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Index nominum familiarum plantarum vascularium.

Abstract
Introduction
  A Brief Overview
  Nomenclature
  Development of the Present Listing
Acknowledgments
Index and Lists of Names
  Index to Family Names
  List of Subkingdom Names
  List of Superdivisional Names
  List of Divisional Names
  List of Subdivisional Names
  List of Class Names
  List of Subclass Names
  List of Superordinal Names
  List of Ordinal Names
  List of Family Names
Addendum


Introduction

A BRIEF OVERVIEW

In vascular plant taxonomy, the most frequently used suprageneric rank is that of family. Conceived prior to 1753 as a "natural" unit of classification, it was largely ignored as a rank prior to 1789. With the publication of Genera plantarum by Antoine Laurent de Jussieu (1748-1836) in 1789, the concept gained widespread acceptance on the European continent, but not so in England, where the "artificial" units of class and order championed by Carl Linnaeus (1707-1778) remained dominant. Acceptance of natural family groupings increased significantly with the publications of John Lindley (1799-1865), starting in 1830, thereby bringing English plant classification into line with that of such continental students as Augustin Pyramus de Candolle (1778-1841), Barthelemy Charles Joseph Dumortier (1797-1878), and Friedrich Gottlieb Bartling (1798-1875), to mention but three.

Names at other modern ranks, notably order and class, also were proposed in the formative period from 1800 until the mid-1830s. The first to adopt a modern concept for order (in 1815) was Constantin Samuel Rafinesque (1783-1840). Although the rank of class was used widely in artificial schemes of arranging genera, its use in our modern sense was established mainly by August Johann Georg Carl Batsch (1761-1802) in a work published at the time of his death. Initially these ranks were descriptive; that is, they attempted to encapsulate some diagnostic feature of the group rather than being based upon a generic name. First Dumortier (in 1829) and then Lindley (in 1833) began the tradition of typified ordinal names; that is, a name based upon a generic name. At the rank of class, the use of typified class names did not happen to a significant degree until Paul Fedorowitsch Horaninov (1796-1865), Stephan Ladislaus Endlicher (1804-1849), and Adolphe Theodore Brongniart (1801-1876) began doing so starting in the mid-1830s.

Broad, natural schemes of classification for vascular plants flourished. Augustin Augier, in 1801, published one of the first major revisions after Jussieu, followed immediately by Batsch (in 1802). These were superseded by a scheme for all living creatures published by Rafinesque in 1815. Augier's scientific names were in French, rather than Latin, and, according to our modern rules, his names were not validly published; Rafinesque described only a few of his taxa, meaning that the majority are nomen nuda. Thus it was Batsch's scheme that held forth for a brief time. Candolle started a series of publications (first as Regni vegetabilis systema naturale in 1817 and then as Prodromus systematis naturalis regni vegetabilis in 1824) that attempted to fully classify plants using most of our modern taxonomic ranks (from class to variety). Friedrich Berchtold (1871-1876) and Jan Svatopluk Presl (1791-1849) produced a detailed treatment of vascular plant families in 1820. Written in Czech, the work was known but little consulted by their contemporaries, and thus it was largely ignored until the 1990s. Although Lindley concentrated mainly on groups at the ranks of order (what he termed "alliances") and family, as did a fellow Londoner, Gilbert Thomas Burnett (1800-1835), their student textbooks did much to promote natural systems of classification. In doing so, Lindley ended the Linnaean artificial schemes of arranging plants and provided a consistent nomenclature used around the world. The monographic work of Endlicher, and his Swiss contemporary Carl Friedrich Meisner (1800-1874), provided the technical details of vascular plant families and their relationships. Their books greatly influenced the next generation of botanists, most notably George Bentham (1800-1884) and William Jackson Hooker (1817-1911). Their Genera plantarum would be the last of the natural schemes not influenced by the Darwinian revolution.

Evolutionary schemes of classification would be the centerpiece of numerous systems starting in the 1870s and ending just over a hundred years later. Foremost were the works of Heinrich Gustav Adolf Engler (1844-1930) and Karl Anton Eugen Prantl (1849-1893), notably Die naturlichen Pflanzenfamilien and Das Pflanzenreich. Their arrangements fundamentally altered plant classification, especially since they provided names at all modern ranks. Some differences of opinion were expressed using different evolutionary criteria. Charles Edwin Bessey (1845-1915) formulated the "ranalian" view of flowering plants, one that differed significantly from the "amentiferous" views of Engler and Prantl. John Hutchinson (1884-1972) divided the angiosperms into fundamentally woody and herbaceous groups, and although this concept was roundly rejected, his circumscriptions of families were highly respected. Arthur Cronquist (1919-1992) and Armen Leonovich Takhtajan (1910-) dominated the 1960s and 1970s, creating an innovative system based on their intuitive understanding of numerous sets of anatomical, morphological, cytological, and biochemical data. Steeped in tradition, their views brought an end to the Engler and Prantl era and moved systematic botany from an amentiferous view to a ranalian one. Both men, along with Robert Folger Thorne (1920-), would attempt to develop schemes for the flowering plants that transcended the shift from evolutionary to phylogenetic systems; by virtue of their extended careers, Takhtajan and Thorne proved to be more successful than Cronquist in this regard.

Phylogeny-based schemes are the current vogue. Aside from the work produced by the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group in 1999 and 2003, most workers have concentrated on groups of families. The one person who can be considered the forerunner of this age is Rolf Martin Theodor Dahlgren (1932-1987). His premature death, the result of an automobile accident, removed from the scene a guiding spirit that, had he lived, could have been a beacon to new thoughts regarding the classification of vascular plants. As yet no one individual has stepped forward to assume this role, and perhaps, given the phylogeny-by-committee approach, no one person will. Still, the type of summary work being accomplished by Peter Francis Stevens (1944), built to a large extent on the insights of Mark William Chase (1951-), Kare Bremer (1948-), Douglas E. Soltis, and others, is resulting in the wholesale re-education of the old and the new generation of taxonomists interested in classification. To what extent the even younger Alexander Borissovitch Doweld (1973-) may influence classification is premature to judge, as clearly a multitude of young people are coming forth with new and novel approaches to the age-old question: What is the origin and evolution of the flowering plants?

NOMENCLATURE

Traditionally, family and suprafamilial names were simply accepted, without serious consideration as to their validity. This is particularly true of names above the rank of family, and yet, until recently, numerous family names were not validly published or were ascribed with incorrect bibliographic information. Prior to the 1980s, when rules dealing with superfluous names were in effect, it was necessary to find a valid use of a legitimate name where, in that particular circumscription, the name did not include the type of an already validly published family name. To accomplish this task, if the problem was not ignored outright, some publications or works by certain authors were quietly suppressed. This changed in the 1990s when, without the restrictions imposed by past rules, a thorough review of the literature began searching for family names.

Family names are unique in one feature, for, unlike names at any other rank, the vast majority are conserved to maintain their use; in other words, they are "protected names" rather than names conserved strictly for nomenclatural reasons. What few botanists realize is that only the name itself is conserved, not the bibliographic information (authorship, place of publication, etc.). Originally, family names were descriptive, with only a few (e.g., Ranunculaceae, Rosaceae, Campanulaceae) based on generic names. There was a gradual shift to a preponderance of typified family names starting with Michael Adanson (1727-1806) in 1763 and ending with John Lindley in 1836. Today only ten family names are descriptive; all are conserved, as they must be, to be used (see Article 18.5 of the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature).

Formal rules governing suprageneric names, even as mandated by the code, have been lax. Until the late 1950s, there were only informal lists of protected family names. A formal list finally became part of the code in 1959. At that time, several provisions were added to the code to govern family and suprafamilial names. Through the efforts of Arthur Allman Bullock (1906-1980) and Arno Fritz Gunther Buchheim (1924-), our modern approaches to ascertaining validity of names at and above the rank of family were largely established. For example, priority is a factor in the choice of family names but is not for names above that rank. One can use any name one wishes (descriptive or typified) above the rank of family as long as the name is validly published; one can use typified names only at the rank of family.

The rules that were introduced into the code, developed mainly by Buchheim, have served the community well. Knowledgeable of the literature, thanks to a review of family names by Bullock in the mid-1950s, Buchheim was able to craft a series of provisions that allowed one to ascertain the validity of names in most instances. Of critical importance was (in our present-day code) Article 18.2, which introduced the concept of "intent" into the code: "Names intended as names of families, but published with their rank denoted by one of the terms 'order' (ordo) or 'natural order' (ordo naturalis) instead of 'family,' are treated as having been published as names of families." This long-standing provision now is being challenged. If the concept of "intent" is restricted at the next botanical congress, bibliographic citations for hundreds of names at the ranks of order and family will be changed from what is presented here. This change would also require a new survey of the literature to ascertain what new and previously unreported names exist and to discover their new, first places of valid publication. No doubt, more conservation proposals will be required to protect long-used, but not now conserved, family names Having spent more than a decade reviewing the literature, that is not something I would like to repeat.

Of specific concern are names proposed by various eastern European and Russian authors who simultaneously employed ranks termed both "natural order" (or "order") and "family." The present code requires one to ascertain the intent of authors who used the terms "'order' (ordo) or 'natural order' (ordo naturalis)" to determine whether they intended their names to be equivalent to the present-day rank of family. In most instances it is clear whether an author meant "family," and application of Article 18.2 is simple. There is no provision in the code that allows one to question whether an author's use of "family" was an error for another rank--say, subfamily or tribe--and to correct the rank. In those cases where an author used "order" in the sense of "family" and then employs the rank "family" for a lesser rank, one can only conclude that the rank of "family" was misapplied and that such names are not validly published (Article 33.7).

This situation occurred with some regularity from 1820 until the 1870s. During this period, ranks equal to our present-day tribe were frequently termed "family" or "section." French authors and those affiliated with Candolle tended to use "tribe"; those affiliated with the German botanist Karl Friedrich Philipp von Martius (1794-1868) tended to use "family." Globally, "section" was the most commonly used rank for names between the ranks of family and genus. Names above the rank of genus that were proposed at the rank of section are not validly published, and the rank is misplaced. But what about the use of family after the rank of order? Should one simply accept the ranks as stated and ignore Article 18.2, which clearly requires that, whenever the rank of order is used, one must determine whether the author meant it to be at the rank of family?

The whole point of Article 18.2 is to require one to determine intent, and if that can be determined, then to adopt the appropriate rank. In our work, intent was determined using three factors. First, did the author adopt names and authorships of previously published names that are unquestionably at the rank of family? Second, what is the relationship between names at the ranks of order and family? Did the author divide each order into one or more families, or did the author only occasionally divide an order into families? Third, if the author only occasionally subdivided orders into families, do some of those family names correspond to names already published at the rank of subfamily or tribe? By considering all three factors, it is possible to determine intent. Occasionally, as in the case of Berchtold and Presl, for example, these authors subsequently stated that their names at the rank of order were, in fact, intended to be names at the rank of family.

One result of the Bullock-Buchheim effort was the introduction into the code of what is now Article 18.4. When Bullock drafted his list of family names, he accepted as validly published those names that were published originally in French but, curiously, not in any other language (notably German or Italian). In all cases, Bullock corrected the French termination, usually -cees or -acees, to the required Latin -aceae. Even so, Bullock was not consistent even in his adoptions of names proposed in French. As a result, Buchheim drafted a new provision for the code that states that when "a family has been published with an improper Latin termination, the termination must be changed to conform with the rule, without change of the author citation or date of publication." By implication, his use of the word "Latin" restricted the adoption of family name proposed originally in any other languages. Today, this is explicitly stated: "However, if such a name is published with a non-Latin termination, it is not validly published." This concept now applies to all suprafamilial names (see Article 16.3).

Starting in 1959, when the first formal listing of conserved family names was entered into the code, an informal "start date" for family names was established: 4 August 1789 (Jussieu's Genera plantarum). This restriction applied only to names on the list, meaning that non-conserved names proposed before 1789 were validly published and could be used, as indeed some were. The problem was that, until recently, few knew what non-conserved names were validly published prior to 1789. There is now a proposal, to be considered at the botanical congress at Vienna in 2005, to establish the Jussieu publication as the formal starting date for all vascular plant family names. This has received widespread support and is adopted here in anticipation of its formal approval.

Traditionally, the use of parenthetical authorships with supragenerie names varies. Rules governing this aspect in the code are minimal and generally fail to provide clear directions. We have followed the informal "Nicolson Rule" (for Dan H. Nicolson) for family and ordinal names and have employed parenthetical authorships only when citation of a basionym is the sole means by which a name can be validated. If an author provides a description or diagnosis as well as a reference to a basionym, then no parenthetical authorship is given. Above the rank of order, names are usually proposed as new names or are validated by making a reference to the description or diagnosis of an already existing, effectively published description. Therefore, no parenthetical authorships are given for supraordinal names.

Suprageneric names are mononomials; that is, they are a single name that stands alone without reference to any other name. It does not matter in what family a subfamily, tribe, or subtribe name was established originally; that name can be moved to any other family without changing its bibliographic citation. Likewise, family, ordinal, and class names, for example, can be moved from one higher taxon to another higher taxon without any modification. Being unique mononomials, suprageneric names that are subject to priority cannot now be illegitimate even if superfluous when published if they are based on a legitimate generic name (Article 52.3).

Validation of suprageneric names can be obscure to those not familiar with the literature. Article 41.1 of the code requires that for a family name to be valid there must be "a description or diagnosis of the taxon," or "a reference (direct or indirect) to a previously and effectively published description of a family or a subdivision of a family." In the older literature, some diagnoses are reduced to a single feature (or even a single word), but at least that is usually obvious. What is less obvious is the indirect reference (Article 32.4), which can be merely the name of an author or even the abbreviation of a publication. Without a thorough working knowledge of the literature, cryptic indirect references can be overlooked or not understood. Furthermore, indirect references need not even be associated directly with the name. In textbooks, floras, dictionaries, encyclopaedias, reviews of articles, books, or meetings, and similar literature, indirect references can be mentioned in introductory remarks, footnotes, or just on a single page. Ascertaining rank can be just as problematic, because some early authors confined such information to indices or tables of contents. Sometimes it is necessary to review hundreds of pages to discover an indirect reference or to ascertain rank (see Article 35.5). For the record, in the course of our work we discovered a large number of names that were first validated in articles, in book reviews, or in journal reports of the minutes of local, regional, or national meetings, including several at or below the rank of genus.

Several early authors proposed alternative family names. Article 34.2 allows such names, if proposed prior to 1953, to be considered as validly published providing all other requirements are fulfilled. Validation of a new name, in such instances, can be accomplished simply by citing a previously published name.

Typified suprageneric names are valid only if a concordant generic (Article 18.1) or family (Article 16.1) name is available. A number of suprafamilial names were published prior to the formal establishment of the family name. Also, we are aware of a few family names, some with long-accepted bibliographic citations, that were provided with a description or diagnosis in the same publication where, unfortunately, the generic name was not validated. As such, the family names are not validly published. It is therefore critical to ascertain the validity of the supporting generic name before accepting a typified suprageneric name.

Suprageneric names published with non-Latin terminations are usually effectively published (Article 41), although they are not valid (Article 18.4). We have found numerous instances where new suprageneric names proposed with non-Latin terminations were subsequently altered to names with Latin terminations in published reviews. This is particularly true of names proposed originally with terminations in French in works that were reviewed in English or German publications in which the terminations were changed to Latin. Obviously, in such cases there is no question about the indirect reference, for the review typically contains a full and direct reference to the entire work. By fulfilling the last requirement for formal publication in the review, the names become valid, and their bibliographic citation is then from the review. Inasmuch as most reviewers simply report what an author presents, there is no question of the names being accepted in "the original publication" (Article 34.1 (a)), and the reviewer (albeit inadvertently) is merely correcting the orthography and thus completing a final step in validly publishing the name. In such instances, authorship is given to the author of name with an "ex" attribution (Article 46).

DEVELOPMENT OF THE PRESENT LISTING

The present effort to evaluate extant vascular plant family names began in 1989 at the suggestion of Werner Greuter when he became aware that, independently, Ru Hoogland and I were reviewing family nomenclature. Starting in 1990, we began a systematic review of the literature using resources at The Natural History Museum and the Royal Botanic Garden (Reveal) and at the Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle and the Nationaal Herbarium Nederland (Hoogland). Over the next several years our efforts took us to numerous libraries and botanical institutions. Our goal was to review all works that might contain vascular plant family names, venturing into sources such as dictionaries, encyclopaedias, floras, textbooks, and horticultural and paleobotanical publications that largely had been overlooked in the past. From Buchheim we learned of the informally suppressed literature and authors purposefully ignored in the 1950s. Without the problem of superfluous names (Article 52.3), we were able to freely review these items.

Working with various members of the editorial committee for the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature, we presented problems to them requiring their knowledge and understanding of the code. Jointly, critical decisions were made allowing us to have a means to consistently, and without prejudice, consider questions of validity, rank, and assorted other problems. Our findings were widely distributed, eventually via the World Wide Web, allowing others to comment, to make corrections and suggestions, and to call our attention to other resources. In all cases, we simply reported names and places of publication as they were found, without consideration of the taxonomic or nomenclatural consequences.

Our initial hope was to present a broad array of information about family names. The sudden and untimely death of Ru, following surgery, in 1994, made that hope impossible. Here, the index is confined to the basics: name, bibliographic information, nomenclatural status, type information, means of validation, variations in orthography, assignment to a broadly defined division/phylum (e.g., Lycopodiophyta, Equisetophyta, Pteridiophyta, Pinophyta, Magnoliophyta), an indication (as "NCU") of whether the name is used in the recent literature (1960 onward), and a four-letter abbreviation for each validly published family name (see Kiger & Reveal, Huntia 11: 55-84. 2000). Starting in 1993, I began to work on suprageneric names at ranks other than family, concentrating on those based on a generic name. This effort is not yet complete. However, the literature has been reviewed for typified names at and above the rank of order, and those names are included here with their full bibliographic citation and types.

The index comprises two major entries. Names in boldface roman type are validly published (e.g., Abietaceae). Those in boldface italic type are incorrect for some reason (e.g., Abaminaceae). In the latter cases, illegitimate names are given with their full bibliographic citation (e.g., Abaminaceae J. Agardh, Theoria Syst. Pl.: 3. Apr-Sep 1858 ("Abamineae")), followed by citation of one or more articles of the code as to why the name is not legitimate. Names that are not validly published are given in their correct, Latinized form, followed by a colon, if based on a generic name, along with a citation of one or more articles of the code as to why the name is not valid (e.g., Ablaniaceae: The Augier (Essai Nouv. Classif. Veg.: 72, 84. 1801, as "Ablaniers" (gallice)) name is effectively (Article 41.1) but not validly (Article 18.4) published, and is associated with descriptions in French)). Incorrect names not based on a generic name are given in their original form (e.g., Abri: The Trattinnick (Gen. Pl.: 58. 1802) name is a nom. nud. and its rank uncertain ("familias sucundarias")); articles of the code are cited as necessary. Pre-1789 names that have not been validated after 1789 are reported with their family names in regular roman type (e.g., Paulliniaceae Durande, Notions Elem. Bot.: 279. 1782 ("Paulliniae")).

Generic types are noted when the name is validly published. Generic names are merely mentioned for family names that are not validly published if the name is based on a generic name.

