currently consulting with relevant Indigenous communities about the amount of information to be placed on public record.
Killalpaninna, is the only one of the Indigenous contact sites in the region to be listed on the South Australian Heritage Register (AHC 2002a).
The Birdsville Track runs from Marree in the south to Birdsville, just north of the Queensland border. The Strzelecki Track swings east from Lyndhurst and ends at Innamincka, although for the purpose of this survey the road continuing north of Innamincka to the Queensland border near Betoota has been included. The fifty kilometre corridor either side of the tracks extends into Queensland in the Birdsville and Nappa Merrie areas.
The region is arid, and includes Sturt's Stony Desert, the Tirari Desert and the Strzelecki Desert. The multiple watercourses of Cooper Creek and the Diamantina flow intermittently from Queensland to Lake Eyre in the southwest. In flood years they spread for kilometres, filling lakes such as the Coongie Lakes and overflow creeks such as the Strzelecki. In drought years they are reduced to a series of waterholes, often far apart. The landscapes are varied, with wetlands, red and white sand dunes, gibber plains, claypans, salt lakes and mound springs. Summer temperatures are fiercely hot, and winter nights can be very cold. The climate and environment provide a challenging and highly variable set of circumstances both for peoples who live there, and for the travellers who visit.
[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]
Before European and Afghan settlement in the nineteenth century, Indigenous peoples from fourteen or so language groups lived in this demanding country (Tindale 1974). In 2002, the ongoing association of Indigenous peoples with this country is being asserted through native title claims. (5) German missionaries (Moravian and Lutheran) established missions at Kopperamanna and Killalpaninna on outflow lakes of the Cooper in 1866 and 1867 respectively. Both groups spent some time at nearby Bucaltaninna in the 1860s and 1870s. The Moravians stayed only a short time, but the Lutherans continued their missionary work until 1915 when they too abandoned their settlements on the Cooper (Leader-Elliott and Iwanicki in press)). Pastoralists have occupied the region from the 1870s, and pastoralism is now the dominant land use in the region. The pattern of pastoral occupation has been punctuated by periods of prolonged drought during which retreat to the south or elsewhere was the only option for survival. Pastoral stations became small communities of habitation within an environment to be treated with caution. Other uses of the land now include the oil and gas industry, national parks and tourism.
Tourism in the region
The Australian Tourism Commission has always featured outback imagery in its international promotional material. All states except Tasmania are promoting the outback experience that they offer to visitors through their websites and written materials. Places as diverse as Mildura, Longreach, the Desert Parks, Western Australia's Canning Stock Route and the Larrapinta Trail out of Alice Springs are marketed as outback centres or 'experiences'. The South Australian Tourism Commission (SATC) is positioning South Australia as the gateway to the outback, and is heavily promoting the outback experience. The Great Cattle Drive, involving the droving of cattle from Birdsville to Marree during the Year of the Outback in 2002, was used as a publicity focus by the SATC throughout 2002.
Perceptions of pastoralists and townspersons within the survey region are that tourism is growing rapidly and that this is leading to increasing numbers of individuals visiting the outback who do not understand outback codes of behaviour such as camp hygiene, asking permission to enter land away from public access routes, and safe driving in the desert. As the number of visitors to the region continues to grow, the pressures on the fragile environments and heritage places of the outback will increase. This pressure is particularly acute during events such as the filling of Lake Eyre, race meetings and the Cattle Drive.
