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Index nominum familiarum plantarum vascularium.

Sensitivae: The Batsch (Tab. Affin. Regn. Veg.: 23. 2 Mai 1802) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with a description in Latin. The earlier Batsch (Dispos. Gen. Pl. Europ.: 120. 1794) name is a nom. nud. The name is not based on the illegitimate later genus Sensitiva Raf. (1838 [equivalent to] Mimosa L., 1753).

Senticosae: The Linnaeus (Philos. Bot.: 31. 1755) and Oeder (Elem. Bot.: 154. 1766) name is a nom. nud., the former proposed at the rank of Fragmenta. The Gerard (Fl. Gallo-Prov.: xsvii, 374. 1761) and Giseke (Prael. Ord. Nat. Ph: 444. 1792) names are nom. nud. The Batsch (Dispos. Gen. Pl. Jenens.: 33. 1786) and Willdenow (Grundr. Krauterk.: 183. 1792) names are effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and are associated with descriptions in Latin.--Other orthography: Senticosia Raf., Anal. Nat.: 172. 1815; Senticoses Raf. in The Casket 1827: 33. 1827.

Sepiariae: The Linnaeus (Philos. Bot.: 30. 1755) and Oeder (Elem. Bot.: 154. 1766) name is a nom. nud., the former proposed at the rank of Fragmenta. The Gerard (Fl. Gallo-Prov.: xxix, 460. 1761) name is a nom. nud. The Giseke (Prael. Ord. Nat. Pl.: 506. 1792) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with a description in Latin. Other orthography: Sepeariae Woodv., Med. Bot., ed. 2, [1:] 280. 1810.

Sequoiaceae Luerss., Grundz. Bot. 265. Jan 1877 ("Sequoieae").--Type: Sequoia Endl., 1847, nom. cons.--Validated by a diagnosis in German.--Isonym: Arnoldi in Bull. Soc. Naturalistes Moscou n.s., 14: 470. 1900, validated by a diagnosis in German. The earlier F. Thomas (Jahrb. Wiss. Bot. 4: 53, 54. 1865, as "Sequoieen" germanice) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with a poorly organized diagnosis in German.--First correct orthography: Luerssen, Grundz. Bot., ed. 2: 338. 1879. Other incorrect orthography: Sequoiineae Seward, Foss. Pl. 4: 124, 151. 1919.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--SEQU

Serratulaceae Martynov, Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 577. 31 Jul-5 Aug 1820 ("Serratulae").--Type: Serratula L., 1753.--Validated by a reference to an effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published Augier (Essai Nouv. Classif. Veg.: 165, 168. 1801, as "Serratules" (gallice)) family name with descriptions in French. The Gerardin & Desvaux (Dict. Rais. Bot.: 733. 1817, as "Serratules" (gallice)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with a reference to Augier (1801).--First correct orthography: Post & Kuntze, Lex. Gen. Phan.: 277, 714. 1903.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--SERR

Sesamaceae R. Br. ex Bercht. & J. Presl, Prir. Rostlin: 246. 1820 ("Sesamoideae").--Type: Sesamum L., 1753.--Validated by a description in Czech. The earlier Rafinesque (Anal. Nat.: 187. 1815, as "Sesamia") and R. Brown ex DC. (Theorie Elem. Bot., ed. 2: 247. 1819, as "Sesamees" (gallice)) names are nom. nud.--First correct orthography: Horaninow, Prim. Lin. Syst. Nat.: 74. 1834. Other incorrect orthography: Sesameae Perleb, Consp. Meth. Pl. Nat.: 7. 1822; Sesamidia Raf., Fl. Tellur. 1: 29. 1837; Sesamides Raf., Fl. Tellur. 4: 68. 1838; Sesemaceae Moldenke, Preh Class. Pl. Kingd.: 21. 1944.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--SESA

Sesleriaceae: The Barnhart (Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 22: 7. 1895) and Moldenke (Prel. Class. Pl. Kingd.: 24. 1944) name (also as "Sessleriaceae") is cited in synonymy.--Sesleria Scop., 1760. Barnhart (1895) incorrectly attributed family rank to a not validly published (Art. 32.1 (c)) Fries (Summa Veg. Scand. 1: 80. 1845, as "Sesleriaceae ("Sessleriaceae")) name.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Sesuviaceae Horan., Prim. Lin. Syst. Nat.: 83. 2 Nov 1834 ("Sesuviaceae (Ficoideae)").--Type: Sesuvium L., 1759.--Validated by a description in Latin and proposed as an alternative (Ficoideae Juss., Gen. Pl.: 316. 4 Aug 1789; Art. 34.2) for the effective (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) name with a description in Latin.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--SESU

Setehellanthaceae Iltis in Taxon 48: 260. 17 Mai 1999.--Type: Setchellanthus Brandeg., 1909.--Validated by a description in Latin.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--SETC

Sexglumaceae: The Dulac (Fl. Hautes-Pyrenees: 98, 608. 1867) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with a description in French.

Sheae--see Sheadendraceae.

Sheadendraceae: The Bertoloni (Mem. Reale Accad. Sci. Ist. Bologna 2: 575. 1850, as "Sheae") name is not validly published (Arts. 32.1(c), 34.1(a)).--Type: Sheadendeon Bertoh, 1850. First correct orthography: Reveal, Index Nomen. Supragenic.: Sheadendraceae. 1998.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Shoreaceae: The W. Roxburgh ex Wallich (Numer. List: 4405. 1831) and Barnhart (Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 22: 18. 1895) name is a nom. nud. The Moldenke (Prel. Class. Pl. Kingd.: 17. 1944) name is cited in synonymy.--Shorea Roxb. ex C. F. Gaertn., 1805.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Sibbaldiae: The Trattinnick (Gen. Pl.: 43. 1802) name is a nom. nud. and its rank uncertain ("familias sucundarias").--Sibbaldia L., 1753.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Sibthorpiaceae D. Don in Edinburgh New Philos. J. 19: 114. Jul 1835.--Type: Sibthorpia L., 1753.--Validated by a description in English. The earlier Trattinnick (Gen. Pl.: 63. 1802, as "Sibthorpiae") name is a nom. nud. and its rank uncertain ("familias sucundarias").--Incorrect orthography: Sibthorpieae Bromhead in Edinburgh New Philos. J. 20: 253. 1836.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--SIBT

Sicyaceae: The Rafinesque (Anal. Nat.: 195. 1815 & Fl. Tellur. 1: 31. 1837, as "Sicidia") name is a nom. nud.--Sicyos L., 1753.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Sidaceae: The Rafinesque (Anal. Nat.: 183. 1815, as "Sidaria") name is a nom. nud. The Barnhart (Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 22: 17. 1895), Post & Kuntze (Lex. Gen. Phan.: 173, 714. 1903) and Moldenke (Prel. Class. Pl. Kingd.: 17. 1944) name is cited in synonymy.--Sida L., 1753.--Barrthart (1895) incorrectly attributed family rank to a Dumortier (Anal. Fam. Pl.: 46. 1829, as trib. Sideae ("Sidaceae")) name with a diagnosis in French. In synonymy, Post & Kuntze (1903) incorrectly attributed family rank of an effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published Sprengel (Anleit. Kenntn. Gew., ed. 2, 2(2): 801. 1818, as "Sideen" (germanice)) name with a diagnosis in German.--First correct orthography: Barnhart in Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 22: 17. 1895.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Sideroxylaceae: The Baumann-Bodenheim (Syst. Fl. Neu-Caled. 4: 133. 1989 & 5: 43. 1989) name is a nom. nud. and cited in synonymy.--Sideroxylon L., 1753.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Silenaceae Bartl. in Bartl. & Wendl., Beitr. Bot. 2: 160. Dec 1825 ("Sileneae"), basionym: trib. Sileneae DC., Prodr. 1: 351. medio Jan 1824.--Type: Silene L., 1753.--Basionym validated by a diagnosis in Latin; family name validated by a description in Latin and a reference to the basionym.--First correct orthography: E. Meyer, Geogr. Preuss. Pfl. 4. 1834. Other incorrect orthography: Silaneae Herausgeber, Linnaea 31: 327. 1861-1863. Post & Kuntze (Lex. Gen. Phan.: 85, 714. 1903) incorrectly attributed the family rank to the Candolle (1824) name.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--SILE

Sileraceae: The Barnhart (Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 22: 20. 1895) and Moldenke (Prel. Class. Pl. Kingd.: 20. 1944) name is cited in synonymy.--Siler Mill., 1754.--Barnhart (1895) incorrectly attributed family rank to a not validly published (Art. 32.1 (c)) J. Presl & C. Presl (Del. Prag. 1: 127. 1822, as trib. Silereae ("Sileraceae")) name.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Siliaceae: The Rhind (Hist. Veg. Kingd.: 202. 1840-1841) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with a description in English. Note: Perhaps a lapsis for Liliaceae, but included in the index and in the 1855 edition.

Siliculosae: The Crantz (Stirp. Austr.: 2, 27. 1762 & Stirp. Austr. ed. 2: 3. 1769) name is a nom. nud.

Siliquosae: The Linnaeus (Philos. Bot.: 34. 1755), Hailer (Enum. Stirp. Helv. 2: 1. 1759 & Misc. Soc. Taur. 2: 4. 1762), and Oeder (Elem. Bot.: 154. 1766) name is a nom. nud., the first proposed at the rank of Fragmenta. The Batsch (Dispos. Gen. Pl. Jenens.: 43. 1786) and Giseke (Prael. Ord. Nat. Pl.: 481. 1792) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with a description in Latin.

Simabaceae Horan., Char. Ess. Fam.: 179. 30 Jun 1847.--Type: Simaba Aubl., 1775.--Validated by a description in Latin. The earlier Horaninow (Tetractys: 31. 1843) name is a nom. nud.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--SIMB

Simaroubaceae DC. in Nouv. Bull. Sci. Soc. Philom. Paris 2: 209. Jan 1811 ("Simarubeae"), nom. cons.--Type: Simarouba Aubl., 1775, nom. cons.--Validated by a description in Latin.--Isonym: DC. in Ann. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. 17: 422. Jul-Aug 1811 ("Simarubeae"), validated by description in Latin. The earlier Richard (Demonstr. Bot.: 21. 1808, as "Simaroubacres" (gallice)) name is a nom. nud.--First correct orthography: A. Heller, Cat. N. Amer. Pl.: 124. 1900. Incorrect orthography: Simaroubeae Martynov, Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 582. 1820; Simarubaceae Perleb, Lehrb. Naturgesch. Pflanzenr.: 328. 1826; SimarubaceaA. Gray in Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts 12: 161. 1877; Simarrubaceae Urbina, Cat. Pl. Mex.: 38. 1897.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--SIMA

Simethidaceae: The G. Dahlgren (Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 100: 202. 1989) name is a nom. nud.--Simethis Kunth, 1843, nom. cons.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Simmondslaceae Tiegh. in Bot. Jahresb. 25(2): 422. Oct-Dec 1899.--Type: Simmondsia Nutt., 1844.--Validated by a reference to an effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published Tieghem (Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., ser. 8, 5: 300. Jul 1898, as "Simmondsiacees" (gallice)) family name with a diagnosis in French.--Isonym: (J. Mtill.-Arg.) Tiegh. ex Reveal & Hoogland in Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat., ser. 4, B Adansonia 12: 206. 24 Nov 1990, basionym: trib. Simmondsieae Mull.-Arg. in DC., Prodr. 16(1): 9, 22. medio Nov 1869, basionym validated by diagnoses in Latin; family name validated by a full and direct reference to the basionym. The earlier Tieghem (J. Bot. (Morot) 12: 111. 16 Mar 1898, as "Simmondsiacees" (gallice)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with a diagnosis in French.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--SIMM

Simplices: The Trattinnick (Gen. Pl.: 5, 43. 1802) name is a nom. nud.

Sinapidaceae: The Rafinesque (Anal. Nat.: 181. 1815 & Fl. Tellur. 1: 28. 1837, as "Sinapidia") name is a nom. nud. The Lemaire (in Orb., Dict. Univ. Hist. Nat. 5: 8, 298, 408, 414, 559. 1845, as "Sinapacees") name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is proposed as a substitute for a Jussieu (Gen. Pl.: 237. 4 Aug 1789, as "Cruciferae") family name with a description in Latin.--Sinapis L., 1753.--First correct orthography: presented here.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Singenesiaceae--see Syngenesiaceae

Sinofranchetiaceae Doweld in Byull. Mosk. Obshch. Ispyt. Prir., Biol. 105(5): 60. 9 Oct 2000.--Type: Sinofranchetia (Diels) Hemsl., 1907.--Validated by a description in Latin.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--SINF

Sinopteridaceae Koidz. in Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 3: 50. 30 Mai 1934, nom. rej. in favour of Adiantaceae.--Type: Sinopteris Chr. & Ching, 1933.--Validated by a description in Latin.--[PTERIDOPHYTA]. NCU--SINO

Siparunaceae (A. DC.) Schodde in Taxon 19: 325. 29 Jun 1970, basionym: trib. Siparuneae A. DC., Prodr. 16(2): 641, 642. late Jul 1868.--Type: Siparuna Aubl., 1775.--Basionym validated by diagnoses in Latin; family name validated by a full and direct reference to the basionym.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--SIPA

Siphonandraceae Klotzsch in Linnaea 24: 11. Mai 1851, nom. illeg. (Art. 18.3).--Type: Siphonandra Klotzsch, 1851, nom. illeg. (Art. 53.1: non Turcz., 1848).--Validated by a description in Latin in a key.--Incorrect orthography: Siphonandrae Asch., Fl. Brandenburg, ed. 2: 99. 1864; Syphonandraceae Pacher in Jahrb. Naturhis. Landesmus. Karnten 16: 152. 1884.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Siphonanthaceae Raf, Fl. Tellur. 4: 87. medio 1838 ("Siphonanthia").--Type: Siphonanthus L., 1753.--Validated by a diagnosis in English.--First correct orthography: Reveal in Phytologia 74: 230. 1993. Other incorrect orthography: Siphonanthides Raf., Sylva Tellur.: 172. 1838.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--SIPT

Siphonodontaceae (Croizat) Gagnep. & Tardieu in Notul. Syst. (Paris) 14: 102. Jul-Sep 1951, nom. cons., basionym: subfam. Siphonodontoideae Croizat in Lilloa 13: 41. 1947 ("Siphondonoideae").--Type: Siphonodon Griff., 1844.--Basionym validated by a diagnosis in Latin; family name validated by a reference to the basionym. The earlier Gagnepain (Bull. Soc. Bot. France 87: 272. 1941, as "Siphonodontacees" (gallice)) name is not validly published (Arts. 18.4, 32.1(c)).--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--SIPH

Sisymbriaceae Martynov, Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 583. 31 Jul-5 Aug 1820.--Type: Sisymbrium L., 1753.--Validated by a reference to an effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published Augier (Essai Nouv. Classif. Veg.: 113, 121. 1801, as "Sisymbriacees" (gallice)) family name with descriptions in French. The Gerardin & Desvaux (Dict. Rais. Bot.: 735. 1817, as "Sisymbriacres" (gallice)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with a diagnosis in French and a reference to Augier (1801).--Other orthography: Sisymbriae G. Spratt, Fl. Med. 1: 6. 1829.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--SISY

Skimmiaceae: The Lavallee (Enum. Arbres: 40. 1877, as "Skimmieae") name is a nom. nud.--Skimmia Thunb., 1783, nom. cons. First correct orthography: presented here.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Sladeniaceae Airy Shaw in Kew Bull. 18: 267. 8 Dec 1965, basionym: subfam. Sladenioideae Gilg & Werderm. in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam., ed. 2, 21: 41. 1925.--Type: Sladenia Kurz, 1873.--Basionym validated by a diagnosis in German in a key; family name validated by a description in Latin and a reference to the basionym.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--SLAD

Smeathm anniaceae Mart. ex Perleb, Clav. Class.: 33. 1838 ("Smeathmannieae").--Type: Smeathmannia Sol. ex R. Br., 1821.--Validated by a diagnosis in Latin in a key. The earlier Martius (Consp. Regn. Veg.: 59. 1835, as "Ordo [= fam.] Passifloreae fam. [= ?] Smeathmannieae") name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Arts. 32.1(c), 33.7) published.--First correct orthography: Reveal in Phytologia 74: 214. 1993.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--SMEA*

Smilacaceae Vent., Tabl. Regne Veg. 2: 146. 5 Mai 1799 ("Smilaceae"), nom. cons.--Type: Smilax L., 1753.--Validated by a description in French.--First correct orthography: Trautvetter, Estestv. Istor. Gub. Kievsk. Uchebn. Okr. Bot. Sist.: 19. 1853. Other incorrect orthography: Smilaxia Raf., Anal. Nat.: 200. 1815; Smilacoideae Vest, Anleit. Stud. Bot.: 267, 285. 1818; Smylaceae Martynov, Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 205. 1820; Smilacinae Link, Enum. Hort. Berol Art. 2: 426. 1822; Smilacineae Hook., Exot. Fl. 2: 125. 1824; Smilacea Raf., New Fl. N. Amer. 3: 9. 1838; Smilaxides Raf., Sylva Tellur.: 174. 1838.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--SMIL

Smyrniaceae Burnett, Outl. Bot.: 773, 1093, 1128. Jun 1835.--Type: Smyrnium L., 1753.--Validated by diagnoses in English.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--SMYR

Solanaceae Juss., Gen. Pl.: 124. 4 Aug 1789 ("Solaneae"), nom. cons.--Type:Solanum L., 1753.--Validated by a description in Latin. The earlier Hailer (Enum. Stirp. Helv. 1: 57. 1759, 3: 82. 1760 & Enum. Stirp.: 34. 1760), Gerard (Fl. Gallo-Prov.:xxvi, 313. 1761) and Duchesne (Man. Bot. Cat.: 12. 1764, as "Solani") names are nom. nud.--Original place of publication:Adans., Fam. Pl. 2: 215. 1763 ("Solana"), validated by a description in French. First correct orthography:Martynov, Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 584. 1820. Other incorrect orthography:Solanacea Batsch, Syn. Univ. Gen. Pl.: 392. 1794 or Dispos. Gen. Pl. Europ.: 124. 1794; Solanae A. Delarbre, Fl. Auvergne, ed. 2: 59. 1800; Solanoideae Vest, Anleit. Stud. Bot.: 274, 302. 1818; Solanea Raf., Med. Fl. 1: 147. 1828; Solanideae Dumort., Anal. Fam. Pl.: 20, 24. 1829; Solanaces Raf. in The Casket 1827: 318. 1827; Solanineae Kostel., Allg. Med.-Pharm. Fl. 3: 938. 1834; Solanieae Kostel., Allg. Med.-Pharm. Fl. 6: 2010. 1836; Solanides Raf., Fl. Tellur. 3: 73. 1837.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--SOLA

Solmsiaceae: The Baumann-Bodenheim (Syst. Fl. Neu-Caled. 4: 133. 1989 & 5: 43. 1989) name is a nom. nud. Solmsia Baill., 1871.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Solomaneae: The Salisbury (Monthly Rev. 86: 302. 1816) name is a nom. nud. Other orthography: Solomaniaceae Mabb. in Taxon 29: 602. 1980.

Sonneratiaceae Engl. in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. Nachtr.: 261. 1897, nom. cons.--Type:Sonneratia L.f., 1782, nom. cons.--Validated by a reference to an Engler (Syllabus: 156. Apr 1892, as Blattiaceae) family name with a description in German via an Engler (in Engler & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam., III, 8: 16. Jun 1892) name with a description in German, and thus proposed as an alternative name (Art. 34.2). --Isonym:Engl. & Gilg, Engler's Syllabus, ed. 9-10: 299. Nov-Dec 1924, validated by a description in German.--Incorrect orthography: Sooneratiaceae R. I. Ovando, Clasif. Alfab. Fam. Div. Angiosp.: 32, 48. 1979.--Bullock (Taxon 8: 199. 1959) proposed conservation from the 1897 reference, and this was accepted in 2000.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--SONN *

Sophoraceae: The Sprengel ex Weinmann (Elench. Pl. Horti Pawlowsk.: 196. 1824, as "Sophoreae") name is unranked and associated with a reference to an effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published unranked Sprengel (Anleit. Kenntn. Gew., ed. 2, 2(2): 741. 1818, as "Sophoreen" (germanice)) name with a diagnosis in German. The Candolle ex Martius (Consp. Regn. Veg.: 34. 1835, as "Ordo [= fam.] Papilionaceae fam. [= ?] Sophoreae") name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 33.7) published, and is associated with a reference to a Sprengel ex Candolle (Prodr. 2: 94. 1825, as trib. Sophoreae) name with a description in Latin.--Sophora L., 1753.--First correct orthography: Barnhart in Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 12: 14. 1895.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Soramiaceae Martynov, Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 586. 31 Jul-5 Aug 1820 ("Soramieae").--Type: Soramia Aubl., 1775.--Validated by a reference to an effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published Augier (Essai Nouv. Classif. Veg.: 218, 221. 1801, as "Soramiees" (gallice)) family name with descriptions in French. The Gerardin & Desvaux (Dict. Rais. Bot.: 734. 1817, as "Soramiees" (gallice)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with a diagnosis in French and a reference to Augier (1801).--First correct orthography: Reveal in Phytologia 74: 209. 1993.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--SORA

Sorbaceae Brenner, Florist. Handb.: 94. 1886.--Type: Sorbus L., 1753.--Validated by a description in Finnish.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--SORB

Soulameaceae (Endl.) Pfeiff., Nomencl. Bot. 2(2): 1202. ante 27 Feb 1874 ("Soulameae"), basionym:[unranked] Soulameae Endl., Ench. Bot.: 570. 15-21 Aug 1841.--Type: Soulamea Lam., 1785.--Basionym validated by a description in Latin; family name validated by a reference to the basionym. Earlier, A. Jussieu (in Orb., Dict. Univ. Hist. Nat. 10: 384. 1847) noted that Endlicher proposed a family which included Soulamea but did not give the taxon a name. Family rank traditionally attributed to Endlicher (1841). First correct orthography:Bullock in Taxon 7: 31. 1958.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--SOUL

Soyauxiaceae: The F. A. Barkley (Anthophyta: 46. 1966) name is a nom. nud. The Airy Shaw (in Willis, Dict. Fl. Pl., ed. 8: 1080. 1973),A. Cronquist (Integr. Syst. Classif. Fl. Pl.: 390. 1981), Bedell & Reveal (Phytologia 51: 68. 1982) and C. R. Gunn & al. (U.S.D.A. Tech. Bull. 1796: 43. 1992) name is cited in synonymy.--Soyauxia Oliv., 1882.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Spadicaceae: The Dulac (Fl. Hautes-Pyrenees: 16, 46, 610. 1867) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with a diagnosis in French in a key.

Spaetalumeae: The Nuttall (J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 7: 23. 1834) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with a description in Latin.--Other orthography: Spaetalumaceae R. D. Gibbs, Chemotax. Fl. Pl.: 1076. 1974.

Sparganiaceae Hanin, Cours Bot.: 400. 1811 ("Spargania"), nom. cons.--Type: Sparganium L., 1753. --Validated by a description in French and proposed as an alternative (Art. 34.2) name for a Jussieu (Gen. Pl.: 25. 4 Aug 1789, as "Typhae") family name with a description in Latin.--Isonym: F. Rudolphi, Syst. Orb. Veg.: 27. 1830, validated by a description in Latin. The earlier J. F. N. Morel (Tabl. Ecole Bot. Jard. Pl. Paris: 7. 1801, as "Spargania") name is a nom. nud.--Incorrect orthography: Sparganioideae Schultz Sch., Nat. Syst. Pflanzenr.: 295. 1832.--Post & Kuntze (Lex. Gen. Phan.: 11. 1903) incorrectly attributed family rank to a Link (Handb. 1: 133. 1829, as subfam. Sparganioideae) name with a diagnosis in Latin.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--SPAR *

Sparmanniaceae J. Agardh, Theoria Syst. Pl.: 260. Apr-Sep 1858.--Type: Sparmannia L.f., 1782, nom. cons.--Validated by diagnoses in Latin.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--SPAM

Spartinaceae Burnett, Outl. Bot.: 366. Jun 1835.--Type: Spartina Schreb., 1789.--Validated by a description in English.--Barnhart (Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 22: 7. 1895) incorrectly attributed family rank to an effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 33.7) published Link (Hort. Berol. 1: 46. 1827, as "Ordo [=fam] Gramineae fam. [=?] Spartinaceae") name with a diagnosis in Latin.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--SPAN

Spathaceae: The Linnaeus (Philos. Bot.: 28. 1755) name is a nom. nud. and proposed at the rank of Fragmenta. The Oeder (Elem. Bot.: 153. 1766) name is a nom. nud. The Giseke (Prael. Ord. Nat. Pl.: 274. 1792) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with a description in Latin.

Spathaceae: The Dulac (Fl. Hautes-Pyrenees: 129, 60. 1867) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with a description in French.