Conserved family names are noted. Superconservations presently in the code are repeated. Family names that actually require conservation because they are based on illegitimate generic names are relatively few: Aquifoliaceae, Balsaminaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Ebenaceae, Julianiaceae, Lentibulariaceae, Nyetaginaceae, Onagraceae, Sapotaceae, and Winteraceae are among the most obvious. Others are conserved because there are earlier, validly published family names that fall within the circumscription of later, better-known family names. Examples of conserved family names that begin with the letter "A" include: Achariaceae Harms (1897) vs. Kiggelariaceae Link (1831); Adoxaceae E. Mey. (1839) vs. Sambucaceae Batsch ex Borkh. (1797) and Viburnaceae Raf. (1820); Amaryllidaceae Vent. (1805) vs. Narcissaceae Juss. (1789) and Leucojaceae Batsch. ex Borkh. (1797); Apiaceae Lindl. (1836) vs. Angelicaceae Martynov (1820), Bupleuraceae Martynov (1820), Daucaceae Martynov (1820), Imperatoiriaceae Martynov (1820), and Pastinaceae Martynov (1820); and Aquifoliaceae DC. ex A. Rich (1828) vs. Illicaceae Bercht. & J. Presl (1820). Thus, of the 41 conserved family names that begin with "A," only 5 actual require conservation. This percentage is more or less consistent throughout the entire listing in Appendix IIB of the code. Of course, if the circumscription of, say, Adoxaceae were modified, one could recognize Sambucaceae Batsch ex Borkh. and Viburnaceae Raf. as separate families.

Orthographies are given to allow users to be aware of variation in names that may be encountered in the literature. We have attempted to cite the first use of a particular orthography, but we have not indicated whether the name was adopted, relegated to synonymy, or merely listed. Only the incorrect orthographies are listed. If none appears with a citation, it may be assumed that the author used the correct orthography. Some orthographic variants are presented here in their correct form for the first time. None of the names is to be considered validly published as none is accepted by us. We are merely standardizing the words for bibliographic purposes. In a sense, a review of the orthography section will give the user of this work some idea of the literature that has been reviewed.

A total of 2510 extant vascular plant family names are accounted for in our "Index to Family Names." These names may or may not be validly published but have been used at a rank equivalent to our modern rank of family. Individual lists give the nomenclaturally correct, typified names at the ranks of order, superorder, subclass, class, subdivision, division/phylum, and subkingdom, with full bibliographic citations. A total of 753 names are listed. A similar list of 1569 currently available extant vascular plant family names is provided, of which 979 are considered to be in "current use." Of the 979 names accepted in the literature since 1960, just over 600 have been in common used since 1990, the vast majority (about 500) being applied to families of flowering plants.

Acknowledgments

All long-term efforts require the support of numerous individuals and institutions. Foremost are the libraries and librarians who have allowed us full access to their collections and their time. In particular, The Natural History Museum (Malcolm Beasley), The National Agricultural Library (Susan Fugate), The New York Botanical Garden (John F. Reed and Marie Long), Harvard University's Botany Libraries (Judith A. Warnement), the Botany and Horticultural Library at the Smithsonian Institution (Ruth F. Schallert), and our home institutional libraries at the University of Maryland (McKeldin Library) and the Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle have been mainstays in our effort. Our assembled group ofnomenclatural experts over the past fifteen years have included Wemer Greuter (Botanischer Garten und Botanisches Museum, Berlin), John McNeill (Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh), Dan H. Nicolson (Smithsonian Institution, Washington), Kanchi N. Gandhi (Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge), Fred R. Barrie (Field Museum, Chicago), Paul C. Silva (University of California, Berkeley), David L. Hawksworth (Commonwealth Mycological Institute, Kew), and Nicholas J. Turland (Missouri Botanical Garden, Saint Louis). Greuter, McNeill, Nicolson, and Gandhi have been our primary consultants on nomenclatural matters. Turland and Barrie kindly provided me with their notes on the validity of certain family names.

Numerous colleagues, far too many to mention, have provided us with information. Nonetheless, the efforts of Robert W. Kiger (Hunt Institute for Botanical Documentation, Pittsburgh) and Charles E. Jarvis and Arthur O. Chater (The Natural History Museum, London) have provided us with many difficult-to-find works and insights into the literature (especially European). In recent years, Alexander Doweld (Moscow) has called my attention to numerous names proposed in the Russian literature. Gandhi, as always, has been able to find obscure items buried somewhere at Harvard. Cronquist, Dahlgren, Takhtajan, and Thome have supported our efforts with comments, reprints, copies of obscure literature, and insights into the systematic literature. To all, we give our thanks.

Financial support was largely out-of-pocket, especially for Ru. In 1994 the International Association for Plant Taxonomy provided a small grant ($4000) that was matched by the University of Maryland for computer equipment. While at the university, some travel funds were obtained; since my retirement in 1999, my support has been similar to that of Ru. We think IAPT got its money's worth. The New York Botanical Garden has provided the funding to publish this report. I am most grateful to Dennis Wm. Stevenson.

Well, Ru, we finally have this out in print. The authorship is as we agreed back in 1990. It is not exactly all we wished, but the major items are here. May this successfully serve our botanical community: that was always our foremost desire. After all, who wants to plow through all that stuff again?

Index and Lists of Names

INDEX TO FAMILY NAMES

Abaminaceae J. Agardh, Theoria Syst. Pl.: 3. Apr-Sep 1858 ("Abamineae"), nom. illeg. (Art. 18.3).--Type: Abama Adans., 1763, nom. illeg. (Art. 52.1: [equivalent to] Narthecium M6hring ex Huds., 1762, nom. cons.).--Validated by diagnoses in Latin.--First correct orthography: Bullock in Taxon 7: 4. 1958. Other incorrect orthography: Abamaceae Hutchinson, Fam. Fl. Pl., ed. 3: 733. 1973.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Abietaceae Bercht. & J. Presl, Prir. Rostlin: 262.1820 ("Abietinae"), nom. cons.--Type: Abies Mill., 1754.--Validated by a description in Czech.--Isonym: Gray, Nat. An. Brit. Pl. 2: 222, 223.1821 ("Abietideae"), validated by in English.--First correct orthography: Walp. in Ann. Bot. Syst. 3:446.1852. Other incorrect orthography: Abietineae Link in Abh. Konigl. Akad. Wiss. Berlin 1827: 157. 1830; Abietinaceae Klotzsch & Garcke, Bot. Ergebn. Reise Waldemar: 31.1862.--[PINOPHYTA]. NCU--ABIE

Ablaniaceae: The Augier (Essai Nouv. Classif. Veg.: 72, 84. 1801, as "Ablaniers" (gallice)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with descriptions in French. The Gerardin & Desvaux (Dict. Rais. Bot.: 741. 1817, as "Ablaniers" (gallice)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with a reference to Augier (1801).--Ablania Aubl., 1775.--First correct orthography: presented here. [MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Abolbodaceae Nakai, Chosakuronbun Mokuroku [Ord. Fam. Trib. Nov.]: 221. 20 Jul 1943.--Type: Abolboda Humb., 1813.--Validated by a description in Latin in a key.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--ABOL

Abri: The Trattinnick (Gen. Pl.: 58.1802) name is a nom. nud. and its rank uncertain ("familias sucundarias").--Abrus Adans., 1763.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Abrophyllaceae Nakai, Chosakuronbun Mokuroku [Ord. Fam. Trib. Nov.]: 243.20 Jul 1943.--Type: Abrophyllum Hook.f. ex Benth., 1864.--Validated by a diagnosis in Latin in a key.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--ABRO

Absynthiaceae: The J. Ponce de Leon (Sist. Fl.-Sex. Bot.: 348.1814, as "Absintios" (hispanice)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with a description in Spanish. The Rafinesque (Anal. Nat.: 192. 1815, as "Absinthia" & Fl. Tellur. 1:31. 1837, as "Absynthia") names are nom. nud.--Absinthium Mill., 1754. [MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Acaciaceae E. Mey., Comm. Pl. Afr. Austr. 1: 164. 14 Feb-5 Jun 1836 ("Acacieae").--Type: Acacia Mill., 1754.--Validated by an indirect reference to a R. Brown (in Flinders, Voy. Terra Austr. 2:551.19 Jul 1814, as Mimosaceae ("Mimoseae") family name with a diagnosis in English.--First correct orthography: Wielgorskaya, Dict. Gen. Names Seed Pl.: 3. 1995.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--ACAC

Acalyphaceae Juss. ex Menge, Cat. Pl. Grudent. Gedan.: 172. 1839 ("Acalyphinae").--Type: Acalypha L., 1753.--Validated by description in Latin.--First correct orthography: Klotzsch in Monatsber. Konigl. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin 1859: 246. 1859. Other incorrect orthography: Acalypheae J. Agardh, Theoria Syst. Pl.: 258. 1858.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU-ACAL

Acanthaceae Juss., Gen. Pl.: 102.4 Aug 1789 ("Acanthi"), nom. cons.--Type: Acanthus L., 1753. Validated by a description in Latin.--Original place of publication: Durande, Notions Elem. Bot.: 265.1782 ("Acanthi"), validated by a description in French. First correct orthography: J. St.-Hilaire, Expos. Fam. Nat. 1: 236. 1805. Other incorrect orthography: Acanthe Batsch, Dispos. Gen. Pl. Europ.: 122. 1794; Acanthoideae Vent., Tabl. Regne Veg. 2:301.1799; A cantacea Juss. in E Cuvier, Dict. Sci. Nat. 1: 96. 1804; Acanthoidei Pers., Syn. Pl. 2:175.1807; Acantheae Fisch., Cat. Jard. Gorenki: 32.1808; Acanthinae Hoffmanns. & Link, Fl. Portug. 1: 62.1809; Acanthidia Raf., Anal. Nat.: 187. 1815; Acanthinia and Acanthineae Dumort., Comment. Bot.: 60. 1822; Acanthideae Dumort., Anal. Fam. Pl.: 20, 23.1829; Acanthacea Raf., Fl. Tellur. 3: 17.1837; Acanthides Raf., Fl. Tellur. 4:60.1838; Acantaceae Barcena, La Veget.: unnumbered table. 1881.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--ACAN

Acanthochlamydaceae E C. Kao in Acta Bot. Sichuan 2: 1. Mar 1989, basionym: subfam. Acanthochlamydoideae Shou C. Chen in Acta Phytotax. Sin. 19: 323. Aug 1981. Type: Acanthochlamys R C. Kao, 1980. Basionym validated by a description in Latin; family name validated by a description in Latin and a full and direct reference to the basionym.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--ACAT

Acarnaceae Link, Handbuch 1: 684.20 Apr 1829.--Type: Acarna Boehm., 1760.--Validated by descriptions in Latin and German. The earlier Link (Enum. Hort. Berol. Alt. 2: 295. 1822) name is a nom. nud. --[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--ACAR*

Aceraceae Juss., Gen. Pl.: 250. 4 Aug 1789 ("Acera"), nom. cons. Type: Acer L., 1753.--Validated by a description in Latin. The earlier Duchesne (Man. Bot. Cat.: 23. 1764, as "Aceris") name is a nom. nud.--Original place of publication: Durande, Notions Elem. Bot.: 291. 1782 ("Aceres"), validated by a description in French. First correct orthography: J. St.-Hilaire, Expos. Fam. Nat. 2: 15. 1805. Other incorrect orthography: Aceres J. F. N. Morel, Tabl. Ecole Bot. Jard. Pl. Paris: 77.1800; Acerae Bose in Deterv., Nouv. Dict. Hist. Nat. 8: 60. 1803; Acerineae DC., Essai Propr. Med. Pl., ed. 2: 107. 1816; Acereae Sweet, Hort. Suburb. Lond.: 221. 1818; Acerinae Bercht. & J. Presl, Prir. Rostlin: 225. 1820; Acerideae Marquis, Esq. Regne Veg.: 54. 1820; Acerosae Ende, Comm. Meth. Bot.: 32. 1823; A kerides Raf., New Fl. N. Amer. 3:8.1838; Acenae Geyer in London J. Bot. 5: 204. 1846; A cerinaceae Klotzsch & Garcke, Bot. Ergebn. Reise Waldemar: 124. 1862. Note: If combined with Sapindaceae, that name has priority.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--ACER

Acerosae [1]:--see Aceraceae.

Acerosae [2]: The K. Koch (Nat. Syst. Pflanzenr.: 142.1839) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with a description in German.

Achariaceae Harms in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. Nachtr.: 256. Oct 1897, nom. cons.--Type: A charia Thunb., 1794.--Validated by a description in German. The earlier Trattinnick (Gen. Pl.: 44. 1802, as "'Aehariae") name is a nom. nud. and its rank uncertain ("familias sucundarias"). The Baillon (in Payer, Legons Fam. Nat.: 66, 115. [1860-] 1872, as "Achari6es" (gallice)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with a description in French.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--ACHA

Achatocarpaceae Heimerl in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam., ed. 2, 16c: 174. Jan-Apr 1934, nom. cons.--Type: Achatocarpus Triana, 1858.--Validated by a description in German.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--ACHT

Achenopsia: The Rafinesque (Anal. Nat.: 174. 1815) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with a diagnosis in French.

Achradaceae Vest, Anleit. Stud. Bot.: 273,299. 1818 ("Achratoideae").--Type: Achras L., 1753, nom. rej. [=ManilkaraAdans., 1763, nom. cons.]--Validated by a description in German. The earlier Trattinnick (Gen. Pl.: 54. 1802, as "Achrates") name is a nom. nud. and its rank uncertain ("familias sucundarias").--First correct orthography: Dostal, Bot. Nomenkl.: 197.1957. Other incorrect orthography: Achrasaceae Bromhead in Edinburgh New Philos. J. 25:134. 1838 (family rank uncertain) or Mag. Nat. Hist., n.s., 4: 337. 1840; Achraceae Roberty ex Bullock in Taxon 7: 4. 1958.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--ACHR

Achratinitaceae: The F. A. Barkley (Revista Fac. Nac. Agron. Medellin Univ. Antioquia 8: 222. 1948) name is a nom. nud. Buchheim (Willdenowia 3: 386. 1963) lists the name as not validly published. The F. A. Barkley (Anthophyta: 124. 1966), Airy Shaw (in Willis, Dict. Fl. Pl. Ferns, ed. 7:11. 1966 & ed. 8:11. 1973), Hutchinson (Fam. Fl. Pl., ed. 3: 846. 1973), R. D. Gibbs (Chemotax. Fl. Pl.: 1104. 1974), Cronquist (Integr. Syst. Classif. Fl. Pl.: 1237.1981, as "Achratinidaceae'" and "Achratinitaceae"), Bedell & Reveal (Phytologia 51: 73, 1982, as "Achratinidaceae" and "Achratinitaceae") and C. R. Gunn & al. (U.S.D.A. Tech. Bull. 1796: 7. 1992) names are cited in synonymy.--Achratinis Kuntze, 1903 [= Arachnitis Phil., 1864, nom. cons.]--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Achyranthaceae Raf., Fl. Tellur. 3: 35. Nov-Dec 1837 ("Achyranthidia").--Type: Achyranthus L., 1753, nom. cons.--Validated by a diagnosis in English.--First correct orthography: Reveal in Phytologia 74: 208. 1993. Other incorrect orthography: Achyranthides Raf., New Fl. N. Amer. 4: 40. 1838.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--ACHY

Acicarphaceae: The Link (Enum. Hort. Berol. Alt. 2: 361. 1822, as "Acicarpheae") name is a nom. nud.--Acicarpha Juss., 1803.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Acimaceae--see mzimaceae.

Acmopylaceae Melikian & A. V. Bobrov, Proc. Intern. Conf. Plant Anat. Morph. (St.-Petersburg) 1997: 93. 25 Mai 1997 ("Acmopyleaceae").--Type: Acmopyle Pilg., 1903.--Validated by a diagnosis in Latin.--[PINOPHYTA]. NCU--ACMO

Acoraceae Martynov, Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 6.31 Jul-5 Aug 1820.--Type: Acorus L., 1753.--Validated by a reference to an effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published Augier (Essai Nouv. Classif. Veg.: 44, 45. 1801, as "Acoracres" (gallice)) family name with descriptions in French. The Trattinnick (Gen. Pl.: 42. 1802, as "Acori") name is a nom. nud. and its rank uncertain ("familias sucundarias"). The Gerardin & Desvaux (Dict. Rais. Bot.: 741. 1817, as "Acoracres" (gallice)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with a reference to Augier (1801).--Incorrect orthography: Acorinae Link, Enum. Hort. Berol. Alt. 1: 304. 1821; Acoroideae C. Agardh, Aphor. Bot.: 133. 1822; Acorides Raf., Fl. Tellur. 4: 15. 1838; Acoridia Raf., Fl. Tellur. 4: 16. 1838. --[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--ACOR

Acristaceae O. F. Cook in Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 16:252.14 Mai 1913.--Type: Acrista O. F. Cook, 1901.--Validated by a diagnosis in English in a key. The earlier O. F. Cook (Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 16: 225. 21 Feb 1913) name is a nom. nud.--Incorrect orthography: Aristaceae Hutch., Fam. Fl. Pl., ed. 3: 820. 1973.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--ACRI

Acrostichaceae Mett. ex A. B. Frank in Leunis, Syn. Pflanzenk., ed. 2, 3: 1453, 1458. 1874, nom. rej. in favour of Adiantaceae.--Type: Acrostichum L., 1753. Validated by a diagnosis and description in German. The earlier Trattinnick (Gen. Pl.: 75. 1802, as "Acrosticha") name is a nom. nud. and its rank uncertain ("familias sucundarias").--Incorrect orthography: Achrostichaceae A. Ponce de Leon in Revista Soc. Cub. Bot. 11: 46. 1954.--[PTERIDOPHYTA]. NCU--ACRO

Actaeaceae Raf., Med. Fl. 1: 87. 11 Jan 1828 ("Acteides").--Type: Actaea L., 1753.--Validated by a diagnosis in English. The earlier Rafinesque (Anal. Nat.: 181. 1815, as "Acteasia" & Amer. Monthly Mag. & Crit. Rev. 4: 193. 1819, as "Acteides") names are nom. nud.--First correct orthography: C. H. Schultz-Schultzenstein, Cykl. Lebenssaft. Pfl.: 334. 1842. Other incorrect orthography: Acteacea Raf., Med. Fl.2: 59. 1830.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].-ACTA

Actinidiaceae Gilg & Werderm. in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam., ed. 2, 21: 36. 1925, nom. cons. Note: If this family is united with Saurauiaceae, the name Actinidiaceae must be used.--Type: Actinidia Lindl., 1836.--Validated by a description in German.--Isonym: Hutch., Fam. Fl. Pl. 1: 177. Feb-Mar 1926, validated by a description in English. The earlier Tieghem (J. Bot. (Morot.) 13:170. 1899, Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., srr. 8, 14: 345,372. 1901, & Elem. Bot., ed. 4, 2:551. 1906; Tieghem & Costantin, Elem. Bot., ed. 5, 2: 533. 1918, as "Actinidiacres" (gallice)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with descriptions in French. The Hutchinson (Bull. Misc. Inform. 1924: 128. 1924) name is a nom. nud.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--ACTI*

ActiniopteridaceaePic. Serm. In Webbia 17:5.31 Aug 1962. Type: Actiniopteris Link, 1841.--Validated by a description in Latin.--[PTERIDOPHYTA]. NCU--ACTP

Actinostrobaccae Lotsy, Vortr. Bot. Stammesgesch. 3:98 ("Actinostrobaceae"), 141 ("Actinostrobaceen" (germanice)). Sep-Oct 1911.--Type: Actinostrobus Miq., 1845.--Validated by reference to an unnamed Wettstein (Handb. Syst. Bot. 2: 153. Nov 1903) taxon associated with a diagnosis in German.--[PINOPHYTA]. NCU--ACTS

Adansoniae: The Trattinnick (Gen. Pl.: 60. 1802) name is a nom. nud. and its rank uncertain ("familias sucundarias").--Adansonia L., 1753.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Adenaceae: The Dulac (Fl. Hautes-Pyrenees: 174, 530. Jul-Dec 1867) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with a description in French.