While there is no detailed information on the numbers of visitors to the survey area or what they do when they are there, a broad picture of visitors to it can be estimated from figures which relate to the whole of the outback region of South Australia. This region stretches north approximately from Port Augusta to the Northern Territory and Queensland across the whole width of the State. Flinders Ranges figures are collected separately. The Flinders Ranges and Outback SA Tourism Profile (SATC 2002) gives the total number of overnight visitors to the outback as 235 000, of whom 54 000 were from overseas. About half of all interstate and international visitors visited both the Flinders Ranges and the outback on their trips, whereas South Australians are more likely to visit one or the other, but not both, in the same trip. Over forty per cent of domestic holiday visitors to outback South Australia were South Australians; New South Wales accounted for seventeen per cent, Queensland fifteen and Victoria twelve (SATC 2002). Most tourism in the region covered by the survey area is generated by independent travellers, with some coach and four-wheel drive safari group tours. The main mode of transport is four-wheel drive vehicles. These figures are consistent with national patterns of outback travel(Robertson and Bradaric 2002:13), which show that:
many domestic visitors to the Outback are from surrounding regions or are travelling on a longer trip with several stops. International visitors are also likely to be on a trip of several stops but are more likely than domestic visitors to travel by air than by car.
The 1997 tourism strategy for the Flinders and outback region (SATC 1997) indicated that the main activities undertaken there by tourists, in order of participation, are:
* scenic drives and sight seeing
* flora and fauna
* visiting historical sites
* bird watching
* 4WD touring
* experiencing Aboriginal culture
* gem collecting.
The 2002 Outback Tourism Profile prepared by the South Australian Tourism Commission (SATC 2002) listed the following top activities undertaken there by visitors to the outback part of the region (excluding the Flinders Ranges):
* walk around/take in sights (60%)
* eat out/restaurants (28%)
* visit friends/relatives (18%)
* visit history/heritage buildings (16%)
* pubs/discos/night life (13%)
* pleasure shopping (13%)
* bushwalking (12%)
* industrial tourism attractions (10%)
* picnic/BBQ (10%)
* guided tour/excursion (8%)
* visit national parks (5%).
It is interesting to note that experiencing Indigenous cultures has disappeared from the list of stated activities over the five years between the two reports. (6)
Motivations and expectations of visitors about the outback and Indigenous culture
No detailed information is available on who visits this area; likewise there is none on the motivations and expectations of tourists who travel to the part of the outback that comprised the study area. Given the range of interests, activities and types of visitors that have been identified in the tourism strategy documents relating to this region (SATC 1997, 2001), it is reasonable to assume that different persons are seeking different sorts of experience and that they will travel in different ways. The information that is available shows a startling lack of awareness of Indigenous connections with outback country.
Black and Rutledge (1995) carried out a survey of perceptions of the outback among international and domestic visitors in the early 1990s. Their sample of 1451 persons from Townsville, Kuranda and Cairns included local residents, domestic tourists and international tourists, and both persons who had visited the outback (61%) and those who had not. Respondents were asked to name four features that best represent the outback. Results were collated, with the top twelve themes emerging as vastness, people, heat, wildlife, dust, natural environment, peacefulness, dryness, plant life, desert, flies and 'Aboriginality'. Indigeneity was therefore the lowest theme in the list of features that was perceived to represent the outback. Features identified as part of Indigeneity in the study were Indigenous peoples, Indigenous culture, paintings, settlements and sites. Persons who had actually visited the outback (2.3%) were less likely to perceive Indigeneity as a feature of the outback than those who had not visited the outback (4.1% of responses). (7) Experiencing Indigenous culture was not mentioned in the lists of activities and experiences in which the respondents had participated. Yet nearly twenty six per cent of respondents had bought a souvenir that had an Indigenous theme: art-work, artefacts, paintings, crafts, didgeridoo, boomerangs or spears (Black and Rutledge 1995:15-24). It seems odd that with this reasonably high level of interest in buying souvenirs with Indigenous themes so few respondents identified Indigenous art or culture as part of the potential outback experience.
These results contrast with other studies that claim relatively high rates of interest among international visitors in visiting the outback, experiencing Indigenous art and craft and cultural displays, and visiting an Indigenous site or community (Bulenda 1995:92, Zeppel 2001a, ATC 2002). Without further research, the reasons for these divergences of perception, and the variance between expressed interest and behaviour can only be a matter of speculation. One finding that may have some relevance is that from a 1998-9 survey of selected international visitors to Australia, from which it emerged that the main barriers to experiencing Indigenous culture were a 'lack of time and ... an inability to gain the required information about the activity to make plans' (ATC 2002:15). Furthermore, visitors interested in Indigenous culture 'claimed that they saw "little" or "no" promotion of Aboriginal tourism while in Australia' (ATC 2002:16). This observation holds true for the Birdsville/Strzelecki region where there is a profound lack of information on Indigenous history and culture in most tourism literature, a point developed below.