Spatheliaceae J. Agardh, Theoria Syst. Pl.: 280. Apr-Sep 1858 ("Spathelieae").--Type: Spathelia L., 1762, nom. cons.--Validated by diagnoses in Latin.--First correct orthography: Reveal in Phytologia 74: 219. 1993.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--SPAT

Spergulaceae Bartl. in Bartl. & Wendl., Beitr. Bot. 2: 158. 1825 ("Sperguleae").--Type: Spergula L., 1753. --Validated by a description in Latin.--Original place of publication: Adans., Fam. Pl. 2: 270. Jul-Aug 1763 ("Spergulae"), validated by a description in French.--Isonym:(Dumort.) Tzvelev in Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 32: 26. 20 Feb 2000, basioym: Trib. Sperguleae Dumort., Anal. Fam. Pl.: 49. 1829, validated by a diagnosis in French; family name validated by a full and direct reference to the basionym.--First correct orthography: Ende, Comm. Meth. Bot.: 30. 1823.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--SPER *

Spermacoceaceae: The Sprengel ex Weinmann (Elench. Pl. Horti Pawlowsk.: 70. 1824, as "Spermacoceae") name is unranked but is associated with reference to an effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published Sprengel (Anleit. Kenntn. Gew., ed. 2, 2(2): 598. 1818, as "Spermacoceen" (germanice)) name with a diagnosis in German. The Martius (Consp. Regn. Veg.: 34. 1835, as "Ordo [= fam.] Rubiaceae fam. [= ?] Spermacoceae") name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 33.7) published, and is associated with a diagnosis in Latin and German. The Bromhead (Mag. Nat. Hist., n.s., 4: 336. 1840, as "Spermacocaceae") name is a nom. nud. The Winkler (Samtl. Giftgew. Deutschl.: 15. 1855, as "Spermacoceae") and Reveal in Phytologia 74: 227. 1993 name is cited in synonymy.--Spermacoce L., 1753.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Spetalumeae--see Spaetalumeae.

Sphaerosepalaceae (Warb.) Tiegh. ex Bullock in Taxon 8: 200. 24 Jul 1959, basionym: Trib. Sphaerosepaleae Warb. in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. III, 6: 310. 14 Mai 1895.--Type: Sphaerosepalum Baker, 1884.--Basionym validated by a diagnosis in German in a key; family name validated by a full and direct reference to the basionym. The earlier Tieghem (J. Bot. (Morot) 14: 49. 1900 & Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., ser. 8, 14: 335. 1901, as Spherosepalacees, (gallice)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with a French diagnosis in a key and a description. The Post & Kuntze (Lex. Gen. Phan.: 670, 714. 1903) name is cited in synonymy. The Bullock (Taxon 7: 31. 1958) name is not validly published (Art. 34.1 (a)) although he cited Tieghem (1900). The Hutchinson (Fam. Fl. Pl., ed. 2: 1: 284. 1959) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 36.1) published, and is associated with a description in English.--Incorrect orthography: Sphaerossepalaceae R. I. Ovando, Clasif. Alfab. Fam. Div. Angiosp.: 32, 47. 1979.--Note: Takhtajan (Sist. Magnoliof. [Syst. Magnolioph.]: 130. 1987) subsequently established Rhopalocarpaceae as a new name for the trib. Sphaerosepaleae Warb.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--SPHA

Sphaerostephanaceae: The Ching (Sunyatsenia 5: 211, 240. 1940) and Verdoorn (Phytomorphol. 1: 41. 1951) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 36.1) published, and is associated with a description or diagnosis in English. The Copeland (Sunyatsenia 6: 166. 1941) and Bir (Aspects Pl. Sci. 6: 192. 1982) name is a nom. nud. The Copeland (Gen. Fil. [in Ann. Cryptog. Phytopathol. 5]: 100. 1947) name is cited in synonymy.--Sphaerostephanos J. Sm., 1839. [PTERIDOPHYTA].

Sphendamnae: The Gerard (Fl. Gallo-Prov.: xxviii, 441. 1761) and Martynov (Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 591. 1820, as "Sphendamneae") names are nom. nud.

Sphenocleaceae (Lindl.) Baskerville, Affin. Pl.: 110. 1839, basionym: subfam. Sphenocleoideae Lindl., Nat. Syst. Bot., ed. 2: 238. Jul 1836 ("Sphenocleaceae"), nom. cons.--Type: Sphenoclea Gaertn., 1788, nom. cons.--Basionym validated by a description in English; family name validated by a reference to the basionym.--Isonym: Mart. ex DC., Prodr. 7(2): 548. late Dec 1839, validated by a description in Latin. The earlier Martius (Consp. Regn. Veg.: 31. 1835) name is a nom. nud.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--SPHE

Sphenostemonaceae P. Royen & Airy Shaw in Kew Bull. 27: 325. 23 Oct 1972.--Type: Sphenostemon Baill., 1875.--Validated by a description in Latin. The earlier Erdtman (Pollen Morph. Pl. Tax. Angiosp.: 413. 1952) name is cited in synonymy.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--SPHS

Spielmanniaceae J. Agardh, Theoria Syst. Pl.: 194. Apr-Sep 1858 ("Spielmannieae"), nom. illeg. (Art. 18.3).--Type: Spielmannia Medik., 1775, nom. illeg. (Art. 52.1: [equivalent to] Oftia Adans., 1763).--Validated by diagnoses in Latin.--Reveal & Hoogland (Taxon 41: 119. 1991) proposed conservation but this was not accepted requiring validation of Oftiaceae.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Spigeliaceae Mart., Nov. Gen. Sp. Pl. 2: 124, 131, 132. Jan-Jun 1827.--Type: Spigelia L., 1753.--Validated by descriptions in Latin.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--SPIG

Spilanthaceae: The Rafinesque (Anal. Nat.: 192. 1815 & Fl. Tellur. 1: 30. 1837, as "Spilanthia") name is a nom. nud.--Spilanthes Jacq., 1760.--First correct orthography: presented here.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Spinaciaceae Menge, Cat. Pl. Grundent. Gedan. 166. 1839 ("Spinacinae").--Spinacia L., 1753.--Validated by a description in Latin.--First correct orthography:Kiger & Reveal, Huntia 11: 68, 82. 2000. --[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--SPIN

Spiraeaceae Bertuch, Tar. Allg. Naturgesch. Gewachs-Reich: Enum. 10, Syn. Tab. 3. 1801 ("Spiraeae"). --Type: Spiraea L., 1753.--Validated by a diagnosis in Latin in a key. The earlier Batsch (Syn. Univ. Anal. Gen. Pl.: 386. 1794 & Dispos. Gen. Pl. Europ.: 119. 1794, as "Spireae") name is a nom. nud. --First correct orthography: Dumortier, Comment. Bot.: 59. 1822. Other incorrect orthography: Spireadia Raf., Anal. Nat.: 173. 1815; Spireaceae G. Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal.: 227. 1825; Spiracea Raf., Med. Fl. 2: 91. 1830; Spiradia Raf., New Fl. N. Amer. 3: 61. 1838; Spireades Raf., New Fl. N. Amer. 3: 61. Jan-Mar 1838 or Alsogr. Amer.: 7. 1838; Spiraceae Sugaw., Ill. Fl. Saghalien [3:] 10. 1940, sphalm. --[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--SPIR

Spiraeanthemaceae Doweld, Tent. Syst. Pl. Vasc.: xxxi. 23 Dec 2001.--Type: Spiraeanthemum A. Gray, 1854.--Validated by a description in Latin. The earlier Baumann-Bodenheim (Syst. Fl. Neu-Caled. 4: 133. 1989 & 5: 43. 1989) name is a nom. nud.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--SPIT

Spirofrondaceae: The Dulac (Fl. Hautes-Pyrenees: 36, 610. 1867) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with a description in French.

Spirolobae: The Link (Handbuch 2: 442. 1831) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with a diagnoses in Latin and German. The name is not based on the later genus Spiroloba Raf., 1838.

Spondiadaceae Martynov, Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 594. 31 Jul-5 Aug 1820 ("Spondiaceae").--Type: Spondias L., 1753.--Validated by a reference to an effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published Augier (Essai Nouv. Classif. Veg.: 218, 219. 1801, as "Spondiacres" (gallice)) family name with descriptions in French. The Trattinnick (Gen. Pl.: 51. 1802, as "Spondiae") name is a nom. nud. and its rank uncertain ("familias sucundarias"). The Gerardin & Desvaux (Dict. Rais. Bot.: 734. 1817, as "Spondiacees" (gallice)) name is effectively (Art. 41. l) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with a diagnosis in French and a reference to Augier (1801).--First correct orthography: Reveal in Phytologia 74: 219. 1993. Other incorrect orthography: Spodiaceae Hassk., Cat. Hort. Bot. Bogor.: 247. 1844.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--SPON

Sporobolaceae: The Herter (Fl. Illustr. Urug. 1:xi, 81. 1941) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly published (Art. 32.1 (a)). The Reveal (Index Nomen. Supragenic.: Sporobolus. 1996) and Stevens (Angiosp. Phylog. Website: Poales. 2001) name is not effectively (Art. 29.1) or validly published (Art. 32.1(a)). The Kiger & Reveal (Huntia 11: 68, 82. 2000) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly published (Art. 32. l(a)).--Sporobolus R. Br., 1810.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Sprengeliaceae: The Barnhart (Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 22: 20. 1895) and Moldenke (Prel. Class. Pl. Kingd.: 20. 1944) name is cited in synonymy.--Sprengelia Sm., 1794.--Barnhart (1895) incorrectly attributed family rank to a not validly published (Arts. 32.1 (c), 33.7) Reichenbach (Consp. Regni Veg.: 128. 1828, as "sect. Sprengeliaceae") name.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Spurionucaceae: The Dulac (Fl. Hautes-Pyrenees: 17, 477, 610. 1867) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with a diagnosis in French in a key.

Stachydaceae: The Salisbury (Prodr. Stirp. Chap. Allerton: 46, 71. 1796), Grrardin & Desvaux (Dict. Rais. Bot.: 532. 1817) and Martynov (Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 597. 1820) name (as "Stachydeae") is a nom. nud. with the last two referring to Salisbury. Dost, 51 (Bot. Nomenkl.: 217. 1957) incorrectly attributed family rank to a Dumortier (Anal. Fam. Pl.: 22. 1829, as trib. Stachydeae ("Stachideae")) name with a diagnosis in French.--Stachys L., 1753.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Stachyopteria: The Rafinesque (Anal. Nat.: 205. 1815 & Fl. Tellur. 1: 33. 1837) name is a nom. nud.

Stachyopterides: The Willdenow (Abh. Kurfurstl.-Mainz. Akad. Nutzl. Wiss. Erfurt 2(5): 7, 11. 1802) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with a diagnosis in Latin. The Wallroth (Comp. Crypt. German. 3: xiv, 28. 1831) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with a diagnosis and a description in Latin.

Stachyosporae: The Schultz-Schultzenstin (Nat. Syst. Pflanzenr.: 278. 1832) name is effectively (Art. 41. l) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with a diagnosis in German.

Stachyuraceae J. Agardh, Theoria Syst. Pl.: 152. Apr-Sep 1858 ("Stachyureae"), nom. cons.--Type: Stachyurus Siebold & Zucc., 1836.--Validated by diagnoses in Latin.--First correct orthography: Engler in Engler & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. Nachtr.: 247. 1897. Other incorrect orthography: Stachyraceae R. I. Ovando, Clasif. Alfab. Fam. Div. Angiosp.: 33, 47. 1979.--Post & Kuntze (Lex. Gen. Phan.: 197, 714. 1903) incorrectly attributed family rank to a not validly published (Art. 32.1 (c)) Blume (Mus. Bot. 1: 162. 1850, as subfam. Stachyuroideae ("Stachyureae")) name.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--STAC

Stackhousiaceae R. Br. in Flinders, Voy. Terra Austral. 2: 555. 19 Jul 1814 ("Stackhouseae"), nom. cons. --Type: Stackhousia Sm., 1798.--Validated by a description in Latin.--First correct orthography: Horaninow, Prim. Lin. Syst. Nat.: 79. 1834. Other incorrect orthography: Stackhousieae Dumort., Anal. Fam. Pl.: 21, 27. 1829; Stackhouseaceae Lindl., Key Bot.: 80. 15-30 Sep 1835 or Trin., Gen. Pl.: 19. 1835; Stakhouseae Leunis, Syn. Pflanzenf.: 178. 1847; Stockhausiaceae Nees in Oesterr. Bot. Wochenbl. 3: 327. 1853; Stackhousieae Orph. in E. Fourn.,Act. Congr. Intern. Bot.: 76. 1867; Stackhausiaceae H.-S. Hu, Chun Tze Chih Wu Fen Lei Hseuh [Taxon. Spermatoph.]: 226. 1951.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--STAK

Stangeriaceae L. A. S. Johnson in Proc. Linn. Soc. New South Wales ser. 2, 84: 68. 29 Jul1959.--Type: Stangeria T. Moore, 1853.--Validated by a description in Latin. The earlier H. A. Nicholson & R. Lydekker (Man. Palaeont. (2:) 1526. 1889, as "Stangerieae") name is a nom. nud.--Brummitt (Vasc. Pl. Fam. Gen.: 478. 1992) incorrectly attributes family authorship to (Pilg.) L. A. S. Johnson.--[PINOPHYTA]. NCU--STAN

Stanleyaceae Nutt. in J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 7: 85. 1834 ("Stanleae").--Type: Stanleya Nutt., 1818.--Validated by a diagnosis in English.--First correct orthography: R. D. Gibbs, Chemotax. Fl. Pl.: 1079. 1974.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--STAY

Stapeliaceae Horan., Prim. Lin. Syst. Nat.: 70. 2 Nov 1834 ("Stapeliaceae (Asclepiadeae)").--Type: Stapelia L., 1753.--Validated by a description in Latin and proposed as an alternative name (Art. 34.2). The earlier Trattinnick (Gen. Pl.: 46. 1802, as "Stapeliae") name is a nom. nud. and its rank uncertain ("familias sucundarias").--Barnhart (Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 22: 21. 1895) incorrectly attributed the family rank to a not validly published (Art. 32.1 (c)) unranked Reichenbach (in Mossler, Handb. 1:xl. 1827, as "Stapeliaceae") name.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--STAL

Staphyleaceae Martynov, Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 598. 31 Jul-5 Aug 1820 ("Staphyleae"), nom. cons.--Type: Staphylea L., 1753.--Validated by a reference to an effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published Augier (Essai Nouv. Class. Veg.: 207, 211. 1801, as "Staphyliers" (gallice)) family name with descriptions in French.--Isonym:Lindl., Syn. Brit. Fl.: 6, 75. Feb 1829, basionym: Trib. Staphylceae ("Staphyleaceae") DC., Prodr. 2: 2. medio Nov 1825, basionym validated by a diagnosis in Latin; family name validated by a diagnosis in English in a key and by a reference to the basionym. The earlier Gerardin & Desvaux (Dict. Rais. Bot.: 735. 1817, as "Staphyliers" (gallice)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with a diagnosis in French and a reference to Augier (1801). Incorrect orthography: Staphyliaceae Hensl., Cat. Brit. Pl.: 5. 1829; Stophyleaceae Eaton, Man. Bot., ed. 6: 23. 1833; Staphileaceae Schur, Verh. Mitt. Siebenb. Ver. Naturw. Hermannstadt 4[Sertum Fl. Transsilv.]: 21. 1853; Staphylaeaceae Willk. & Lange, Prod. Fl. Hispan. 1: xxviii. 1861; Staphyleacheae W.S.O. (trans.) in L. Figuier, Veg. World (New York ed.): 386. 1868; Staphylaceae A. Bernard, Vergl. Fl. Westind. Ostind. Archip.: 48. 1877; Staphylleaceae N. A. Stojanov, Fl. Bulg., ed. 2: 689. 1933.--Barnhart (Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 22: 16. 1895) and Dostal (Bot. Nomenkl.: 217. 1957) incorrectly attributed family rank to the Candolle name.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--STAP

Statieaceae Cassel, Lehrb. Nat. Pflanzenord.: 215. 1817 ("Staticeae").--Type: Statice L., 1753, nom. rej. ([equivalent to] Armeria Willd., 1809, nom. cons.).--Validated by a description in German. Isonym: Hoffmanns. & Link ex Gray, Nat. Arr. Brit. Pl. 2: 291, 295. 1 Nov 1821 ("Staticinae"), validated by an English diagnosis in a key and a description. The earlier Trattinnick (Gen. Pl.: 43. 1802, as "Statices") name is a nom. nud. and its rank uncertain ("familias sucundarias"). The Fischer (Cat. Jard. Gorenki: 29. 1808, as "Staticeae") and Rafinesque (Anal. Nat.: 186. 1815, as "Staticia") names are nom. nud. First correct orthography: Seringe, Fl. Jard. 3: 291. 1849. Other incorrect orthography: Staticea Raf., Med. Fl. 2: 93. 1830; Staticeae G. Mey., Chloris Han.: 345. 1836; Staticineae Buch in Arch. Bot. 1: 488. 1833; Staticidia Raf., Fl. Tellur. 1: 29. 1837; Staticia Raf., Fl. Tellur. 4: 88. 1838.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--STAT *

Statuminatae: The Linnaeus (Philos. Bot.: 35. 1755) and Linnaeus ex Ende (Comm. Meth. Bot.: 17. 1823) name is a nom. nud., the former proposed at the rank of Fragmenta

Stegnospermataceae Nakai in J. Jap. Bot. 18: 108. Mar 1942, basionym: Trib. Stegnospermateae A. Rich. in Sagra, Hist. Fis. Cuba, Bot. 10: 308. 1845 ("Stegnospermeae").--Type: Stegnosperma Berth., 1844. --Basionym validated by a diagnosis in Latin; family name validated by a description in Latin in a key and a reference to the basionym.--Incorrect orthography: Stegnospermaceae B. Hansen & K. Rahn in Dansk Bot. Arkiv. 26: 21. 1969.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--STEG

Stelitaceae: The Dulac (Fl. Hautes-Pyrenees: 421, 611. 1867) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with a description in French.

Stellaceae see Stellatae.

Stellariaceae [1] Dumort., Comment. Bot.: 61. Nov-Dec 1822 ("Stellineae").--Type: Stellaria L., 1753. Validated by a reference to a pre- 1789 Adanson (Fam. Pl. 250. 1763, as "Alsines") family name with a description in French, the original place of publication for the name.--The earlier The Trattinnick (Gen. Pl.: 44. 1802, as "Stellariae") name is a nom. nud. and its rank uncertain ("familias sucundarias"). The Gerardin & Desvaux (Dict. Rais. Bot.: 533. 1817, as "Stellareae") name is a nom. nud. The Sprengel (Anleit. Kenntn. Gew., ed. 2, 2(2): 833. 1818, as "Stellarinen" germanice) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with a diagnosis in German. First correct orthography: Dumortier, Fl. Belg.: 106. 1827.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--STEL

Stellariaceae [2] C. MacMill., Metasp. Minnesota Valley: 344. 1892, nom. illeg. (Art. 18.3).--Type: Stellaria Seg., 1754, nom. illeg. (Art. 53.1:non L., 1753 [equivalent to] Callitriche L., 1753).--Validated by a reference to a later Endlicher (Gen. Pl.: 268. 1840, as Callitrichaceae ("Callitrichinae")) family name with a description in Latin.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Stellatae: The Avon Haller (Enum. Stirp. Helv. 1: 41. 1759 & Enum. Stirp.: 29. 1760) and Oeder (Elem. Bot.: 154. 1766) name is a nom. nud. The Order (Elem. Bot.: 289. 1766), Batsch (Dispos. Gen. Pl. Jenens.: 60. 1786), and Giseke (Prael. Ord. Nat. Pl.: 520. 1792) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with a description in Latin.--Other orthography: Sellatae J. L. Comstock, Intr. Bot., ed. 2: 239. 1833 (sphalm.); Stollatae G. Veesenmeyer, Beitr. Pflanzenk. Russ. Reich. 9: 85. 1854 (sphalm.); Stellataceae Dulac, Fl. Hautes-Pyrenees: 467, 611. 1867.

Stellineae--see Stellariaceae.

Stemonaceae Carrel in Nuovo Giorn. Bot. Ital. 10: 94. Apr 1878, nom. cons.--Type: Stemona Lour., 1790. --Validated by a diagnosis in Italian.--Isonym: Carrel in Atti. Reale Accad. Lincei, Mere. C1. Sci. Fis., ser. 3, 10: 195, 247. 1881, validated by a diagnosis in Italian. Family name traditionally attributed to Engler (in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. II, 5: 8. 26 Mar 1887) who provided a description in German. --[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--STEM

Stemonuraceae (M. Roem.) Karehed, Amer. J. Bot. 88: 2267. 14 Dec 2001, basionym: Trib. Stemonureae M. Roem., Fam. Nat. Syn. Monogr. 1: 8. 14 Sep-15 Oct 1846.--Type: Stemonurus Blume, 1826.--Basionym validated by a diagnosis in Latin in a key; family name validated by a full and direct reference to the basionym.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--STEU

Stenochlaenaceae Ching in Acta Phytotax. Sin. 16(4): 18. Nov 1978.--Type:Stenochlaena J. Sm., 1841. Validated by a description in Latin. The earlier Ching (Acta Phytotax. Sin. 16(3): 10. 1978) name is a nom. nud.--[PTERIDOPHYTA]. NCU--STEN

Stenomeridaceae J. Agardh, Theoria Syst. Pl.: 66. Apr-Sep 1858 ("Stenomerideae"), nom. cons.--Type: Stenomeris Planch., 1852.--Validated by diagnoses in Latin.--First correct orthography: A. Kerner, Pflanzenleben 2: 666. 1891.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU- STED

Stephanangaceae: The Dulac (Fl. Hautes-Pyrenees: 474, 611. 1867) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with a description in French.

Sterculiaceae Vent. ex Salisb., Parad. Lond. 2:ad t. 69. 1807, nom. cons.--Type: Sterculia L., 1753. Validated by a reference to an effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published Ventenat (Jardin Malmaison 2: ad t. 91. 1805, as "Sterculiacees" (gallice)) family name with a description in

French.--Isonym: Bartl., Ord. Nat. Pl.: 225, 340. Sep 1830, validated by a description in Latin and a reference to a Candolle (Prodr. 1: 481. medio Jan 1824, as trib. Sterculieae ("Sterculiaceae")) name with a description in Latin.--Incorrect orthography: Sterculiae Bercht. & J. Presl, Prir. Rostlin: 222. 1820; Sterculieae Anonomyous, Uebers. Pf.-Fam.: 132. 1829; Sterculides Raf., Sylva Tellur.: 71. 1838; Sterculiacea L. Leickhardt in London J. Bot. 4: 288. 1845; Sterculeaceae Leunis, Syn. Pflanzenf.: 197. 1847.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--STER*

Stilaginaceae C. Agardh, Aphor. Bot.: 199. 13 Jun 1824 ("Stilagineae").--Type: Stilago L., 1767.--Validated by a description in Latin.--First correct orthography: Burnett, Outl. Bot.: 542, 1091, 1147. 1835. --[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--STIL

Stilbaceae Kunth, Handb. Bot.: 393. 1831 ("Stilbineae"), nom. cons.--Type: Stilbe P. J. Bergius, 1767. --Validated by a description in Latin. The earlier Rafinesque (Anal. Nat.: 188. 1815, as "Stilbaria") name is a nom. nud.--First correct orthography: Beilschmied in Flora (Bieb.) 16(2): 66. 1833. Other incorrect orthography: Stilbeae Drege in Flora (Beig.) 1843(2): 16. 1843; Stilbinaceae Novak, Vyssi Rostliny: 696. 1961.--Note: Burner (Outl. Bot.: 196. 1835) proposed Stilbaceae for a family of Mycota; it was based on Stilbums Tode ex Fr. (1832).--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--STIB

Stipaceae Burnett, Outl. Bot.: 371. Jun 1835.--Type: Stipa L., 1753.--Validated by a description in English.--The Link (Hort. Berol. 1: 95. 1827, as "Ordo [=fam.] Gramineae Div. (Fam.) [=?] Stipaceae") name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 33.7) published, and is associated with a diagnosis in Latin. Barnhart (Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 22: 7. 1895) incorrectly attributed family to a not validly published (Arts. 32.1(c), 33.7) Kunth (in Humboldt, Bonpland & Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. 1: ed. qu.: 121. 1815, as Sect. "Stipaceae") name.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--STIP

Stipulaceae: The Augier (Essai Nouv. Class. Veg.: 181, 186. 1801, as "Stipulacres" (gallice)) family name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with descriptions in French. The Gerardin & Desvaux (Dict. Rais. Bot.: 735. 1817, as "Stipulacees" (gallice)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with a diagnosis in French and a reference to Augier (1801).

Stixaceae Doweld, New Syllabus: 000. Dec 2004.--Type: Stixis Lour., 1790.--Validated by a diagnosis in Latin.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--STIX*

Stophyleaceae--see Staphyleaceae.