Adenogrammaceae Nakai in J. Jap. Bot. 18: 101. Mar 1942, basionym: trib. Adenogrammeae Fenzl in Ann. Wiener Mus. Naturgesch. 2: 274. Feb 1839.--Type: Adenogramma Rchb., 1828.--Basionym validated by a description in Latin; family name validated by a Latin description in a key and a reference to the basionym. Incorrect orthography: Adenogrammataceae Buchheim in Willdenowia 3: 374. 1963.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU-ADEN

Adiantaceae Newman, Hist. Brit. Ferns: 5. 1-5 Feb 1840, nom. cons. over Parkeriaceae (1825). Type: Adiantum L., 1753.--Validated by a diagnosis in English. Isonym: (C. Presl) Ching in Sunyatsenia 5: 207, 229.30 Oct 1940, basionym: trib. Adianteae Gaudich. in Freyc., Voy Uranie Bot.: 402.18 Jul 1829), with a diagnosis in French; family name validated by a reference to a later C. Presl ([Tent. Pterid.] in Abh. Bohm. Ges. Wiss., ser. 4, 5: 139. ante 2 Dec 1836, trib. Adianteae, as "Adiantaceae") name with a description in Latin that is corrected (Art. 33.4) to the above basionym. Incorrect orthography: Adianthaceae Dosttil, Bot. Nomenkl.: 197. 1957.--[PTERIDOPHYTA]. NCU--ADIA

Adonidaceae: The F. Lestiboudois (Botanogr. Belg., ed. 2, 3(1): 83.1800, as "Adonides" (gallice)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with a description in French.--Adonis L., 1753.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Adoxaceae F. Mey., Preuss. Pfl.-Gatt.: 198.1839 ("Adoxeae"), nom. cons.--Type: Adoxa L., 1753.--Validated by a description in German. Isonym: Menge, Cat. Pl. Grudent. Gedan.: 355. 1839 ("Adoxineae"), validated by descriptions in Latin. The earlier Bromhead (Edinburgh New Philos. J. 20: 252. 1836, as "Adoxeae", the family rank uncertain) name is a nom. nud. The family name traditionally attributed to Trautvetter (Estestv. Istorija Gub. Kievsk. Ucebn. Okr.: 35.1853) who provided a diagnosis in Russian in a key.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--ADOX

Aechmeaceae: The Rafinesque (Anal. Nat.: 199. 1815 & Fl. Tellur. 1: 32. 1837 & 4: 25. 1838, as "Aechmidia") name is a nom. nud. Aechmea Ruiz & Pav., 1794, nom. cons. [MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Aegialitidaceae Lincz. in Novosti Sist. Vyssik Rast. [Nov. Syst. Pl. Vase.] 1968: 173. 18 Dec 1968. Type: Aegialitis R. Br., 1810. Validated by a description in Latin.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--AEGI

Aegicerataceae Blume, Nov. Pl. Expos.: 17. Aug-Dec 1833 ("Aegicereae").--Type: Aegiceras J. Gaertn., 1788. Validated by a description in Latin. The above reference is a preprint from Tijdschr. Natuurl. Gesch. Physiol. 1: 147.1834 (see also Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot. ser. 2, 2: 95. Aug 1834).--First correct orthography: Bullock in Taxon 7: 4. 1958. Other incorrect orthography: Aegiceraceae A. DC. in DC., Prodr. 8:141.1844; Oegiceraceae Maury, Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., ser. 7, 4: 96. 1886.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--AEGC

Aegilopaceae Martynov, Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 221.31 Jul-5 Aug 1820 ("Egilopeae", "Aegilopeae").--Type: Aegilops L., 1753. Validated by a reference to an effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published Augier (Essai Nouv. Classif. Veg.: 37, 42. 1801, as "Egilopees" (gallice)) family name with descriptions in French. The Gerardin & Desvaux (Dict. Rais. Bot.: 692.1817, as "Egilop6es" (gallice)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with a diagnosis in French and a reference to Augier (1801).--First correct orthography: Reveal in Phytologia 74: 235. 1993.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--AEGL

Aeginetiaceae Livera in Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. (Peradeniya) 10:153.31 Mai 1927.--Type: Aeginetia L., 1753. Validated by a description in Latin and a diagnosis in English. [MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--AEGN

Aegiphilaceae Raf., Sylva Tellur.: 161. Oct-Dec 1838 ("Aegiphilia"). Type: Aegiphila Jacq., 1767. Validated by a diagnosis in English. The earlier Rafinesque (Anal. Nat.: 188. 1815 & Fl. Tellur. 1: 30. 1837, as "Aegiphilia") name is a nom. nud.--First correct orthography: Reveal in Phytologia 74: 230. 1993.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. AEGP

Aegopricones: The Trattinnick (Gen. Pl.: 73. 1802) name is a nom. nud. and its rank uncertain ("familias sucundarias"). Aegopricum L., 1775.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Aeleagni--see Elaeagnaceae.

Aequisetaceae--see Equisetaceae.

Aeseulaceae Bercht. & J. Presl, Prir. Rostlin: 224. 1820 ("Aesculeae").--Type: Aesculus L., 1753.--Validated by a description in Czech. The earlier Trattinnick (Gen. Pl.: 49. 1802, as "Aesculi") name is a nom. nud. and its rank uncertain ("familias sucundarias").--First correct orthography: Burnett, Outl. Bot.: 891, 1093, 1126. 1835. Other incorrect orthography: Aesulides Raf., Alsogr. Amer.: 67. 1838; Esculaceae Post & Kuntze, Lex. Gen. Phan.: 663, 711. 1903.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--AESC

Aextoxicaceae Engl. & Gilg, Engler's Syllabus, ed. 8: 250. Jan-Feb 1920, nom. cons.--Type: Aextoxicon Ruiz & Pav., 1794. Validated by a description in German. Incorrect orthography: Aetoxicaceae F. A. Barkley in Revista Fac. Nac. Agron. Medellin Univ. Antioquia 8: 195. 1948.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--AEXT

Agapanthaceae F. Voigt, Gesch. Pflanzen-Reichs 2: 440. 1850 ("Agapantheae").--Type: Agapanthus L'Her., 1789, nom. cons. Validated by a description in German. First correct orthography: Lotsy, Vortr. Bot. Stammesgesch. 3: 732. 1911.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--AGAP

Agathidaceae: The Nakai ex Koidzumi (in Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 11:227.1942), Nakai ex Airy Shaw (in Willis, Dict. Fl. Pl. Ferns, ed. 7: 30. 1966 & ed. 8: 31. 1973), C. R. Gunn & al. (U.S.D.A. Tech. Bull. 1796: 7. 1992) and Wielgorskaya (Dict. Gen. Names Seed Pl.: 4. 1995) name is cited in synonymy. The Baumann-Bodenheim (Syst. Fl. Neu-Caled. 4:15.9 Jan 1989 & 14: 92. 11 Feb 1990) andA. V. Bobrov (Proc. Conif. Introd. Russia: 6. 1999) name is a nom. nud.--Agathis Salib., 1807, nom. cons.--[PINOPHYTA].

Agavaceae Dumort., Anal. Fam. Pl.: 57, 58. 1829 ("Agavineae"), nom. cons.--Type: Agave L., 1753.--Validated by a diagnosis in French.--The earlier Salisbury (Trans. Hort. Soc. London 1: 42. 1807 & 1: 336. 1812, as "Agaveae") name is a nom. nud. The family name occasionally attributed to an unranked Endlicher (Ench. Bot.: 105. 15-21 Aug 1841) name with a description in Latin, but traditionally to J. Agardh (Theoria Syst. Pl.: 8. Apr-Sep 1858, as "Agaveae") who provided a description in Latin.--First correct orthography: Heldreich, Nutzpfl. Griechenl.: 9.1862. Other incorrect orthography: Agaveaccae Raulin in Acres Soc. Linn. Bordeaux 24: 561. 1869. [MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--AGAV

Agdestidaceae Nakai in J. Jap. Bot. 18:104. Mar 1942, basionym: trib. Agdestideae Baill., Hist. Pl. 4: 46, 52.1872.--Type: Agdestis Mot. & Sesse ex DC., 1817. Basionym validated by a diagnosis in French; family name validated by a description in Latin and reference to a later Heimerl (in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. III, 1b: 6, 13. Apr 1889) tribal name with a description in German that is corrected (Art. 33.4) to the above basionym.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--AGDE

Aggregatae: The Giseke (Prael. Ord. Nat. Pl.: 528. 1792) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with a description in Latin. The Linnaeus (Philos. Bot.: 28. 1755) and Oeder (Elem. Bot.: 155.1766) name is a nom. nud., and the former is proposed at the rank of Fragmenta. The Gerard (Fl. Gallo-Prov.: xxv, 295. 1761), Linnaeus (Gen. Pl., ed. 6: [615]. 1764), and Reichard (Linn. Gen. Pl., ed. 7: unpaged. 1778) name is a nom. nud. Other orthography: Agregatae Batsch, Syn. Univ. Anal. Gen. Pl.: 291. 1794.

Agialidaceae: The Tieghem (Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., ser. 9, 4: 223. 1906, as "Agialidacees" (gallice)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with a description in French. The Wettstein (Handb. Syst. Bot., ed. 2: 620. 1911 & ed. 3: 721. 1924), Airy Shaw (in Willis, Dict. Fl. Pl. Ferns, ed. 7: 32. 1966 & ed. 8: 33. 1973), Hutchinson (Evol. Phylog. Fl. Pl.: 269. 1969 & Fam. Fl. Pl., ed. 3: 327. 1973), R. D. Gibbs, Chemotax. Fl. Pl.: 887. 1974) and C. R. Gunn & al. (U.S.D.A. Tech. Bull. 1796: 7. 1992) name is cited in synonymyy. The Cufodontis ([Enum. Pl. Aethiop. Spermatoph. (5:)] in Bull. Jard. Bot. Etat. 26: Suppl. 365.1956) name is a nom. nud. The Bullock (Taxon 7: 5. 1958) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 34.1(a)) published with a reference to Tieghem (1906).--Agialid Alpino ex Adans., 1763, nom. rej. [[equivalent to] Balanites Delile, 1813, nom. cons.].--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Agrimoniaceae Gray, Nat. Arr. Brit. Pl. 2: 395, 574.1 Nov 1821.--Type: Agrimonia L., 1753.--Validated by an English diagnosis in a key and a description. Incorrect orthography: Agrimonidia and Agrimonidiae Dumort., Comment. Bot.: 59. 1822; Agrimoniae Schubl. & Ringier in Flora 8(Biel.): 87. 1825. [MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--AGRI

Agrostidaceae Burnett, Outl. Bot.: 371. Jun 1835.--Type: Agrostis L., 1753.--Validated by a diagnosis in English.--Isonym: Lem., Ill. Hort. 2(Mise.): 14. Feb 1855, a new name for Gramineae Juss. (Gen. Pl.: 28.4 Aug 1789). The earlier R. A. Salisbury (Prodr. Stirp. Chap. Allerton: 15, 16. 1796, as "Agrostideae"), Rafinesque (Anal. Nat.: 203. 1815, as "Agrostaria") and Ficinus (Fl. Dresden, ed. 2:97.1821, as "Agrostideae") names are nom. nud.--Other incorrect orthography: Agrostidineae Drude in Schenk, Handb. Bot. 3(2): 338. 1886.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--AGRO

Agrumae: The Candolle & Sprengel (transl. W. Jameson, Elem. Philos. Pl.: 141. 1821) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with a reference to an effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published Sprengel (Anleit. Kenntn. Gew., ed. 2, 2(2): 789. 1818, as "Agrumen" (germanice)) family name with a description in German. The Candolle & Sprengel (Grundz. Wiss. Pflanzenk.: 180. 1820, as "Agrumen" (germanice)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with a description in German.

Ahornae: The Candolle & Sprengel (transl. W. Jameson, Elem. Philos. Pl.: 141.1821) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with a reference to an effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published Sprengel (Anleit. Kenntn. Gew., ed. 2, 2(2): 693. 1818, as "Ahorne" (germanice)) family name with a description in German. The Candolle & Sprengel (Grundz. Wiss. Pflanzenk.: 180.1820, as "Ahorne" (germanice)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with a description in German.

Ailanthaceae J. Agardh, Theoria Syst. Pl.: 223. Apr-Sep 1858 ("Ailantheae"), basionym: subfam. Ailanthoideae Arn. in Wight & Arn., Prodr. Fl. Ind. Orient.: 150. 10 Oct 1834 ("Ailantheae").--Type: Ailanthus Desf., 1788, nom. cons.--Basionym validated by a description in English; family name validated by diagnoses in Latin, an indirect reference to a Planchon (London J. Bot. 5: 570. 1846, as trib. Ailantheae) name with a description in Latin that is corrected (Art. 33.4) to a Meisner (Pl. Vasc. Gen.: Tab. Diagn.: 65, Comm.: 47.21-27 Mai 1837) name with a diagnosis in Latin, and by a reference to the above basionym. The earlier Bromhead (Edinburgh New Philos. J. 20: 253. 1836, as "Ailantheae") name is a nom. nud. and the family rank is uncertain.--First correct orthography: Bullock in Taxon 7: 5. 1958. --[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--ATLA

Aitoniaceae (Harv.) R. A. Dyer, Gen. S. Afr. Fl. Pl. 1: 298. 1975, nom. illeg., basionym: trib Aitonieae Harv., Gen. S. Afr. Pl.: 46, 47. Aug-Dec 1838, nom. illeg. (Art. 18.3).--Type: Aitonia Thunb., 1780, nom. illeg. (Art. 53.3: non Aytonia J. R. Forst. & G. Forst., 1775).--Basionym validated by a description in English; family name validated by a full and direct reference to the basionym. The earlier Planchon (Hort. Donat.: 4.1858, as "Aitonieae") name is a nom. nud. The Airy Shaw (in Willis, Dict. Fl. Pl. Ferns, ed. 7: xxi, 35. 1966 & ed. 8: 36. 1973) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Arts. 33.3, 36.1) published, and is associated with a description in English. The Hutchinson (Evol. Phylog. Fl. Pl.: 402. 1969 & Fam. Fl. Pl., ed. 3: 442. 1973) name is cited in synonymy.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Aizoaceae Martynov, Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 15. 31 Jul-5 Aug 1820 ("Aizoonides"), nom. cons.--Type: Aizoon L., 1753.--Validated by a reference to an effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published Augier (Essai Nouv. Classif. Veg.: 129, 137. 1801, as "Aizoonides" (gallice)) family name with descriptions in French.--Isonym: F. Rudolphi, Syst. Orb. Veg.: 53. 1830 ("Aizoideae"), validated by a description in Latin. The Gerardin & Desvaux (Dict. Rais. Bot.: 741. 1817, as "Aizoonides" (gallice)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with a diagnosis in French and a reference to Augier (1801). The Sprengel (Anleit. Kenntu. Gew., ed. 2, 2(2): 842. 1818, as "Aisoideen" (germanice)) and Candolle & Sprengel (Grundz. Wiss. Pflanzenk.: 180. 1820, as "Aizoiden" (germanice)) names are effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and are associated with descriptions in German.--First correct orthography: Braun in Asch., Fl. Brandenburg 1: 60. 1860. Other incorrect orthography: Aizoidea A. B. Rchb., Naturgesch. Pflanzenr. Gymnas.: 378. 1845; Aizooneae Edgew. in J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 6: 189. 1862; Aizoidaceae Thonner, Anleit. Bestimm. Fam. Phan.: 268. 1891.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU-AIZO

Ajugaceae: The H. W. Thienemann (Flora 44: 727. 1861, as "Ajugeae") name is a nom. nud.---Ajuga L., 1753.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Akaniaceae Stapf in Bull. Misc. Inform. 1912: 380. 13 Dec 1912, nom. cons.--Type: Akania Hook. f., 1862.--Validated by a description in Latin.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--AKAN

Akerides--see Aceraceae.