Cultural heritage and tourism
There is little manufactured tourism product within the region. The attractions of this part of the outback are derived from its varied arid landscapes, natural environmental systems and its cultural heritage: Indigenous, European and Afghan. The outback is rich with historical associations and stories of courage and endurance, triumph and loss. Its natural and cultural heritage are the magnets that draw most visitors into the region. The tourism strategies recommended in the Birdsville/Strzelecki report are designed to ensure that this heritage can be preserved as a continuing resource, while making it accessible to visitors. The nature of this core tourism product in the region is such that it cannot be readily commodified.
The townships of Marree, Birdsville and Innamincka are small and currently not geared for heavy tourist pressure. Apart from specific events, such as the Birdsville Races, the townships do not cater for tourists at a level comparable with tourist centres such as Uluru or Coober Pedy. With the emphasis on the journey and the process of movement, the tourist experience can be fairly superficial unless there is an awareness of what the environment means, and how peoples have lived within it through the centuries.
One of the main ways in which this understanding can be developed is through communicating the layers of meaning associated with a place using different forms of interpretation such as guide books, guided tours, heritage trails, brochures and signs. The cultural landscapes of the Birdsville/Strzelecki are complex, with the layers of human history inextricably linked with the watercourses and lakes and the dry lands between. Indigenous trading parties, European explorers, pastoralists and the overlanders of stock all followed the watercourses.
The consultancy team was aware that the survey area is rich in Indigenous places; there are middens, stone-workings, burial and carving sites as well as places associated with Dreaming stories. Because South Australian laws and administrative structures separate historic and Indigenous heritage, it was not possible for the survey to incorporate information on any places with significant connections with Indigenous peoples apart from contact sites. Historic, Indigenous and natural heritage are assessed and administered by different agencies, making a consistent approach to heritage management extremely difficult. Built and maritime heritage are administered by Heritage South Australia whose primary roles (Anon. 2002a) are:
... to identify, conserve, protect, promote and provide policy on the built and maritime heritage of South Australia within the context of relevant legislation ... Heritage SA does not deal significantly with Aboriginal, archival, folklife or natural heritage, nor with built heritage judged of local significance.
Heritage South Australia administers legislation relating to the non-Indigenous historic environment and manages the State's heritage survey program. Indigenous heritage is administered through the Department of State Aboriginal Affairs which facilitates 'appropriate identification, recording and conservation of Indigenous culture and history throughout the State through the administration of the Aboriginal Heritage Act 1988' (Anon. 2002b).
This legal separation led to an incomplete assessment of places of cultural significance and a tourism strategy that could point the need for consultation and inclusion but could not be inclusive because the research task and outcomes were constrained by the legislative framework.
The heritage survey was able to discuss the history of contact between Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples in the region, drawing from existing published work by authors as different as George Farwell (1950), Lois Litchfield (1986), Helen Tolcher (1996), and Luise Hercus (1985, 1990; Hercus and Sutton 1986). The Indigenous peoples were displaced by settlement and dispossession of watering points along stock routes and the telegraph line. Co-existence with the pastoral industry occurred as well, with many Indigenous persons being involved in the running of stations, contributing to pastoral empires, stock management, horse riding and tracking. The region includes places such as Killalpaninna and Kopperamanna where missionaries came into contact with Indigenous peoples and the settlements of Oodnadatta and Marree (Farwell 1950; Litchfield 1983) where many lived (and live).