Strasburgeriaceae Soler., Syst. Anat. Dicot. Erganz.: 45. 1908, nom. cons.--Type: Strasburgeria Baill., 1876.--Validated by a reference to an effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published Tieghem (J. Bot. (Morot) 17: 204. 1903, as "Strasburgeriacees" (gallice)) family name with a description in French.--Isonym: Engl. & Gilg, Engler's Syllabus, ed. 9-10: 282. Nov-Dec 1924, validated by a description in German.--Incorrect orthography: Strasburgeraceae Baum.-Bod., Syst. Fl. Neu-Caled. 4: 27. 1990.--Bullock (Taxon 8: 201. 1959) proposed conservation from the 1908 reference, but the later Engler and Gilg reference was accepted.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--STRA*

Stratiotaceae Link, Handbuch 1: 280. 20 Apr 1829 ("Stratioteae").--Type: Stratiotes L., 1753.--Validated by descriptions in Latin and German. The earlier Rafinesque (Anal. Nat.: 197. 1815, as "Stratidia") name is a nom. nud.--First correct orthography: Burnett, Outl. Bot.: 465, 1150. 1835. Incorrect orthography: Stratiotiaceae Baskerville, Affin. Pl.: 93. 1839; Stratides Raf., Fl. Tellur. 1: 32. 1837. --[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. STRT*

Stravadiaceae: The Rafinesque (Anal. Nat.: 196. 1815 & Fl. Tellur. 1: 31. 1837, as "Stravadia") name is a nom. nud.--Stravadium Juss., 1789.--First correct orthography: presented here.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Strelitziaceae Hutch., Fam. Fl. Pl. 2: 72. 1934, nom. cons., basionym: subfam. Strelitzioideae K. Schum. in Engl., Pflanzenr. IV, 45 (Heft 1): 13. 1900.--Type: Strelitzia Ait., 1789.--Basionym validated by a diagnosis in German in a key; family name validated by a description in English and a reference to the basionym. The earlier Trattinnick (Gen. Pl.: 35. 1802, as "Strelitziae") name is a nom. nud. and its rank uncertain ("familias sucundarias"). The F. Voigt (Lehrb. Bot.: 224. 1827, as "Strelitzieae") name is a nom. nud.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU-STRE

Strephonemataceae: The Venkateswarlu & Prakasa Rao (New Phytol. 70: 767, 771. 1971) name is not validly published (Art. 32.3) as the authors make a direct reference only to Excell's (J. Bot. 69: 113. 1931) use of an Engler & Diels (Monogr. Afr. Pflanzenfam. 3: 2. 1899, subfam. Strephonematoideae) name that is associated with a diagnosis in German in a key. The Airy Shaw (in Willis, Dict. Fl. Pl. Ferns, ed. 8: 1109. 1973), A. Cronquist (Integr. Syst. Classif. Fl. Pl.: 654. 1981), Bedell & Reveal (Phytologia 51: 70. 1982) and C. R. Gunn & al. (U.S.D.A. Tech. Bull. 1796: 43. 1992) name is cited in synonymy. --Strephonema Hook.f., 1867.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Streptochaetaceae Nakai, Chosakuronbun Mokuroku [Ord. Fam. Trib. Nov.]: 222. 20 Jul 1943.--Type: Streptochaeta Schard. ex Nees, 1829.--Validated by a description in Latin in a key.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU-STRP

Strichnaceae--see Strychnaceae.

Strigiliaceae: The Rafinesque (Anal. Nat.: 182. 1815 & Fl. Tellur. 1: 28. 1837, as "Strigilidia") name is a nom. nud.--Strigilia Cav., 1789.--First correct orthography: presented here.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Strobilaceae [1]: The Martynov (Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 604. 1820) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with a reference to a Lamarck (as "Filico-Palmees") name. The name given by Martynov has not been found in any Lemarck publication, but there is a discussion (Meth. Encycl. Bot. 4: 710-713. 1797) where Desfontaines view was mentioned that the cycads represented a family distinct from the tree ferns, but neither a name nor a description is provided. The name is not based on the later genus Strobila G. Don (1837) or on the fossil genus Strobilus Hildreth (1837).

Strobilaceae [2]: The Reichenbach (Bot. Damen: 385. 1828, as "Srobilaceae") name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with a brief description in German. The earlier Rafinesque (Anal. Nat.: 178. 1815) and Ficinus (Fl. Dresden, ed. 2: 446. 1821) name is a nom. nud. The name is not based on the later genus Strobila G. Don (1837) or on the fossil genus Strobilus Hildreth (1837).

Strobilaceae [3]: The Dulac (Fl. Hautes-Pyrenees: 17, 151, 611. 1867) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with a diagnosis in French in a key. The name is not based on the genus Strobila G. Don (1837) or on the fossil genus Strobilus Hildreth (1837).

Strobiliferae: The Sprengel ex DC. & Sprengel (transl. W. Jameson) Elem. Philos. Pl.: 140. 1821) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with a reference to an effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Arts. 18.1, 18.4) published unranked Sprengel (Anleit. Kenntn. Gew., ed. 2, 2(1): 209. 1817, as "Zapfenbaume" (germanice)) name with a description in German. Sprengel's name is at a rank above that of family as he recognized within this taxon Pinaceae ("Pineen"), Juniperaceae ("Junipereen") and Taxaceae ("Taxeen"), all of which he termed "Ordung". The name is not based on the later fossil genus Strobilifer Weigelt, 1928.

Stromatopteridaceae (Nakai) Bierh. in Phytomorphology 18: 263. 15 Dec 1968, basionym: subfam. Stromatopteridoideae Nakai in Bull. Natl. Sci. Mus. Tokyo 29: 32. 1950.--Type: Stromatopteris Mett., 1861.--Basionym validated by a description in Latin; family name validated by a full and direct reference to the basionym. The earlier A. Ponce de Leon (Revista Soc. Cub. Bet. 11: 47. 1954) name is a nom. nud.--[PTERIDOPHYTA]. NCU--STRO

Strombosiaceae Tiegh. in Bet. Jahresber. (Just) 25(2): 406. Oct-Dec 1899.--Strombosia Blume, 1827. --Validated by a diagnosis in German in a key and by a reference to an effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published Tieghem (Compt. Rend. Hebd. Seances Acad. Sci. 124: 842, 843. 1897, as "Strombosiacees" (gallice)) family name with diagnoses in French. The earlier Tieghem (Bull. Soc. Bet. France 43: 566. 1897, as "Strombosiacees" (gallice)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with diagnoses in French. The Tieghem (Compt. Rend. Hebd. Seances Acad. Sci. 124: 924. 1897 & Bot. Centralbl. 73: 186. 1898, as "Strombosiacees") name is a nom. nud.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--STRB

Strumariaceae Salisb., Gen. Pl.: 126. 1866 ("Strumareae").--Type: Strumaria Jacq. ex Willd., 1799. --Validated by a description in Latin.--First correct orthography: Bullock in Taxon 7: 32. 1958. --[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--STRU*

Strychnaceae DC. ex Perleb, Vers. Artzneikr. Pfl.: 244. Mai 1818 ("Strychneae").--Type: Strychnos L., 1753.--Validated by a diagnosis in German. The earlier Candolle (Theorie Elem. Bot.: 217. 1813, as "Strychnees" (gallice)), Rafinesque (Anal. Nat.: 188, 1815, as "Strychnidia") and Desvaux (in Gerardin & Desvaux, Dict. Rais. Bot.: 539. 1817, as "Strichneae") names are nom. nud.--First correct orthography: Bumett, Outl. Bot.: 1011, 1095, 1103.1835. Other incorrect orthography: Strychneaceae Blume, Bijdr.: 16: 1018. 1826-1827; Stricnideae Dumort., Anal. Fam. Pl.: 21. 1829; Strychnideae Link, Handbuch 1: 439. 1829; Strychnidia Raf., Fl. Tellur. 1: 30.1837; Strichnaceae Harz in Bot. Centralbr. 24: 90. 1885. --[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--STRY

Stylidiaceae R. Br., Prodr.: 565. 27 Mar 1810 ("Stylideae"), nom. cons.--Type: Stylidium Sw. ex Willd., 1805, nom. cons.--Validated by a diagnosis in English.--Isonym: Bercht. & J. Presl, : 253. 1820 ("Stylideae"), validated by a description in Czech and a reference to Brown (1810).--First correct orthography: Horaninow, Prim. Lin. Syst. Nat.: 67. 1834. Other incorrect orthography: Stylidieae Martynov, Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 606. 1820; Stylidineae Kostel., Allg. Med.-Pharm. Fl. 2: 747. 1833; Stylidia V. Peter, Novenyt.: 173.1836.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--STYL

Stylitaceae: The Novak (Vyssi Rostliny: 101. 1961) name is a nom. nud.--Stylites Amstutz, 1957.--[LYCOPODIOPHYTA].

Stylobasiaceae J. Agardh, Theoria Syst. Pl.: 169. Apr-Sep 1858 ("Stylobasieae").--Type: Stylobasium Desf., 1819.--Validated by diagnoses in Latin.--First correct orthography: Bullock in Taxon 7: 32. 1958.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--STYB

Stylocerataceae (Pax) Takht. ex Reveal & Hoogland in Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat., ser. 4, B Adansonia 12: 206. 24 Nov 1990, basionym: trib. Stylocerateae Pax in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. III, 5: 132, 134. Jun 1892 ("Stylocereae").--Type: Styloceras Kunth ex A. Juss., 1824.--Basionym validated by diagnoses in German; family name validated by a full and direct reference to the basionym. The earlier Baillon (Etude Euphorb.: 665, 666. 1858, as "Stylocerees" (gallice)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with a diagnosis in French. The Luerssen (Handb. Syst. Bot. 2: 753. 1882, as "Stylocereae"), Benecke (Bot. Jahresber. (Just) 11(1): 634. 1885, as "Stylocereae"), Post & Kuntze (Lex. Geu. Phan.: 714. 1903), Hutchinson (Evol. Phylog. Fl. Pl.: 138. 1969 & Fam. Fl. Pl., ed. 3: 228. 1973), Takhtajan (Proisk. Rass. Tsvetk. Rast.: 114. 1970, as "Srylocerataceae", spbalm., Bot. Rev. (Lancaster) 46: 265. 1980 & in C. R. Metcalfe & Chalk, Anat. Dict. ed. 2, 2: 183. 1983), A. Cronquist (Integr. Syst. Classif. Fl. Pl.: 733. 1981 & Evol. Classif. Fl. Pl., ed. 2: 511. 1988) and Bedell & Reveal (Phytologia 51: 70, 113, 113. 1982) names are cited in synonymy. The Airy Shaw (Dict. Fl. Pl. Ferns, ed. 8: 1114. 1973), R. D. Gibbs (Chemotax. Fl. Pl.: 1083. 1974) and Takhtajan (Sist. Magnoliof. [Syst. Magnolioph.]: 77. 1987) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 36.1) published, and each is associated with a description in English or Russian. The Rouleau (Repert. Epithet. Sp. Phanerog.: 473. 1981) and Bedell & Reveal (Phytologia 51: 99. 1982) name is a nom. nud.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--STYC

Stypheliaceae Horan., Prim. Lin. Syst. Nat.: 72. 2 Nov 1834 ("Stypheliaceae (Epacrideae)").--Type: Styphelia Sm., 1795.--Validated by a description in Latin and proposed as an alternative name (Art. 34.2).--Barnhart (Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 22: 20. 1895) incorrectly attributed family rank to a not validly published (Art. 32.1(c)) unranked Reichenbach (Consp. Regni. Veg.: 127. 1828, as "Stypheliaceae") name.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--STYP

Styracaceae DC. & Spregl. (transl. W. Jameson), Elem. Philos. Pl.: 140. 1821 ("Styraceae"), nom. cons. Note: If this family is united with Symplocaceae, the name Styracaceae must be used.--Type: Styrax L., 1753.--Validated by a reference to an effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published Sprengel (Anleit. Kenntn. Gew., ed. 2, 2(2): 505. 1818, as "Styraceen") family name with a diagnosis in German.--Isonym: Fee, Cours Nat. Hist. Pharm. 2: 165. 1828 ("Styracineae"), validated by a diagnosis in French or A. Rich., Nouv. Elem. Bot., ed. 4: 474. 1828, validated by a description in French. The earlier Richard (Demonstr. Bot.: 48. 1808, as "Styracees" (gallice)), Rafinesque (Anal. Nat.: 188. 1815, as "Styraxia"), Richard ex Kunth (in Humb., Bonpl. & Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. 3: ed. qu.: 256. 1819 & Syn. Pl. 2: 315. 1823, as "Styracinae") and Martynov (Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 607. 1820, as "Styraceae") names are nom. nud. Family name traditionally attributed to Dumortier (Anal. Fam. Pl.: 28, 29. 1829, as "Styracineae") who provided a diagnosis in French in a key.--First correct orthography: A. de Candolle, Prodr. 8: 244. 1844.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--STYR*

Styracifluae: The Miquel (Pl. Jungh. 170. 1852) name is a nom. nud.

Subscariosaceae: The Dulac (Fl. Hautes-Pyrenees: 23, 172, 612. 1867) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with a diagnosis in French in a key.

Succulentae: The Linnaeus (Philos. Bot.: 32. 1755) name is a nom. nud. and proposed at the rank of Fragmenta. The Oeder (Elem. Bot.: 153. 1766) name is a nom. nud. The Gerard (Fl. Gallo-Prov.: xxviii, 430. 1761) name is a nom. nud. The Batsch (Dispos. Gen. Pl. Jenens.: 37. 1786) and Giseke (Prael. Ord. Nat. Pl.: 315. 1792) names are effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and are associated with descriptions in Latin.

Sumachiaceae DC. ex Perleb, Clav. Class.: 31. 1838 ("Sumachineae"), nom. illeg. (Art. 18.3), basionym: trib. Sumachieae DC., Prodr. 2: 62. 1825, nom. illeg. (Art. 19.3).--Type: Sumachium Raf., 1818, nom. illeg. (Art. 52.1: [equivalent to] Rhus L., 1753).--Basionym validated by a description in Latin; family name validated by a diagnosis in Latin and a reference to the basionym. The earlier Martius (Consp. Regn. Veg.: 59. 1835, as "Ordo [=fam.] Cassuvieae fam. [=?] Sumachineae") name is not validly published (Art. 32.1(c), 33.7). The Bromhead (Edinburgh New Philos. J. 20: 53. 1836) name is a nom. nud.--First correct orthography: Reveal in Phytologia 74: 219. 1993.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Superbia: The Rafinesque (Anal. Nat.: 200. 1815) name is a nom. nud.

Surianaceae Arn. in Wight & Arn., Prodr. Fl. Ind. Orient.: 1: 360. 10 Oct 1834 ("Surianeae"), nom. cons. --Type:Suriana L., 1753.--Validated by a description in English.--First correct orthography: Lindley, Key Bot.: 54. 1835.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--SURI

Swartziaceae Bartl., Ord. Nat. Pl.: 231, 413. Sep 1830 ("Swartzieae"), basionym: subfam Swartzioideae or trib. ("vel tribus") Swartzieae DC., Prodr. 2: 422. 1825 ("Svartzieae" resp. "Svartzieae").--Type: Swartzia Schreb., 1791, nom. cons.--Basionyms validated by a description resp. diagnosis in Latin; family name validated by a description in Latin and a reference to the basionyms.--First correct orthography: Kosteletzky, Allg. Med.-Pharm. Fl. 4: 1314. Jan-Oct 1835 or Burnett, Outl. Bot.: 669, 670, 1092, 1138. Jun 1835. Other incorrect orthography: Schwartzieae Leunis, Syn. Pflanzenf.: 131. 1847. --[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--SWAR

Swieteniaceae Bercht. & J. Presl, Prir. Rostlin: 219. 1820 ("Swieteniae").--Type: Swietenia Jacq., 1760. --Validated by a description in Czech.--First correct orthography: E. D. M. Kirchner, Schul-Bot.: 415. 1831. Other incorrect orthography: Swietenieae Teijsm. & Binn., Cat. Pl. Hort. Bot. Bogor.: 213. 1866. --[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--SWIE

Sycoideae: The Link (Handbuch 1: 292. 1829) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with a description in Latin and German.

Symphoniaceae: The Barnhart (Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 22: 17. 1895), Moldenke (Prel. Class. Pl. Kingd.: 17. 1944) and R. D. Gibbs (Chemotax. Fl. Pl.: 1084. 1974) name is cited in synonymy.--Symphonia L.f., 1782. --Barnhart (1895) incorrectly attributed family rank to a not validly published (Art. 32.1(c)) unranked C. Presl (Presl, Symb. Bot. 1: 71. 1832 as "Symphoniaceae") name.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Symphoremataceae (Meisn.) Moldenke ex Reveal & Hoogland in Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat., ser. 4, B Adansonia 13: 92. 4 Oct 1991, basionym: trib. Symphoremateae Meisn., Pl. Vasc. Gen.: Tabl. Diag:. 292, Comm.: 200. 25-31 Oct 1840 ("Symphoremeae").--Type: Symphorema Roxb., 1805.--Basionym validated by diagnoses in Latin; family name validated by a full and direct reference to the basionym. --The earlier Tieghem (J. Bot. (Morot) 12: 359, 364. 1898 & Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., ser. 8, 14: 324. 1901, as "Symphoremacees" (gallice)) family name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with descriptions or diagnoses in French. The Tieghem (in Bot. Jahresber. (Just) 26(2): 269. 1901, as "Symphoremacees" (gallice)) name is associated with a reference to the above cited 1898 paper. The Post & Kuntze (Lex. Gen. Phan.: 714. 1903), Hutchinson (Evol. Phylog. Fl. Pl.: 465. 1969 & Fam. Fl. Pl., ed. 3: 487. 1973), Takhtajan (Proisk. Rass. Tsvetk. Rast.: 129. 1970, as "Symphoremaceae", Bot. Rev. (Lancaster) 46: 295. 1980 & Sist. Magnoliof. [Syst. Magnolioph.]: 255. 1987), R. D. Gibbs (Chemotax. Fl. Pl.: 1084. 1974), A. Cronquist (Integr. Syst. Classif. Fl. Pl.: 923. 1981 & Evol. Classif. Fl. Pl., ed. 2: 513. 1988) and Bedell & Reveal (Phytologia 51: 71, 117, 134. 1982) name is cited in synonymy. The Moldenke & A. L. Moldenke (Pl. Life 2: 29. 1946, as "Symphoremaceae") name is a nom. nud. The Moldenke (Phytologia 2: 142. 1946, as "Symphoremaceae"), F. A. Barkley (Anthophyta: 92. 1966, as "Symphoremaceae"), Airy Shaw (in Willis, Dict. Fl. Pl. Ferns, ed. 7: 1092. 1966 & ed. 8: 1121. 1973) and J. A. Duke (Fam. Polyclave: W6. 1969) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 36.1) published, and is associated with a description or diagnosis in English. The Rouleau (Repert. Epithet. Sp. Phanerog.: 473. 1981) and Bedell & Reveal (Phytologia 51: 102. 1982) name is a nom. nud.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--SYMR

Symplocaceae Desf. in Mem. Mus. Hist. Nat. 6: 9. 1820 ("Symplocearum" = "Symploceae"), nom. cons. Note: If this family is united with Styracaceae, the name Symplocaceae is rejected in favor of Styracaceae.--Type: Symplocos Jacq., 1760.--Validated by a reference to a Jussieu (Gen. Pl.: 155. 4 Aug 1789, as Guaiacanaceae ("Guiacanae")) family name with a description in Latin. The earlier Rafinesque (Anal. Nat.: 188. 1815, as "Symplocia") name is a nom. nud.--First correct orthography: Miers, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 2, 7: 205. 1851. Other incorrect orthography: Symplocineae D. Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal.: 144. 1825; Simploceae Dumort., Anal. Fam. Pl.: 21. 1829; Symplocinae T. Nees & C. H. Eberm., Handb. Med.-Pharm. Bot. 2: 472. 1830; Symplocia Raf., Fl. Tellur. 1: 30. 1837; Symplocoides Raf., Sylva Tellur.: 172. 1838.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--SYMP

Symplocarpaceae: The Bromhead (Edinburgh New Philos. J. 20: 252. 1836, as "Symplocarpeae") name is a nom. nud. and the family rank uncertain.--Symplocarpus Salisb. ex Nutt., 1818, nom. cons.--First correct orthography: presented here.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Synantherae: The Mirbel (Elem. Phys. Veg. Bot. 2: 885. 1815) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with a description in French. The earlier Cassini (Bull. Sci. Soc. Philom. Paris 3: 189. 1812, & Bull. Sci. Soc. Philom. Paris 4: 9. 1814, as "Synantherees" (gallice)) name is is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with diagnoses in French. Other orthography: Synantheraceae Hassall in Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 9: 103. 1842; Synanthereae Nees & Mart. in Wied-Neuw., Nova Acta Phys.-Med. Acad. Caes. Leop.-Carol. Nat. Cur. 12: 3. 1824; Sinantereae J. E. Gonzalez in Naturalleza (Mexico City) 5: 183. 1882; Syantereae J. E. Gonzalez in Naturalleza (Mexico City) 5: 185. 1882.

Synarthia: The Rafinesque (Fl. Tellur. 4: 93. 1838) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with a description in English. The earlier Rafinesque (Anal. Nat.: 188. 1815 & Fl. Tellur. 1: 30. 1837, as "Synarthia") name is a nom. nud.

Syndiaspermaceae: The Dulac (Fl. Hautes-Pyrenees: 369, 612. 1867) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with a description in French.

Synechanthaceae O. F. Cook in Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 16: 252. 14 Mai 1913.--Type: Synechanthus Wendl., 1858.--Validated by a diagnosis in English in a key. [MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--SYNE

Syngenesiaceae: The Mirbel (Elem. Phys. Veg. Bot. 2: 885. 1815, as "Singenesiaceae") name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with a description in French. --Other orthography: Syngeneticae Horan., Char. Ess. Fam.: 88. 1847; Syngenesistae Lenz, Gemeinn. Naturgesch.: 812. 1839.

Syngeneticae: The Horaninow (Char. Ess. Fam.: Pl. 88.1847) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with a description in Latin.

Syphocarpaceae--see Cyphocarpaceae.

Syphonandraceae--see Siphonandraceae.

Syringaceae Horan., Char. Ess. Fam.: 115. 30 Jun 1847 ("Syringaceae nob (s. Oleaceae)").--Type: Syringa L., 1753.--Validated by a description in Latin and proposed as an alternative name (Art. 34.2).--The earlier Trattinnick (Gen. Pl.: 51.1802, as "Syringae") name is a nom. nud. and its rank uncertain ("familias sucundarias"). The Horaninow (Tetractys: 27. 1843) name is a nom. nud. Other incorrect orthography: Syringeae Schur, Verh. Mitt. Siebenb. Vet. Naturw. Hermannstadt 4[Sert. Fl. Transsilv.]: 49. 1853; Siringeae Schur, Enum. Pl. Transsilv.: 451. 1866 (sphalm.).--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--SYRI

Sysimbriaceae--see Sisymbriaceae.