Alangiaceae DC. in Schltdl., Linnaea 2: 505. 1827 ("Alangieae"), nom. cons.--Type: Alangium Lam., 1783, nom. cons.--Validated by reference to an effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published Candolle (in Bory, Dict. Class. Hist. Nat. 11: 402.1827, as "Alangiees" (gallice)) name with a diagnosis in French. NOTE: To maintain current nomenclature, it will be necessary to conserve the use of Cornaceae Dumort. (1829) over Alangiaceae (1827).--Isonym: DC., Prodr. 3: 203. Mar 1828 ("Alangieae"), validated by a description in Latin.--First correct orthography: Lindley, Key Bot.: 48. 15-30 Sep 1835 or Trinius, Gen. Pl.: 1. 1835. Other incorrect orthography: Alangineae Kostel., Allg. Med.-Pharm. Fl.4: 1541. 1835.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--ALAN*

Albucae: The Trattinnick (Gen. Pl.: 37. 1802, as "Albuccae") name is a nom. nud. and its rank uncertain ("familias sucundarias").--Albuca L., 1753. [MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Alchemillaceae Martynov, Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 17. 31 Jul-5 Aug 1820 ("Alchemilleae").--Type: Alchemilla L., 1753.--Validated by a reference to an effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published Augier (Essai Nouv. Classif. Veg.: 72, 81.1801, as "Alchemillees" (gallice)) family name with descriptions in French. The Gerardin & Desvaux (Dict. Rais. Bot.: 742. 1817, as "Alchemillees" (gallice)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with a diagnosis in French and a reference to Augier (1801).--First correct orthography: Bullock in Taxon 7:5.1958.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].-ALCH

Aldrovandaceae Nakai in J. Jap. Bot. 24: 10. Dec 1949.--Type: Aldrovanda L., 1753.--Validated by a description in Latin.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--ALDR

Aletridaceae: The M. Cheng (Chung Kuo Chun Tze Chih Wu Fen Lei Hsueh [Taxon. Spermatoph. China] 1[Appendix]: 12. 1954, as "Aletroidaceae") name is a nom. nud.--Aletris L., 1753.-- [MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Alismataceae Vent., Tabl. Regne Veg. 2:157. 5 Mai 1799 ("Alismoideae"), nom. cons.--Type: Alisma L., 1753.--Validated by a description in French.--First correct orthography: Ascherson & Graebner, Syn. Mitteleur. Fl. 1: 379. 1897. Other incorrect orthography: Alismaceae DC. in Lam. & DC., Fl. Franc., ed. 3, 3: 181. 1805; Alismeae Fisch., Cat. Jard. Gorenki: 11. 1808; Alismaria Raf., Anal. Nat.: 201. 1815; Alimaceae Grrardin & Desv., Dict. Rais. Bot.: 9. 1817; Alisminae Link, Enum. Hort. Berol. Alt. 1: 347. 1821; Alismacia Dumort., Comment. Bot.: 65. 1822; Alismacea Kachl., Encycl. Pfl.-Woterb.: 17. 1829; Alismaceous Raf., Med. Fl. 2: 106. 1830; Alismateae K. Koch, Nat. Syst. Pflanzenr.: 175. 1839; Alisnaceae Darby, Man. Bot.: 234. 1841; Alysmaceae Bek., Geograf. Rast.: 106. 1896.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--ALIS

Alliaceae Batsch ex Borkh., Bot. Woterb. 1: 15. 1797, nom. cons.--Type: Allium L., 1753.--Validated by a description in Latin.--Original place of publication: Batsch, Dispos. Gen. Pl. Jenens.: 50. 1786, validated by a description in Latin.--Isonym: Naumb., Lehrb. Reinen. Bot.: 342. 1798, validated by a description in Latin. Family name traditionally attributed to J. G. Agardh (Thoeria Syst. Pl.: 32. 1858) who provided a description in Latin. [MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--ALLI*

Allioniaceae Horan., Prim. Lin. Syst. Nat.: 68. 2 Nov 1834 ("Allioniaceae (Nyctagineae)").--Type: Allionia Loefl. ex L., 1759, nom. cons.--Validated by a description in Latin and proposed as an alternative name (Art. 34.2).--Incorrect orthography: Allionaceae Eastw. in Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., ser. 4, 18: 404, 428, 449. 1929.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--ALLN

Allophylaceae Martynov, Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 19. 31 Jul-5 Aug 1820 ("Allophylleae").--Type: Allophylus L., 1753.--Validated by a reference to an effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published Augier (Essai Nouv. Classif. Veg.: 113, 126. 1801, as "Allophyllacees" (gallice)) family name with descriptions in French. The Grrardin & Desvaux (Dict. Rais. Bot.: 742. 1817, as "Allophyllacees" (gallice)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with a diagnosis in French and a reference to Augier (1801).--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--ALLO

Aloaceae Batsch, Tab. Affin. Regni Veg.: 138. 2 Mai 1802 ("Alooideae").--Type: Aloe L., 1753.--Validated by a description in Latin. The earlier Batsch (Syn. Univ. Anal. Gen. Pl.: 384. 1794 & Dispos. Gen. Pl. Europ.: 118.1794, as "Alooideae") name is a nom. nud.--First correct orthography: Seringe, Fl. Pharm.: 619. 1851. Other incorrect orthography: Aloideae Bertuch, Taf. Allg. Naturgeschich. Gewachs-Reich, ed. 2: v. 1806; Aloidea Raf., Anal. Nat.: 200. 1815; Aloides Raf., Med. Fl. 1:38. 1828; Aloineae Schultz Sch., Nat. Syst. Pflanzenr.: 310. 1832; Aloinae Beilschm. in Flora (Bieb.) 16(2): 56, 104. 1833; Aloeae Salisb., Gen. Pl.: 75. 1866; Aloinaceae Lotsy, Vortr. Bot. Stammesgesch. 3: 725.1911; Aloeaceae Nakai in J. Jap. Bot. 12: 145. 1936.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--ALO+

Alopecuraceae Martynov, Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 19. 31 Jul-5 Aug 1820 ("Alopecurinae").--Type: Alopecurus L., 1753.--Validated by a reference to an effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published Augier (Essai Nouv. Classif. Veg.: 37, 40. 1801, as "Alopecurines" (gallice)) family name with descriptions in French. The Gerardin & Desvaux (Dict. Rais. Bot.: 742. 1817, as "Alopecurines" (gallice)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with a reference to Augier (1801).--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--ALOP

Alpiniaceae R. Br. ex F. Rudolphi, Syst. Orb. Veg.: 32. 1830 ("Alpinieae").--Type: Alpinia Roxb., 1810, nom. cons.--Validated by a description in Latin.--First correct orthography: Trinius, Gen. Pl.: 1. 1835. --[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--ALPI

Alseuosmiaceae Airy Shaw in Kew Bull. 18: 249.8 Dec 1964.--Type: Alseuosmia A. Cunn., 1838.--Validated by a description in Latin.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--ALSE*

Alsinaceae Bartl. in Bartl. & Wendl., Beitr. Bot. 2: 159. Dec 1825 ("Alsineae"), nom. cons., basionym: trib. Alsineae Lam. & DC., Syn. Fl. Gall.: 392. 30 Jun 1806.--Type: Alsine L., 1753.--Basionym validated by a diagnosis in Latin; family name validated by a description in Latin and a reference to a later Candolle (Prodr. 1:388. Jan 1824) name which has been corrected (Art. 33.4) to the above basionym.--Original place of publication: Adanson, Fam. Pl. 2: 250. 1763 ("Alsines"), validated by a description in French.--First correct orthography: E. Meyer, Geogr. Preuss. Pfl.: 4. 1834. Other incorrect orthography: Alsinides Raf., Fl. Tellur. 2: 93. 1837; Alsinidia Raf., Fl. Tellur. 3: 32, 34. 1837; Alsineaceae Bubani, Fl. Pyren. 3: 22. 1901.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--ALSI

Alsinastraceae Rupr., Fl. Ingr.: 1: 194. Mai 1860 ("Alsinastreae"), nom. illeg. (Art. 18.3).--Type: Alsinastrum Quer, 1762, nom. illeg. (Art. 52.1 : [equivalent to] Elatine L., 1753).--Validated by reference to an effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published Cambessedes (Mem. Mus. Hist. Nat. 18: 225.1 829, as "Elatinees" (gallice)) name with a description in French.--First correct orthography: Post & Kuntze, Lex. Gen. Phan.: 710. 1903.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Alsodeiaceae J. Agardh, Theoria Syst. Pl.: 197. Apr-Sep 1858 ("Alsodineae").--Type: Alsodeia Thouars, 1805.--Validated by diagnoses in Latin. The earlier Bromhead (Edinburgh New Philos. J. 20: 253. 1836, as "Alsodineae") name is a nom. nud. and its family rank is uncertain.--First correct orthography: Bullock in Taxon 7: 5. 1958.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--ALSO

Alsophilaceae C. Presl, Gefassbundel Farnn: 22 (footnote), 32. 1847.--Type: Alsophila R. Br., 1810.--Validated by a description in Latin.--[PTERIDOPHYTA].--ALSP

Alstoniae: The Trattinnick (Gen. Pl.: 52. 1802) name is a nom. nud. and its rank uncertain ("familias Sucundarias:).--Alstonia Mutis ex L.f., 1782, nom. illeg. (Art. 53.1 : [equivalent to] Praealstonia Miers, 1879; non Scop., 1777, nom. illeg. et nom. rej. [equivalent to] Pacouria Aubl., 1775).--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Alstroemeriaceae Dumort., Anal. Fam. Pl.: 57, 58. 1829, nom. cons.--Type: Alstroemeria L., 1762.--Validated by a diagnosis in French. The earlier Salisbury (Trans. Hort. Soc. London 1: 332. 1812, as "Alstroemereae") name is a nom. nud.--Other incorrect orthography: Alstroemerieae J. Agardh, Theoria Syst. Pl.: 5. 1858; Alstromeriaceae Pfeiff., Nomencl. Bot. 1: 124. 1873; Alstroemeraceae Post & Kuntze, Lex. Gen. Phan.: 710. 1903.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--ALST

Altheniaceae: The Lotsy (Vortr. Bot. Stammesgesch. 3: 684. 1911) name is a nom. nud. The Wielgorskaya (Dict. Gen. Names Seed Pl.: 6. 1995) name is cited in synonymy.--Althenia F. Petit, 1829.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Altingiaceae Horan., Tetractys: 25. 1843 ("Altingiaceae (s. Balsamifluae)"), nom. cons.--Type: Altingia Noronha, 1790.--Validated by a reference to an effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published Blume & J. Fischer (Fl. Javae 17-18:3. 1829, as Balsamifluae) family name with a description in Latin and proposed as an alternative name (Art. 34.2).--Isonym: Lindl., Veg. Kingd.: 253. 14-28 Mar 1846, validated by a description in English. The earlier Hayne (Flora 13: 172. 1830) name is a nom. nud.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU-ALTI*

Alypinae: The Hoffmannsegg & Link (Fl. Portug. 1: 62. 1809 & 450. 1813-1820) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Arts. 18.1, 32.1(b)) published, and is associated with a diagnosis in Latin.--Other orthography: Alypaceae Airy Shaw in Willis, Dict. Fl. Pl. Ferns, ed. 7: 46. 1966; Alyphaceae Hutchinson, Evol. Phylog. Fl. Pl.: 659, 1969.

Alysmaceae--see Alismataceae.

Alyssaceae: The Rafinesque (Anal. Nat.: 181. 1815 & Fl. Tellur. 1: 28. 1837, as "Alyssinia") name is a nom. nud.--Alyssum L., 1753.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Alzateaceae S. A. Graham in Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 71: 775. 19 Apr 1985.--Type: Alzatea Ruiz & Pav., 1794.--Validated by a description in Latin. The earlier R. Dahlgren (Nordic J. Bot. 3: 144. 1983) and Thorne (Nordic J. Bot. 3: 107. 1983) name is a nom. nud.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--ALZA

Amamelidaceae--see Hamamelidaceae.

Amantaceae--see Amentaceae.

Amaraceae: The Dulac (Fl. Hautes-Pyrenees: 447, 533. 1867) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with a description in French.

Amaranthaceae Juss., Gen. Pl.: 87. 4 Aug 1789 ("Amaranthi"), nom. cons.--Type: Amaranthus L., 1753.--Validated by a description in Latin.--Original place of publication: Adanson, Fam. Pl. 2: 266. 1763 ("Amaranthi"), validated by a description in French.--First correct orthography: Candolle, Essai Propr. Med. Pl.: 74. 1804. Other incorrect orthography: Amaranthoideae Vent., Tabl. Regne Veg. 2: 264. 1799; Amaranthinae Batsch, Tab. Affin. Regni Veg.: 174. 1802; Amaranthoidei Pers., Syn. Pl. 1: 257. 1805; Amaranthus Mirb., Hist. Nat. Pl. 11: 243. 1805; Amaranthoides Roussel, Fl. Calvados, ed. 2:173. 1806; Amaranteae Fisch., Cat. Jard. Gorenki: 27. 1808; Amaranthia Raf., Anal. Nat.: 179. 1815; Amarantheae Marquis, Esq. Regne Veg.: 73. 1820; Amaranthideae Gray, Nat. Arr. Brit. Pl. 2: 289. 1821; Amaranthacia Dumort., Comment. Bot.: 55.1822; Amaranti Mertens & W. D. J. Koch, Rohlings Deutschl. Fl.: 1: 23. 1823; Amarantaceae Mart., Beitr. Amarantac.: 7. 1825; Amarantineae Kostel., Allg. Med.-Pharm. Fl. 4: 1440. 1835; Amaranthidia Raf., Fl. Tellur. 3: 35. 1837; Amaranthides Raf., Fl. Tellur. 3: 39. 1837; Amaranlaceae Strong, Amer. Fl.4: 90. 1855.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--AMAR

Amaryllidaceae J. St.-Hil., Expos. Fam. Nat. 1:134. Feb-Apr 1805 ("Amaryllideae"), nom. cons.--Type: Amaryllis L., 1753, nom. cons.--Validated by a description in French. The earlier Trattinnick (Gen. Pl.: 38. 1802, as "Amaryllides") name is a nom. nud. and its rank uncertain ("familias sucundarias").--First correct orthography: Lindley, Nat. Syst. Bot., ed. 2: 328. 1836. Other incorrect orthography: Amaryllia Raf., Anal. Nat.: 198. 1815; Amarylloideae Vest, Anleit. Stud. Bot.: 267, 284. 1818; Amaryllidia Dumort., Comment. Bot.: 65. 1822; Amarillideae Blume, Enum, Pl. Javae 1: 24. 1827; Amaryllaceae Burnett, Outl. Bot.: 445, 446, 1151. 1835; Amaryllidineae Kostel., Allg. Med.-Pharm. Fl.: 2008. 1836; Amarylides Raf., Fl. Tellur. 4:22. 1838; Amaryllisaceae Ser., Fl. Pharm.: 631. 1851; Amarijlideae Filet, Pl. Bot. Tuin Weltevreden: 13. 1855; Ameryllidaceae Arcang., Comp. Fl. Ital.: xviii. 1882; Amaryllidae J. E. Gonzalez, Naturalleza (Mexico City) 5: 189. 1882.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--AMAL

Amborellaceae Pichon in Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. (Paris), ser. 2, 20:384. 25 Oct 1948, nom. cons.--Type: Amborella Baill., 1873.--Validated by a description in Latin.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--AMBO

Ambraceae: The Barnhart (Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 22: 14. 1895) name is cited in synonymy. He incorrectly attributed family rank to a not validly published (Art. 32.1(c)) unranked Reichenbach (Consp. Regni Meg.: 113. 1828-1829, as "Ambraceae") name.

Ambrosiaceae Martynov, Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 23. 31 Jul-5 Aug 1820 ("Ambrosinae"), nom. cons.--Type: Ambrosia L., 1753.--Validated by a reference to an Augier (Essai Nouv. Classif. Veg.: 165, 180. 1801, as "Ambrosines" (gallice)) family name with descriptions in French.--Isonym: Link, Handbuch 1: 816. 20 Apr 1829, validated by descriptions in Latin and German. The Gerardin & Desvaux (Dict. Rais. Bot.: 742. 1817, as "Ambrosines" (gallice)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with a reference to Augier (1801).--Incorrect orthography: Ambrosieae Lenz, Gemeinn. Naturgesch.: 812. 1839.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--AMBR

Amelli: The Trattinnick (Gen. Pl.: 69. 1802) name is a nom. nud. and its rank uncertain ("familias sucundarias").--Amellus L., 1759, nom. cons.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Amentaceae: The Gerard (Fl. Gallo-Frov.: xxx, 526. 1761), Linnaeus (Gen. Pl., ed. 6: unpaged [616]. 1764), Wulff (Fl. Boruss.: 253. 1765), Oeder (Elem. Bot.: 155. 1766), Reichard (Linn. Gen. Pl., ed. 7: unpaged [598, 611] 1778, as "Amemtaceae") and Link (Enum. Hort. Berol. Alt. 1: 248. 1821) names are nom. nud. The Barbeau-Dubourg (Bot. Franc. 1: 137. 1767, as "Amentacees" (gallice)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with a description in French. The Durande (Notions Elem. Bot.: 293. 1782), Batsch (Dispos. Gen. Pl. Jenens: 53. 1786 & Gesch. Pfl.: 339. 1788) and Jussieu (Gen. Pl.: 407.1789) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with a description in French, German or Latin.--Other orthography: Amentaceus Bosc in Deterv., Nouv. Dict. Hist. Nat. 1: 305. 1802; Amentacea Mirb. in Hist. Nat. Pl. 10: 256. 1805; Amentacei Gerardin & Desv., Dict. Rais. Bot.: 11. 1817; Amantaceae Link, Enum. Pl. Hort. Berol. Alt. 2: 397. 1822; Amentacia Dumort., Comment. Bot.: 53. 1822; Amentiferae H. C. Watson, Cybele Brit. 2: 375. 1849.

Amentotaxaceae Kudo & Yamam. in Kudo, J. Soc. Trop. Agric. 3:110.30 Jun 1931.--Type: Amentotaxus Pilger, 1916.--Validated by a description in Latin.--[PINOPHYTA]. NCU--AMEN

Amirolaceae: The Caffin (Expos. Meth. Regne Veg.: 77. Feb 1822, as "Amirolees" (gallice)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with a description in French.--Amirola Pers., 1807, nom. illeg. (Art. 52.1 : [equivalent to] Llagunoa Ruiz & Pav., 1794).--First correct orthography: presented here.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Ammanniaceae Horan., Prim. Lin. Syst. Nat.: 86. 2 Nov 1834 ("Ammanniaceae (Lythrariae)").--Type: Ammannia L., 1753.--Validated by a description in Latin and proposed as an alternative name (Art. 34.2).--Incorrect orthography: Ammaniaceae F. A. Barkley, Anthophyta: 12. 1966.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--AMMA

Ammiaceae J. Presl & C. Presl ex Bamhart in Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 22: 20. 15 Jan 1895.--Type: Ammi L., 1753.--Validated by references to Jussieu (Gen. Pl.: 218. 4 Aug 1789, as "Umbelliferae") and Lindley (Nat. Syst. Bot., ed. 2: 21. Jul 1836, as "Umbelliferae, or Apiaceae") family names with descriptions in Latin resp. English.--Isonym: C. Presl ex Small, Fl. S.E.U.S.: 851,856. 1903, validated by an English diagnosis in a key and a description.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--AMMI

Amomaceae [1]: The J. St.-Hil. (Expos. Fam. Nat. 1 : 154. Jan-Aug 1805, as "Amomeae") name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published.--Amomum L. 1753, nom. illeg. et nom. rej. [[equivalent to] Zingiber Boehm. in Ludw., 1760, nom. cons.].--Validated by a description in French. The earlier Jussieu (in Cuvier, Dict. Sci. Nat. 2:57. 1804, as "Amomees" (gallice)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with a description in French.--First correct orthography: Horaninow, Prim. Lin. Syst. Nat.: 50. 1834. Other incorrect orthography: Ammoneae Martynov, Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 215. 1820; Amomi Bertoloni, Prael. Rei Herb.: 261. 1827.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Amomaceae [2] A. Rich., Nouv. Elem. Bot., ed. 4: 438.1828 ("Amomeae"), nom. illeg. (Art. 53.1).--Type: Amomum Roxb., 1820, nom. cons.--Validated by a diagnosis in French. Family name traditionally attributed to Jaume Saint-Hilaire (see above) in the sense of Amomum Roxb. rather than Amomum L. --First correct orthography: Horaninow, Prim. Lin. Syst, Nat.: 50. 1834. Other incorrect orthography: Ammomaceae Grecescu, Cat. Pl. Grad. Bot. Buccuresti: 69. 1876.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--AMOM*

Amorphaceae: The Rafinesque (Anal. Nat.: 183. 1815 & Fl. Tellur. 1: 29. 1837, as "Amorphinia" and Autik. Bot. 2:82.1840, as "Amorhinides" [sic] and "Amorphinides") names are nom. nud.--Amorpha L., 1753.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Ampelideae: The Kunth (in Humb., Bonpl. & Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. 5, ed. fol.: 172, ed. qu: 222. 1822) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with a reference to a Jussieu (Gen. Pl.: 267.4 Aug 1789, as "Vitaceae") family name with a description in Latin.--Other orthography: Ampelidaceae A. Rich., Nouv. Elem. Bot., ed. 7: 798. 1846.