It also includes sites of terrible murders and massacres of Indigenous peoples such as those at Koonchera, Lake Hope, Appamanna, Innamincka and Coongie in South Australia and at Cooninghera and Oontoo in Queensland. Journalist George Farwell wrote 'The Dieri and the Wonkonguru were luckless enough to stand directly in the path of a lawless and acquisitive wave of new settlement' (Farwell 1950:165). Hercus, who has studied the oral histories of the Indigenous peoples of the northeast, has identified six major massacres in a relatively small area of the region, including that at Koonchera waterhole on Clifton Hills (Hercus 1991). Here in about 1885, between 200 to 500 individuals were killed in a surprise raid on members of the Yandruwandha, Yawarrawarrka, Karangura and Ngamini peoples who were camped along the southern shore of the waterhole in large numbers for the Mindiri ceremony (Leader-Elliott and Iwanicki 2002).
In the region itself, the Indigenous history and presence is not readily apparent to the traveller or the casual observer. There are exceptions, such as the Arabunna Community Centre at Marree, which includes a small museum of Indigenous artefacts. Tourist brochures for the region have minimal information on the Indigenous presence in the region, and none gives any information on Indigenous history or cultural links with the land. For instance, the Indigenous derivation of Innamincka (Yidniminckanie) and the existence of Indigenous carvings at Cullyamurra Waterhole are the only mentions of Indigenous places in the Flinders Ranges and Outback 2000 Visitor Guide for the Strzelecki Track, and its section on the Birdsville Track mentions the Killalpaninna mission as an attraction (FROSAT 2000). A self-styled 'glove box guide to South Australia's wildlife, waterways and the Outback' has an enigmatic reference to Innamincka having 'the Yauraworka and Yantruwanta existence' (Gibb 2002). No other reference is made to Indigenous presence or history for the Birdsville, Strzelecki or Oodnadatta Tracks.
Most tourist guidebooks covering this region concentrate on the natural environment, and the history they present is mostly the history of non-Indigenous exploration and pastoralism. The mission sites are regularly mentioned in tourism literature, with particular emphasis on Killalpaninna, which is more accessible than the others. Some massacre sites like Koonchera are mentioned in some sources, such as the Royal Automobile Association and Lonely Planet guides to the outback, and the Westprint map of the Birdsville and Strzelecki Tracks (Nicol 1994; O'Byrne et al 1998; Deckert 2002). Ron and Viv Moon's Discover Australia by 4WD (2000:376) has one sentence that acknowledges a past Indigenous presence along the Birdsville Track:
Aboriginal people used the deserts for many thousands of years before the coming of the European, and their trade routes crossed the region, with Flinders Ranges ochre and Lake Eyre pituri being some of the goods traded over extremely long distances.
Johnson and de Courcy (1998) treated the Indigenous association with the region more thoroughly than any of the other sources consulted for this study, drawing on entries in The Encyclopaedia of Aboriginal Australia (Horton 1994). Their information on the Birdsville Track includes a page of information on the Diyari people (1998:106) and several pages on Indigenous culture and history in the area around Innamincka. The pre-contact life of the peoples of the Cooper Creek is discussed briefly, together with anecdotes of Sturt's meetings with them, and a page on 'Pastoralism and the Aboriginal people' (1998:67-70). On the whole, however, there is resounding silence about the Indigenous peoples of the region. There is no discussion of the different meanings of the land and the landscape for Indigenous peoples and non-Indigenous settlers, or of what Zeppel (2001b:134) sees as a requirement for Indigenous tourism: 'the interpretation of Indigenous cultural landscapes'. Missing too is any awareness of the centrality of the concept of country for Indigenous peoples as expressed by Deborah Bird Rose (1996:7-11):
Country is a place that gives and receives life. Not just imagined or represented, it is lived in and lived with ... Country is the key, the matrix, the essential heart of life.
The narrow band of information provided to travellers in this section of Australia's outback is consistent with Zeppel's finding (1999:129) that there was 'limited acceptance of Aboriginal people and acknowledgment of Aboriginal cultures in NSW regional visitor guides', that 'few brochures acknowledge local tribes' or current land custodians, and that '[d]etails about Aboriginal missions and massacre sites are not included in NSW tourism brochures as local history'.