Tabernaemontanaceae: The Baumann-Bodenheim (Syst. Fl. Neu-Caled. 4: 59. 1989 & 5: 45. 1989) name is a nom. nud.--Tabernaemontana L., 1753.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Taccaceae Bercht. & J. Presl, Prir. Rostlin: 270. 1820 ("Tacceae"), nom. cons.--Type: Tacca J. R. Forst. & G. Forst., 1775, nom. cons.--Validated by a description in Czech.--Isonym: Dumort., Anal. Fam. Pl.: 57, 58. 1829 ("Taccaceae" and "Tacceae"), validated by a diagnosis in French in a key.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--TACC

Taenitidaceae Pic. Serm. in Webbia 29: 1. 10 Feb 1975, basionym: trib. Taenitideae C. Presl in [Tent. Pterid.] Abh. Konigl. Bohm. Ges. Wiss., ser. 4, 5: 222. ante 2 Dec 1836.--Type: Taenitis Willd. ex C. Schkuhr, 1805.--Basionym validated by a description in Latin; family name validated by a description in Latin and a reference to the basionym. The earlier Schimper (Traite Paleont. Veg. 3: 513, 811. 1874) name is a nom. nud. and rank uncertain.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--TAEN

Taiwaniaceae Hayata in Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 46: 26. 20 Jan 1932.--Type: Taiwania Hayata, 1906.--Validated by a description in Latin.--[PINOPHYTA]. NCU-TAIW

Takhtajaniaceae (J.-F. Leroy) J.-F. Leroy in Adansonia, ser. 2, 20: 20. 30 Mai 1980, basionym: subfam. Takhtajanioideae J.-F. Leroy in Adansonia, ser. 2, 17: 393. 1978.--Type: Takhtajania M. Baranova & J.-F. Leroy, 1978.--Basionym validated by a diagnosis in Latin; family name validated by a full and direct reference to the basionym.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--TAKH

Talinaceae (Fenzl) Doweld, Tent. Syst. Pl. Vasc.: xlii. 23 Dec 2001, basionym: trib. Talineae Fenzl in Ann. Wiener Mus. Naturgesch. 1: 352. 1836.--Type: Talinum Adans., 1763, nom. cons.--Basionym validated by a diagnosis in Latin in a key; family name validated by a full and direct reference to the basionym.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--TALI

Tamaceae Martynov, Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 622. 31 Jul-5 Aug 1820 ("Tami").--Type: Tamus L., 1753. --Validated by a reference to an effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published Augier (Essai Nouv. Class. Veg.: 44, 55.1801, as "Tamiers", (gallice)) family name with a description in French. --Isonym: Gray, Nat. Arr. Brit. Pl. 2: 31, 189. 1821, validated by an English diagnosis in a key and a description. The Trattinnick (Gen. Pl.: 39. 1802, as "Tami") name is a nom. nud. and its rank uncertain ("familias sucundarias"). The Gerardin & Desvaux (Dict. Rais. Bot.: 736. 1817, as "Tamiers" (gallice)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with a diagnosis in French and a reference to Augier (1801).--Other incorrect orthography: Tameae Sweet, Hort. Brit.: 414. 1826; Tamineae Dumort., Anal. Fam. Pl.: 57. 1829; Tamuseae Wilbr., Nat. Pflanzenfam.: 42. 1834. --[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--TAM+

Tamaricaceae Bercht. & J. Presl, Prir. Rostlin: 233. 1820 ("Tamariscinae"), nom. cons.--Type: Tamarix L., 1753.--Validated by a description in Czech.--Isonym: Martynov, Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 622. 31 Jul-5 Aug 1820 ("Tamariscineae"), validated by a reference to an effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published A. Saint-Hilarie (Mem. Mus. Hist. Nat. 2: 208. 1815, as "Tamaricinees" (gallice)) family name with a description in French. The earlier Trattinnick (Gen. Pl.: 45. 1802, as "Tamarices") name is a nom. nud. and its rank uncertain ("familias sucundarias"). The Rafinesque (Anal. Nat.: 182. 1815, as "Tamarixia"), Desvaux (in Gerardin & Desvaux, Dict. Rais. Bot.: 552. 1817, as "Tamariscinees" (gallice)), Desvaux ex Candolle (Tamariscinees Elem. Bot., ed. 2: 245. 1819, as "Tamariscinees" (gallice)), Desvaux ex Perleb (Vers. Artzneikr. Pfl.: 184. 1818, as "Tamariscineae") and Moricand (Fl. Venet. 1: 115. 1820, as "Tamaricineae") names are nom. nud. Family name traditionally attributed to Link (Enum. Hort. Berol. Art. 1: 291. 16 Mar-30 Jun 1821, as "Tamariscinae") who provided a diagnosis in Latin.--First correct orthography: Horaninow, Prim. Lin. Syst. Nat.: 85. 1834. Other incorrect orthography: Tamarisceae Spreng., Gen. Pl. 1: 537. 1830; Tamarices V. Peter, Novenyt.: 173. 1836; Tamarixia Raf., Fl. Tellur. 1: 28. 1837; Tamarixides Raf., Sylva Tellur.: 172. 1838; Tamarisceae Lenz, Gemeinn. Naturgesch.: 814. 1839; Tamarisenineae F. W. Schultz in Jahresb. Pollichia 20/21: 146. 1863. --[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--TAMA

Tamarindeceae Bercht. & J. Presl, Prir. Rostlin: 230. 1820 ("Tamaryndeae").--Type: Tamarindus L., 1753. --Validated by a description in Czech.--Isonym: Martynov, Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 622. 31 Jul-5 Aug 1820 ("Tamarindi"), validated by a reference to an effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published Augier (Essai Nouv. Class. Veg.: 58, 64. 1801, as "Tamarindiers" (gallice)) family name with descriptions in French. The Trattinnick (Gen. Pl.: 58. 1802, as "Tamarindi") name is a nom. nud. and its rank uncertain ("familias sucundarias"). The Gerardin & Desvaux (Dict. Rais. Bot.: 736. 1817, as "Tamarindiers" (gallice)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with a diagnosis in French and a reference to Augier (1801).--First correct orthography: Reveal in Phytologia 74: 220. 1993.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. TAMD

Tamneceae J. Kickx f., Descr. Pl. Louvan.: 307. 1826 ("Dioscoreae (sive Tamneae)").--Tamnus Mill., 1754. --Validated by a description in Latin and proposed as an alternative name (Art. 34.2). The earlier Merat (Nouv. Fl. Env. Paris, ed. 2: 99. 1821, as "Tamnees", (gallice)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and associated with a description in French.--First correct orthography: Camel in Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 5: 34. 1883.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--TAMN*

Tanacetaceae Vest, Anleit. Stud. Bot.: 273, 298. 1818 ("Tanacetoideae").--Type: Tanacetum L., 1753. --Validated by a description in German. The earlier J. Ponce de Leon (Sist. Fl-Sex. Bot. 343. 1814, as "Tanacetos" (hispanice)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with a description in Spanish.--First correct orthography: Reveal in Phytologia 74: 225. 1993.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--TANA

Tapisciaceae (Pax) Takht., Sist. Magnoliof. [Syst. Magnolioph.]: 171. 31 Mar-1 Jun 1987, basionym: subfam. Tapiscioideae Pax in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. III, 5: 259, 262. Mai 1893.--Type: Tapiscia Oliv., 1890.--Basionym validated by diagnoses in German; family name validated by a full and direct reference to the basionym.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--TAPI

Taraxacaceae: The Trattinnick (Gen. Pl.: 68. 1802, as "Taraxaca") name is a nom. nud. and its rank uncertain ("familias sucundarias"). The Eaton (Man. Bot., ed. 6: 21. 1833, as "Taraxaceae") name is a nom. nud. The Barnhart (Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 22: 24. 1895) and Moldenke (Prel. Class. Pl. Kingd.: 21. 1944) name is cited in synonymy. Taraxacum Weber, nom. cons.--Barnhart (1895) incorrectly attributed family rank to a D. Don (Edinburgh New Philos. J. 6: 307. 1829, as trib. Taraxaceae) name with a diagnosis in Latin.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Taxaceae Berchtold & J. Presl, Prir. Rostlin: 261. 1820 ("Taxeae"), nom. cons.--Type: Taxus L., 1753. --Validated by a description in Czech. Isonym: Gray, Nat. Arr. Brit. Pl. 2: 222, 226. 1 Nov 1821 ("Taxideae"), validated by an English diagnosis in a key and a description. The earlier Trattinnick (Gen. Pl.: 73. 1802, as "Taxi") name is a nom. nud. and its rank uncertain ("familias sucundarias"). The Bertuch (Taf. Allg. Naturgeschich. Gewachs-Reich, ed. 2: x. 1806, as "Taxoideae") name is a nom. nud. --First correct orthography: Burnett, Outl. Bot.: 505, 1149. 1835. Other incorrect orthography: Taxineae Dumort., Comment. Bot.: 53. 1822; Taxinae Tratt., Gen. Nov. Pl. Fasc. 1: unpaged. 1825; Taxeaceae Hassk. in Flora 44: 40. 1861.--[PINOPHYTA]. NCU--TAX_

Taxocupressaceae: The F. Vierhapper (Abh. K.K. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 5(4): 10-11. 1910) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with a description in German.

Taxodieceae Saporta in Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot., ser. 5, 4: 44. 1865 ("Taxodineae"), nom. cons.--Type: Taxodium Rich., 1810.--Validated by a description in Latin and published at the rank of family ("une famille distincte des Cupressinees", p. 46).--Isonym: Warm., Haandb. Syst. Bot., ed. 2: 163. 1884, validated by a diagnosis in German.--Incorrect orthography: Taxodieae Prantl, Lehrb. Bot., ed. 5: 193. 1883; Taxodiacae Luerss., Bot. Grundz., ed. 5: 390. 1893.--[PINOPHYTA]. NCU--TAXO

Tecophilaeaceae Leyb. in Bonplandia 10: 370. Dec 1862 ("Tecophilaeoceae"), nom. cons.--Type: Tecophilaea Bertero ex Colla, Herb. Pedem. 5: 447. 6-30 Apr 1836.--Validated by a description in Latin.--First correct orthography: Camel in Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 5: 34. 1883.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--TECO

Tectariaceae Panigrahi in J. Orissa Bot. Soc. 8: 41. 1986.--Type: Tectaria Cav., 1799.--Validated by a description in Latin.--Isonym: Lellinger in Amer. Fern J. 77: 102. 1988, validated by a description in Latin.--[PTERIDOPHYTA]. NCU--TECT

Teediaceae: The Bromhead (Edinburgh New Philos. J. 20: 253. 1836, as "Teedieae") name is a nom. nud. and the family rank uncertain.--Teedia Rudolphi, 1799.--First correct orthography: presented here. --[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Telephiaceae Martynov, Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 633. 31 Jul-5 Aug 1820 ("Thelephides [TEXT EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Telephides"). --Type: Telephium L., 1753.--Validated by a reference to an effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published Augier (Essai Nouv. Class. Veg.: 207, 211. 1801, as "Thelephides" (gallice)) family name with a description in French. The Gerardin & Desvaux (Dict. Rais. Bot.: 737. 1817, as "Thelephides" (gallice)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with a diagnosis in French and a reference to Augier (1801).--First correct orthography: Link, Handbuch 2: 45. 1829. Other incorrect orthography: Thelephides Martynov, Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 633. 1820; Telephieae Bartl. in Barlt. & Wendl., Beitr. Bot. 2: 157. 1825.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--TELE

Tepuianthaceae Maguire & Steyerm., Mere. New York Bot. Gard. 32: 8. 20 Mai 1981.--Type: Tepuianthus Maguire & Steyerm., 1981.--Validated by a description in Latin.--Incorrect orthography: Tupeianthaceae Takht., Sist. Magnoliof. [Syst. Magnolioph.]: 179. 1987; Teuelanthaceae G. Dahlgren in K. Tan, Davis & Hedge Festschr.: 258. 1989.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--TEPU

Terebinthaceae Juss., Gen. Pl.: 368.4 Aug 1789 ("Terebintaceae"), nom. illeg. (Art. 18.3).--Type: Terebinthus Mill., 1754, nom. illeg. (Art. 52.1: [equivalent to] Pistacia L., 1753).--Validated by a diagnosis in Latin. --Original place of publication: Durande, Notions Elem. Bot.: 292. 1782 ("Terebenthi"), validated by a description in French.--First correct orthography: Chaisneau, Atlas Hist. Nat. Coll. Tabl.: ad t. 22. 1802. Other incorrect orthography: Terebinti B. Juss. in Juss., Gen. Pl.: lxxvii. 1789; Terebinthinaceae Batsch, Syn. Univ. Anal. Gen. Pl.: 398. 1794 or Dispos. Gen. Pl. Europ.: 124. 1794; Terebintheae Salisb., Prodr. Stirp. Chap. Allerton: 110. 1796; Terebinthi J. F. N. Morel, Tabl. Ecole Bot. Jard. Pl. Paris: 78. 1801; Therebinthaceae DC. in Lam. & DC., Fl. Franc. 4(2): 613. 1805; Terebinthacea Raf., Lex. Gen. Pl.: 107. 1817; Terebintacae G. Sumner, Comp. Bot.: 270. 1820; Therebinthi V. Peter, Novenyt.: 173. 1836; Terebinthides Raf., New Fl. N. Amer. 3: 8. 1838; Thereabinthineae Hassk., Cat. Hort. Bot. Bogor.: 244. 1844.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Terminaliaceae J. St.-Hil., Expos. Fam. Nat. 1: 178. 1805.--Type: Terminalia L., 1767, nom. cons. --Validated by a description in French.--Incorrect orthography: Terminaliae Gerardin & Desv., Dict. Rais. Bot.: 338. 1817; Terminalieae Bromhead in Edinburgh New Philos. J. 20: 252. 1836.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--TERM*

Ternstroemiaceae Mirb. ex DC., Essai Propr. Med. Pl., ed. 2: 203. 11 Mai 1816.--Type: Ternstroemia Mutis ex L.f., 1782, nom. cons.--Validated by a diagnosis in Latin. The earlier Mirbel (Nouv. Bull. Sci. Soc. Philom. Paris 3(75): 381. 1813, as "Temstroemiees" (gallice)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with a description in French.--First correct orthography: Blume, Bijdr.: 3: 124. 1825. Other incorrect orthography: Ternstromiaceae R. Br. in Abel, Narr. Journey China: 378. 1818; Ternstromiae Perleb, Vers. Artzneikr. Pfl.: 240. 1818; Ternstroemiae Martynov, Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 628. 1820; Ternstromieae Perleb, Consp. Meth. Pl. Nat.: 8. 1822; Ternstromeae Dumort., Comment. Bot.: 62. 1822; Ternstroemieae Perleb, Consp. Meth. Pl. Nat.: 24. 1822; Terstromiae Bertol., Prael. Rei Herb.: 262. 1827; Ternstromeriaceae Torr. in Lindl., Intr. Nat. Syst. Bot.: 344. 1831, sphalm, or E. Regel, Cat. Pl. Horto Aksakov.: 130, 135. 1860; Ternstromeriaceae Eaton, Man. Bot., ed. 6: 21. 1833; Ternstromiaceae Burnett, Outl. Bot.: 1188. 1835; Ternstroemicae Tollard f., Traite Veg.: 354. 1838.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--TERN

Tetracarpaeaceae Nakai, Chosakuronbun Mokuroku [Ord. Fam. Trib. Nov.]: 244. 20 Jul 1943.--Type: Tetracarpaea Hook., 1840.--Validated by a diagnosis in Latin in a key.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--TETP

Tetraeentreceae A. C. Sm. in J. Arnold Arbor. 26: 135. 16 Apr 1945, nom. cons.--Type: Tetracentron Oliv., 1889.--Validated by a description in Latin. The earlier Harms (Ber. Deutsch. Bot. Ges. 15: 357. 1897) name is not validly published (Art. 34.1 (a)), but is associated with a diagnosis in German. The Tieghem (J. Bot. (Morot) 14: 355. 1900 & Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., ser. 8, 14: 331. 1901, as "Tetracentracees" (gallice)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with diagnoses in French. The Post & Kuntze (Lex. Gen. Phan.: 714. 1903) name is cited in synonymy. --Other incorrect orthography: Tetracentronaceae H.-S. Hu, Chun Tze Chih Wu Fen Lei Hsueh [Taxon. Spermatoph.]: 112. 1951.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--TETR

Tetraceraceae: The Baumann-Bodenheim (Syst. Fl. Neu-Caled. 4: 27. 1989) name is a nom. nud.--Tetracera L., 1753.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Tetrachondraceae Wettst., Handb. Syst. Bot., ed. 3, (2:) 807. Jun-Sep 1924.--Type: Tetrachondra Petrie ex Oliv., 1892.--Validated by a diagnosis in German. The earlier Skottsberg (Bot. Jahrb. Syst. Beiblatt 48(107): 26. 1912) name is a nom. nud. although there is a description of a new species and a discussion of how the genus differed from other known families.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--TETN

Tetraclinaceae Hayata in Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 46: 27. 20 Jan 1932.--Type: Tetraclinis Mast., 1892.--Validated by a description in Latin. Other orthography: Tetraclinidaceae Koidz. in Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 11 : 228. 1942.--[PINOPHYTA]. NCU--TETL

Tetradiclideceae (Engl.) Takht., Florist. Reg. World: 333. 4 Sep 1986, basionym : subfam. Tetradiclidoideae Engl. in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. III, 4: 354, 355. Jul 1896.--Type: Tetradiclis Steven ex M. Bieb., 1819.--Basionym validated by diagnoses in German; family name validated by a full and direct reference to the basionym.--Isonym: Doweld, Tent. Syst. Pl. Vasc.: xxxv. 23 Dec 2001, validated by a description in Latin. [MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--TETD

Tetradidymae: The Wahleberg (Fl. Carpat. Princ.: lxxx. 1814 & Nov. Acta Regiae Soc. Sci. Upsal. 7: 177. 1815) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with a diagnosis in Latin.

Tetradynamiae: The Linnaeus ex Haller (Misc. Soc. Taur. 2: 4. 1759) name is a nom. nud. The J. F. Gmelin (Allgem. Gesch. Pflanzengifte: 404, 461. 1803) and Reichenbach (Fl. Germ. Excurs. 2(2): 652, 653. 1832, as "Tetradynamae") name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with a diagnosis or description in German resp. Latin.--The earlier Reichenbach (Consp. Regni Veg.: 181. 1828-1829) and J. Kachler (Grundr. Pflanzenk. 299. 1830) name is a nom. nud.

Tetragonieceae Link, Handbuch 2: 17. 1831, nom. cons.--Type: Tetragonia L., 1753. Validated by a description in Latin.--Isonym: Lindl., Nat. Syst. Bot., ed. 2: 209. 1836, with a description in English. --Incorrect orthography: Tetragonieae Le Maout & Decne., Traite Grnrral Bot.: 464, 1005. 1873. Family name traditionally attributed to Nakai (J. Jap. Bot. 18: 103. Mar 1942) who provided a description in Latin.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--TETG*

Tetramelaceae Airy Shaw in Kew Bull. 18: 267. 8 Dec 1965, basionym: trib. Tetrameleae Warb. in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. III, 6a: 152. 18 Apr 1894.--Type: Tetrameles R. Br., 1826.--Basionym validated by a diagnosis in German in a key; family name validated by a description in Latin and by a reference to the basionym.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--TETM

Tetrameristeceae Hutch., Fam. Fl. Pl., ed. 2: 277. Jan-Jul 1959.--Type: Tetramerista Miq., 1861.--Validated by a description in Latin. The earlier Hutchinson ex C. R. Metcalfe & Chalk (Syst. Anat. Dicot. 1: 339. 1950, as "Tetrameristicaceae"), Takhtajan (Proish. Pokryt. Rast.: 89. 1954) and Hutchinson ex Bullock (Taxon 8: 201. 1959) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 36.1) published, and is associated with a description in Russian resp. English. The Erdtman (Pollen Morph. Pl. Tax. Angiosp.: 427. 1952) name is cited in synonymy. The Takhtajan ex Dostal (Bot. Nomenkl.: 218. 1957) name is a nom. nud. although there is a reference to Takhtajan (1954). [MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--TETT

Tetrapetalae: The Haller (Enum. Stirp. Helv. 2: 1. 1759, Enum. Stirp.: 36. 1860 & Misc. Soc. Taur. 2: 4. 1762), Gerard (Fl. Gallo-Prov.: xxvi, 341. 1761), Desvaux (in Gerardin & Desvaux, Dict. Rais. Bot.: 559. 1817) and Martynov (Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 631. 1820) name (as "Tetrapetaleae") is a nom. nud. The name is not based on the genus Tetrapetalum Miq., 1865.

Tetrastylidiaceae Tiegh. in Bot. Jahresber. (Just) 25(2): 406. Oct-Dec 1899.--Type: Tetrastylidium Engl., 1872.--Validated by a diagnosis in German in a key and by a reference to an effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published Tieghem (Compt. Rend. Hebd. Seances Acad. Sci. 124: 842, 844. 20 Apr 1897, as "Tetrastylidiacees" (gallice)) family name with diagnoses in French.--Isonym: Calest. in Webbia 1: 94. 10 Mai 1905, validated by diagnosis in Italian in a key. The earlier Tieghem (Bull. Soc. Bot. France 43: 565. 1897, as "Tetrastylidiacees" (gallice)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with diagnoses in French. The Tieghem (Compt. Rend. Hebd. Seances Acad. Sci. 124: 924. 1897 & Bot. Centralbl. 73: 186. 1898, as "Tetrastylidiacees") name is a nom. nud.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--TETS

Tetrathececeae R. Br. in Flinders, Voy. Terra Austral. 2: 544. 19 Jul 1814.--Tetratheca Sin., 1793.--Validated as an alternative to Brown's then effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published Tremandraceae (as "Tremandreae"), and is therefore associated with the Latin description of Tremandraceae. Although Brown stated that he preferred "the name Tremandreae to that of Tetrathecaceae, as it is more distinctly, and at the same time more correctly descriptive of the structure of stamina in both genera." he did not reject the name. Furthermore, Tremandra R. Br. (1824) was not validly published until a decade later. [MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--TETH

Teucriaceae: The J. Ponce de Leon (Sist. Fl.-Sex. Bot.: 22. 1814, as "Teucrios" (hispanice)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with a description in Spanish. The Trattinnick (Gen. Pl.: 64. 1802, as "Teucria") name is a nom. nud. and its rank uncertain ("familias sucundarias").--Teucrium L., 1753.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Teuelanthaceae--see Tepuianthaceae.

Thalassiaceae Nakai, Chosakuronbun Mokuroku [Ord. Fam. Trib. Nov.]: 210. 20 Jul 1943.--Type: Thalassia Banks & Sol. ex K. D. Konig, 1805.--Validated by a diagnosis in Latin in a key. The earlier A. Kerner (Pflanzenleben 1: 645. 1891, as "Thalassioidaceae") name is a nom. nud. The Barnhart (Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 12: 7. 1895) and Post & Kuntze (Lex. Gen. Phan.: 714. 1903) name is cited in synonymy. --Incorrect orthography: Talassiaceae R. D. Gibbs, Chemotax. Fl. Pl.: 1154. 1974. Gibbs (1974) corrected the orthography of an effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published Cacciamali (Rivisita Ital. Sci. Nat. 17: 139. 1897, as "Talassiacee" (italice)) name with a description in Italian. --[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--THAS

Thalictreceae Raf., Anal. Nat.: 176. Apr-Jul 1815 ("Thalictria").--Type: Thalictrum L., 1753.--Validated by a diagnosis in French.--First correct orthography: A. Love & D. Love in Preslia 46: 128. 1974. [MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--THAL

Thamnaceae--see Tamaceae.

Thapsiae: The Trattinnick (Gen. Pl.: 66. 1802) name is a nom. nud. and its rank uncertain ("familias sucundarias"). --Thapsia L., 1753. [MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Theaceae Mirb. ex Ker Gawl. in Bot. Reg. 2: ad t. 112. 1816, nom. cons. Note: If this family is united with Ternstroemiaceae, the name Theaceae must be used.--Type: Thea L., 1753. Validated by a brief description in English and a reference to an effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published Mirbel (Nouv. Bull. Sci. Soc. Philom. Paris 3(75): 382. 1813, as "Theacees" (gallice)) family name with a description in French.--Isonyms: Berchtold & J. Presl, Prir. Rostlin: 219. 1820, validated by a description in Czech, or Martynov, Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 632. 31 Jul-5 Aug 1820, validated by a reference to an effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published Jussieu (Mem. Mus. Hist. Nat. 2: 442. 1815, as "Theacees" (gallice)) name where Jussieu referred to the earlier Mirbel name; see also A. Richard (Bot. Medic. (2:) 698. 1823), validated by a description in French. The earlier Trattinnick (Gen. Pl.: 49. 1802, as "Theae") name is a nom. nud. and its rank uncertain ("familias sucundarias"). Family name traditionally attributed to D. Don (Prodr. Fl. Nepal.: 224. 26 Jan-1 Feb 1825) who provided a reference through Jussieu (1815) to Mirbel (1813).--Incorrect orthography: Theae V. Peter, Novenyt.: 173. 1836.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--THE+*

Thelephiaceae see Telephiaceae.

Theligoneceae Dumort., Anal. Fam. Pl.: 15, 17. 1829 ("Theligoneae"), nom. cons. Type: Theligonum L., 1753.--Validated by a diagnosis in French in a key. The earlier Trattinnick (Gen. Pl.: 56. 1802, as "Theligonia") name is a nom. nud. and its rank uncertain ("familias sucundarias").--Incorrect orthography: Thelygonaceae Drude in Schenk, Handb. Bot. 3(2): 395. 1886; Theiligonaceae Cincovic & M. Kojic, Botanika: 201. 1968.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--THEL

Thelypteridaceae Pic. Serm. in Webbia 24: 709. 28 Apr 1970.--Type: Thelypteris Schmidel, 1763, nom. cons. Validated by a description in Latin. The earlier Ching (Sunyatsenia 5: 211, 237. 1940), S.-N. Liu & T.-N. Liou (Tung-pei Chih Wu Chien so Piao [Key Fl. Manchuria]: 10. 1959) and Ching (Acta Phytotax. Sin. 8: 289. 1963) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 36.1) published, and each is associated with a non-Latin description or diagnosis. The Holttum (J. Linn. Soc. London, Bot. 53: 130. 1947 & Biol. Rev. (Cambridge) 24: 283. 1949), Verdoorn (Phytomorphol. 1: 41. 1951), and Alston (Bull. Jard. Bot. Bruxelles 27: 57. 1957) name is a nom. nud. The Copeland (Gen. Fil. [in Ann. Cryptog. Phytopathol. 5]: 100. 1947) name is cited in synonymy.--[PTERIDOPHYTA]. NCU--THEP

Themideceae Salisb., Gen. Pl.: 84. 1866 ("Themideae").--Type: Themis Salisb., 1866.--Validated by a description in Latin. First correct orthography: Bullock in Taxon 7: 33. 1958.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--THEM*

Theobromateceae J. Agardh, Theoria Syst. Pl.: 264. Apr-Sep 1858 ("Theobromeae").--Type: Theobroma L., 1753.--Validated by diagnoses in Latin. The earlier Batsch (Syn. Univ. Anal. Gen. Pl.: 387. 1794 & Dispos. Gen. Pl. Europ.: 119. 1794, as "Theobromae") name is a nom. nud.--First correct orthography: Airy Shaw in Willis, Diet. Fl. Pl. Ferns, ed. 7: 1147. 1966.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--THEB

Theophrastaceae Link, Handbuch 1 : 440. 20 Apr 1829 ("Theophrasteae"), nom. cons.--Type: Theophrasta L., 1753.--Validated by a diagnosis in Latin.--First correct orthography: A. de Candolle, Prodr. 8: 144. 1844.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--THEO*

Therebinthaceae--see Terebinthaceae.