Ampelopsidaceae Kostel., Allg. Med.-Pharm. Fl.: 1194. Jan-Oct 1835 ("Ampelopsideae").--Type: Ampelopsis A. Michx., 1803.--Validated by a description in German.--First correct orthography: Reveal in Phytologia 74: 222. 1993. Other incorrect orthography: Ampelopsidineae Kostel., Allg. Med.-Pharm. Fl.: 2012. 1836.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--AMPE

Amygdalaceae Marquis, Esq. Regne Veg.: 49.15-22 Jul 1820 ("Amygdaleae"), nom. cons.--Type: Amygdalus L., 1753.--Validated by a description in French.--Isonym: (Juss.) D. Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal.: 239. 26 Jan-1 Feb 1825 ("Amygdalinae"), basionym: [unranked] Amygdaleae Juss., Gen. Pl.: 340. 4 Aug 1789, basionym validated by a description in Latin; family name validated by the indirect reference to the basionym. The earlier J. Ponce de Leon (Sist. Fl.-Sex. Bot.: 187.1814, as "Amigdalinas" (hispanice)) and Sprengel (Anleit. Kenntn. Gew., ed. 2: 2(2): 867. 1818, as "Amydgaleen" (germanice)) names are effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and are associated with descriptions in Spanish resp. German.--First correct orthography: Reichenbach, Consp. Regni Veg.: 139, 177. 1828-1829. Other incorrect orthography: Amygdalaeae Rchb. in Mossler, Handb. Gewachsk., ed. 2: xliii, liv. 1827; Amygdalineae Dumort., Anal. Fam. Pl.: 36, 40. 1829; Amygdalae Comstock, Intr. Bot., ed. 2: 235. 1833; Amydalaceae Strong, Amer. Fl. 3: 109.1849; Amijgdaleae Filet, Pl. Bot. Tuin Weltevreden: 165. 1855.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--AMYG

Amyridaceae Kunth in Ann. Sci. Nat. (Paris) 2: 353. Jul 1824 ("Amyrideae").--Type: Amyris P. Brown, 1756.--Validated by a description in Latin. The earlier Rafinesque (Anal. Nat.: 179. 1815, as "Amyridia") and R. Brown (in Tuckey, Narr. Exped. Zaire: 431. 1818, as "Amyrideae") names are nom. nud.--First correct orthography: Burnett, Outl. Bot.: 874, 1093, 1124. 1835. Other incorrect orthography: Amyridineae Kostel., Allg. Med.-Pharm. Fl.: 2012. 1836; Amyrides Raf., Sylva Tellur.: 12. 1838. --[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--AMYR

Anacardiaceae R. Br. in Tuckey, Narr. Exped. Zaire: 431. 1818 ("Cassuviae (or Anacardeae)"), nom. cons.--Type: Anacardium L., 1753.--Validated by a diagnosis in English and a reference to a Jussieu (Gen. Pl.: 368. 1789, as "Terebinthaceae") family name with a diagnosis in Latin). Under Art. 34.2 both family names are validly published, but only Anacardiaceae is legitimate, Cassuviaceae being illegitimate (Art. 18.3).--Isonym: Lindl., Intr. Nat. Syst. Bot.: 127. Sep 1830, validated by a description in English.--Incorrect orthography: Anacardiae Beilschm. in Flora (Bieb.) 16(2): 101. 1833; Anacardiineae Kostel., Allg. Med.-Pharm. Fl.: 1229. 1835; Anacardieae Bromhead in Edinburgh New Philos. J. 20:253. 1836 (family rank uncertain) or Perleb, Clav. Class.: 31.1838; Anacardicae Sonder in Linnaea 23: 25. 1850; Anacardiaeae Thays, Jard. Bot. Munic. Buenos Aires: 48. 1928.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--ANAC*

Anagallidaceae Batsch ex Borkh., Bot. Worterb. 1: 19.1797 ("Anagallides").--Type: Anagallis L., 1753.--Validated by a description in Latin.--Original place of publication: Adanson, Fam. Pl.: 2: 227. Jul-Aug 1763 ("Anagallides"), validated by a description in French.--First correct orthography: Post & Kuntze, Lex. Gen. Phan.: 681. 1903. Other incorrect orthography: Anagallideae Batsch, Tab. Affin. Regni Veg.: 208. 1802; Anagalleidae Baudo in Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., ser. 2, 20: 344. 1843.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--ANAG

Ananassaceae: The Jussieu ex Lamarck (Encycl. Meth. Bot. 1: xxxviii. 1783, as "Les Ananas" (gallice)) and Rafinesque (Anal. Nat.: 198. 1815 & Fl. Tellur. 1: 32. 1837, as "Ananidia") names are nom. nud. The Post & Kuntze (Lex. Gen. Phan.: 710. 1903) name is cited in synonymy.--Ananas Mill., 1754. --[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Anandriae: The Trattinnick (Gen. Pl.: 70. 1802) name is a nom. nud. and its rank uncertain ("familias sucundarias"). The name was not based on the later illegitimate genus Anandria Less. (1830 [equivalent to] Leibnitzia Cass., 1822.

Anarthriaceae D. F. Cutler & Airy Shaw in Kew Bull. 19:489. 26 Jul 1965.--Type: Anarthria R. Br., 1810.--Validated by a description in Latin.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--ANAR

Anchusaceae Vest, Anleit. Stud. Bot.: 274, 302. 1818 ("Anchusoideae").--Type: Anchusa L., 1753.--Validated by a description in German.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--ANCH

Ancistrocladaceae Planch. ex Walp. in Ann. Bot. Syst. 2:175. 15-16 Dec 1851 ("Ancistrocladeae"), nom. cons.--Type: Ancistrocladus Wall., 1829, nom. cons.--Validated by a description in Latin and a reference to an effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published Planchon (Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., ser. 3, 13: 316. 1850, as "Ancistrocladus" (gallice)) family name with a description in French. The earlier Grisebach (Arch. Natur., ser. 2, 2: 362. Ante 15 Dec 1851, as "Ancistrokladeen" (germanice)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with a reference to Planchon (1850).--First correct orthography: Caruel, Nouvo Giorn. Bot. Ital. 21: 135. 1889. Other incorrect orthography: Ancistrodocladaceae Ovando, Classif. Alfab. Fam. Div. Angiosp.: 9. 1979.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--ANCI

Andiraceae: The Rafinesque (Anal. Nat.: 183. 1815 & Fl. Tellur. 1: 29. 1837, as "Andirania") name is a nom. nud.--Andira Piso ex Juss., 1789, nom. cons.--First correct orthography: presented here.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Andrederaceae--see Anrederaceae.

Andromedaceae DC. ex Schnizl., Iconogr. Fam. Regni Veg. 2: [iv] ("Andromedeae"), ad t. 161c ("Andromedaceae"). 1843-1870, basionym: subtrib. Andromedinae G. Don, New Philos. J. Edinburgh 17: 157. Jul 1834 ("Andromedae").--Type: Andromeda L., 1753.--Basionym validated by diagnoses in English; family name validated by descriptions in Latin and German and a reference to a later Endlicher (Gen. Pl.: 754. Mar 1839, as trib. Andromedeae ("Andromedae")) name with a diagnosis in Latin which itself requires correction (Art. 33.4) to a Klotzsch (Pfl.-Abbild. Beschr.: 16. 1838) name with a diagnosis in German and a reference to Don (1834). The earlier Martynov (Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 200. 1820) and Bromhead (Edinburgh New. Philos. J. 25:134. 1838) name (as "Andromedeae") is a nom. nud. and the family rank is uncertain in the latter instance.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--ANDM

Andromia: The Rafinesque (Anal. Nat.: 191. 1815 & Fl. Tellur. 1: 30. 1837) name is a nom. nud.

Andropogonaceae Martynov, Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 28. 31 Jul-5 Aug 1820 ("Andropogones").--Type: Andropogon L., 1753, nom. cons.--Validated by a reference to an effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published Augier (Essai Nouv. Classif. Veg.: 37, 40. 1801, as "Andropogones" (gallice)) family name with descriptions in French. The Gerardin & Desvaux (Dict. Rais. Bot.: 742. 1817, as "Andropogones" (gallice)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with a reference to Augier (1801).--First correct orthography: Herter in Anales Mus. Nac. Montevideo, ser. 2, 2: 307. 1927.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--ANDP

Androsaceaceae: The Barnhart (Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 22:20.1895, as "Androsaceae"), Moldenke (Prel. Class. Pl. Kingd.: 21. 1944, as "Androsaceae") and Wielgorskaya (Dict. Gen. Names Seed Pl.: 7. 1995, as "'Androsaceae") name is cited in synonymy. Barnhart incorrectly attributed family rank to a not validly published (Art. 32.1(c)) Reichenbach (Consp. Regni. Veg.: 128. 1828-1829) name.--First correct orthography: presented here.--Androsace L., 1753.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Androstachyaceae Airy Shaw in Kew Bull. 18:250.8 Dec 1965 ("Androstachydaceae").--Type: Androstachys Prain, 1908, nom. cons.--Validated by a description in Latin.--First correct orthography: Hutchinson, Fam. Fl. Pl., ed. 3:330.1973.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--ANDR

Androsynaceae Salisb., Gen. Pl.: 61. Apr-Mai 1866 ("Androsyneae").--Type: Androsyne Salisb., 1866.--Validated by a description in Latin.--First correct orthography: Bullock in Taxon 7: 5. 1958.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--ANDS

Anemarrhenaceae Conran, M. W. Chase & Rudall, Kew Bull. 52: 995. Dec 1997.--Type: Anemarrhena Bunge, 1831. Validated by a description in Latin. [MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--ANER

Anemiaceae Link, Handbuch 3: 8. ante 21 Apr 1833.--Type: Anemia Sw., 1806, nom. cons.--Validated by descriptions in Latin and German.--Isonym: (C. Presl) C. F. Reed in Bol. Soc. Broter., ser. 2, 21: 146. 1948, basionym: subfam. Anemioideae ("Aneimiaceae") C. Presl, Suppl. Tent. Pterid.: 77. late 1845, basionym validated by a description in Latin; family name validated by a description in Latin and a full and direct reference to the basionym. Other orthography: Aneimiaceae M. R. Schomb., Reis. Br.-Guiana 2: 882. 1848.--[PTERIDOPHYTA].--ANEM

Anemonaceae Vest, Anleit. Stud. Bot.: 264, 275. 1818 ("Anemonoideae").--Type: Anemone L., 1753, nom. cons.--Validated by a description in German. The earlier Trattinnick (Gen. Pl.: 55. 1802, as "Anemones") name is a nom. nud. and its rank uncertain ("familias sucundarias"). The J. Ponce de Leon (Sist. Fl.-Sex. Bot.: 216. 1814, as "Anemones" (hispanice)) is not validly published but associated with a description in Spanish. The Gerardin & Desvaux (Dict. Rais. Bot.: 621. 1817, as "Anemonees" (gallice)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with a diagnosis in French.--First correct orthography: Bullock in Taxon 7: 5. 1958. Other incorrect orthography: Anemoneae Guett. ex Bartl., Ord. Nat. Pl.: 252. Sep 1830 or F. Rudolphi, Syst. Orb. Veg.: 61. 1830.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--ANEN

Anetha: The Trattinnick (Gen. Pl.: 58. 1802) name is a nom. nud. and its rank uncertain ("familias sucundarias").--Anethum L., 1753.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Angelicaceae Martynov, Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 29. 31 Jul-5 Aug 1820 ("Angeliceae"). Type: Angelica L., 1753, nom. cons. Validated by a reference to an effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published Augier (Essai Nouv. Classif. Veg.: 200, 201. 1801, as "Angeliques" (gallice)) family name with descriptions in French. The Gerardin & Desvaux (Dict. Rais. Bot.: 743. 1817, as "Angeliques" (gallice)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with a diagnosis in French and a reference to Augier (1801). First correct orthography: Burnett, Outl. Bot.: 773, 1093, 1128. Jun 1835 or Burnett in J. Stephenson & J. M. Churchill, Med. Bot., ed. 2, 2: ad t. 83. 1835.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--ANGE

Angiopteridaceae Fee ex J. Bommer in Bull. Soc. Roy. Bot. Belgique 5: 345, 359. ante 28 Mai 1867 ("Angiopterideae").--Type: Angiopteris Hoffm., 1796, nom. cons.--Validated by a description and diagnosis in French. The earlier Fee (Mem. Soc. Mus. Hist. Nat. Strasbourg 4: 175. 1850, as "Angiopteridees" (gallice)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with a diagnosis in French in a key.--First correct orthography: Christensen in Verd., Man. Pteridol.: 527. 1938. Other incorrect orthography: Angiopteridieae Luerss., Handb. Syst. Bot. 1: 582. 1878.--[PTERIDOPHYTA]. NCU--ANGI

Anguillariaceae: The Parlatore (Fl. Ital. 3: 166. 1858, as "Angullarieae") name is cited in synonymy.--Type: Anguillaria R. Br., 1810, nom. cons. First correct orthography: presented here.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Anisophylleaceae Ridl., Fl. Malay Penins. 1 : 700. 13-22 Jul 1922 ("Anisophylleae").--Type: Anisophyllea R. Br. ex Sabine, 1824. Validated by a description in English. The earlier Pierre (Bull. Mensuel Soc. Linn. Paris 1 : 1251.1896, as "Anisophyllees" (gallice)) name is a nom. nud.--First correct orthography: Burkill, Dict. Econ. Prod. Malay Penins.: 161. 1935. Other incorrect orthography: Anisophyllaceae Hutch., Evol. Phylog. Fl. Pl.: 332. 1969. [MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--ANIS

Annonaceae Juss., Gen. Pl.:283. 4 Aug 1789 ("Anonae"), nom. cons.--Type: Annona L.,1753.--Validated by a description in Latin.--Original place of publication: Adanson, Fam. Pl. 2: 359. 1763 ("Anonae"), validated by a description in French.--First correct orthography: Lindley, Obs. Struct. Fruits: 5. 1819. Other incorrect orthography: Annonae Lain. & Mirb., Hist. Nat. Veg. 12: 226. 1802; Anoneae J. St.-Hil., Expos. Fam. Nat. 2: 79. 1805; Annoneae Fisch., Cat. Jard. Gorenki: 92. 1808; Anonaceae Dunal, Monogr. Anonac.: 53. Aug-Nov 1817 or DC., Syst. Nat. 1:126, 463. 1-15 Nov 1817; Anonacia Dumort., Comment. Bot.: 63. 1822; Annonides Raf., Sylva Tellur.: 7. 1838; Anonacea Schldt. in Linnaea 14: 301. 1840; Ananaceae Rosenthal, Syn. Pl. Diaphor.: 1140. 1862.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--ANNO

Annulaceae: The Dulac (Fl. Hautes-Pyrenees: 301, 555. 1867) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with a description in French. The name was not based on the later fossil genus name Annulum Fombella (1978).

Annulata: The Hoffmann (Deutschl. Fl. 2: (2), 4.1796) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with a description in Latin.

Anomochloaceae Nakai, Chosakuronbun Mokuroku [Ord. Fam. Trib. Nov.]: 222. 20 Jul 1943. Type: Anomochloa Brongn., 1851.--Validated by a description in Latin in a key.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--ANOM

Anonaceae--see Annonaceae.

Anopteraceae Doweld, Tent. Syst. Pl. Vasc.: 1i. 23 Dec 2001.--Type: Anopterus Labill., 1805. Validated by a description in Latin.--[PTERIDOPHYTA]. NCU--ANOP

Anrederaceae J. Agardh, Theoria Syst. Pl.: 357. Apr-Sep 1858 ("Anredereae"). Type: Anredera Juss., 1789.--Validated by a diagnosis in Latin.--First correct orthography: Bullock in Taxon 7: 6. 1958. Other incorrect orthography: Andrederaceae Wielgorskaya (Dict. Gen. Names Seed Pl.: 7. 1995).--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--ANRE

Anthemidaceae Martynov, Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 33. 31 Jul-5 Aug 1820 ("Anthemides").--Type: Anthemis L., 1753.--Validated by a reference to an effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published Augier (Essai Nouv. Classif. Veg.: 165, 177.1801, as "Anthemis" (gallice)) family name with descriptions in French.--Isonym: A. Heller, Muhlenbergia 2: 334. 30 Dec 1907, validated by a description in English. The Gerardin & Desvaux (Dict. Rais. Bot.: 743. 1817, as "Anthemis" (gallice)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with a diagnosis in French and a reference to Augier (1801). The Rafinesque (Anal. Hist.: 192. 1815, as "Anthemidia") name is a nom. nud.--First correct orthography: Post & Kuntze, Lex. Gen. Phan.: 710. 1903. Other incorrect orthography: Anthemideae Link, Handbuch 1: 752. 1829.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. ANTM

Antheraceae: The Barnhart (Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 22: 5. 1895) name is listed as unacceptable and mostly likely he incorrectly attributed family rank to a not validly published (Art. 32.1 (c)) Hill (Hort. Kew.: ad Tabula Systematis. 1768, as Class Antheraceae) name. Hill (p. 413) subsequently altered the name to Class Dioiceae and provided a diagnosis in Latin.

Antherapermaceae: see Atherospermataceae.

Anthericaceae J. Agardh, Theoria Syst. Pl.: 27. Apr-Sep 1858 ("Anthericeae").--Type: Anthericum L., 1753.--Validated by a diagnosis in Latin.--First correct orthography: Welwitsch in J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 3: 156. 1859.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--ANTH

Anthistiriaceae: The Barnhart (Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 22: 7. 15 Jan 1895) and Moldenke (Prel. Class. Pl. Kingd: 24. 1944) name is cited in synonymy.--Anthistiria Naezen, 1780. Barnhart incorrectly attributed family rank to a J. Presl (in C. Presl, Reliq. Haenk. 1: 347. 1830, as subtrib. Anthistiriinae ("Asthistiriaceae") name with a diagnosis in Latin. [MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Anthobolaceae Dumort., Anal. Fam. Pl.: 15, 17. 1829 ("Anthoboleae").--Type: Anthobolus R. Br., 1810.--Validated by a diagnosis in French and a reference a R. Brown (Prodr.: 356. 27 Mar 1810, as "Santalaceae") family name with a description in Latin. First correct orthography: Post & Kuntze, Lex. Gen. Phan.: 710. 1903.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--ANTB

Anthodianthae: The J. F. Kruger (Handb. Naturgesch. 2:296. 1835) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with a description in German.

Anthostomia: The Rafinesque (Anal. Nat.: 187. 1815) name is a nom. nud. and his later (Fl. Tellur. 4: 58, 67. 1838) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with a diagnosis in English.

Anthoxanthaceae: The Reveal (Ind. Nom. Supragen. Pl. Vasc.: unnumbered online page. 1997-onward, as "(Link) Pfeiff., Nomenel. Bot. 1(1): 217. ante 10 Mai 1872") name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (29.1) published; he incorrectly attributed family rank to an effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 33.7) published Link (Hort. Berol. 1: 271. 1827, as subfam. Anthoxanthoideae ("Anthoxantheae")) name with a diagnosis in Latin. The Kiger and Reveal (Huntia 11: 57, 71. 2000) name is a nom. nud.--Anthoxanthum L., 1753.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Anthyllidaceae: The Rafinesque (Anal. Nat.: 183. 1815, as "Anthyllidia" & Fl. Tellur. 1: 29. 1837, as "Anthylidia") names are nom. nud.--Anthyllis L., 1753.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Antichoraceae: The J. Ponce de Leon (Sist. Fl.-Sex. Bot.: 120. 1814, as "Anticoros" (hispanice)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with a description in Spanish.--Antichorus L., 1767.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Antidesmataceae Loud., Hort. Brit.: 534. Jun-Dec 1830 ("Antidesmeae").--Type: Antidesma L., 1753.--Validated by a diagnosis in English. The earlier Sweet (Hort. Brit.: 361. 1826, as "Astidesmeae"), Fuhlrott (Juss. & DC. Pfl.-Syst.: 192.1828, as "Antidesmeae") and Nees & Ebermaier (Handb. Med.-Pharm. Bot. 1: 182. Apr 1830, as "Astidesmeae") names are nom. nud.--First correct orthography: Hurusawa in J. Fac. Sci. Univ. Tokyo, sect. 3, Bot., 6: 224, 320. 1954. Other incorrect orthography: Antidesmaceae Kostel., Allg. Med.-Pharm. Fl.: 428.1833. [MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--ANTD

Antirrhinaceae Pets., Syn. Pl. 2:154, 640. Sep 1807 ("Antihirrhineae" resp. "Antirrhineae").--Type: Antirrhinum L., 1753.--Validated by a description in Latin. The earlier Trattinnick (Gen. Pl.: 63. 1802, as "Antirrhina") name is a nom. nud. and its rank uncertain ("familias sucundarias"). First correct orthography: Heyer & Rossmann, Phan.-Fl. Ober-Hessen.: 275. 1863. Other incorrect orthography: Antirhineae Ende, Comm. Meth. Bot.: 81. 1823; Antirrhinae Trin., Gen. Pl.: 2. 1835; Antirhinaceae Post & Kuntze, Lex. Gen. Phan.: 710. 1903. [MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--ANTI

Antitypaceae: The Dulac (Fl. Hautes-Pyrenees: 19, 228,555. 1867) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with a diagnosis in French in a key.