The narrow information range is probably also connected to the low levels of perception among many travellers that the outback is a place where they might come in contact with or experience Indigenous cultures. And it certainly means that travellers relying on these sources and others like them cannot develop an understanding of the layers of cultural depth and meaning in this country. To compound this lack of information in tourist literature, there is effectively no representation of Indigenous histories and cultures on the ground, apart from the Arabunna Community Centre. Indigenous heritage as defined in a recent publication of the Australian Heritage Commission (AHC 2002c) is not represented at all. (8)
Linking heritage and tourism
The Birdsville/Strzelecki heritage tourism strategy was based on principles put forward in two Australian documents that were developed specifically to address issues arising from the interaction of heritage and tourism. The Australian Heritage Commission's Successful tourism at heritage places (AHC 2001) sets out principles and guidelines for tourism operators, heritage managers and communities. Tourism with Integrity (Leader-Elliott 1999) is a self-assessment manual for cultural and heritage organisations that want to succeed in the tourism industry. Together, these two documents provide a theoretical framework and practical tools that can help heritage and tourism to work together successfully (Leader-Elliott 2001).
The factors identified in Successful tourism at heritage places as essential for successful heritage tourism operation are:
* A clear and shared understanding of the significance of places involved
* Respect different cultures including indigenous cultural needs
* Establish community support and ownership
* Develop and maintain active partnerships over time
* Develop appropriate site management practices
* Adhere to sound business and planning principles
* Deliver a quality visitor experience
* Continually improve business, marketing and site management practices.
Both documents recognise that for heritage and tourism to work together successfully, partnerships must be built between the three sectors most directly involved: the tourism industry (including travellers/visitors themselves), heritage managers and members of the communities who identify with heritage places (AHC 2001:9; Leader-Elliott 1999).
The strategic framework devised for the Birdsville/Strzelecki tourism plan included these principles:
* sustainable tourism in this fragile environment requires careful strategic management;
* specific measures will be required for individual sites to protect them against damage;
* the tourist experience will be enhanced if tourists have the opportunity to understand the meaning of the places they see;
* landholders' rights to control access onto their properties should be respected;
* Aboriginal associations with place and Aboriginal culture should be presented and interpreted wherever possible in this region, provided that this is acceptable to relevant Aboriginal communities;
* any presentation or interpretation of Aboriginal associations with place should be determined in collaboration with the Aboriginal communities concerned;
* decisions on presentation and interpretation of sites on pastoral land should be made in consultation with leaseholders;
* existing community initiatives to present and interpret historical and other places of interest should be encouraged and reinforced
* Communities should be involved in interpretive programs wherever possible.
Examples of some of the tourism recommendations of the report are given here to illustrate the ways that these principles have been applied:
* Interpretation should tell the stories of people who have lived along the Tracks, the physical and cultural landscapes and the shaping of the environment.
* Where possible and appropriate, interpretation should include information on Aboriginal associations with place. Decisions on inclusion of information connected with the Aboriginal cultural meaning of places should be made in consultation with the Aboriginal communities concerned.
* Existing community interpretation activities be encouraged and strengthened where appropriate, and interpretive signs be developed and planned in consultation with local people.
Principles such as those outlined by James (1999) and Janke (1998) were also taken into account in framing the strategic framework and recommendations in relation to Indigenous culture and heritage. A general recommendation was made that Indigenous communities be consulted to identify aspects of Indigenous history, culture and landscape values that might be represented and interpreted to visitors, and ways in which any such interpretation might be carried out. Other recommendations were that:
* The Aboriginal story be told for places already in the public eye and wherever appropriate.
* Interpretive signage on landscapes, such as at Mungerannie Gap, Moppa Collina, and Strzelecki Crossing, should include their Aboriginal meaning and story if this is acceptable to the relevant communities and observes correct protocols.
* Aboriginal places suitable for interpretation be identified along the Birdsville and Strzelecki Tracks.