Thesiaceae Vest, Anleit. Stud. Bot.: 270,289. 1818 ("Thesioideae").--Type: Thesium L., 1753.--Validated by a description in German. The earlier Rafinesque (Anal. Nat.: 196. 1815, as "Thesidia") name is a horn. nud.--Incorrect orthography: Thesieae G. Mey., Chloris Han.: 460. 1836; Thesidia Raf., Fl. Tellur. 1 : 32. 1837.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--THES

Thismiaceae J. Agardh, Theoria Syst. Ph: 99. Apr-Sep 1858, nom. cons.--Type: Thismia Griff., 1845. --Validated by diagnoses in Latin.--Miquel (Fl. Nederl. Ind. 3: 615. 1859, nom. nud.) and Post & Kuntze (Lex. Gen. Phan.: 48, 714. 1903) incorrectly attributed the family name to Griffith (Proc. Linn. Sac. London h 349. 1845) who characterized the genus "as intermediate between Tacceae and Burmanniaceae" but did not provide it with a name.--Incorrect orthography: Thismieae Le Maout & Decne., Traite General Bot.: 551. 1868.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NUC--THIS

Thlaspieceae Martynov, Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 633. 31 Jul-5 Aug 1820 ("Thlaspiceae").--Type: Thlaspi L., 1753.--Validated by a reference to an effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published Augier (Essai Nouv. Classif. Veg.: 113, 119. 1801, as "Thlaspicees" (gallice)) family name with descriptions in French. The Gerardin & Desvaux (Dict. Rais. Bot.: 738. 1817, as "Thlaspicees" (gallice)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with a diagnosis in French and a reference to Augier (1801).--Original place of publication: Adans., Fam. Pl. 2: 42. 1763 ("Thaspi"), validated by a description in French. First correct orthography: Post & Kuntze, Lex. Gen. Phan.: 714. 1903.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. THLA

Thoeceae Kuntze in T. Post & Kuntze, Lex. Gen. Phan.: 615. 1904.--Thoa Aublet, 1775.--Validated by a reference to an effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 33.7) published C. Agardh (Aphor. Bot.: 204. 13 Jun 1824, as "sect. Thoaceae") name with a diagnosis in Latin.--[PINOPHYTA].--THO+*

Thomandersieceae Sreem. in Phytologia 27: 412. 22 Oct 1977.--Type: Thomandersia Baill., 1891. --Validated by a description in Latin.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--THOM

Thouiniae: The Trattinnick (Gen. Pl.: 51. 1802) name is a nom. nud. and its rank uncertain ("familias sucundarias").--Thouinia Thunb. ex L.f., 1782, nom. rej. (non Poit., 1804, nom. cons.).--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Thujaceae Burnett, Outl. Bot.: 502, 1149. Jun 1835.--Type: Thuja L., 1753.--Validated by a description in English.--[PINOPHYTA]. NCU--THUJ

Thujopsidaceae Bessey in Nebraska Univ. Stud. 7: 325. Oct 1907 ("Thuyopsidaceae").--Type: Thujopsis Siebold & Zucc. ex Endl., 1842.--Validated by a description in English. Bessey (1907) based his family name on the orthographic variant Thuyopsis proposed by Parlatore (in A. DC., Prodr. 16(2): 460. 1868). --First correct orthography: Kiger & Reveal, Huntia 11: 69, 83. 2000.--[PINOPHYTA]. NCU--THUP

Thunbergiaceae (Dumort.) Lilja, Skanes Fl., ed. 2: 979. Apr-Dec 1870, basionym: trib. Thunbergieae Dumort., Anal. Fam. Pl.: 23. 1829 ("Tumbergieae").--Type: Thunbergia Retz., 1780.--Basionym validated by a diagnosis in French; family name validated by a reference to a later Endlicher (Gen. Ph: 697. Jan 1839) tribal name with a diagnosis in Latin that is corrected (Art. 33.4) to the above basionym. --Isonym: Bremek. in Proc. Kon. Ned. Akad. Wetensch., ser. C, 56: 540. 27 Apr 1954, validated by a description in Latin.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--THUN

Thurniaceae Engl., Syllabus, ed. 5: 94. Jul 1907, nom. cons.--Type: Thurnia Hook.f., 1883.--Validated by a description in German.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--THUR

Thylaxia: The Rafinesque (Anal. Nat.: 174. 1815) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with a brief description in French.--The family was based on Thylaxus, a Rafinesque genus that, in 1815, was a horn. nud The genus was eventually validly published in 1830 as Thylax when Cnestiaceae was proposed.

Thymelaeaceae Juss., Gen. Pl.: 76. 4 Aug 1789 ("Thymelaeae"), nom. cons.--Type: Thymelaea Mill., 1754, nom. cons.--Validated by a description in Latin.--Original place of publication: Adans., Fam. Pl. 2: 278. 1763 ("Thymelaeae"), validated by a description in French.--First correct orthography: Kosteletzky, Allg. Med.-Pharm. Fl. 2: 255. 1833. Other incorrect orthography: Thimeleae Hanin, Cours Bot.: 449. 1811; Thymelea Raf., Lex. Gen. Pl.: 25. 1817; Thymeleae Bercht. & J. Presl, Prir. Rostlin: 234. 1820 or Martynov, Teldmo-Bot. Slovar: 634. 1820; Thymelaceae Wall. in Flora 6: 69. 1823; Thymelae Eaton, Man. Bot., ed. 3: 51. 1824; Thymeleaceae Rchb., Consp. Regni Veg.: 82. 1828-1829; Thymelineae Dumort., Anal. Fam. Pl.: 15, 18. 1829; Thymeleceae Bielschmid in Flora (Bieb.) 16(2): 63. 1833.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--THYM

Thyridiaceae: The Dulac (Fl. Hautes-Pyrenees: 118. 614. 1867) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with a description in French. The name was not established on the fungal genus Thyridium Nitschke (1867) or the illegitimate moss genus Thyridium Mitt. (1868 [equivalent to] Mitthyridium H. Rob., 1975).

Thyrsopteridaceae C. Presl, Gefassbundel Farrn: 22, 38. 1847 ("Thyrsopterideae"), nom. rej. in favour of Dicksoniaceae, nom. cons.--Type: Thyrsopteris Kunze, 1835.--Validated by a description in Latin. --First correct orthography: Lotsy, Votr. Bot. Stammesgesch. 2: 654. 1909.--[PTERIDOPHYTA]. NCU--THYR

Ticodendraceae Gomez-Laur. & L. D. Gomez, Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 78: 87. 26 Feb 1991.--Type: Ticodendron J. Gomez-Laurito & L. D. Gomez., 1989.--Validated by a description in Latin.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--TICO

Ticoideae--see Ficoideaceae.

Tigridiaceae: The Caffin (Expos. Meth. Regne Veg.: 63. 1822, as "Tigridires" (gallice)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with a description in French.--Tigridia Juss., 1879.--First correct orthography: presented here.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Tiliaceae Juss., Gen. Pl.: 289. 4 Aug 1789, nom. cons.--Type: Tilia L., 1753.--Validated by a description in Latin. The earlier Gerard (Fl. Gallo-Prov.: xxviii, 436. 1761) and Duchesne (Man. Bot. Cat.: 17. 1764, as "Tiliae") names are nom. nud.--Original place of publication: Adans., Fam. Pl. 2: 378. 1763 ("Tiliae"), validated by a description in French.--Incorrect orthography: Tiliae B. Juss. in Juss., Gen. Pl.: lxxv. 1789; Tillaceae Le Turq., Fl Rouen: xxix. 1816; Tiliacea Raf., Lex. Gen. Pl.: 92. 1817; Tilioideae Vest, Anleit. Stud. Bot.: 271, 293. 1818; Tilieae Desf., Tabl. Ecole Bot., ed. 3: 252. 1829; Tilliaceae Wilbr., Nat. Pflanzenfam.: 25. 1834; Tilioides Raf., Sylva Tellur.: 172. 1838.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--TILI

Tillaeaceae Martynov, Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 635. 31 Jul-5 Aug 1820.--Type: Tillaea L., 1753.--Validated by a reference to an effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published Augier (Essai Nouv. Class. Veg.: 113, 126. 1801, as "Tilleacees" (gallice)) family name with descriptions in French. The Gerardin & Desvaux (Dict. Rais. Bot.: 738. 1817, as "Tilleacees" (gallice)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with a diagnosis in French and a reference to Augier (1801).--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--TILE

Tillandsiaceae Wilbr., Nat. Pflanzenfam.: 44. 1834 ("Tillandsieae"). Type: Tillandsia L., 1753.--Validated by a description in Latin.--Isonym: A. Juss., Cours Elem. Hist. Nat., Bot.: 424. 1843 ("Tillandsieae"). --First correct orthography: R. Hogg, Veg. Kingd.: 716, 848. 1858. Other incorrect orthography: Tillandsiae Le Maout & Decne., Traite General Bot.: 560. 1868.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--TILL *

Timeleas: The J. Ponce de Leon (Sist. Fl.-Sex. Bot.: 234. 1814, (hispanice)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Arts. 18.1, 18.4) published, and is associated with a description in Spanish.

Tinaceae Martynov, Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 635. 31 Jul-5 Aug 1820 ("Tiniaceae").--Type: Tinus Mill., 1743. --Validated by a reference to an effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published Augier (Essai Nouv. Class. Veg.: 191, 193. 1801, as "Tiniacees", (gallice)) family name with descriptions in French. The Gerardin & Desvaux (Dict. Rais. Bot.: 738. 1817, as "Tiniacees" (gallice)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with a diagnosis in French and a reference to Augier (1801).--First correct orthography: Reveal in Phytologia 74: 224. 1993. --[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--TIN+

Tithymalaceae Vent., Tabl. Regne Veg. 3: 483. 5 Mai 1799 ("Tithymaloideae").--Type: Tithymalus Mill., 1754, nom. rej. (non Gaertn., 1790, nom. cons. [equivalent to] Pedilanthus Neck. ex Poit., 1812, nom. cons.). --Validated by a description in French.--Original place of publication: Adans., Fam. Pl. 2: 346. 1763 ("Tithymali"), validated by a description in French.--First correct orthography: Barnhart in Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 12: 16. 1895. Other incorrect orthography: Tithymales Desv. in Gerardin & Desv., Dict. Rais. Bot.: 563. 1817; Tithymalae Martynov, Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 635. 1820; Tithymaleae Dumort., Comment. Bot.: 58. 1822; Tithymali Ende, Comm. Meth. Bot.: 30. 1823.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--TITH

Tmesipteridaceae Nakai, Chosakuronbun Mokuroku [Ord. Fam. Trib. Nov.]: 206. 20 Jul 1943.--Type: Tmespiteris Bernh., 1801.--Validated by a description in Latin. The earlier Rafinesque (Anal. Nat.: 205. 1815 & Fl. Tellur. 1: 33. 1837, as "Tmesipteria") name is a nom. nud. The M. C. Bertrand (Arch. Bot. N. France 1: 252. 1882 & Bull. Soc. Bot. France 30: 157. 1883, as "Tmesipteridees" (gallice)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with a description in French. The Koidzumi (Act. Phytotax. Geobot. 8: 187. 1939) name is is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 36.1) published, and is associated with a diagnosis in Japanese.--[PSILOTOPHYTA]. NCU--TMES

Toddaliaceae: The Baumann-Bodenheim (Syst. Fl. Neu-Caled. 4: 47. 1989, 5: 45. 1989, & 14: 46. 1990) name is a nom. nud.--Toddalia Juss., 1789, nom. cons.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Todeaceae: The A. Ponce de Leon (Revista Soc. Cub. Bot. 9: 130. 1952, as "Todeacea") name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 36.1) published, and is associated with a diagnosis in Spanish. The A. Ponce de Leon (Revista Soc. Cub. Bot. 11: 45. 1954) name is a nom. nud.--Todea Willd. ex Bernh., 1801.--[PTERIDOPHYTA].

Tofieldiaceae Takht. in Bot. Zhurn (Leningrad & Moscow) 17(12): 65. Dec 1994.--T. Tofieldia Huds., 1778.--Validated by a reference to an effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 33.7) published Kunth (Enum. Pl. 4: 165. 17-19 Jul 1843, as sect. "Tolfiedieae") name with a description in Latin. --[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--TOFI

Toricelliaceae--see Torricelliaceae.

Tormentillaceae Martynov, Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 636. 31 Jul-5 Aug 1820 ("Tormentillae").--Type: Tormentilla L., 1753.--Validated by a reference to an effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published Augier (Essai Nouv. Class. Veg.: 113, 118. 1801, as "Tormentilles" (gallice)) family name with a description in French. The Gerardin & Desvaux (Dict. Rais. Bot.: 738. 1817, as "Tormentilles" (gallice)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with a diagnosis in French and a reference to Augier (1801).--First correct orthography: Reveal in Phytologia 74: 221. 1993.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--TORM

Torreyaceae Nakai in Tyosen-Sanrin 158: 14, 23. 10 Mai 1938.--Type: TorreyaArn., 1838, nom. cons.--Validated by a diagnosis in Latin in a key and a description in Latin.--[PINOPHYTA]. NCU--TORY

Torricelliaceae Hu in Bull. Fan Mem. Inst. Biol., Bot. Ser., 5: 311. 1934, basionym: trib. Torricellieae Wang. in Engl., Nat. Pflanzenr. IV, 229 (Heft 41): 18, 31. 12 Apr 1910.--Type: Torricellia DC., 1830. --Basionym validated by a diagnosis in German in a key; family name validated by a description in Latin and a reference to the basionym.--Other orthography: Toricelliaceae Hutch., Evol. Phylog. Fl. Pl.: 119. 1969.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--TORR

Tovariaceae Pax in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. III, 2: 207. Mar 1891, nom. cons.--Type: Tovaria Ruiz & Pav., 1794, nom. cons.--Validated by a description in German.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--TOVA

Tracheliaceae: The Rafinesque (Anal. Nat.: 194. 1815, as "Trachelidia") name is a nom. nud.--Trachelium L., 1753.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Trachytia: The Rafinesque (Anal. Nat.: 186. 1815) name is a nom. nud.

Tradescantiaceae Salisb. in Trans. Linn. Soc. London 8: 9. 1807 ("Tradescanteae").--Tradescantia L., 1753.--Validated by a diagnosis in English.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--TRAD

Tragiaceae Raf., Fl. Tellur. 4: 111. medio 1838 ("Tragides").--Type: Tragia L., 1753.--Validated by a diagnosis in English. The earlier Rafinesque (Anal. Nat.: 182. 1815, as "Traginia" & Fl. Tellur. 1: 28. 1837, as "Tragidia") names are nom. nud.--First correct orthography: Reveal in Phytologia 74: 213. 1993.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--TRAG

Tragopogones: The Trattinnick (Gen. Pl.: 68. 1802) name is a nom. nud. and its rank uncertain ("familias sucundarias").--Tragopogon L., 1753.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Trapaceae Dumort., Anal. Fam. Pl.: 36, 39. 1829, nom. cons.--Type: Trapa L., 1753.--Validated by a diagnosis in French in a key. The earlier Trattinnick (Gen. Pl.: 48. 1802, as "Trapae") name is a nom. nud. and its rank uncertain ("familias sucundarias"). The Rafinesque (Anal. Nat.: 196. 1815, as "Trapacea") name is a nom. nud.--Incorrect orthography: Trapeae E. Mey., Preuss. Pfl.-Gatt.: 247. 1839.--Barnhart (Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 22: 19. 1895) incorrectly attributed the family rank to a not validly published (Art. 32.1(c)) Dumortier (Fl. Belg.: 90. 1827, as trib. Trapeae ("Trapaceae")) name. --[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--TRAP

Trapellaceae Honda & Sakis., Daiko Nippon Shokubutsu Bunruigaku [Syst. Pl. Japon.]: 378. 1930.--Type: Trapella Oliv., 1887.--Validated by a description in Japanese.--Isonym: H. Li in J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 44: 12. 1954, validated by a description in Latin.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--TRAL

Tremandraceae R. Br. ex DC., Prodr. 1: 343. mid Jan 1824 ("Tremandreae"), nom. cons.--Type: Tremandra R. Br. ex DC., 1824.--Validated by a description in Latin.--The generic name Tremandra R. Br. (in Flinders, Voy. Terra Austral. 2: 544. 1814) is a nom. nud.; consequently Brown's family name ("Tremandreae"), though provided with a description in Latin, is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published. However, Brown proposed Tetrathecaceae as an alternative name noting merely that "I prefer the name Tremandreae to that of Tetrathecaceae." The Desvaux (in Gerardin & Desvaux, Dict. Rais. Bot.: 569. 1817, as "Tremandrees" (gallice)) names is a nom. nud. The R. Brown ex Perleb (Vers. Artzneikr. Pfl.: 151. 1818, as "Tremandreae") name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published as the genus was not validated until 1824, but it is associated with a reference to Brown (1814).--First correct orthography: Horaninow, Prim. Lin. Syst. Nat.: 92. 1834. Other incorrect orthography: Tremandraeae Bertol., Prael. Rei Herb.: 262. 1827; Tremantrae V. Peter, Novenyt.: 173. 1836; Tremdudaceae W.S.O. (trans.) in L. Figuier, Veg. World (New York ed.): 386. 1868.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--TREM

Treubaniaceae: The Tieghem (Elem. Bot., ed. 3: 279, 282, 316. Mai 1898, Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., ser. 8, 14: 317. 1901 & Compt. Rend. Hebd. Seances Acad. Sci. 150: 1718. 1910, as "Treubaniacees" (gallice)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with diagnoses in French.--Treubania Tiegh., 1897.--First correct orthography: Airy Shaw in Willis, Dict. Fl. Pl. Ferns, ed. 7: 1136. 1966.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Treubellaceae Tiegh. in Bot. Jahresber. (Just) 24(2): 291. 1898, nom. illeg. (Art. 18.3).--Type: Treubella Tiegh., 1894, nom. illeg. (Art. 53.1: non Pierre, 1890 [equivalent to] Treubania Tiegh., 1897).--Validated by a reference to an effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published Tieghem (Rev. Gen. Bot. 8: 848. 15 Dec 1896, as "Treubellacees" (gallice)) family name with a diagnosis in French. The earlier Tieghem (Bull. Soc. Bot. France 43: 543. 1896 & Compt. Rend. Hebd. Seances Acad. Sci. 124: 656, 658. 1897, as "Treubellacees" (gallice)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1, 18.4) published, and is associated with diagnoses or descriptions in French. The Tieghem (Compt. Rend. Hebd. Seances Acad. Sci. 124: 924. 1897 & Bot. Centralbl. 73: 187. 1898, as "Treubellacees") name is a nom. nud.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Trewiaceae Lindl., Nat. Syst. Bot., ed. 2: 174. Jul 1836.--Type: Trewia L., 1753.--Validated by a description in English.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--TREW

Tribelaceae Airy Shaw in Kew Bull. 18: 269. 8 Dec 1965, basionym: trib. Tribeleae Engl. in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam., ed. 2, 18a: 111. Mai 1930 ("Tribeliseae").--Type: Tribeles Phil., 1864. --Basionym validated by a diagnosis in German in a key; family name validated by a description in Latin.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--TRIE

Tribulaceae Trautv., Estestv. Istor. Gub. Kievsk. Uchebn. Okr. Bot. Sist.: 28. 1853.--Type: Tribulus L., 1753.--Validated by a diagnosis in Russian in a key.--Isonym: (Dumort.) Hadidi in Publ. Cairo Univ. Herb. 78: 106. 1977, basionym: trib. Tribuleae Dumort., Anal. Fam. Pl.: 45. 1829, validated by a diagnosis in French; family name validated by a full and direct reference to a later Engler (in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. III, 4: 78, 86. 1890) name with a diagnosis in German that is corrected to the above basionym. The earlier Dumortier (Comment. Bot.: 63. 1822, as "Tribulineae") name is a nom. nud. because while he cited "Rutacearum gen. Juss." he retained Rutaceae as a distinct family. However, because Jussieu (Gen. Pl.: 328. 1789) divided the family into two unnamed groups which he differentiated by a Latin diagnosis, one might argue that Dumortier considered Tribulaceae, with Tribulus in the first group, distinct from the second group with Ruta. The Caffin (Expos. Meth. Regne Veg.: 71. 1822, as "Tribulacees" (gallice)) names is not validly published but is associated with a description in French. The Sloboda (Encykl. Rostl.: 638. 1853, as "Tribuleae" name is a nom. nud. --[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--TRIB

Trichomanaceae Burmeist., Handb. Naturgesch. 1: 196. 12-17 Dec 1836 ("Trichomanoideae").--Type: Trichomanes L., 1753.--Validated by a description in German.--First correct orthography: G. Kunkel, Cuad. Bot. Mus. Canar. 2: 34. 1966. Other incorrect orthography: Trichomaneaceae G. Kunkel, Ber. Schweiz. Bot. Ges. 72: 19. 1962; Trichomanaeaceae G. Kunkel, Feddes Repert 70: 155. 1985. --[PTERIDOPHYTA]. NCU--TRIC

Trichopodaceae Hutch., Fam. Fl. Pl. 2: 143. 1934, nom. cons.--Type: Trichopus Gaertn., 1788.--Validated by a description in English.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--TRID

Tricoccae: The Linnaeus (Philos. Bot.: 32. 1755) and Oeder (Elem. Bot.: 154. 1766) name is a nom. nud., the former proposed at the rank of Fragmenta. The Gerard. (Fl. Gallo-Prov.: xxx, 535. 1761) name is a nom. nud. The Batsch (Dispos. Gen. Pl. Jenens.: 41. 1786) and Giseke (Prael. Ord. Nat. Pl.: 474. 1792) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with descriptions in Latin.--Other orthography: Tricoeceae Martynov, Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 641. 1820; Tricocca Ende, Comm. Meth. Bot.: 86. 1823; Tricocae A. B. Strong, Amer. Fl. 1: 85. 1846.

Tricyrtidaceae Takht., Divers. Classif. Fl. Pl.: 482. 1 Mai 1997, nom. cons.--Type: Tricyrtis Wall., 1826. --Validated by a diagnosis in Latin. The earlier H. Huber (Mitt. Bot. Staatssamml. Munchen 8: 523. 1969, as "Tricyrtidaceen" (germanice)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published; it was proposed as a new name for Compsoaceae, a Horaninow (Prim. Lin. Syst. Nat.: 51.2 Nov 1834) family name with a description in Latin. The Bedell & Reveal (Phytologia 52: 181. 1982) and C. K. Rao & Pankhurst (Polyclave Monocot. Fam.: 48. 1986) names are nom. nud. The Takhtajan (Bot. Rev. (Lancaster) 46: 304. 1980 & Sist. Magnoliof. [Syst. Magnolioph.]: 436. 1987), Cronquist (Integr. Syst. Classif. Fl. Pl.: 1210. 1981) and Bedell & Reveal (Phytologia 51 : 73, 118. 1982) name is cited in synonymy. The R. Dahlgren & Clifford (Monocotyledons: 61. 1982) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 36.1) published, and is associated with a description in English.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--TRIR

Triglochinaceae Chevall., Fl. Gen. Env. Paris 2: 268. 1827 ("Triglochineae").--Type: Triglochin L., 1753.--Validated by a description in French. The earlier Caffin (Expos. Meth. Regne Veg.: 62. 1822, as "Triglochinees" (gallice)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with a description in French. The Dumortier (Fl. Belg.: 141. 1827, as "Triglochineae") name is a new name for Juncaginaceae (1808) but it is not known if it predates Chevallier who provided a detailed description and discussion. The selection of Chevallier as the author is only because of the greater detail provided by this author.--First correct orthography: Bromhead, Mag. Nat. Hist., n.s., 4: 336. 1840.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--TRIN

Trigoniaceae A. Juss. in Orb., Dict. Univ. Hist. Nat. 12: 670.7 Jul 1849, nom. cons.--Type: Trigonia Aubl., 1775.--Validated by a description in French. The earlier Martius (Consp. Regn. Veg.: 51. 1835), Lindley (Penny Cyclop. 10: 127. 1837, as "Trigonieae"), Baskerville (Affin. Pl.: 104. 1839, as "Trigonieae"), and Endlicher (Gen. Pl.: 1080, 1840 & Gen. Pl. xli. 1841) names are nom. nud. The subsequent Endlicher (Ench. Bot.: 570. 15-21 Aug 1841) name is unranked but is associated with a description in Latin. Family rank traditionally attributed to Endlicher (1841).--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--TRIG *

Trihilatae: The Linnaeus (Philos. Bot.: 33. 1755) and Oeder (Elem. Bot.: 154. 1766) name is a nom. nud., the former proposed at the rank of Fragmenta. The Batsch (Dispos. Gen. Pl. Jenens.: 40. 1786) and Giseke (Prael. Ord. Nat. Pl.: 357. 1792) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with descriptions in Latin.