Antoniaceae Hutch., Fam. Fl. Pl., ed. 2: 375. Jan-Jul 1959.--Type: Antonia Pohl, 1829.--Validated by a description in Latin. The earlier J. Agardh (Theoria Syst. Pl.: 307. 1858, as "Antonieae") name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly published (Art. 34.1 (b)) name with a diagnosis in Latin.--Incorrect orthography: Antonieaceae Leeuwenb. in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam., ed. 2, 28b: 55. 1980.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--ANTO

Antrolepidaceae: The Welwitsch (Ann. Cons. Ultram. 1: 542, 578. 1859, as "Antrolepideas" lusitanice) name is a nom. nud.--Antrolepis Welw., nom. nud. [= Ascolepis Nees ex Steudel, 1855, nom. cons.].--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Antrophyaceae (Link) Ching in Acta Phytotax. Sin. 16(3): 11. Aug 1978, basionym: subfam. Antrophyoideae Link, Fil. Spec.: 140. 3-10 Sep 1841 ("Antrophyaceae").--Type: Antrophyum Kaulf., 1824.--Basionym validated by a diagnosis in Latin; family name validated by a full and direct reference to the basionym. The earlier Ching (Sunyatsenia 5: 209, 231. 1940) is not validly published (Art. 36.1) but is associated with a description in English. The Copeland (Sunyatsenia 6:170. 1941) name is cited in synonymy. The Stokey (Phytomorphol. 1:41. 1951) name is a nom. nud.--[PTERIDOPHYTA]. NCU--ANTR

Apalatoaceae: The Augier (Essai Nouv. Classif. Veg.: 72, 83. 1801, as "Apalatoides" (gallice)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with a description in French. The Post & Kuntze (Lex. Gen. Phan.: 710. 1903) name is cited in synonymy.--Apalatoa Aubl., 1775, nom. rej. [[equivalent to] Crudia Schreb., 1789, nom. cons.].--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Apamaceae: The A. Kerner (Pflanzenleben 2: 700. 1891) name is a nom. nud. The Moldenke (Prel. Class. Pl. Kingd.: 14. 1944), R. D. Gibbs (Chemotax. Fl. Pl.: 895. 1974) and Wielgorskaya (Dict. Gen. Names Seed Pl.: 8.1995) names are cited in synonymy.--Apama Lam., 1783.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Apanogetonaceae--see Aponogetonaceae.

Aparinaceae Hoffmanns. & Link, Fl. Portug. 2: 3, 38. 1813-1829 ("Aparines").--Type: Aparine Guett., 1754.--Validated by a diagnoses and description in Latin and French. Isonym: Martynov, Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 36. 31 Jul-5 Aug 1820 ("Aparinae"), validated by a reference to Adanson (Fam. Pl.: 2: 140. 1763, as "Aparines")) family name, associated with a description in French, the original place of publication. Until the Hoffmannsegg and Link publication is more exactly dated, it is not known if the Martynov name has priority. First correct orthography: Post & Kuntze, Lex. Gen. Phan.: 697. 1903. Other incorrect orthography: Aparinae Martynov, Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 36. 31 Jul-5 Aug 1820; Aparinia Raf. in Ann. Gen. Sci. Phys. Bruxelles 6: 80. Oct-Dec 1820 (with a diagnosis in French).--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--APAR

Apetalae: The Hailer f. (Enum. Stirp. Halv. 1: 9. 1759 & 4: 7. 1761) and Link (Enum. Hort. Berol. Alt. 2: 447. 1822) name is a nom. nud. The Behlen (Real Verb.-Lexicon Forst Jagdkunde 1 : 82. 1840) name is associated with a diagnosis in German. The name was not based on the genus Apetalon Wight (1851).

Aperianthaceae: The Mirbel (in Lam. & Mirb., Hist. Nat. Veg. 6: 92. 1802) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with a description in French.

Aphanopetalaceae Doweld, Tent. Syst. Pl. Vasc.: xxvii. 23 Dec 2001.--Type: Aphanopetalum Endl., 1839.--Validated by a description in Latin.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--APHA

Aphloiaceae Takht. in Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow & Leningrad) 70:1691. 13 Dec 1985.--Type: Aphloia (DC.) Benn., 1840.--Validated by a description in Latin.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--APHL

Aphyllanthaceae Burnett, Outl. Bot.: 421, 1153. Jun 1835.--Type: Aphyllanthes L., 1753.--Validated by diagnoses in English. The earlier Rafinesque (Anal. Nat.: 200. 1815, as "Aphylanthia") name is a nom. nud. Family name traditionally attributed to an unranked Endlicher (Gen. Pl.: 151. Dec 1836) name with a description in Latin.--Incorrect orthography: Aphylanthes Raf., Fl. Tellur. 1: 32. 1837; Aphillanthaceae Ten., Cat. Orto Bot. Napoli: 7. 1845; Aphyllantheae Pfeiff., Nomenel. Bot. 1:231. 1872.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--APHY

Aphyteiae: The Trattinnick (Gen. Pl.: 74. 1802, as "Aphytejae") name is a nom. nud. and its rank uncertain ("familias sucundarias").--Aphyteia L., 1776, nom. illeg. [equivalent to] Hydnora Thunb., 1775.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Apiaceae Lindl., Nat. Syst. Bot., ed. 2:21. Jul 1836 ("Umbelliferae, or Apiaceae"), nom. cons., nom. alt.: Umbelliferae.--Type: Apium L.,1753.--Validated by a description in English. [MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--API+

Aplarnia: The Rafinesque (Fl. Tellur. 4: 72, 79, 80, 81. 1838) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with a diagnosis in English.

Aplendinia: The Rafinesque (Amer. Monthly Mag. & Crit. Rev. 3: 273. 1818) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with a diagnosis in English.

Aplimia: The Rafinesque (Anal. Nat.: 198. 1815 & Fl. Tellur. 1 : 32. 1837) name is a nom. nud.

Apocynaceae Juss., Gen. Pl.: 143.4 Aug 1789 ("Apocineae"), nom. cons.--Type: Apocynum L., 1753.--Validated by a description in Latin.--Original place of publication: Adanson, Fam. Pl. 2:167. 1763 ("Apocyna"), validated by a description in French.--First correct orthography: Desvaux, Fl. Anjou: 188. 1827. Other incorrect orthography: Apocyneae Batsch, Syn. Univ. Anal. Gen. Pl.: 394. 1794 or Dispos. Gen. Pl. Europ.: 123. 1794; Apocinia Raf., Anal. Nat.: 186. 1815;ApocineaRaf., Fl. Ludov.: 51. 1817; Apocyna Ende, Comm. Meth. Bot.: 30. 1823; Apocynes Raf., Med. Fl. 1: 50. 1828; Apocynides Raf. in The Casket 1828: 91. 1828; Apocyniae T. Castle, Intr. Syst. Physiol. Bot.: 207. 1829; Apocynieae Kostel., Allg. Med.-Pharm. Fl.: 1053. 1834; Apocynea Raf., New Fl. N. Amer. 1: 30. 1836; Apocinaceae N. Niven, Vist. Comp. Bot. Gard. Glasnevin: 123. 1838; Apocijneae Filet, Pl. Bot. Tuin Weltevreden: 62. 1855.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--APOC

Apodanthaceae (R. Br.) Tiegh. ex Takht., Sist. Magnoliof. [Syst. Magnolioph.]: 42.31 Mar-1 Jun 1987, basionym: trib. Apodantheae R. Br. in Trans. Linn. Soc. London 19:246. 6 Nov 1844.--Type: Apodanthes Poit., 1824.--Basionym validated by a description in Latin; family name validated by a full and direct reference to the basionym. The earlier A. Jussieu (in Orb., Dict. Univ. Hist. Nat. 12: 419. 1849, as "Apodanthees" (gallice)), Le Maout (Botanique: 344.1851-1852, as "Apodanthees" (gallice)), Scoffern (Outl. Bot.: 215. 1857), A. Kerner (Pflanzenleben 2: 700. 1891) and F. Oliver (in A. Kerner, Nat. Hist. Pl. 2: 755. 1895) names are nom. nud. The Le Maout & Decaisne (Traite General Bot.: 478. 1868 & ed. 2: 490. 1876, as "Apodantheae"), Hooker f. (in Le Maout & Decaisne, General Syst. Bot.: 709. 1873, as "Apodantheae"), Melchior (Engler's Syllabus, ed. 12, 2: 154. 1964), Airy Shaw (in Willis, Dict. Fl. Pl. Ferns, ed. 7: 78. 1966 & ed. 8: 81. 1973), Hutchinson (Evol. Phylog. Fl. Pl.: 500. 1969 & Fam. Fl. Pl., ed. 3: 511. 1973), R. D. Gibbs (Chemotax. Fl. Pl.: 896. 1974), Takhtajan (Bot. Rev. (Lancaster) 46:260. 1980 & in Metcalfe & Chalk, Anat. Dict. ed. 2, 2:181. 1983) and Bedell & Reveal (Phytologia 51:112, 130. 1982) names are cited in synonymy. The Tieghem (Elem. Bot., ed. 3, 2:415, 420. 1898, Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., ser. 8, 14: 332, 375. 1901, Elem. Bot., ed. 4, 2: 412. 1906; Tieghem & Costantin (Elem. Bot., ed. 5, 2: 407. 1918, as "Apodanthacees" (gallice)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with descriptions or diagnoses in French.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--APOD

Aponogetanaceae J. Agardh, Theoria Syst. Pl.: 44. Apr-Sep 1858 ("Aponogetaceae"), nom. cons.--Type: Aponogeton L.f., 1782, nom. cons.--Validated by diagnoses in Latin. The earlier Planchon (Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., ser. 3, 1: 119. 1844, as "Aponogetacees" (gallice)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not valid published (Art. 18.4), and is associated with a description in French. The Planchon (Bot. Mag. 82: ad. t. 4894. 1856, as "Aponogetaceae") name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 34.1(a)) published, and is associated with a reference to Planchon (1844).--First correct orthography: Caruel in Atti Reale Accad. Lincei, Mem. CI. Sci. Fis., ser. 3, 10: 247. 1881. Other incorrect orthography: Aponogeteae Le Maout & Decne., Traite General Bot.: 645. 1868; Aponogetoneae Oudem., Leerb. Plantenk. 2(2): 373. 1870. Aponogitonaceae Post & Kuntze, Lex. Gen. Phan.: 615. 1903; Apanogetonaceae Ovando, Clasif. Alfab. Fam. Div. Angiosp.: 9. 1979.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--APON*

Aporusaceae Lindl. ex Planch. in Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., ser. 4, 2:265. 1854 ("Aporoseae").--Type: Aporusa Blume, 1826 ("Aporosa"), corr. Blume & J. Fisch., 1828.--Validated by a reference to a Lindley (Nat. Syst. Bot., ed. 2:171. Jul 1836, as "Scepaceae") family name with a description in English.--Isonym: Lindl. ex Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 1(2): xii. 30 Sep 1858 ("Aporoseae") with a diagnosis in Dutch in a key.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--APOR

Aposeridaceae Raf., New Fl. N. Amer. 4: 106. late Sep 1838 ("Aposerides").--Type: Aposeris Neck. ex Cass., 1827.--Validated by a diagnosis in English.--First correct orthography: Kiger & Reveal, Huntia 11: 57, 71. 2000.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. APOE

Apostasiaceae Lindl., Nix. Pl.: 22. 17 Sep 1833 ("Apostasieae"), nom. cons.--Type: Apostasia Blume, 1825.--Validated by a diagnosis in Latin in a key.--Isonym: Blume in Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., ser. 2, 2: 91. Aug 1834 ("Apostasieae"), validated by a description in Latin.--First correct orthography: Burnett, Outl. Bot.: 459, 1150. Jun 1835 or Trinius, Gen. Pl.: 2. 1835. Other incorrect orthography: Apostasiae Harshb., Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. 46: 316. 1907; Apostiaceae J. G. Watson in Malayan Forest Rec. 5: 260. 1928. [MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU-APOS

Aptandraceae Miers in Lindl., Veg. Kingd., ed. 3: 447a. Aug 1853.--Type: Aptandra Miers, 1851.--Validated by a description in English. The earlier Miers (Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 2, 7: 206. 1851) name is an effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly published (Art. 34.1 (b)) name with a diagnosis in English.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU-APTA

Apteriaceae: The Miers (Trans. Linn. Soc. London 18: 549. 1841) name is an effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly published (Art. 34.1 (b)) name with a diagnosis in English.--Apteria Nutt., 1834.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. Apypaceae--see Alypaceae.

Apyrinae: The Gerard (Fl. Gallo-Prov.: xxix, 460. 1761) name is a nom. nud. The Gerardin & Desvaux (Dict. Rais. Bot.: 626. 1817) and Martynov (Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 41. 1820) name (as "Apyreneae") is cited in synonymy.

Aquifoliaceae DC. ex A. Rich., Nouv. Elem. Bot., ed. 4: 555. 1828, nom. cons.--Type: Aquifolium Mill., 1754, nom. illeg. (Art. 52.1: [equivalent to] Ilex L., 1753).--Validated by a description in French.--Isonym: Bartl., Ord. Nat. Pl.: 228, 376. Sep 1830, validated by a description in Latin. The earlier Candolle (Theorie Elem. Bot.: 217. 1813, as "Aquifoliacees" (gallice), & Essai Propr. Mrd Pl., ed. 2: 197. 1816), Candolle ex Perleb (Vers. Artzneikr. Pfl.: 234. 1818) and A. Richard (in Bory, Dict. Class. Hist. Nat. 1: 490. 1822, as "Aquifoliacees" (gallice)) names are nom. nud.--Incorrect orthography: Aquifolliaceae Thays, Jard. Bot. Munic. Buenos Aires: 49. 1928.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU-AQUI

Aquilariaceae R. Br. ex DC., Prodr. 2: 59. Nov 1825 ("Aquilarineae").--Type: Aquilaria Lam., Encycl. 1783, nom. cons.--Validated by a description in Latin. The earlier Caffin (Meth. Regne Veg.: 72. 1822, as "Aquiliciees" (galilce)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with a description in French.--First correct orthography: Dumortier, Anal. Fam. Pl.: 15, 18. 1829. Other incorrect orthography: Aquilarinae Beilschm. in Flora (Bieb.) 16(2): 102. 1830; Aquilariae V. Peter, Novenyt.: 173. 1836.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU-AQUL

Aquilegiaceae Lilja, Skaneskfl., ed. 2: 375,861,979. Apr-Dec 1870.--Type: Aquilegia L., 1753.--Validated by a diagnosis in Swedish.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].-AQUG

Araceae Juss., Gen. Pl.: 23.4 Aug 1789 ("Aroideae"), nom. cons.--Type: Arum L., 1753.--Validated by a description in Latin.--Original place of publication: Adanson, Fam. Pl. 2: 461. 1763 ("Ara"), validated by a description in French. First correct orthography: Schott in Schott & Endl., Melet. Bot.: 16. 1832. Other incorrect orthography: Aroidae Bosc in Deterv., Nouv. Dict. Hist. Nat. 2: 269. 1802; Aroides Raf., Fl. Ludov.: 14. 1817; Aroidia Dumort., Comment. Bot.: 67. 1822; Aroiedae Mertens & W. D. J. Koch, Rohlings Deutschl. Fl.: 1: 248. 1823; Arineae Desv., Fl. Anjou: 78. 1827; Arideae Dumort., Fl. Belg.: 162. 1827; Arvideae Benth., Pl. Hartweg.: 281. 1846; Aroidaceae Lowe in J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 5: 35. 1860.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--AR++

Arachnitidaceae: The F. Philippi (Cat. Pl. Vasc. Chil.: 278. 1881, as "Arachnitaceae") name is a nom. nud. The C. Munoz (Sinop. Fl. Chil.: 210. 1959) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 36.1) published, and is associated with a description in Spanish. Buchheim (Willdenowia 3: 386. 1963, as "Arachnitaceae") lists the name as not validly published. The Airy Shaw (in Willis, Dic. Fl. Pl. Ferns, ed. 7: 83. 1966 & ed. 8: 86. 1973, as "Arachnit[id]aceae"), Hutchinson (Fam. Fl. Pl., ed. 3: 846. 1973), R. D. Gibbs (Chemotax. Fl. Pl.: 1109. 1974, as "Arachnitaceae"), Bedell & Reveal (Phytologia 51: 73. 1982) and Wielgorskaya (Dict. Gen. Names Seed Pl.: 11. 1995) names are cited in synonymy.--Arachnitis Phil., 1864, nom. cons.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Aragnaceae D. Don in Edinburgh New Philos. J. 19: 109, 113. Jul 1835.--Type: Aragoa Kunth, 1819.--Validated by a description in English.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--APAG

Arallaceae Juss., Gen. Pl.: 217.4 Aug 1789 ("Araliae"), nom. cons.--Type: Aralia L., 1753.--Validated by a description in Latin.--Original place of publication: Durande, Notions Elem. Bot.: 275. 1782 ("Araliae"), validated by a description in French.--First correct orthography: Ventenat, Tabl. Rrgne Veg. 3:2.1799. Other incorrect orthography: A ralidia Raf., Anal. Nat.: 195.1815; Aralieae Martynov, Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 42. 1820; Araliacia Dumort., Comment. Bot.: 56. 1822; Aralides Raf., Med. Fl. 1: 54. 1828; Araliacae Dumort., Anal. Fam. Pl.: 33. 1829; Araliacea Raf., Med. Fl. 2: 52. 1830. --[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--ARAL

Aralidiaceae Philipson & B. C. Stone in Taxon 29:402.25 Aug 1980.--Type: Aralidium Miq., 1856.--Validated by a description in Latin.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--ARAD

Araucariaceae Henkel & W. Hochst., Syn. Nadelholz.: xvii, 1. Jan 1865 ("Araucarieae"), nom. cons.--Type: Araucaria Juss., 1789.--Validated by a description in German. The earlier Bromhead (Edinburgh New Philos. J. 20: 253. 1836 & Mag. Nat. Hist., n.s., 4: 337. 1840, as "Araucarieae", the family rank in the first instance is uncertain) name is a nom. nud. Family name traditionally attributed to Engler (Syllabus, ed. 1: 61. Apr 1892) who provided a description in German.--First correct orthography: Strasburger, Conif. Gnetac.: 25,228. 1872. Other incorrect orthography: Araucarieae Lauche, Deut. Dendrol.: 117. 1880; Araucariacae Luerss., Bot. Grundz., ed. 5: 390. 1893; Araucarineae Seward, Foss. Pl. 4: 124, 143,301. 1919.--[PINOPHYTA]. NCU--ARAU

Arbustivae: The Philibert (Intr. Bot. 3: 140. 1799) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with a diagnosis in French.--Other orthography: Arbustiva Ende, Comm. Meth. Bot.: 17. 1823.