* Contemporary and recent Aboriginal experience be included in interpretation and story telling where appropriate as well as the more remote past and Dreaming stories. Life in the townships and settlements could be included as well as pastoral life on the stations.
The constraints imposed by the segmentation of state heritage legislation imposed a methodology that precluded a holistic approach to cultural heritage assessment in this region. It was not possible to discuss with traditional owners whether they might want to have some knowledge of their stories and their country included as places for which interpretation might be suitable. Indigenous community members consulted identified some places of post-settlement heritage interest, expressed an interest in telling their own memories and family stories and accepted the open nature of the recommendations made.
Australian and international tourists can only develop an integrated cultural awareness of place and space if the information is available to them to do this. It is important to work collaboratively to develop ways in which the depth and richness of Indigenous association with the land can be presented and interpreted, while respecting the need for the spiritual meanings of many places to remain out of the public domain. Consultation with Indigenous communities is essential for the identification of places which have potential for interpretation, to the ways in which they might be interpreted, managed and presented.
Peter Bell, Justin McCarthy and Iris Iwanicki were the consultancy team members responsible for the historical and archaeological input to the heritage survey. Iris Iwanicki and Lyn Leader-Elliott copresented a paper dealing with some of the issues raised here at the Sharing the Space Conference, Flinders University, 2002.
(1.) The Lake Eyre Basin project is being funded through the Commonwealth government and is managed through the Lake Eyre Basin Coordinating Group based in Longreach.
(2.) That is, activities associated with places occupied in the period of and following initial non-Indigenous settlement, hereafter referred to as 'post-settlement' (contrasted with 'pre-contact') places / periods; these do not necessarily exclude Indigenous events and places, but tend to emphasise non-Indigenous aspects. 'Contact history' is used to refer to events / places that especially are associated with Indigenous/non-Indigenous interaction.
(3.) Present writer's italics.
(4.) For instance, the Australian Heritage Commission has published Protecting Local Heritage Places (1999) and Successful Tourism at Heritage Places (2001), both of which incorporate historic and Indigenous cultural heritage as well as natural heritage.
(5.) The South Australian office of the National Native Title Tribunal advised on 14 November 2002 that the following native title claims were currently before them: Wangkangurru/Yarlunyandi Native Title Claim (Queensland area around Birdsville); and, north to south: Wangkangurru/Yarlunyandi, Yanddruwandha/ Yawarrawarrka, Dieri Mitha, Barngarla, Edward Landers Dieri Peoples, Kugani and Adnyamathanha #1.
(6.) The data (SATC 2002) was drawn from the Bureau of Tourism Research's National Visitor Survey 2001. The 1997 Flinders and Outback Tourism Strategy (SATC 1997) does not give the source of its information, and simply ranks the activities rather than ascribing figures to them.
(7.) Present writer's emphasis.
(8.) AHC (2002c):
Indigenous heritage--is dynamic. It includes tangible and intangible expressions of culture that link generations of Indigenous people over time. Indigenous people express their cultural heritage through 'the person', their relationships with country, people, beliefs, knowledge, law, language, symbols, ways of living, sea, land and objects all of which arise from Indigenous spirituality. Indigenous heritage places--are landscapes, sites and areas that are particularly important to Indigenous people as part of their customary law, developing traditions, history and current practices. All Indigenous heritage places have associated Indigenous heritage values. Indigenous heritage values--include spirituality, law, knowledge, practices, traditional resources or other beliefs and attachments.
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Lyn Leader-Elliott lectures in Cultural Tourism at Flinders University. She was a member of the national steering committee for the project that developed Guidelines for Successful Heritage Tourism and is joint author of the heritage and cultural tourism best-practice model Tourism with Integrity. She is Chief Investigator in an ARC-funded project developing a framework for identifying and interpreting the cultural landscapes of the Adelaide Hills Face Zone.
Flinders University, <firstname.lastname@example.org>
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|Publication:||Australian Aboriginal Studies|
|Date:||Sep 22, 2002|
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