Trilliaceae Chevall., Fl. Gen. Env. Paris 2: 297. 1827, nom. cons.--Type: Trillium L., 1753.--Validated by a description in French.--Isonym: Rafinesque, Fl. Tellur. 4: 19. 1838 ("Trillidia"), validated by a diagnosis in English. The earlier Candolle (Essai Propr. Med. Pl., ed. 2: 294. 1816, as "Trillacees" (gallice)) and Caffin (Expos. Meth. Regne Veg.: 63, 1822) name (as "Trilliacees") name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with a description in French. The Martynov (Tekno-Bot. Slovar: 644. 1820) name is a nom. nud. The Turpin (Dict. Sci. Nat., Pl. Bot.: 2: 2. 1816-1829, as "Trilliees" (gallice)) name is a nom. nud. Family name traditionally attributed to Lindley (Veg. Kingd.: 218. 14-28 Mar 1846) who provided a description in English.--Barnhart (Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 22: 9. 1895) and Post & Kuntze (Lex. Gen. Phan.: 39, 714. 1903) incorrectly attributed family rank to Lindley (Nat. Syst. Bot., ed. 2: 347. 1836) who cited the Candolle (1816) name in syonymy.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--TRIL

Trimeia: The Rafinesque (Anal. Nat.: 203. 1815, Amer. Monthly Mag. & Crit. Rev. 1: 442. 1817 & Fl. Tellur. 1: 33. 1837, as "Trimeia") name is a nom. nud.

Trimeniaceae Gibbs, Fl. Arfak. Mts.: 135. Jul 1917, nom. cons., basionym: trib. Trimenieae Janet R. Perkins & Gilg in Engl., Pflanzenr. IV, 101 (Heft 4): 12. 21 Jun 1901.--Type: Trimenia Seem., 1873. --Basionym validated by a diagnosis in German in a key; family name validated by a description in Latin and a reference to the basionym.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--TRIM

Triocauleae: The P. Constantin (in A.-E. Brehm, Merv. Nat. Pl. 2: 667. 1896) name is a nom. nud.--Established for "une petite famille de 6 genres et 325 especes, voisine des Restiacees" which we cannot otherwise identify.

Triosteaceae: The Rafinesque (Anal. Nat.: 191. 1815 & Fl. Tellur. 1: 30. 1837, as "Triostinia") name is a nom. nud.--Triosteum L., 1753.--First correct orthography: presented here.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Tripetalae: The Trattinnick (Gen. Pl.: 5, 37. 1802) name is a nom. nud. The name was not based on the later genus Tripetalum K. Schum., 1889.

Tripetaloideae: The Linnaeus (Philos. Bot.: 28. 1755) name is a nom. nud. and proposed at the rank of Fragmenta. The Gerard (Fl. Gallo-Prov. xxii, 137. 1761) and Oeder (Elem. Bot.: 153. 1766) name is a nom. nud. The Batsch (Dispos. Gen. Pl. Jenens.: 47. 1786, as "Tripetalae") and Giseke (Prael. Ord. Nat. Pl.: 167. 1792) name are effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and are associated with descriptions in Latin.--Other orthography: Tripetaloidae Titford, Hort. Bot. Amer.: 19. 1811; Tripetaloides Schuurm. Stekh., Kruidk. Kunstw.-boek.: 191. 1825. The name was not based on the later genus Tripetalum K. Schum., 1889.

Triphacaceae: The Barnhart (Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 22: 17. 1895, as "Triphaceae") and Moldenke (Prel. Class. Pl. Kingd.: 17. 1944) name is cited in synonymy.--Triphaca Lour., 1790.--Barnhart (1895) incorrectly attributed family rank to an unranked Reichenbach (Handb. Nat. Pflanzensyst.: 291. 1837, as "Triphaceae") name with a diagnosis in Latin.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Triphyophyllaceae: The M. L. Emberger (in Chadefaud & M. L. Emberger, Traite Bot. (Syst.) 2(2): 1217. 1960, as "Triphyophyllacees" (gallice)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with a description in French; it was proposed as a new name for Dioncophyllaceae, an Airy Shaw (Kew Bull. 6: 333. 26 Jan 1952) family name with a description in Latin. The M. F. Sakhokia (in Grossheim, Oliz. Nov. Sist. Esnetk. Rast.: 161. 1966), R. D. Gibbs (Chemotax. Fl. Pl.: 1093. 1974), A. Cronquist (Integr. Syst. Classif. Fl. Pl.: 408. 1981), Bedell & Reveal (Phytologia 51: 69. 1982) and C. R. Gunn & al. (U.S.D.A. Tech. Bull. 1796: 45. 1992) name is cited in synonymy. --Triphyophyllum Airy Shaw, 1952.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Tripleia: The Rafinesque (Anal. Nat.: 203. 1815 & Fl. Tellur. 1: 33. 1837) name is a nom. nud.

Triplobaceae Raf., Sylva Tellur.: 110. 1838 ("Triplobides"), nom. illeg.--Type: Triplobus Raf., 1838, nom. illeg. (Art. 52.1: [equivalent to] Triphaca Lour., 1790).--Validated by a diagnosis in English.--First correct orthography: Reveal in Phytologia 74: 212. 1993.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Triplochitonaceae: The K. Schumann (Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 28: 330. 1900), Solereder (Syst. Anat. Dict. 50. 1908), D. H. Scott (Syst. Anat. Dict. 2: 843. 1908), K. Schumann ex Dostal (Bot. Nomenkl.: 219. 1957), K. Schumann ex Bullock (Taxon 7: 34. 1958), Novak (Vyssi Rostliny: 550. 1961), M. F. Sakhokia (in Grossheim, Oliz. Nov. Sist. Esnetk. Rast.: 97. 1966) and Airy Shaw (in Willis, Dict. Fl. Pl. Ferns, ed. 7: 1149. 1966 & ed. 8: 1179. 1973) name is a nom. nud. The J. A. Duke (Fam. Polyclave: P12. 1969) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 36.1) published, and is associated with a diagnosis in English in a polyclave.--Triplochiton K. Schum., 1900, nom. cons.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Triplostegiaceae A. E. Bobrov ex Airy Shaw in Kew Bull. 18: 269. 8 Dec 1965, basionym: trib. Triplostegieae Hock in Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 31: 408. 1901.--Type: Triplostegia Wall. ex DC., 1830.--Basionym validated by a description in German; family name validated by a description in Latin and a reference to the basionym.--The earlier A. E. Bobrov (Fl. URSS 34: 2. 1957) name is a nom. nud.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--TRIP

Tripsaceae: The Barnhart (Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 22: 7. 1895) and Moldenke (Prel. Class. Pl. Kingd.: 24. 1944) name is cited in synonymy.--Tripsacum L., 1759.--Barnhart (1895) incorrectly attributed family rank to a Dumortier (Anal. Fam. Pl.: 64. 1829, as subtrib. Tripsacinae ("Tripsaceae")) name with a diagnosis in French.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Tripterellaceae Dumort., Anal. Fam. Pl.: 54, 55. 1829 ("Tripterelleae"), nom. illeg.--Type: Tripterella Michx., 1803, nom. illeg. (Art. 52.1: [equivalent to] Vogelia J. F. Gmel., 1791).--Validated by a diagnosis in French in a key.--Isonym: Nutt. in J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 7: 62. 1834 ("Tripterelleae"), validated by a description in English.--First correct orthography: Airy Shaw in Willis, Dict. Fl. Pl. Ferns, ed. 7: 1149. 1966.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Trismeriaceae: The G. Kunkel (Bet. Schweiz. Bot. Ges. 72: 36. 1962 &Feddes Repert. 70: 156. 1965) name is a nom. nud.--Trismeria Fee, 1852.--[PTERIDOPHYTA].

Tristeginaceae (Link) Herter in Revista Sudamer. Bot. 6: 136. Jun 1940, nom. illeg. (Art. 18.3), basionym: subfam. Tristeginoideae ("Tristeginae") Link, Hort. Berol. 1: 230. 1 Oct-27 Nov 1827, nom. illeg. --Type: Tristegis Nees, 1820, nom. illeg. (Art. 52.1: [equivalent to] Suardia Schrank, 1820).--Basionym validated by a diagnosis in Latin; family name validated by a reference to the basionym. The earlier Herter (Fl. Urug.: 28. 1930) name is a nom. nud.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--TRIP

Tristichaceae Willis in J. Linn. Soc. London, Bot. 43: 51. 15 Mai 1915.--Type: Tristicha Thouars, 1806. --Validated by a description in English. The earlier A. Kerner (Pflanzenleben 2: 673. 1891) name is a nom. nud.--Incorrect orthography: Trisitichaceae Lui Kai-yun, Kao Teng. Chih [Syst. Bot.]: 136. 1934. --[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--TRIS

Triticaceae Hochst. in Flora 31: 144. 7 Mar 1848 ("Triticaceae").--Triticum L., 1753.--Validated by a diagnosis in German. The earlier Link (Hort. Berol. 1: 22. 1827, as "Ordo [=fam] Gramineae fam. [=?] Triticeae") name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 33.7) published, and is associated with a diagnosis in Latin.--First correct orthography: Kiger & Reveal, Huntia 11: 69, 83. 2000. --[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--TRIT

Triuridaceae Gardner in Trans. Linn. Soc. London 19: 160. 1843 ("Triuraceae"), nom. cons.--Type: Triuris Miers, 1841.--Validated by a description in Latin. Earlier, Miers (Trans. Linn. Soc. London 19: 80. 1841) noted that Triuris did not belong to any known family, and "may probably be taken as the type of a distinct family."--First correct orthography: Lindley, Veg. Kingd.: 213. 1846. Other incorrect orthography: Treuridaceae Gardner in Calcutta J. Nat. Hist. 7: 463. 1847; Triuraceae Champ. in Calcutt. J. Nat. Hist. 7: 465. 1847; Triuriaceae Miers in Trans. Linn. Soc. London 21: 56. 1852; Triurideae Thwaites, Enum. Pl. Zeyl.: 294. 1861; Triuridineae Drude in Schenk, Handb. Bot. 3(2): 343. 1886. --[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--TRIU *

Trochodendraceae Eichler in Flora 48: 14. 18 Jan 1865 ("Trochodendreae"), nom. cons.--Type: Trochodendron Siebold & Zucc., 1839. Validated by a poorly organized diagnosis in German.--Isonym: Prantl in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. III, 2: 21. Feb 1888, validated by a description in German. The earlier Seem. (J. Bot. 2: 238. 1864, as "Trochodendreae") name is a nom. nud.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--TROC

Tropaeolaceae Bercht. & J. Presl, Prir. Rostlin: 220. 1820 ("Tropoeoleae"), nom. cons.--Type: Tropaeolum L., 1753.--Validated by a description in Czech.--Isonym: Juss. ex DC., Prodr. 1: 683. mid Jan 1824 ("Tropaeoleae"), validated by a description in Latin and a reference to an effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published Jussieu (Mem. Mus. Hist. Nat. 5: 230. 1819, as "Troprolres" (gallice)) family name with a diagnosis in French. The earlier J. Ponce de Leon (Sist. Fl.-Sex. Bot.: 179. 1814, as "Tropeolos" (hispanice)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with a diagnosis in Spanish. Jussieu (Mem. Mus. Hist. Nat. 3: 477. 1817) initially indicated that Tropaeolum represented a new family, but did not give it a name; later Jussieu (1819) published the name cited by Candolle.--First correct orthography: Horaninow, Prim. Lin. Syst. Nat.: 94. 1834. Other incorrect orthography: Tropeoleae Chevall., Fl. Gen. Env. Paris 2: 798. 1828; Tropoeleae Fre, Cours Nat. Hist. Pharm. 1: 571. 1828; Tropaeolineae Dumort., Anal. Fam. Pl.: 37, 41. 1829; Tropaeolinae Trin., Gen. Pl.: 20. 1835; Tropeolaceae P.-H. Ho & N. V. Duong, Cay-Co Viet-Nam: 38. 1960. --[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--TROP

Tubiferae: The Batsch ex Borkhausen (Bot. Wrrterbuch 2: 391. 1797) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with a description in Latin.--The pre-1789 Batsch (Dispos. Gen. Pl. Jenens.: 50. 1786) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with a diagnosis in Latin. The earlier Batsch (Syn. Univ. Anal. Gen. Pl.: 384. 1794) name is a nom. nud. The name is not based on the myxomycete genus Tubifera J. F. Gmel., 1792.

Tubifilaceae: The Dulac (Fl. Hautes-Pyrenees: 231, 616. 1867) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with a description in French.

Tulhaghlaceae Salisb., Gen. Pl.: 87. 1866 ("Tulbagheae").--Type: Tulbaghia L. corr. Giseke, 1792, nom. et orth. var.--Validated by a description in Latin. The earlier Endlicher (Gen. Pl.: 150. 1836, viii. 1838, as "Tulbaghineae") name is a nom. nud. and unranked.--First correct orthography: Bullock in Taxon 7: 34. 1958.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--TULB*

Tulipaceae Batsch ex Borkh., Bot. Wrrterbuch 2: 391. 1797.--Type: Tulipa L., 1753. Validate by a diagnosis in German.--Original place of publication: Batsch, Dispos. Gen. Pl. Jenens.: 48. 1786, validated by a diagnosis in Latin. Incorrect orthography: Tulipides Raf., Fl. Tellur. 2: 34. 1837; Tulipeae E. Mey., Preuss. Pfl.-Gatt.: 44. 1839.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--TULI

Tulipiferae: The Ventenat (Tabl. Regne Veg. 3: 68. 1799) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with a description in French. The name is not based on the illegitimate genus Tulipifera Mill. (1754 [equivalent to] Liriodendron L., 1753).

Tumboaceae Wettst., Handb. Syst. Bot. 2(1): 158. Nov 1903.--Type: Tumboa Welwitsch, 1861, nom. rej. ([equivalent to]Welwitschia Hook.f., 1862, nom. cons.).--Validated by a description in German.--Other orthography: Tumboideae Seward, Encycl. Brit., ed. 11, 20: 754. 1910.--[PINOPHYTA].--TUMB

Tupeianthaceae--see Tepuianthaceae.

Tupistraceae Schnizl., Iconogr. Fam. Regn. Veg. 1: 72. Jan-Apr 1846 ("Tupistreae").--Type: Tupistra Ker Gawl., 1814.--Validated by a description in Latin and German.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--TUPI

Turbinaceae: The Dulac (Fl. Hautes-Pyrenees: 413, 616. 1867) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with a description in French. The name is based on the genus Turbina Raf., 1838.

Turneraceae Kunth ex DC., Prodr. 3: 345. mid Mar 1828, nom. cons.--Type: Turnera L., 1753.--Validated by a description in Latin. The earlier Trattinnick (Gen. Pl.: 45. 1802, as "Turnerae") name is a nom. nud. and its rank uncertain ("familias sucundarias").--Incorrect orthography: Turneriaceae Loud., Hort. Brit.: 516. 1830; Turnereae F. Voigt, Gesch. Pflanzen-Reichs 1: 151. 1848.--Barnhart (Bull. Torrey Bot Club 22: 18. 1895) and Post & Kuntze (Lex. Gen. Phan.: 714. 1903) incorrectly cited the family rank to an effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 33.7) published Kunth (in Humb., Bonpl. & Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. 6: ed. qu.: 123. 1823, as sect. "Turneraceae") name with a diagnosis in Latin. Dostal (Bot. Nomenkl.: 219. 1957) proposed conservation from the Kunth reference but this was appropriately rejected.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--TURN

Tussilagines: The Trattinnick (Gen. Pl.: 70. 1802) name is a nom. nud. and its rank uncertain ("familias sucundarias").--Tussilago L., 1753.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Tympanochetae: The Martius ex Le Maout & Decaisne (Traite General Bot.: 541. 1868) name is cited in synonymy.

Typhaceae Juss., Gen. Pl.: 25.4 Aug 1789 ("Typhae"), nom. cons.--Type: Typha L., 1753.--Validated by a description in Latin.--Original place of publication: Durande, Notions Elem. Bot.: 254. 1782 ("Typhae"), validated by a description in French.--First correct orthography: J. Saint-Hilaire, Expos. Fam. Nat. 1: 60. 1805. Other incorrect orthography: Typhoideae Vent., Tabl. Regne Veg. 2: 87. 1799; Thyphae Dubois, Meth. Eprouv.: 249. 1803; Typhineae Rich., Demonstr. Bot.: x. 1808; Typhacea Raf., Anal. Nat.: 203. 1815; Tiphae Le Turq., Fl. Rouen: xix. 1816; Thyphoidea Vest, Anleit. Stud. Bot.: 264. 1818; Thyphaceae Marquis, Esq. Regne Veg.: 85. 1820; Typhinae C. Agardh, Aphor. Bot.: 139. 1822; Typheae Rchb. in MOssier, Handb. Gewachsk., ed. 2: xix, xx. 1827; Typhaeaceae Rchb., Bot. Damen.: 312. 1828; Typhides Raf., Med. Fl. 1: 27. 1828; Typheaceae Bertol. in Nuovo Giorn. Bot. Ital. 23: 213. 1891.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--TYPH

Uapacaceae Airy Shaw in Kew Bull. 18: 270. 8 Dec 1965, basionym: subtrib. Uapacinae Mull. Arg. in Linnaea 34: 64. Mar 1865 ("Uapaceae").--Type: Uapaca Baill., 1858.--Basionym validated by a diagnosis in Latin; family name validated by a description in Latin and a reference to the basionym. --[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--UAPA

Ubiaceae: The Rafinesque (Anal. Nat.: 199. 1815 & Fl. Tellur. 1: 32. 1837, as "Ubidia") name is a nom. nud.--Ubium Coth., 1790.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Ulices: The Trattinnick (Gen. Pl.: 58. 1802) name is a nom. nud. and its rank uncertain ("familias sucundarias").--Ulex L., 1753.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Ullucaceae Nakai in J. Jap. Bot. 18: 109. Mar 1942.--Type: Ullucus Caldas, 1809. Validated by a description in Latin in a key.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--ULLU

Ulmaceae Mirb., Elem. Phys. Veg. Bot. 2: 905. 1815, nom. cons.--Type: Ulmus L., 1753.--Validated by a description in French. The earlier Batsch (Syn. Univ. Anal. Gen. Pl.: 398. 1794 & Dispos. Gen. Pl. Europ.: 124. 1794, as "Ulmariae") name is a nom. nud.--Incorrect orthography: Ulmacea Raf., Anal. Nat.: 179. 1815; Ulmeae Ruthe, Fl. Mark Brandenburg: 125. 1827; Ulmideae Dumort., Anal. Fam. Pl.: 15, 17. 1829; Ulmineae Kostel., Allg. Med.-Pharm. Fl. 2: 429. 1833; Ulmidia Raf., Fl. Tellur. 1: 28. 1837; Ulmides Raf., New Fl. N. Amer. 3: 8. 1838.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--ULM+

Ulmariaceae Gray, Nat. Arr. Brit. Pl. 2: 395, 588. 1 Nov 1821 ("Ulmariae").--Type: Ulmaria Mill., 1754.--Validated by an English diagnosis in a key and a description.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. --ULMA

Ultracycadaceae: The de Laubenfels (Encephalartos 59: 9. 1999) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with a description in Latin.

Umbellatae: The Adanson (Fam. Pl.: 2: 89. 1763, as "Umbellatae"), J. F. Gmelin (Alleg. Gesch. Pflanzengifte: 23, 61. 1777), Batsch (Dispos. Gen. Pl. Jenens.: 34. 1786) and Giseke (Prael. Ord. Nat. Pl.: 508. 1792) names are effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and are associated with descriptions in French, German or Latin. The Oeder (Elem. Bot.: 154. 1766, as "Vmbellatae") name is a nom. nud.--Other orthography: Umbellifera A. Tilloch in Philos. Mag. 26: 186. 1806; Umbellatarum Wahleb., Fl. Carpat. Princ.: lxxxiv. 1814; Umbellate Raf., Med. Fl. 1: 54. 1828.

Umbelliferae Juss., Gen. Pl.: 218. 4 Aug 1789, nom. cons., nom. alt.: Apiaceae.--Type: Apium L., 1753. --Validated by a description in Latin. The earlier A von Hailer (Enum. Stirp. Helv. 1: 34. 1759 & Enum. Stirp.: 27. 1760), Gerard (Fl. Gallo-Prov.: xxiv, 230. 1761) and Duchesne (Man. Bot. Cat.: 9. 1764, as "Umbelliferarum") names are nom. nud.--Original place of publication: Oeder, Elem. Bot.: 287.1766, validated by a description in Latin; see also Durande, Notions Elem. Bot.: 276. 1782, validated by a description in French.--Incorrect orthography: Umbellae Batsch, Syn. Univ. Anal. Gen. Pl.: 389. 1794 or Dispos. Gen. Pl. Europ.: 120. 1794; Umbellatae Batsch ex Borkh., Bot. Worterbuch 2: 392. 1797; Ombelliferae Thours, Esquisse Fl. Tristan d'Acugna: 43. 1808; Umbellifereae Sweet, Hort. Suburb. Lond.: 54. 1818; Umbellifera Raf., New Fl. N. Amer. 1: 30. 1836; Umbellaceae Dulac, Fl. Hautes-Pyrenees: 617, 633. 1867.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU-UMBE

Unilabiata: The Rafinesque (Fl. Tellur. 3: 84. 1837) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with a diagnosis in Latin.

Uniseraataceae Raf., New Fl. N. Amer. 2: 75. Jul-Dec 1837 ("Unisemides") nom. illeg.--Type: Unisema Raf., 1808 ("Umsema": corr. Raf., Med. Fl. 2: 105. 1830), nom. illeg. (Art. 52.1: [equivalent to] Pontederia L., 1753). --Validated by a diagnosis in English. The earlier Rafinesque (Anal. Nat.: 200. 1815, as "Unisemia", Med. Bot. 2: 104. 1830, as "Unisemous", Fl. Tellur. 1: 32. Jan-Mar 1837, as "Unisemia", and Fl. Tellur. 2: 11. Nov-Dec 1837, "Unisemea") names are nom. nud.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Uraniaceae: The Tenore (Cat. Orto Bot. Napoli: 57, 69. 1845, as "Uranieae") name is a nom. nud. The Schimper (Traite Paleont. Veg. 2: 450. 1870, as "Uranieae") name is at an uncertain rank.--Urania Schreb., 1789, nom. illeg. (Art. 52.1:--Ravenala Adans., 1763).--First correct orthography: presented here.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Urostachyaceae Rothm. in Feddes Repert. 54: 58. 1944, nom. illeg. (Art. 18.3).--Type: Urostachys Herter, 1922, nom. illeg. (Art. 52.1: [equivalent to] Huperzia Bernh., 1802).--Validated by a description in Latin. --[LYCOPODIOPHYTA].