Arbutaceae (Meisn.) Bromhead in Mag. Nat. Hist., n.s., 4: 337, 338. Jul 1840 ("Arbuteae"), basionym: trib. Arbuteae Meisn., Pl. Vasc. Gen.: Tab. Diagn.: 243, Comm.: 154. 18-24 Aug 1839.--Type: Arbutus L., 1753.--Basionym validated by a diagnosis in Latin in a key; family name validated by a reference to the basionym.--Isonym: J. Agardh, Theoria Syst. Pl.: 106. Apr-Sep 1858 ("Arbuteae"), validated by a diagnosis in Latin.--First correct orthography: A. Kemer, Pflanzenleben 2: 671. 1890.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--ARBU

Arceuthobiaceae Tiegh. in Bot. Jahresber. (Just) 23(2): 290. 1897.--Type: Arceuthobium M. Bieb., 1819-1820, nom. cons.--Validated by a diagnosis in German and a reference to an effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published Tieghem (J. Bot. (Morot) 9:467.16 Dec 1895, as "Arceuthobiacees" (gallice)) family name with a diagnosis in French.--Isonym: Tiegh. ex Nakai in Bull. Natl. Sci. Mus. Tokyo 31: 47. Mar 1952, validated by a diagnosis in Latin in a key. The earlier Tieghem (Compt. Rend. Hebd. Seances Acad. Sci. 124: 656, 659. 1897, & Bull. Soc. Bot. France, ser. 3, 43: 543. 1897, as "Arceuthobiacees" (gallice)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with diagnoses or descriptions in French. The Tieghem (Compt. Rend. Hebd. Seances Acad. Sci. 124:924.1897 & J. Bot. (Morot.) 11: 324, 326.1897, as "Arceuthobiacees" (gallice)) name is a nom. nud.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--ARCE

Archapostasiaceae: The Heintze (Cormofyt. Fylog.: 14. 1927) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with a diagnosis in German.

Archiburmanniaceae: The Heintze (Cormofyt. Fylog.: 14. 1927) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with a diagnosis in German.

Archijunaceae: The Heintze (Cormofyt. Fylog.: 14. 1927) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with a diagnosis in German.

Archiophioglossaceae: The Heintze (Cormofyt. Fylog.: 14. 1927) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with a diagnosis in German.

Arctopi: The Trattinnick (Gen. Pl.: 66. 1802) name is a nom. nud. and its rank uncertain ("familias sucundarias").--Arctopus L., 1753.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Arctostaphylaceae J. Agardh, Theoria Syst. Pl.: 106. Apr-Sep 1858 ("Arctostaphyleae").--Type: Arctostaphylos Galen ex Adans., 1763, nom. cons.--Validated by diagnoses in Latin. First correct orthography: Bullock in Taxon 7: 6. 1958.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--ARCS

Arctotidaceae Bessey in Nebraska Univ. Stud. 14: 107. Jan 1914.--Type: Arctotis L., 1753.--Validated by a description in English.--The earlier Bromhead (Mag. Nat. Hist., n.s., 4: 337. 1840) name is a nom. nud.--Other orthography: Arctotaceae Solbrig in Taxon 12: 229. 1963.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. --ARCT

Ardisiaceae Juss. in Ann. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. 15: 350. 1810.--Type: Ardisia Sw., 1788, nom. cons.--Validated by a reference to an effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published Ventenat (Descr. Pl. Nouv. Peu Connues Jard. Cels: ad t. 86. Sep-Oct 1802, as "Ophiospermes" (gallice)) family name with a description in French.--Incorrect orthography: Ardisiae Bertol., Prael. Rei Herb.: 261. 1827.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].-ARDI

Arecaecae Schultz Sch., Nat. Syst. Pflanzenr.: 317. 1832, nom. cons., nom. alt.: Palmae.--Type: Areca L., 1753.--Validated by a diagnosis in German. The earlier Rafinesque (Anal. Nat.: 202. 1815, as "Arecaria") name is a nom. nud.--Other incorrect orthography: Arecineae Perleb, Clay. Class.: 13. 1838.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU-AREC

Arenariaceae: The Lamarck ex Candolle (in Lam. & DC., Fl. Franc., ed. 3, 4(2): 734. 17 Sep 1805, as "Arenariae") and Post & Kuntze (Lex. Gen. Phan.: 85, 710. 20-30 Nov 1903) names are cited in synonymy. The J. Ponce de Leon (Sist. Fl.-Sex. Bot.: 159. 1814, as "Arenarias" (hispanice)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with a description in Spanish.--Arenaria L., 1753.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Arethusae: The Trattinnick (Gen. Pl.: 36. 1802) name is a nom. nud. and its rank uncertain ("familias sucundarias").--Arethusa L., 1753.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Argophyllaceae (Engl.) Takht., Sist. Magnoliof. [Syst. Magnolioph.]: 208.31 Mar-1 Jun 1987, basionym: trib. Argophylleae Engl. in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam., ed. 2, 18a: 111, 214. seors, impr. 1928.--Type: Argophyllum J. R. Forst. & G. Forst., 1775.--Basionym validated by a description in German; family name validated by a full and direct reference to the basionym.--Isonym: Doweld, Tent. Syst. Pl. Vasc.: liv. 23 Dec 2001, validated by a description in Latin. The earlier Schnizlein (Iconogr. Fam. Nat. Regni Veg. 3: ad t. 170". 1843-1870, as "Argophylleae") and R. D. Gibbs (Chemotax. Fl. Pl.: 899. 1974, as "Argophyll(ac)eae") names are cited in synonymy. The Baillon (Adansonia 6: 9, 10. Sep 1865, as "Argophyllres" (gallice)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with a diagnosis in French.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU-ARGO

Argusiaceae: The Link ex Le Maout & Decaisne (Traite Grneral Bot.: 177. 1868 & ed. 2: 189, 1876, as "Arguzieae") and Hooker f. (in Le Maout & Decaisne, General Syst. Bot.: 569. 1873, as "Arguzieae") name is cited in synonym.--Argusia Boehm. in Ludw., 1760.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Arillatae: The Batsch (Dispos. Gen. Pl. Jenens.: 38. 1786) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with a diagnosis in Latin.

Arionaceae--see Arjonaceae.

Arisaraceae Raf., Fl. Tellur. 4: 16. medio 1838 ("Arisaria").--Type: Arisarum Mill., 1754.--Validated by a diagnosis in English. The earlier Rafinesque (Anal. Nat.: 202. 1815, as "Arisaria") name is a nom. nud.--First correct orthography: Reveal in Phytologia 74:236.1993.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. --ARIR

Aristaceae--see Acristaceae.

Aristoloehiaceae Juss., Gen. Pl.: 72.4 Aug 1789 ("Aristolochiae"), nom. cons.--Type: Aristolochia L., 1753.--Validated by a description in Latin. Original place of publication: Adanson, Fam. Pl. 2: 71. 1763 ("Aristolochiae"), validated by a description in French. First correct orthography: Polloni, Fl. Veron. 3: 40. 1824. Other incorrect orthography: Aristolochieae Mirb., Elem. Physiol. Veg. Bot. 2: 872. 1815; Aristolochideae Marquis, Esq. Regne Veg.: 76. 1820; Aristolochinae Link, Enum. Hort. Berol. Alt. 2: 373. 1822; Aristolochineae Desv., Fl. Anjou: 116. 1827; Aristolochaceae Irvine, London Fl.: 48, 121. 1838.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--ARIS

Aristoteliaceae Dumort., Anal. Fam. Pl.: 37, 41.1829.--Type: Aristotelia L'Her., 1785-1786, nom. cons.--Validated by a diagnosis in French.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--ARIT

Arjonaceae Tiegh. in Bot. Jahresber. (Just) 24(2): 279. 1898. Type: Arjona Cav., 1789.--Validated by a reference to an effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published Tieghem (Bull. Soc. Bot. France, ser. 3, 43: 548, 571. 1897, as "Arionacres" (gallice)) family name with diagnoses in French. The earlier Tieghem (Compt. Rend. Hebd. Srances Acad. Sci. 124: 924. 1897 & Bot. Centralbl. 73: 186. 1898, as "Arionacees" (gallice)) name is a nom. nud. The Tieghem (Elem. Bot., ed. 3, 2: 293. 1898, as "Arionacees" (gallice)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with descriptions in French.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].-ARJO

Armeriaceae Horan., Prim. Lin. Syst. Nat.: 68.2 Nov 1834. Type: Armeria Willd., Enum., 1809, nom. cons.--Validated by a description in Latin. The earlier Dumortier (Comment. Bot.: 61. 1822, as "Armeriacia" or "Armeriaceae") name is a nom. nud.--Incorrect orthography: Armerieae Cohn in Flora 44:732.1861.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--ARME

Aroideae--see Araceae.

Artemisiaceae Martynov, Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 48.31 Jul-5 Aug 1820 ("Artemisiae").--Type: Artemisia L., 1753.--Validated by a reference to an effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published Augier (Essai Nouv. Classif. Veg.: 165, 173.1801, as "Artemises" (gallice)) family name with descriptions in French. The Gerardin & Desvaux (Dict. Rais. Bot.: 621. 1817, as "Artemises" (gallice)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with a diagnosis in French and a reference to Augier (1801).--First correct orthography: Post & Kuntze, Lex. Gen. Phan.: 710. 1903.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--ARTE

Arthrocytia: The Rafinesque (Anal. Nat.: 183. 1815 & Fl. Tellur. 1: 29. 1837) name is a nom. nud.

Athrotaxidaceae: The Nakai ex Koidzuma (Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 11: 227. 1942) name is a nom. nud. and cited in synonymy.--Athrotaxis D. Don, 1838.--[PINOPHYTA].

Artocarpaceae Dumort., Anal. Fam. Pl.: 15, 17. 1829 ("Artocarpideae"). Type: Artocarpus J. R. Forst. & G. Forst., 1775, nom. cons.--Validated by a diagnosis in French. The earlier Trattinnick (Gen. Pl.: 72. 1802, as "Artocarpi") name is a nom. nud. and its rank uncertain ("familias sucundarias"). First correct orthography: Horananow, Prim. Lin. Syst. Nat.: 62. 1834. Other incorrect orthography: Artocarpae Schlichtkrull, Offic. Pl.: 47. 1832; Artocarpeaceae Kostel., Allg. Med.-Pharm. Fl.: 405. 1833; Artocarpea Schltd. in Linnaea 14: 288. 1840.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--ARTO

Arundinaceae (Dumort.) Hochst. in Flora 33: 184. 28 Mar 1850, basionym: trib. Arundineae Dumort., Observ. Gramin. Belg.: 82. Jul-Sep 1824 ("Arundinaceae").--Type: Arundo L., 1753.--Basionym validated by a diagnosis in Latin; family name validated by a reference to a later W. D. J. Koch (Syn. Fl. Germ. Helv.: 787. Jan-Oct 1837) name with a diagnosis in Latin which has been corrected (Art. 33.7) to the above basionym.--Isonym: Brenner, Florist. Handb.: 208. 1886, validated by a description in Finish. The earlier G. F. Jaeger (Flora 10:675.1827, as "Arundinaceen" (germanice)) name is a nom. nud.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--ARUN

Arundinariaceae: The Herter (Revista Sudamer. Bot. 7: 238. 1943) name is given in error for Arundinaceae. The M. G. Baumann-Bodenheim (Syst. Fl. Neu-Caled. 4: 83. 1989 & 5: 17. 1989) name is a nom. nud. The Wielgorskaya (Dict. Gen. Name Seed Pl.: 12. 1995) name is cited in synonymy.--Arundinaria Michx., 1803.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Arundinellaceae (Stapf) Herter in Revista Sudamer. Bot. 6: 136. Jun 1940, basionym: trib. Arundinelleae Stapf in Harv. & Sonder (ed. Dyer), Fl. Cap. 7: 314. 1898.--Type: Arundinella Raddi, 1823.--Basionym validated by a description in English; family name validated by a reference to the basionym. --[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--ARUL

Arvideae--see Araceae.

Asaraceae Vent., Tabl. Rrgne Veg. 2:226.5 Mai 1799 ("Asaroideae").--Type:Asarum L., 1753.--Validated by a description in French. The earlier Batsch (Syn. Univ. Anal. Gen. Pl.: 389. 1794 & Dispos. Gen. Pl. Europ.: 124. 1794, as "Asarinae") name is a nom. nud.--First correct orthography: Link, Enum. Hort. Berol. Alt. 2:1.1822. Other incorrect orthography: Asarinia Raf., Anal. Nat.: 196. 1815; Asareae Gerardin & Desv., Dict. Rais. Bot.: 629. 1817; Asarinia Dumort., Comment. Bot.: 55.1822; Asarinee Bluff& Fingerh., Comp. Fl. German. 1: 587. 1825; Asarineae Dumort., Fl. Belg.: 16. 1827; Asarides Raf., Fl. Tellur. 4: 15, 100. 1838.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--ASAR

Asciroldeae--see Ascyraceae.

Asclepiadaceae Borkh., Bot. Worterb. 1: 31. 1797 ("Asclepiadeae"), nom. cons.--Type: Asclepias L., 1753.--Validated by a diagnosis in Latin.--Isonym: R. Br., Asclepiadeae: 12. seors, impr. 3 Apr 1810 ("Aselepiadeae"), validated by a description in Latin. The earlier Borkhausen (Tent. Disp. Pl. Germ.: 143. 1792, as "Asclepiadeae") name is unranked but is associated with a description in Latin. The R. A. Salisbury (Prodr. Stirp. Chap. Allerton: 110. 1796, as "Asclepiadeae") name is a nom. nud.--First correct orthography: Roth, Neue Beytr. Bot.: 5. 1802. Other incorrect orthography: Asclepides Raf., Med. Fl. 1:75.1828; Asclepiadineae Kostel., Allg. Med.-Pharm. Fl.: 1080. 1834; Asclepiaceae Lindl., Key Bot.: 67.1835; Asclepiasaceae Ser., Fl. Pharm.: 487. 1851; Asclepiadee Brckel in Oesterr. Bot. Wochenbl. 4:173.1854; Aselepiadae Phil., Reise Waste Atacama 2:35.1860; Aselepiadeaceae Pfeiff., Nomencl. Bot. 1(1): 288. 1872; Axlepiadaceae Pamp., Fl. San Marino: 167. 1930.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--ASCL

Ascyraceae Plenck, Elem. Termin. Bot.: 162. 1796 ("Asciroideae").--Type: Ascyrum L., 1753.--Validated by a description in Latin.--Other incorrect orthography: Ascyroideae Woodv., Med. Bot. ed 2: 584. 1810. Ascyreae Martynov, Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 51. 1820; Ascyroides Schuurm. Stekh., Kruidk. Kunstw.-boek.: 81. 1825.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--ASCY

Asfodeleae--see Asphodelaceae

Aspalathaceae Martynov, Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 51.31 Jul-5 Aug 1820 ("Aspalathoides").--Type: Aspalathus L., 1753.--Validated by a reference to an effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published Augier (Essai Nouv. Classif. Veg.: 181, 188. 1801, as "Genistrs" (gallice)) family name with descriptions in French where he lists Aspalathus (as "Aspalatus"). The Gerardin & Desvaux (Dict. Rais. Bot.: 743. 1817, as "Aspalatoides" (gallice)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with a reference to Augier (1801).--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--ASPT

Asparagaceae Juss., Gen. Pl.: 40. 4 Aug 1789 ("Asparagi"), nom. cons.--Type: Asparagus L., 1753.--Validated by a description in Latin.--First correct orthography: Nees & Ebermaier, Handb. Med.-Pharm. Bot. 1: 182. 1830. Other incorrect orthography: Aspargeae Salisb., Prodr. Stirp. Chap. Allerton: 213,252. 1796; Asparagoideae Vent., Tabl. Regne Veg. 2: 141. 1799; Asperges C. C. Robin, Voy. Int. Louisiane 3: 338. 1807; Asparagia Raf., Anal. Nat.: 200. 1815; Asparagineae Desf., Tabl. Ecole Bot. Jard. Roi, ed. 2: 4. 1815; Asparaginae Link, Enum. Hort. Berol. Alt. 1: 339. 1821; Asparaginia Dumort., Comment. Bot.: 66. 1822; Asparagoides Raf. in The Casket 1827:114.1827; Asparaginaceae Orph. in Fourn., Act. Congr. Intern. Bot.: 76.1867.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--ASPA

Asperellaceae: The Reveal (Ind. Nom. Supragen. Pl. Vasc.: unnumbered online page. 1997-onward, as "Link ex Pfeiff., Nomencl. Bot. 1 (1): 305. ante 12 Jun 1872") name is not (Art. 29.1) validly published; he incorrectly attributed family rank to an effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 33.7) published Link (Hort. Berol. 1: 270. 1827, as "Ordo [=fam.] Gramineae Fam. [=?] Asperellinae")) name with a diagnosis in Latin. The Kiger and Reveal (Huntia 11: 57, 71. 2000) name is a nom. nud.--Asperella Humb., 1790.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Asperifoliae: The Hailer f. (Enum. Stirp. Helv. 1: 52. 1759 & Enum. Stirp.: 34. 1760), Gerard (Fl. Gallo-Prov.: xxv, 297. 1761), Linnaeus (Gen. Pl., ed. 6: [613]. 1764), Wulff(Fl. Boruss.: 160. 1765), Oeder (Elem. Bot.: 154. 1766), and Reichard (Linn. Gen. Pl., ed. 7: unpaged [598,607]. 1778) name is a nom. nud. The Batsch (Dispos. Gen. Pl. Jenens.: 55. 1786) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with a description in Latin. Other orthography: Asperifoliaceae Rchb., Consp. Regni Veg.: 89, 118. 1829; Asperifolia Raf., Med. Fl. 2: 95. 1830; Asperifolieae Teijsm. & Binn., Cat. Hort. Bot. Bogor.: 139. 1866; Aspelfoliaceae H. Nicholson & Lydekker, Man. Palacont.: 1558. 1889.