Urticaceae Juss., Gen. Pl.: 400.4 Aug 1789 ("Urticae"), nom. cons.--Type: Urtica L., 1753.--Validated by a description in Latin.--Original place of publication: Durande, Notions Elrm. Bot.: 293. 1782 ("Urticae"), validated by a description in French.--First correct orthography: Reichenbach, Consp. Regni Veg.: 83. 1828-1829 or Dumortier, Anal. Fam. Pl.: 15, 17. 1829. Other incorrect orthography: Urticeae Vent., Tabl. Regne Veg. 3: 524. 1799; Urticia Raf., Anal. Nat.: 179. 1815; Urticoideae Vest, Anleit. Stud. Bot.: 265, 279. 1818; Urticinae Link, Enum Hort. Berol. Art. 2: 384. 1822; Urticineae Desv., Fl. Anjou: 118. 1827; Urticcaeae Rchb. in Mossler, Handb. Gewachsk., ed. 3: lxciii. 1833; Urtic B. Juss. ex Juss. in Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., srr. 2, 8: 239. 1837; Urticides Raf., Fl. Tellur. 3: 44. 1837. --[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--URTI

Utriculariaceae Hoffmanns. & Link, Fl. Portug. 1: 62. 1 Sep 1809 ("Utriculinae").--Type: Utricularia L., 1753.--Validated by descriptions in Latin and French.--Isonym: Hoffmanns. & Link, Fl. Portug. 1: 337. 1813-1820 ("Utriculinae"), validated by diagnoses in Latin and French.--First correct orthography: Dumortier, Anal. Fam. Pl.: 19, 23. 1829. Other incorrect orthography: Utriculineae Martynov, Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 663. 1820 Utricularinae Link, Enum. Hort. Berol. Art. 1: 27. 1821; Utriculariae Chevall., Fl. Gen. Env. Paris 2: 449. 1827; Utricularineae Desv., Fl. Anjou: 156. 1827; Utricularieae Boisd., Fl. Fran9. 2: 261. 1828 or Lois., Fl. Gall., ed. 2, 1: xxii. 1828.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--UTRI

Uvulariaceae A. Gray ex Kunth, Enum. Pl. 4: 199. 17-19 Jul 1843 ("Uvularieae"), nom. cons.--Type: Uvularia L., 1753.--Validated by a description in Latin. The earlier Trattinnick (Gen. Pl.: 39. 1802, as "Uvulariae") name is a nom. nud. and its rank uncertain ("familias sucundarias"). The Salisbury (Trans. Hort. Soc. London 1: 329. 1812, as "Uvulareae") name is a nom. nud. The Kunth (Abh. Konigl. Akad. Wiss. Berlin 1842: 5. 1842, as "Uvularieen" germanice) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with a diagnosis in German.--First correct orthography: Walpers in Ann. Bot. Syst. 3: 650. 1852. Other incorrect orthography: Uvulareae Salisb., Gen. Pl.: 58. 1866.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--UVUL

Vacciaiaceae DC ex Perleb, Vers. Artzneikr. Pfl.: 228. 1818 ("Vaccinieae"), nom. cons.--Type: Vaccinium L., 1753.--Validated by a description in German. The earlier Candolle (Throrie Elem. Bot.: 216. 1813, as "Vaccinires" (gallice)) and Rafinesque (Anal. Nat.: 194, 1815, as "Vaccinidia") names are nom. nud. --Original place of publication: Adans., Fam. Pl. 2: 160. 1763 (" Vaccinia"), validated by a description in French.--Isonym: DC. ex Hook. & Lindl. in Hook., Fl. Scot.: 2: 231. 19 Mai 1821 ("Vaccineae"), validated by a description in English. Family name traditionally attributed to Gray (Nat. Arr. Brit. Pl. 2: 394, 404. 1 Nov 1821, as "Vaccinieae") who provided an English diagnosis in a key, a description, and a reference to Candolle (1813).--First correct orthography: Schouw in Flora 8(Beil): 79. 1825. Other incorrect orthography: Vaecinidiae Dumort., Comment. Bot.: 57. 1822; Vaccinia Ende, Comm. Meth. Bot.: 30. 1823; Vacciniae Ende, Comm. Meth. Bot.: 81. 1823; Vaccinideae Dumort., Anal. Fam. Pl.: 28, 29. 1829; Vaccinides Raf. in The Casket 1828: 568. 1828; Vaccinidia Raf., Fl. Tellur. 1: 31. 1837; Vaccinaceae Royle, Ill. Bot. Himalayan Mts.: 255. 1835; Vaccineae Leunis, Syn. Pflanzenf.: 332. 1847. --[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--VACC *

Vaginales: The Linnaeus (Philos. Bot.: 30. 1755) name is a nom. nud. and proposed at the rank of Fragmenta. The Gerard (Fl. Gallo-Prov.: xxviii, 445. 1761) and Batsch (Syn. Univ. Anal Gen. Pl.: 396. 1794 & Dispos. Gen. Pl. Europ.: 123. 1794) name is a nom. nud. The Batsch (Dispos. Gen. Pl. Jenens.: 54. 1786) and Batsch ex Borkhausen (Bot. Worterbuch 2: 394. 1797) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with a diagnosis in Latin.

Vahliaceae Dandy in Hutch., Fam. Fl. Pl., ed. 2: 461. Jan-Jul 1959.--Type: Vahlia Thunb., 1782, nom. cons.--Validated by a description in Latin.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--VAHL

Valerianaceae Batsch, Tab. Affin. Regni Veg.: 227. 2 Mai 1802, nom. cons.--Type: Valeriana L., 1753. --Validated by a description in Latin. The earlier Batsch (Syn. Univ. Anal. Gen. Pl.: 390. 1794 & Dispos. Gen. Pl. Europ.: 121. 1794, as "Valerianae") and Salisbury (Prodr. Stirp. Chap. Allerton: 46, 55. 1796, as "Valerianeae") name is a nom. nud. The Augier (Essai Nouv. Class. Veg.: 156, 158. 1801, as "Valerianres" (gallice)) name is not validly published (Art. 18.4). The F. Lestiboudois (Botanogr.: 10. 1801, as "Valerianes" (gallice)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with a description in French. The Trattinnick (Gen. Pl.: 64. 1802, as "Valerianae") name is a nom. nud. and its rank uncertain ("familias sucundarias").--Incorrect orthography: Valerianaoe Hanin, Enum. Pl.: 5. 1806; Valerianoideae Vest, Anleit. Stud. Bot.: 273, 297. 1818; ValerinaceaeDumort., Fl. Belg.: 57. 1827; Valerianaeae Bertol., Prael. Rei Herb.: 261. 1827; Valerianides Raf., Fl. Tellur. 4: 93, 94. 1838.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--VALE

Vallisneriaceae Link, Handbuch 1: 281. 20 Apr 1829.--Type: Vallisneria L., 1753.--Validated by descriptions in Latin and German.--Note: The Link name was published on 20 Apr 1829, while the Dumortier (Anal. Fam. Pl.: 54, 55. 1829, basionym trib. Vallisnerieae Dumort., Fl. Belg.: 135. 1827, basionym validated by a diagnosis in Latin; family name validated by a diagnosis in French in a key) name cannot be precisely dated within the year although the book appears to have been published late in 1829. We have selected the above reference as the first place of publication for the purpose of establishing priority. The earlier Rafinesque (Anal. Nat.: 198. 1815, as "Valisneridia") name is a nom. nud.--Incorrect orthography: Valisneriaceae Trin., Gen. Pl.: 21. 1835; Valisneridia Raf., Fl. Tellur. 1: 32. 1837; Valisnerides Raf., Fl. Tellur. 4: 52. 1838; Vallisnereae F. Voigt, Gesch. Pflanzen-Reichs 2: 411. 1850.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--VALL*

Valvatae: The F. Weber & D. Mohr (Bot. Taschenbuch: 6, 48. 1807) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with a diagnosis in Latin.

Valvulatae: The D. Molar (Observ. Bot.: 12, 14. 1803) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with a diagnosis in Latin.

Vandaceae: The A. Kemer (Pflanzenleben 2: 661. 1891), Barnhart (Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 12: 10. 1895), Moldenke (Prel. Class. Pl. Kingd.: 24. 1944) and R. D. Gibbs (Chemotax. Fl. Pl.: 1159. 1974) name is cited in synonymy.--Vanda W. Jones ex R. Br., 1820.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Vanillaceae Lindl., Key Bot.: 73. 1835.--Type: Vanilla Mill., 1754.--Validated by a diagnosis in English in a key. The earlier Trattinnick (Gen. Pl.: 36. 1802, as "Vanillae") name is a nom. nud. and its rank uncertain ("familias sucundarias").--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--VANI*

Vasculiferae: The Avon Haller (Enum. Stirp. Helv. 1: 45. 1759 & 3: 80. 1760) name is a nom. nud.

Vasovulaceae: The Dulac (Fl. Hautes-Pyr6n6es: 20, 440, 618. 1867) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with a diagnosis in French in a key.

Velloziaceae Hook., Bot. Mag. 54: ad t. 2777.1 Nov 1827 ("Vellosiae"), nom. cons.--Type: Vellozia Vand., 1788.--Validated by a diagnosis in English.--Isonym: J. Agardh, Theoria Syst. Pl.: 9. Apr-Sep 1858 ("Vellozieae") with diagnoses in Latin. The earlier D. Don ex Endlicher (Gen. Pl.: 172. 1836, as "Vellozieae") name is unranked but is associated with a description in Latin; Endlicher attributed it to D. Don (Edinb. New Philos. J. 8: 164-165. 1830) who discussed the placement of Vellozia and concluded that it constituted a "group" but did not suggest a name. The subsequent Endlicher (Ench. Bot.: 101. 15-21 Aug 1841, as "Vellozieae") name is also unranked. Family rank has occasionally been given to the Endlicher (1836, 1841) name. Rank of the Hooker name is established by his comparison of his "Vellosiae" with Haemodoraceae.--First correct orthography: Drude in Schenk, Handb. Bot. 3(2): 333. 1886. Incorrect orthography: Vellosiaceae Oudem., Leerb. Plantenk. 2(2): 343. 1870; Vellozoaceae Uphof, Pfl.-Gatt.: 196. 1910.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--VELL*

Ventraceae: The Dulac (Fl. Hautes-Pyrenees: 16, 618, 641. 1867) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with a diagnosis in French in a key.

Vepreculae: The Linnaeus (Philos. Bot.: 33. 1755), Oeder (Elem. Bot.: 154. 1766), and Giseke (Prael. Ord. Nat. Pl.: 414. 1792) name is a nom. nud., the former proposed at the rank of Fragmenta. The Willdenow (Grundr. Krauterk.: 183. 1792) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with a description in Latin.

Veratraceae Salisb. in Trans. Linn. Soc. London 8: 10. 1807 ("Veratreae").--Type: Veratrum L., 1753. --Validated by a diagnosis in English. The earlier Trattinnick (Gen. Pl.: 39. 1802, as "Veratra") name is a nom. nud. and its rank uncertain ("familias sucundarias").--First correct orthography: Horaninow, Char. Ess. Fam.: 48. 1847. Other incorrect orthography: Veratroideae Vest, Anleit. Stud. Bot.: 267, 284. 1818; Veratreae C. Agardh, Aphor. Bot.: 166. 1823; Veratrineae Dumort., Anal. Fam. Pl.: 59, 61. 1829; Veratrides Raf., Fl. Tellur. 3: 57. 1837.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--VERA

Verbascaceae Raf. in Ann. Gen. Sci. Phys. Bruxelles 8: 269. Apr-Jun 1821.--Type: Verbascum L., 1753. --Validated by a diagnosis in French. The earlier Batsch (Syn. Univ. Gen. Pl.: 393. 1794 & Dispos. Gen. Pl. Europ.: 122. 1794, as "Verbascea") and Rafinesque (Anal. Nat.: 187. 1815, as "Verbascia") names are nom. nud.--Incorrect orthography: Verbascineae Dumort., Comment. Bot.: 60. 1822; Verbaseides Raf., Med. Fl. 1: 256. 1828; Verbascinae Nees in Trans. Linn. Soc. London 17: 78. 1834; Verbascieae Gopp., Offizen. Pfl.: 41. 1835; Verbasceae Bromhead in Edinburgh New Philos. J. 20: 252. 1836; Verbascides Raf., Fl. Tellur. 3: 73. 1837; Verbascoides Raf., Fl. Tellur. 4: 89. 1838. --[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--VERS

Verbenaceae J. St.-Hil., Expos. Fam. Nat. 1: 245. 1805, nom. cons.--Type: Verbena L., 1753.--Validated by a description in French. The earlier Duchesne (Man. Bot. Cat.: 12. 1764), B. de Jussieu (in A. L. de Jussieu, Gen. Pl.: lxxiii. 1789) and J. F. N. Morel (Tabl. Ecole Bot. Jard. Pl. Paris: 24. 1801) name (as "Verbenae") is a nom. nud.--Original place of publication: Adans., Fam. Pl. 2: 195. 1763, validated by a description in French.--Incorrect orthography: Verbeneae Martynov, Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 671. 1820; Verbaceae Link, Enum. Hort. Berol. Art. 1: 174. 1821; Verbenae Ende, Comm. Meth. Bot.: 30. 1823; Verbenacea Raf., Fl. Tellur. 2: 64. 1837; Verbenides Raf., Sylva Tellur.: 36. 1838.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--VERB*

Vernicaceae Link, Handbuch 2: 123. Jan-Aug 1831 ("Verniceae").--Type: Vernix Adans., 1763.--Validated by descriptions in Latin and German.--First correct orthography: Reveal in Phytologia 74: 219. 1993. --[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--VERC*

Vernoniaceae Burmeist., Handb. Naturgesch. 1: 296. 12-17 Dec 1836.--Type: Vernonia Schreb., 1781, nom. cons.--Validated by a description in German. The Raspail (Nouv. Syst. Physiol. Veg. 2: 449, 512. 1837, as "Vrronicacres") name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with an French diagnosis in a key and a description.--Bamhart (Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 22: 24. 1895) incorrectly attributed family rank to a not validly published (Art. 32.1(c)) unranked Kunth (in Humb., Bonpl. & Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. 4: ed. qu.: 39. 1820, as "Vernoniaceae") name.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. --VERN

Veronicaceae Cassel, Lehrb. Nat. Pflanzenord.: 366. 1817 ("Veronicae").--Type: Veronica L., 1753. --Validated by a description in German.--Original place of publication: Durande, Notions Elem. Bot.: 264. 1782 ("Veronicae"), validated by a description in French.--Isonym: Horan., Char. Ess. Fam.: 119. 30 Jun 1847, validated by a description in Latin.--Other incorrect orthography: Veroniceae Hensl., Cat. Brit. Pl.: 17. 1829; Veronicinae Nees in Flora 17(Literat.): 120. 1834; Veronicides Raf., New Fl. N. Amer. 1: 30. 1836; Veronicoides Raf., Fl. Tellur. 4: 57. 1838.--Post & Kuntze (Lex. Gen. Phan.: 714. 1903) incorrectly attributed family rank to an effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published Duvau (Ann. Sci. Nat. (Paris) 8: 177. 1826, as "Veronicees" (gallice)) name with a diagnosis in French. NOTE: Although this name is in current use, its use assumes a pre-1789 date of publication. The nomenclaturally correct name for the taxon (when Plantaginaceae are excluded) is Antirrhinaceae --[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--VERO*

Verticiilaceae: The Dulac (Fl. Hautes-Pyrenees: 22, 159, 619. 1867) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with a diagnosis in French in a key.

Verticillaceae [1]: The Moldenke (Prel. Class. Pl. Kingd.: 18. 1944) name is cited in synonymy.

Verticillatae [2]: The Avon Hailer (Enum. Stirp. Helv. 2: 21. 1759, Enum. Stirp.: 45. 1760 & Misc. Soc. Taur. 2: 24. 1762) and Oeder (Elem. Bot.: 154. 1766) name is a nom. nud. The Oeder (Elem. Bot.: 295. 1766), Batsch (Dispos. Gen. Pl. Jenens.: 55. 1786), and Giseke (Prael. Ord. Nat. Pl.: 495. 1792) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with a description in Latin.--Other orthography: Verticillatarum Wahlenb., Fl. Carpat. Princ.: lxxxiv. 1814.

Vesicariaceae: The Ende (Comm. Meth. Bot.: 30. 1823) name is a nom. nud.--Vesicaria Adans., 1763. [MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Viburnaceae Raf. in Ann. Gen. Sci. Phys. Bruxelles 6: 87. Oct-Dec 1820 ("Viburnidia").--Type: Viburnum L., 1753.--Validated by a diagnosis in French.--Isonym: Dumort., Comment. Bot.: 56. 1822, validated by a reference to a Ventenat (Tabl. Reg. Veg. 3: 603. 1799) diagnosis in French of an unnamed group within Caprifoliaceae which contained Viburnum and Sambucus. The earlier Augier (Essai Nouv. Class. Veg.: 156, 160. 1801, as "Vibumres" (gallice)) name is not validly published (Art. 18.4). The Rafinesque (Anal. Nat.: 191. 1815 & Ann. Gen. Sci. Phys. Bruxelles 5: 350, 351. 1820, as "Viburnidia") name is a nom. nud.--Other incorrect orthography: Viburnideae Dumort., Anal. Fam. Pl.: 29, 33. 1829; Viburneae C. Agardh, C1. Pl. (2:) 17. 1825; Viburnides Raf., New Fl. N. Amer. 3: 8. Jan-Mar 1838 or Alsogr. Amer.: 50. 1838; Viburnidaceae R. D. Gibbs, Chemotax. Fl. Pl.: 1098. 1974. --[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--VIBU

Viciaceae Bercht. & J. Presl, Prir. Rostlin: 229. 1820 ("Viciae").--Type: Ficia L., 1753.--Validated by a description in Czech.--First correct orthography: Barnhart in Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 12: 14. 1895. Other incorrect orthography: Vicieae Oken, Lehrb. Naturgesch. 2: xv. 1826.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. --VICI

Filfaceae: The Bamhart (Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 22: 7. 1895) and Moldenke (Prel. Class. Pl. Kingd.: 24. 1944) name is cited in synonymy.--Vilfa Adans., 1763, nom. illeg. (Art. 52. 1: [equivalent to] Agrostis L., 1753). --Barnhart (1895) incorrectly attributed family rank to a not validly published (Art. 32.1 (c)) unranked Trinius (Linnaea 10: 302. 1835, as "Vilfaceae") name.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Vincaceae Vest, Anleit. Stud. Bot.: 273, 299. 1818 (" Vincoideae").--Type: Vinca L., 1753.--Validated by a description in German. The earlier Duchesne (Man. Bot. Cat.: 13. 1764, as "Vincae") name is a nom. nud. The Augier (Essai Nouv. Class. Veg.: 139, 143. 1801, as "Vincoides" (gallice)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with descriptions in French.--First correct orthography: Horaninow, Tetractys: 27. 1843. Incorrect orthography: Vincae Gray, Nat. Arr. Brit. Pl. 2: 291, 342. 1821; Vinceae Trin., Gen. Pl.: 21. 1835.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--VINC

Viniferae: The J. Saint-Hilaire (Expos. Fam. Pl. 2: 48. 1805) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with a description in French.

Violaceae Batsch, Tab. Affin. Regni Veg.: 57. 2 Mai 1802 ("Violariae"), nom. cons.--Type: Viola L., 1753.--Validated by a description in Latin. The earlier Augier (Essai Nouv. Class. Veg.: 218, 222. 1801, as "Violacees" (gallice)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with descriptions in French. The Trattinnick (Gen. Pl.: 47. 1802, as "Violae") name is a nom. nud. and its rank uncertain ("familias sucundarias").--Isonym: Candolle in Lamarck & Candolle, Fl. Franc., ed. 3, 4(2): 801. 1805, validated by a description in French.--Other incorrect orthography: Violasia Raf., Anal. Nat.: 180. 1815; Violae Perleb, Vers. Artzneikr. Pfl.: 108. 1818; Violeae R. Br. in Tuckey, Narr. Exped. Zaire: 440. 1818; Violoideae Vest, Anleit. Stud. Bot.: 270, 290. 1818; Violinae Link, Enum. Hort. Berol. Art. 1: 239. 1821; Violarieae Ging. in DC., Prodr. 1: 287. 1824 or Nees & Mart. in Wied-Neuw., Nova Acta Phys.-Med. Acad. Caes. Leop.-Carol. Nat. Cur. 12: 46. 1824; Fiolineae Desv., Fl. Anjou: 296. 1827; Violacea Raf., New Fl. N. Amer. 1: 30. 1836; Violidia Raf., Fl. Tellur. 1: 28. 1837; Violariaceae Nees in E. Meyen, Nova Acta Leop. 19(Suppl. 1): 300. 1843; Violarinae F. Muell. in J. Linn. Soc. London, Bot. 2: 153. 1858; Crolaceae W.S.O. (trans.) in L. Figuier, Veg. World (New York ed.): 368. 1868.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--VIOL

Viscaceae Batsch, Tab. Affin. Regni Veg.: 240. 2 Mai 1802 ("viscinae").--Type: Viscum L., 1753.--Validated by a description in Latin.--Isonym: Bercht. & J. Presl, Prir. Rostlin: 257. 1820, validated by a description in Czech. The earlier Batsch (Syn. Univ. Anal. Gen. Pl.: 389. 1794 & Dispos. Gen. Pl. Europ.: 120. 1794, as "Visca") name is a nom. nud.--Other incorrect orthography: Viscoideae Martynov, Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 678. 1820; Visceae G. Mey., Chloris Han.: 243. 1836.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--VISC

Vitaceae Juss., Gen. Pl.: 267. 4 Aug 1789 ("Vites"), nom. cons.--Type: Vitis L., 1753.--Validated by a description in Latin.--Original place of publication: Durande, Notions Elem. Bot.: 280. 1782 ("Vites"), validated by a description in French.--First correct orthography: Lindley, Key Bot.: 47. 1835. Other incorrect orthography: Vitisieae Martynov, Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 679. 1820; Vitigineae D. Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal.: 188. 1825; Vitigniae Sweet, Brit. Fl. Gard., ser. 2, 2: ad t. 133. 1832 [sphalm.]; Viteaceae Burnett, Outl. Bot.: 786, 1094, 1113. 1835; Vitideae Dumort., Anal. Fam. Pl.: 43, 48. 1836; Vitides Raf., New Fl. N. Amer. 3: 8. 1838; Vitisaceae Ser., Fl. Jard. 3: 565. 1849; Nitidaceae Hutch., Fam. Fl. Pl, ed. 3: 426. 1973. (sphalm.).--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--VIT+

Viticaceae Juss., Gen. Pl.: 106. 4 Aug 1789 ("Vitices").--Type: Vitex L., 1753.--Validated by a description in Latin.--First correct orthography: Post & Kuntze, Lex. Gen. Phan.: 714. 1903. Other incorrect orthography: Viticeae Roussel, Fl. Calvados, ed. 2: 182. 1806; Vitexia Raf., Anal. Nat.: 188. 1815; Vitexides Raf., Fl. Tellur. 4: 93. 1838.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--VITI

Viticulae: The Bertuch (Tar. Allg. Naturgeschich. Gewachs-Reich, ed. 2: ix. 1806) name is a nom. nud.

Vitidaceae, Vitigineae and Vitisiae--see Vitaceae.

Vittariaceae (C. Presl) Ching in Sunyatsenia 5: 210, 232. 30 Oct 1940, basionym: trib. Vittarieae C. Presl in [Tent. Pterid.] Abh. Konigl. Bohm. Ges. Wiss., set. 4, 5: 164. ante 2 Dec 1836 (" Vittariaceae").--Type: Vittaria Sm., 1793.--Basionym validated by a description in Latin; family name by an reference to the basionym. Ching (1940) wrote "Vittariaceae Presl, emend." which is here interpreted as an indirect reference to Presl (1836). The earlier Trattinnick (Gen. Pl.: 75. 1802, as "Vittariae") name is a nom. nud. and its rank uncertain ("familias sucundarias"). The Herter (Rev. Sudamer. Bot. 6: 130. Jun 1940) name is not validly published (Art. 41.1) as the cited basionym (subfam. Vittarioideae Chr. in Verdoorn, Man. Pterid.: 539. 1938) is a nom. nud.--[PTERIDOPHYTA]. NCU--VITT

Vivianiaceae Klotzsch in Linnaea 10: 433. Mai 1836.--Type: Viviania Cav., 1804.--Validated by a description in German.--Incorrect orthography: Vivianieae Bromhead in Edinburgh New Philos. J. 20: 252. 1836; Vivianaceae Lank. in C. Knight, English Cyclop. 1: 591. 1854.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--VIVI

Vmbellatae--See Umbellatae.

Vochysiaceae A. St.-Hil. in Mem. Mus. Hist. Nat. 6: 265. 1820 ("Vochisieae"), nom. cons.--Type: Vochysia Aubl., 1775) as "Vochy" nom. gen. et orth. cons.--Validated by a description in Latin. The earlier Jussieu (Mem. Mus. Hist. Nat. 5: 247. 1819, as "Vochisires" (gallice)) name is a nom. nud.--First correct orthography: Martius, Nov. Sp. Gen. Pl. 1: 123. 1826. Other incorrect orthography: Vochisiae Sweet, Hort. Brit.: 470. 1826; Vochysieae Oken, Lehrb. Naturgesch. 2: xv. 1826; Vochyaceae Lindl., Intr. Nat. Syst. Bot.: 143. 1830; Vochisiaceae Burch., Bot. Misc. 2: 133. 1831; Vochysiae V. Peter, Novenyt.: 173. 1836.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--VOCH

Volataceae: The Dulac (Fl. Hautes-Pyrenees: 18, 240, 621. 1867) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with a diagnosis in French in a key.

Volkameriae: The earlier Trattinnick (Gen. Pl.: 62. 1802) name is a nom. nud. and its rank uncertain ("familias sucundarias").--Volkameria L., 1753.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Volubiles and Volvulides--see Convolvulaceae.

Voyriaceae Doweld, New Syllabus: 000. Dec 2004.--Voyria Aubl., 1775.--Validated by a diagnosis in Latin.--The earlier Bromhead (Mag. Nat. Hist., n.s., 4: 336. 1840, as "Voyraceae") name is a nom. nud.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--VOYR*

Wachendorfiaceae Herb., Amaryllidaceae: 48. late Apr 1837.--Wachendorfia Burm., 1757.--Validated by a diagnosis in Latin in a key. The earlier Bromhead (Edinburgh New Philos. J. 20: 253. 1836, as "Wachendorfieae") name is a nom. nud. and its rank uncertain. Barnhart (1895) incorrectly attributed family rank to a Dumortier (Anal. Fam. Pl.: 61. 1829, as trib. Wachendorfieae ("Wachendorfiaceae")") name with a diagnosis in French.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--WACH

Wallaceaceae: The Tieghem (Bull. Mus. Nat. Hist. Paris 10: 145. 1904, as "Wallaceacees" (gallice)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with a description in French. The Hutchinson (Evol. Phylog. Fl. Pl.: 292. 1969, as "Wallaceae" & Fam. Fl. Pl., ed. 3: 345. 1973), Airy Shaw (in Willis, Dict. Fl. Pl. Ferns, ed. 8: 1219. 1973), R. D. Gibbs (Chemotax. Fl. Pl.: 1082. 1974), A. Cronquist (Integr. Syst. Classif. Fl. Pl.: 313. 1981 & Evol. Phylog. Fl. Pl.: 506. 1988), Bedell & Reveal (Phytologia 51: 68. 1982) and C. R. Gunn & al. (U.S.D.A. Tech. Bull. 1796: 47. 1992) name is cited in synonymy.--Wallacea Spruce ex Benth. & Hook.f., 1862.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Walleriaceae (R. Dahlgren) H. Huber ex Takht. in Bot. Zhurn. (Leningrad & Moscow) 79(12): 65. Dec 1994, nom. cons., basionym: subfam. Wallerioideae R. Dahlgren in R. Dahlgren & A. E. van Wyk, Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 25: 75, 76. Jun 1988. T. Walleria J. Kirk, 1864.--Basionym validated by a description in Latin; family name validated by a full and direct reference to the basionym. The earlier H. Huber (Mitt. Bot. Staatssamml. Munchen 8: 522. 1969, as "Walleriaceen" (germanice)) name is a nom. nud. The Takhtajan (Bot. Rev. (Lancaster) 46: 309. 1980) and Bedell & Reveal (Phytologia 51: 119. 1982 & 52: 180. 1982) name is cited in synonymy.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--WALL

Weddellinaceae: The A. Kerner (Pflanzenleben 2: 673. 1891), Moldenke (Prel. Class. Pl. Kingd.: 15. 1944) and R. D. Gibbs (Chemotax. Fl. Pl.: 1101. 1974) names are cited in synonymy.--Weddellina Tul., 1849.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Wellingtoniaceae Meisn., Pl. Vasc. Gen.: Comm.: 207, 346. 25-31 Oct 1840.--Type: Wellingtonia Meisn., 1840.--Validated by a diagnosis in Latin and an indirect reference to the illegitimate (Art. 18.3) Wight and Arnott (Prodr. Fl. Ind. Orient. 1: 115. 10 Oct 1834, as Millingtoniaceae) family name with a description in English.--[PINOPHYTA].--WELG

Wellstediaceae (Pilg.) Novhk in S. Prat (ed.), Rostlinopis 9: 530. 1943, basionym: subfam. Wellstedioideae Pilg. in Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 46: 558. 1912.--Type: Wellstedia Balf.f., 1884.--Basionym validated by a description in Latin; family name validated by an indirect reference to the basionym as Novak inadvertently attributed the subfamily name to "Gilg" rather than Pilger whose name is abbreviated "Pilg."--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--WELL

Welwitschiaceae Camel in Nuovo Giorn. Bot. Ital. 11: 16, 17, 18. 2 Jan 1879, nom. cons.--Type: Welwitschia Hook.f., 1862, nom. cons.--Validated by a diagnosis in Italian.--Isonym: Camel in Atti Reale Accad. Lincei, Mem. Cl. Sci. Fis., ser. 3, 10: 241, 250. 1881, validated by a diagnosis in Italian. Family name traditionally attributed to Markgraf (in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam., ed. 2, 13: 419. 1926) who provided a description in German.--Other orthography: Welwitscheaceae Gorozh., Lekts. Morf. Sist. Archegon.: 73. 1904.--[PINOPHYTA]. NCU--WELW

Widdringtoniaceae Doweld, Tent. Syst. Pl. Vasc.: xx. 23 Dec 2001.--Type: Widdringtonia Endl., 1842.--Validated by a description in Latin.--[PINOPHYTA]. NCU--WlDD

Willughbeiaceae J. Agardh, Theoria Syst. Pl.: 256. Apr-Sep 1858 ("Willughbejieae").--Type: Willughbeia Roxb., 1820, nom. cons.--Validated by diagnoses in Latin.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--WILL

Winteraceae R. Br. ex Lindl., Intr. Nat. Syst. Bot.: 26. Sep 1830 ("Wintereae"), nom. cons. -Type: Wintera Murray, 1784, nom. illeg. (Art. 52.1: [equivalent to] Drimys J. R. Forst. & G. Forst., 1776, nom. cons.).--Validated by a description in English. The earlier R. Brown ex DC. (Syst. Nat. 1: 548. 1817) and Sprengel (Gen. Pl. 1: 433. Sep 1830, as "Wintereae") names are nom. nud.--First correct orthography: Lindley, Key Bot.: 46. 1835.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--WINT

Winteranaceae Warb. in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. III, 6: 314. 14 Mai 1895 ("Winteranaceae (Canellaceae)"), nom. illeg. (Art. 18.3).--Type: Winterana L., 1759, nom. illeg. (Art. 52.1: [equivalent to] Canella P. Browne, 1756).--Validated by a description in German and proposed as an alternative name (Art. 34.2). The earlier R. Brown (Trans. Linn. Soc. London 19: 231. 1844, as "Winteraneae") name is a nom. nud., for while the name is associated with a comparative discussion of this taxon and Coniferae he did not provided a description or diagnosis.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Witsenaceae: The Salisbury (Trans. Hort. Soc. London 1: 309. 1812, as "Witseneae") name is a nom. nud.--Witsena Thunb., 1782).--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Wolffiaceae Bubani, Fl. Pyren. 4: 22. 1901-1902, basionym: Lemnaceae Martynov, Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 362. 1820 ("Lemnoides").--Type: Wolffia Horkel ex Schleid., 1844, nom. cons.--Basionym validated by a reference to an effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published Augier (Essai Nouv. Classif. Veg.: 33, 35. 1801, as "Lemnoides" (gallice)) family name with descriptions in French; family name validated by a poorly organized diagnosis in Latin and a reference to a later Duby (Bot. Gall. 1: 532. 1828) family name with a description in Latin.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--WOLF

Woodsiaceae (A. Gray) Herter in Revista Sudamer. Bot. 9: 14. Jun 1949, basionym: trib. Woodsieae A. Gray, Man. Bot., ed. 2: 588. 1 Sep 1856.--Type: Woodsia R. Br., ("Woodia"); corr. R. Br., 1813.--Basionym validated by a diagnosis in English; family name validated by a reference to a later Diels (in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 1, 4: 158, 159. 1899) tribal name with a diagnosis in German in a key and a description in German that is corrected (Art. 33.4) to the above basionym The earlier Heintze (Cormofyt. Fylog.: 39. 1927) name is a nom. nud. The Herter (Rev. Sudamer. Bot. 6: 130. 1940) name is not validly published (Art. 41.1) as the cited basionym (subfam. Woodsioideae Chr. in Verdoorn, Man. Pterid.: 542. 1938) is a nom. nud. The Ching (Sunyatsenia 5: 208, 245. 1940) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 36.1) published, and is associated with a description in English. The Copeland (Gen. Fil. [in Ann. Cryptog. Phytopathol. 5]: 100. 1947) name is cited in synonymy. --[PTERIDOPHYTA]. NCU--WOOD

Wormskioldiaceae: The Bromhead (Mag. Hist. Nat., n.s., 4: 337. 1840, as "Wormskioldiae") name is a nom. nud.--Wormsldoldia Thonn., nom. illeg. (Art. 52.1: [equivalent to] Tricliceras Thonn. ex DC., 1826).--First correct orthography: presented here.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Xanthiaceae Vest, Anleit. Stud. Bot.: 273, 298. 1818 ("Xanthoideae").--Type: Xanthium L., 1753.--Validated by a description in German. The earlier Trattinnick (Gen. Pl.: 71. 1802, as "Xanthia") name is a nom. nud. and its rank uncertain ("familias sucundarias"). The J. Ponce de Leon (Sist. Fl.-Sex. Bot.: 313. 1814, as "Xantios" (hispanice)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with a description in Spanish.--First correct orthography: Reveal in Phytologia 74: 225. 1993.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--XANI

Xanthophyllaceae (Baill.) Gagnep. ex Reveal & Hoogland in Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat., ser. 4, B Adansonia 12: 206. 24 Nov 1990, basionym: trib. Xanthophylleae Baill., Hist. Pl. 5: 81, 91. Dec 1874.--Type: Xanthophyllum Roxb., 1820, nom. cons.--Basionym validated by a diagnosis in French; family name validated by a full and direct reference to a Chodat (in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. III, 4: 329, 343. Jul 1896) name with diagnoses in German that is corrected (Art. 33.4) to the above basionym. The earlier Gagnepain (J. Bot. (Morot) ser. 2, 1: 241. 1908) and in Lecomte (Fl. Indo-Chine 1: 242. 1909, as "Xanthophyllacees" (gallice)), F. A. Barkley (Anthophyta: 45. 1966), Cincovic & M. Kojic (Botanika 206. 1968) and B. Kaussmann (Bot. Landw. 373. 1969) names are nom. nud. The Gagnepain (in Lecomte, Fl. Indo-Chine 1: 70. 1939, as "Xanthophyllacees") name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with a description in French. The Novak (in S. Prat, Rostlinopis 9: 318. 1943 & Vyssi Rostliny: 580. 1961), Takhtajan (Evol. Angiosp. 237. 1959), Airy Shaw (in Willis, Dict. Fl. Pl. Ferns, ed. 8: 1229. 1973) and A. Cronquist (Integr. Syst. Classif. Fl. Pl.: 778. 1981 & Evol. Classif. Fl. Pl., ed. 2: 401. 1988) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 36.1) published, and each is associated with a non-Latin description or diagnosis. The Erdtman (Pollen Morph. Pl. Tax. Angiosp.: 353. 1952), H. Melchior (in A. Engler, Syllab. Pflanzenfam. 2: 275. 1964), Takhtajan (Fl. Pl.: 227. 1969, Proisk. Rass. Tsvetk. Rast.: 123. 1970, Bot. Rev. (Lancaster) 46: 286. 1980, in C. R. Metcalfe & Chalk, Anat. Dict. ed. 2, 2: 193. 1983, Florist. Reg. World: 336. 1986 & Sist. Magnoliof. [Syst. Magnolioph.]: 192. 1987), Hutchinson (Evol. Phylog. Fl. Pl.: 208. 1969 & Fam. Fl. Pl., ed. 3: 287. 1983), R. D. Gibbs (Chemotax. Fl. Pl.: 1102. 1974), I. B. K. Richardson (in Heywood et al., Fl. Pl. World 216. 1978), Bedell & Reveal (Phytologia 51: 86, 116, 131. 1982) name is cited in synonymy. The Dostal (Bot. Nomenkl.: 220. 1957) name is not validly published (Art. 32.3, 33.3). The Bullock (Taxon 7: 35. 1958) name is not validly published (Art. 34.1(a)) although he cited Gagnepain (1939).--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--XANT

Xanthorrhaeaceae Dumort., Anal. Fam. Pl.: 60, 62, 103. 1829 ("Xanthorhaeaceae", "Xanthoraeaceae" and "Xanthoarrheaceae"), nom. cons.--Type: Xanthorrhoea Sm., 1798.--Validated by a diagnosis in French in a key. The earlier Trattinnick (Gen. Pl.: 56. 1802, as "Xanthorrhizae") name is a nom. nud. and its rank uncertain ("familias sucundarias").--First correct orthography: Airy Shaw in Willis, Dict. Fl. Pl. Ferns, ed. 7: 1199. 1966. Other incorrect orthography: Xanthorrhaea J. Drumm. in Hooker's J. Bot. 1: 87. 1842; Xantorrhoeae Schuch., Syn. Tremandr.: 8. 1853; Zanthorrhoeaceae R. I. Ovando, Clasif. Alfab. Fam. Div. Angiosp.: 36, 52. 1979.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--XANR

Xanthoxylaceae--see Zanthoxylaceae.

Xantoxilleae: The Tenore (Cat. Orto Bot. Napoli: 13. 1845) name is a nom. nud.

Xeranthema: The Trattinnick (Gen. Pl.: 70. 1802) name is a nom. nud. and its rank uncertain ("familias sucundarias").--Xeranthemum L., 1753.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Xeronemataceae M. W. Chase, Rudall and M. F. Fay in Kew Bull. 55: 869. 27 Dec 2000.--Type: Xeronema Brong. & Gris, 1865.--Validated by a description in Latin.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--XERN

Xerophyilaceae Takht. in Bot. Zhurn. (Leningrad & Moscow) 81 (2): 86. Mai-Jun 1996.--Type: Xerophyllure Michx., 1803.--Validated by a diagnosis in Latin. The earlier Takhtajan (Bot. Zhum. (Leningrad & Moscow) 79(1): 97. Jan 1994) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 36.1) published, and is associated with a reference in English to the generic description in Latin given by Michaux (1803). The Reveal (Ind. Nom. Supragen.: Xerophyllaceae. 1995) name is a nom. nud.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--XERO

Xerotaceae (Endl.) Hassk., Cat. Hort. Bot. Bogor.: 27. Oct. 1844 ("Xerotideae"), nom. illeg. (Art. 18.3), basionym: [unranked] Xerotideae Endl., Gen. Pl.: vii. Jun 1838, nom. illeg.--Type: Xerotes R. Br., 1810, nom. illeg. (Art. 52.1: [equivalent to] Lomandra Labill., 1805).--Basionym validated by a diagnosis in Latin; family name validated by a reference to the basionym. The earlier Endlicher (Gen. Pl.: 132. 1836) name is a nom. nud. Family rank traditionally attributed to Endlicher (1838).--Other incorrect orthography: Xerotidaceae Oudem., Leerb. Plantenk. 2(2): 319. 1870.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Ximeniaceae Horan., Prim. Lin. Syst. Nat.: 72. 2 Nov 1834 ("Olacineae s. Ximeniaceae").--Type: Ximenia L., 1753.--Validated by a description in Latin and proposed as an alternative name (Art. 34.2).--Isonym: Martinet, Enum. Gen. Esp. Pl.: 208, 209. 1873 ("Ximenieae"), validated by a diagnosis in Spanish in a key.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--XIME

Xiphidiaceae Dumort., Anal. Fam. Pl.: 59, 61. 1829 ("Xiphideae", "Xiphidieae" or "Xiphineae").--Type: Xiphidium Aubl., 1775.--Validated by a diagnosis in French in a key.--First correct orthography: Airy Shaw in Willis, Dict. Fl. Pl. Ferns, ed. 7: 1232. 1966. Incorrect orthography: Xyphidia Raf., Fl. Tellur. 4: 24. 1838; Xiphidia Raf., Fl. Tellur. 4: 34. 1838.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--XIPH

Xyridaceae C. Agardh, Aphor. Bot.: 158. 23 Mai 1823 ("Xyrideae"), nom. cons.--Type: Xyris L., 1753.--Validated by a description in Latin. The earlier Salisbury (Trans. Hort. Soc. London 1: 326. 1812, as "Xyrideae") and Rafinesque (Anal. Nat.: 200. 1815, as "Xyridia") names are nom. nud. First correct orthography: Burnett, Outl. Bot.: 421, 1153. 1835. Other incorrect orthography: Xyridineae Kostel., Allg. Med.-Pharm. Fl. 6: 2008. 1836; Xuridia Raf., Fl. Tellur. 1: 32. 1837; Xyridia Raf., Fl. Tellur. 2: 14. 1837; Xirydeae Martinet, Enum. Gen. Esp. Pl.: 22. 1873.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--XYRI

Ynecaceae J. Agardh, Theoria Syst. Pl.: 8. Apr-Sep 1858.--Type: Yucca L., 1753.--Validated by diagnoses in Latin. The earlier Trattinnick (Gen. Pl.: 38. 1802, as "Yuccae") name is a nom. nud. and its rank uncertain ("familias sucundarias").--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. YUCC

Zamiaceae Horan., Prim. Lin. Syst. Nat.: 45. 2 Nov 1834 ("Zamiaceae s. Cycadeae").--Type: Zamia L., 1763, nom. cons.--Validated by a description in Latin and proposed as an alternative name (Art. 34.2). The earlier Trattinnick (Gen. Pl.: 72. 1802, as "Zamiae") name is a nom. nud. and its rank uncertain ("familias sucundarias").--Other orthograpy: Zamiae C. B. Heller in Oesterr. Bot. Wochenbl. 1: 50. 1851; Zamieae Luerss., Handb. Syst. Bot. 2: 81. 1882.--A. Ponce de Leon & Alvarez (Taxon 2: 98. 1953) proposed conservation, but this has not been accepted.--[PINOPHYTA]. NCU--ZAMI

Zannichelliaceae Chevall., Fl. Gen. Env. Paris 2: 257. 1827 ("Zanichellieae"), nom. cons.--Type: Zannichellia L., 1753.--Validated by a description in French. The earlier J. F. N. Morel (Tabl. Ecole Bot. Jard. Pl. Paris: 7. 1801, as "Zanichelliae") name is a nom. nud.--Original place of publication: Durande, Notions Elem. Bot.: 254. 1782 ("Zanichelliae"), validated by a description in French.--Isonym: Dumortier, Anal. Fam. Pl.: 59, 61. 1829, validated by a diagnosis in French in a key.--Other incorrect orthography: Zanicheliaceae Dumort., Anal. Fam. Pl.: 59, 61. 1829.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--ZANN

Zanoniaceae Dumort., Anal. Fam. Pl.: 28, 29. 1829.--Type: Zanonia L., 1753.--Validated by a diagnosis in French in a key and by a reference to an effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published A. Saint-Hilaire (Mem. Mus. Hist. Nat. 9: 215. 1822, as "Nandhirobees" (gallice)) family name with a description in French.--Incorrect orthography: Zannoniaceae Dumort., Anal. Fam. Pl.: 105. 1829.--Barnhart (Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 22: 23. 1895) incorrectly attributed family rank to an effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 33.7) published Blume (Bijdr. 15: 936. 1826, as "sect. Zanoniaceae") name with a diagnosis in Latin.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--ZANO

Zanthoxylaceae Bercht. & J. Presl, Prir. Rostlin: 227. 1820 ("Xanthoxyleae"). -Type: Zanthoxylum L., 1753.--Validated by a description in Czech. The earlier Candolle (Throrie Elem. Bot.: 215. 1813, as "Zanthoxylers" (gallice)) name is a nom. nud. The Jussieu (in F. Cuvier, Dict. Sci. Nat. 13: 294. 1819, as "Zanthoxylees" (gallice)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with a diagnosis in French.--Isonym: Martynov, Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 682. 31 Jul-5 Aug 1820 ("Zanthoxyleae"), validated by a reference to Jussieu (1819). We have selected arbitrarily the Berchtold and Presl name as the first place of publication for the purpose of establishing priority.--First correct orthography: Wight & Arnott, Prodr. Fl. Ind. Orient.: 1: 147. 1834. Other incorrect orthography: Zantoxyleae D. W. Hoope in Flora 5: 217. 1822; Xanthoxylaceae Hoppe in Flora 18(Intell.): 46. 1835; Xanthoxylineae Kostel., Allg. Med.-Pharm. Fl. 5: 1782. 1836; Xantoxylaceae Nees in Oesterr. Bot. Wochenbl. 3: 327. 1853; Xanthoxijleae Filet, Pl. Bot. Tuin Weltevreden: 155. 1855.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--ZANT

Zapotaceae see Sapotaceae.

Zeaceae A. Kern., Pflanzenleben 2: 651. 1891.--Type: Zea L., 1753.--Validated by a diagnosis in German. The earlier Trattinnick (Gen. Pl.: 41. 1802, as "Zeae") name is a nom. nud. and its rank uncertain ("familias sucundarias").--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--ZE++

Zeibaceae--see Ceibaceae.

Zephyranthaceae Salisb., Gen. Pl.: 133. 1866 ("Zephyrantheae").--Type: Zephyranthes Herb., 1821, nom. cons.--Validated by a description in Latin. First correct orthography: Bullock in Taxon 7: 35. 1958.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--ZEPH*

Zingiberaceae Martynov, Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 682. 31 Jul-5 Aug 1820 ("Zinziberaceae"), nom. cons.--Type: Zingiber Boehm., 1760, nom. cons.--Validated by a reference to a J. Saint-Hilaire (Expos. Fam. Nat. 1: 154. Jan-Aug 1805, as "Amomeae") family name associated with a description in French. The earlier Richard (Demonstr. Bot.: 61, 62, 77. 1808 & Ann. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. 17: 477. 1811, as "Zingiberacees" (gallice)) and Salisbury (Trans. Hort. Soc. London 1: 279. 1812, as "Zingibereae") names are nom. nud. The Gerardin & Desvaux (Dict. Rais. Bot.: 605. 1817, as "Zingiberacees" (gallice)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with a reference to J. St.-Hil. (1805).--Original place of publication: Adans., Fam. Pl. 2: 61. 1763 ("Zingiberes"), validated by a description in French.--Family name traditionally attributed to Lindley (Key. Bot.: 69. 15-30 Sep 1835) who provided a diagnosis in English in a key.--Incorrect orthography: Zingibera Ende, Comm. Meth. Bot.: 30. 1823; Zingiberes Zunck, Nat. Pflanzensyst.: 17. 1840; Zyngibereae Ten., Cat. Orto Bot. Napoli: 5. 1845; Zinziberaceae Copel., Philippine Bur. Educ. 24: 21. 1906.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--ZING

Zinniae: The Trattinnick (Gen. Pl.: 69. 1802) name is a nom. nud. and its rank uncertain ("familias sucundarias").-- Zinnia L., 1759, nom. cons.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Zizaniaceae: The J. Ponce de Leon (Sist. Fl.-Sex. Bot.: 304. 1814, as "Zizafias" (hispanice)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with a description in Spanish.--Zizania L., 1753.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Ziziphaceae Adans. ex Post & Kuntze, Lex. Gen. Phan.: 665, 714. 1903 ("Zizyphaceae"). -Type: Ziziphus Mill., 1754.--Validated by a reference to a pre- 1789 Adanson (Fam. Pl.: 2: 29, 773. 1763, as "Zizyphi") family name with a description in French, the original place of publication.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--ZIZI

Zosteraceae Dumort., Anal. Fam. Pl.: 65, 66. 1829, nom. cons.--Type: Zostera L., 1753.--Validated by a diagnosis in French in a key.--Isonym: F. Rudolphi, Syst. Orb. Veg.: 25. 1830 ("Zostereae"), validated by a description in Latin. Incorrect orthography: Zosterineae Menge, Cat. Pl. Grudent. Gedan.: 93. 1839; Zosteracea Griff., Not. Pl. Asiat. 3: 214. 1851.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--ZOST

Zoysiaceae: The Herter (Fl. Urug.: 28. 1930) name is a nom. nud. The Link ex Herter (Rev. Sudamer. Bot. 6: 136. 1940) name is cited in synonymy; indirectly based on an effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 33.7) published Link (Hort. Berol. 1: 8. 1827, as "Ordo [=fam] Gramineae fam. [=?] Zoysinae") name with a diagnosis in Latin.--Zoysia Willd., 1801, nom. cons.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Zumaques: The J. Ponce de Leon (Sist. Fl.-Sex. Bot.: 148. 1814, (hispanice)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Arts. 18.1, 18.4) published, and is associated with a description in Spanish. Note: The name is taken from a Spanish name for a species of Rhus.

Zygophyllaceae R. Br. in Flinders, Voy. Terra Austral. 2: 545. 19 Jul 1814 ("Zygophylleae"), nom. cons. Type: Zygophyllum L., 1753.--Validated by an reference an unnamed and unranked subdivision of Rutaceae in Jussieu (Gen. Pl.: 296. 4 Aug 1789) associated with a description in Latin. First correct orthography: Horaninow, Prim. Lin. Syst. Nat.: 102. 1834. Other incorrect orthography: Zygophyllineae Kostel., Allg. Med.-Pharm. Fl. 5: 1807. 1836; Zygophillaceae Nees in Oesterr. Bot. Wochenbl. 3: 327. 1853; Zigophylleae Guss., Enum. Pl. Inarim.: 68.1855; Xygophyllaceae W.S.O. (trans.) in L. Figuier, Veg. World (New York ed.): 422. 1868.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--ZYGO
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Title Annotation:Part 5: Index to Family Names (Sensitivae-Zygophyllaceae)
Author:Hoogland, Ruurd D.; Reveal, James L.
Publication:The Botanical Review
Date:Jan 1, 2005
Words:26576
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