Asperulaceae Cham. ex Spenn., Handb. Angew. Bot. 2: 492. 1835 ("Asperuleae").--Type: Asperula L., 1753, nom. cons.--Validated by a description in German.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--ASPE

Asphodelaceae Juss., Gen. Pl.: 51.4 Aug 1789 ("Asphodeli").--Type: Asphodelus L., 1753. Validated by a description in Latin.--First correct orthography: Martynov, Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 53, 54. 1820. Other incorrect orthography: Asphodelli Bosc in Deterv., Nouv. Dict. Hist. Nat. 2: 328. 1802 or Lam. & Mirb., Hist. Nat. Veg. 6: 293. 1802; Aspodeleae J. St.-Hil., Expos. Fam. Nat. 1: 126. 1805; Asphodelia Raf., Anal. Nat.: 200. 1815; Asphodeliaceae Gray, Nat. Arr. Brit. Pl. 2: 30. 1821; Asphodeleae Hook. & Lindl. in Hook., Fl. Scot.: 2: 183. 1821; Asphodelides Raf., Med. Fl. 1: 38. 1828; Asphodeloideae Behlen, Real Verb.-Lexicon Forst Jagdkunde 1: 92. 1840; Asphodelineae Arn. in Encycl. Britan., ed. 7, 5: 134. 1842; A.sfodeleae Bolle, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 14: 254. 1891.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--ASPH

Aspidiaceae Burnett, Outl. Bot.: 324, 1156. Jun 1835, nom. illeg. (Art. 18.3).--Type: Aspidium Sw., 1801, nom. illeg. (Art. 52.1: [equivalent to] Tectaria Cav., 1799).--Validated by diagnoses in English. Family name traditionally attributed to A. B. Frank (in Leunis, Syn. Pflanzenk., ed. 2, 3: 1453, 1469. Mar-Dec 1877) who provided a diagnosis in German in a key. Other orthography: Aspidieae M. R. Schomb., Reis. Br.-Guiana 2: 885. 1848.--[PTERIDOPHYTA].

Aspidistraceae Hassk., Cat. Hort. Bot. Bogor.: 32. Oct. 1844 ("Aspidistreae"), basionym: [unranked] Aspidistreae Endl., Ench. Bot.: 90. 15-21 Aug 1841.--Type: Aspidistra Ker-Gawl., 1822.--Basionym validated by a diagnosis in Latin: family name validated by a diagnosis in Latin and a reference to the basionym. The earlier de Vriese (Hort. Spaarn-berg.: 42. 1839, as "Aspidistreae") name is a nom. nud. Family rank traditionally attributed to Endlicher (1841).--First correct orthography: Ruchinger, Canni Ort. Bot. Venezia: 22. 1847. Other incorrect orthography: Apidistreae Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 3: ix. 1859.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--ASPI

Aspleniaceae Newman, Hist. Brit. Ferns: 6. 1-5 Feb 1840.--Type: Asplenium L., 1753.--Validated by a diagnosis in English. The earlier Trattinnick (Gen. Pl.: 75.1802, as "Asplenia") name is a nom. nud. and its rank uncertain ("familias sucundarias"). The Rabenhort (Linnaea 10:215. 1835, as "Asplenoideae") name is a nom. nud. Family name traditionally attributed to A. B. Frank (in Leunis, Syn. Pflanzenk., ed. 2, 3: 1453, 1465. Mar-Dec 1877) who provided a diagnosis in German in a key.--Other orthography: Asplenieae M. R. Schomb., Reis. Br.-Guiana 2: 884. 1848.--[PTERIDOPHYTA]. NCU--ASPL

Assoniae: The Trattinnick (Gen. Pl.: 60. 1802) name is a nom. nud. and its rank uncertain ("familias sucundarias").--Assonia Cav., 1786.-[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Asteliaceae Dumort., Anal. Fam. Pl.: 59, 61. 1829. Type: Astelia Banks & Soland. ex R. Br., 1810, nom. cons.--Validated by a diagnosis in French. Incorrect orthography: Astelieae Kunth, Enum. Pl. 3: 364. 1841.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--ASTL

Asteraceae Martynov, Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 55. 31 Jul-5 Aug 1820 ("Asteres"), nom. cons., nom. alt.: Compositae.--Type: Aster L., 1753.--Validated by a reference to an effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published Augier (Essai Nouv. Classif. V6g.: 165, 173.180 I, as "Asteres" (gallice)) family name with descriptions in French.--Isonym: Dumort., Comment. Bot.: 55. Nov-Dec 1822 ("Asteria" and "Astereae"), validated by a reference to an effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published Cassini (in Cuvier, Dict. Sci. Nat., ed. 2, 3(Suppl.): 54. 1816, as trib. "Ast6r6es" (gallice)) name with a description in French. The earlier F. Lestiboudois (Botanogr. Belg., ed. 2, 3(1): 174. & 3(2): 252. 1800, as "Asteriques" (gallice)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with a description in French. The Gerardin & Desvaux (Dict. Rais. Bot.: 630. 1817, as "Asteres" (gallice)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with a diagnosis in French and a reference to Augier (1801).--First correct orthography: Burnett, Outl. Bot.: 926, 1094, 1111. Jun 1835 or Burnett in J. Stephenson & J. M. Churchill, Med. Bot., ed. 2, 2: ad t. 105. 1835. Other incorrect orthography: Asteroideae Link, Handbuch 1: 731. 1829.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--ASTE

Asteranthaceae R. Knuth in Engl. & Prantl, Pflanzenr. IV, 219b (Heft 105): 1.22 Aug 1939, nom. cons.--Type: Asteranthos Desf., 1820.--Validated by a description in Latin. The earlier Pfeiffer (Vollst. Synon.: 236. 1870-1871) name is a nom. nud. The R. Knuth (Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 11: 1036. 1934) name is an effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly published (Art. 34.1 (b)) name with a diagnosis in German.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--ASTN

Asterocarpaceae see Astrocarpaceae.

Asteropeiaceae (Szyszyl.) Takht. ex Reveal & Hoogland in Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat., ser. 4, sect. B Adansonia 12:205.24 Nov 1990, basionym: trib. Asteropeieae Szyszyl. in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. III, 6: 180, 181. Mai 1893.--Type: Asteropeia Thouars, 1805.--Basionym validated by a description in German; family name validated by a full and direct reference to the basionym. The earlier Takhtajan (Proish. Pokryt. Rast.: 89. 1954, Orig. Angiosp. PL.: 61. 1958, Evol. Angiosp.: 201. 1959, Proish. Rass. Tsvetk. Rast.: 110.1970, Bot. Rev. (Lancaster) 46:271.1980, in Metcalfe & Chalk, Anat. Dict. ed. 2, 2: 186. 1983 & Florist. Reg. World: 322. 1986), Bullock (Taxon 7: 7. 1958), Cincovic & Kojic (Botanika: 202. 1968), Kaussmann (Bot. Landw.: 371. 1969), Rouleau (Guide Ind. Kew.: 243. 1970 & Rrpert. Noms Grnrr. Ind. Kew.: 320.1981) and Bedell & Reveal (Phytologia 51 : 98, 113.1982) name is a nom. nud. The Dostfil (Bot. Nomenkl.: 199. 1957) and Bullock (Taxon 7: 158. 1958) names are not validly published (Art. 33.3). Buchheim (Willdenowia 3: 375. 1963) incorrectly lists the name as legitimate from Dostfil (1957) and Takhtajan (1958, 1959). The F. A. Barkley (Anthophyta: 53. 1966), Cronquist (Evol. Classif. Fl. PL.: 367. 1968, Integr. Syst. Classif. Fl. PL.: 322. 1981 & Evol. Classif. Fl. Pl., ed. 2: 506. 1988), Hutchinson (Evol. Phylog. Fl. PL.: 282. 1969 & Fam. Fl. Pl., ed. 3: 255. 1973), R. D. Gibbs (Chemotax. Fl. PL.: 901. 1974), Bedell & Reveal (Phytologia 51: 68, 130. 1982) and Mabberley (Pl.-Book: 50. 1987, 1989) name is cited in synonymy. The Airy Shaw (in J. C. Willis, Dict. Fl. Pl. Ferns, ed. 7: 10l. 1966 & ed. 8: 104. 1973) and Takhtajan (Sist. Philog. Uvetkov. Rast. [Syst. Phylog. Magnolioph.]: 184. 1967 & Sist. Magnoliof. [Syst. Magnolioph.]: 90. 1987) names are effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 36.1) published, and each is associated with a description or a diagnosis in English or Russian. The B. S. Field (in Heywood, Fl. Pl. World: 82. 1978) name is listed as a small family "now generally accepted as being included within the Theaceae." Family name traditionally attributed to Takhtajan (1958).--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--ASTR

Astilbaceae: The J. E. Krach (Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 97: 20. 1976) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 36.1) published, and is associated with a diagnosis in German; his later (Pl. Syst. Evol. Suppl. 1: 141, 143, 144, 145. 1977) name is a nom. nud. The Takhtajan (Bot. Rev. (Lancaster) 46: 280. 1980), Bedell & Reveal (Phytologia 51: 115. 1982) and Wielgorskaya (Dict. Gen. Names Seed Pl.: 19. 1995) name is cited in synonymy.--Astilbe Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don, 1825.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Astragalaceae Martynov, Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 55.31 Jul-5 Aug 1820 ("Astragalides").--Type: Astragalus L., 1753.--Validated by a reference to an effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published Augier (Essai Nouv. Classif. Veg.: 181, 189. 1801, as "Astragalides" (gallice)) family name with descriptions in French. The Trattinnick (Gen. Pl.: 58. 1802, as "Astragali") name is a nom. nud. and its rank uncertain ("familias sucundarias"). The Gerardin & Desvaux (Dict. Rais. Bot.: 631. 1817, as "Astragalides" (gallice)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with a diagnosis in French and a reference to Augier (1801).--First correct orthography: Post & Kuntze, Lex. Gen. Phan.: 710. 1903.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--ASTR

Astrantiaceae: The Trattinnick (Gen. Pl.: 64. 1802, as "Astrantiae") name is a nom. nud. and its rank uncertain ("familias sucundarias"). The R. D. Gibbs (Chemotax. Fl. Pl.: 902. 1974) name is cited in synonymy.--Astrantia L., 1753.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Astrocarpaceae A. Kern., Pflanzenleben 2:688. 1891 ("Asterocarpaceae').--Type: Astrocarpa Neck. ex Dumort., 1822. Validated by a minimal diagnosis in German.--First correct orthography: Hutchinson, Evol. Phylog. Fl. Pl.: 526. 1969.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. ASTC

Atcyoliceae--see Atriplicaceae.

Athanasiaceae Martynov, Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 56.31 Jul-5 Aug 1820 ("Athanasiae").--Type: Athanasia L., 1763.--Validated by a reference to an effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published Augier (Essai Nouv. Classif. Veg.: 165, 178. 1801, as "Athanasies" (gallice)) family name with descriptions in French. The Gerardin & Desvaux (Dict. Rais. Bot.: 631.1817, as "Athanasies" (galilee)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with a diagnosis in French and a reference to Augier (1801).--First correct orthography: Post & Kuntze, Lex. Gen. Phan.: 710. 1903.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--ATHA

Atherospermataceae R. Br. in Flinders, Voy. Terra Austral. 2: 553. 19 Jul 1814 ("Atherospermeae").--Type: Atherosperma Labill., 1806.--Validated by a description in Latin.--First correct orthography: Lankester in C. Knight, English Cyelop. 1: 594. 1854. Other incorrect orthography: Atherospermae F. Voigt, Lehrb. Bot.: 232. 1827; Atherospermaceae Trin., Gen. Pl.: 2. 1835; Antherospermaceae Kostel., Allg. Med.-Pharm. Fl.: 436. 1833; Antheraspermaceae Figuier in Veg. World (transl. W.S.O.), New York ed.: 361. 1868.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--ATHE

Athrotaxidaceae Doweld, Tent. Syst. Pl. Vase.: xix. 23 Dec 2001.--Type: Athrotaxis D. Don, 1838.--Validated by a description in Latin.--The earlier Nakai ex Koidzumi (Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 11:227.1942), Nakai ex Airy Shaw (in Willis, Dict. Fl. Pl. Ferns, ed. 7:104. 1966 & ed. 8: 107. 1973) and C. R. Gunn & al. (U.S.D.A. Tech. Bull. 1796: 11. 1992) name is cited in synonym.--[PINOPHYTA]. NCU--ATHR

Athyriaceae Alston in Taxon 5:25.25 Mar 1956. Type: Athyrium Roth, 1799.--Validated by a description in Latin.--[PTERIDOPHYTA]. NCU--ATHY

Atriplicaceae Juss., Gen. Pl.: 83.4 Aug 1789 ("Atriplices").--Type: Atriplex L., 1753.--Validated by a description in Latin.--Original place of publication: Durande, Notions Elem. Bot.: 261.1782 ("Atriplices"), validated by a description in French.--First correct orthography: Simonkai, Enum. Fl. Transsilv.: 465. 1887. Other incorrect orthography: Attripliceae J. St.-Hil., Expos. Fam. Nat. 1:196. 1805; Atriplicina Pers., Syn. Pl. 1:292. 1805; Atripliceae Roussel, Fl. Calvados, ed. 2:169. 1806; Atriplicinae Vest, Anleit. Stud. Bot.: 227.1818; Atriplicia Dumort., Comment. Bot.: 54.1822; Atriplicea Roxb. in Antommarchi, Esquisse Fl. Sainte-Helene: 308. 1825; Atriplexia Raf., Fl. Tellur. 3: 44. 1837; Atriplicineae Menge, Cat. Pl. Grudent. Gedan.: 170. 1839; Atcyoliceae Behlen, Real Verb.-Lexicon Forst Jagdkunde 1: 383. 1840; Atriplicieae J. Agardh, Theoria Syst. Pl.: 356. 1858.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--ATRI

Atropaceae Martynov, Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 57.31 Jul-5 Aug 1820.--Type: Atropa L., 1753.--Validated by an indirect reference to an effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published Augier (Essai Nouv. Classif. Veg.: 139, 147. 1801, as "Atropacees" (gallice)) family name with descriptions in French. The Gerardin & Desvaux (Dict. Rais. Bot.: 631. 1817, as "Atropacees" (gallice)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with a reference to Augier (1801). --[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--ATRO

Aucubaceae J. Agardh, Theoria Syst. Pl.: 303. Apr-Sep 1858.--Type: Aucuba Thunb., 1783.--Validated by diagnoses in Latin. The earlier Trattinnick (Gen. Pl.: 50. 1802, as "Aucubae") name is a nom. nud. and its rank uncertain ("familias sucundarias"). The Caffin (Expos. Meth. Regne Veg.: 81. 1822, as "Aucubacees" (gallice)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with a description in French.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--AUCU

Aurantiaceae Juss., Gen. Pl.: 259.4 Aug 1789 ("Aurantia").--Type: Aurantium Mill., 1754.--Validated by a description in Latin.--Original place of publication: Durande, Notions Elem. Bot.: 291. 1782 ("Aurantia"), validated by a description in French. First correct orthography: Martynov, Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 58. 1820. Other incorrect orthography: Aurantiae Sweet, Hort. Suburb. London: 81. 1818; Aurantieae Desf., Catal. Pl. Horti Regii Paris, ed. 3: 234. 1829; Aurantiineae Kostel., Allg. Med.-Pharm. Fl.: 1994. 1836; Auranciaceae Ser., Elem. Bot.: 241. 1845.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--AURA

Austrobaileyaceae (Croizat) Croizat in Cact. Succ. J. (Los Angeles) 15: 64. Mai 1943, nom. cons., basionym: subf. Austrobaileyoideae ("Austrobaileyeae") Croizat in J. Arnold Arbor. 21:404.24 Jul 1940.--Type: Austrobaileya C. T. White, 1933.--Basionym validated by a description in Latin; family name validated by a reference to the basionym.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--AUST

Austrotaxaceae Nakai in Tyosen-Sanrin 158:14.10 Mai 1938.--Austrotaxus Compton, 1922.--Validated by a diagnosis in Latin in a key.--[PINOPHYTA]. NCU--AUSX

Avenaceae Martynov, Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 60. 31 Jul-5 Aug 1820.--Type: Avena L., 1753, nom. cons.--Validated by a reference to an effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published Augier (Essai Nouv. Classif. Veg.: 37, 42. 1801, as "Avenacees" (gallice)) family name with descriptions in French. The Trattinnick (Gen. Pl.: 40. 1802, as "Avenae") name is a nom. nud. and its rank uncertain ("familias sucundarias"). The Gerardin & Desvaux (Dict. Rais. Bot.: 632. 1817, as "Avenacees" (gallice)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with a reference to Augier (1801).--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--AVEN

Averrhoaceae Hutch., Fam. Fl. Pl., ed. 2: 356. Jan-Jul 1959.--Type: Averrhoa L., 1753.--Validated by a description in Latin. The earlier Hutchinson ex Bullock (Taxon 7: 7. 1958) name is a nom. nud.--Incorrect orthography: Averrhoeaceae Thome in Bot. Rev. (Lancaster) 58: 271,329. 1992.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--AVER

Avetraceae Takht., Divers. Classif. Fl.: 524. 1 Mai 1997.--Type: Avetra H. Perrier, 1924.--Validated by a description in Latin.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--AVET

Avicenniaceae (Endl.) Miq. in Lehm., Pl. Preiss. 1: 353. 14-16 Aug 1845 ("Avicennieae"), nom. cons.--Type: Avicennia L., 1753.--Validated by a reference to an unranked Endlicher (Ench. Bot.: 314. 1521 2Aug 1841, as "Avicennieae") name with a description in Latin. Family rank traditionally attributed to Endlicher (1841).--First correct orthography: Schnizlein, Icongr. Fam. Regni Veg. 2: ad t. 137. 1843-1870 (perhaps 1856) or Schnizlein, Anal. Nat. Ordn. Gew.: 12. 1858. Other incorrect orthography: Avicenneae Griseb. in A. Henfr., Rep. Pap. Bot.: 482. 1849; Avicennaceae C. H. Woodw. in J. New York Bot. Gard. 39:118. 1938; Avinnceniaceae Espinosa ex Moldenke, Rrsumr: 236. 1959.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--AVIC

Axarcodia: The Rafinesque (Anal. Nat.: 179. 1815, Amer. Monthly Mag. & Crit. Rev. 2:118. 1817 & Fl. Tellur. 1: 28. 1837) name is a nom. nud.

Axlepiadaceae--see Asclepiadaceae.

Ayeniae: The Trattinnick (Gen. Pl.: 60. 1802) name is a nom. nud. and its rank uncertain ("familias sucundarias").--Ayenia L., 1756.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Azaleaceae Vest, Anleit. Stud. Bot.: 272, 294. 1818 ("Azaleoideae").--Type: Azalea L., 1753, nom. rej. ([equivalent to] Loiseleuria Desv., 1813, nom. cons.)--Validated by a description in German. The earlier Rafinesque (Anal. Nat.: 188.1815, as "Azalidia") name is a nom. nud.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--AZAL

Azederachaceae: The Schultes (in Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg. 5: xxxviii. 1819) and Pfeiffer (Nom. Bot. 1:345.1872) name (as "Azedarachiae") is a nom. nud.--Azedarach Mill., 1754.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Azimaceae Wight & Gardner in Calcutta J. Nat. Hist. 6: 52. Apr 1845. Type: Azima Lam., 1783.--Validated by a description in English.--Incorrect orthography: Acimaceae Schnizl., Anal. Nat. Ordn. Gew.: 12. 1858.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--AZIM

Azollaceae Wettst., Handb. Syst. Bot. 2: 77. Nov 1903.--Type: Azolla Lam., 1783.--Validated by a description in German. The earlier Payer (Bot. Crypt.: 215. 1850, as "Azollres" (gallice)) and Tieghem (Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., ser. 8, 14: 261,263. 1901, as "Azollacres" (gallice)) names are effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and are associated with descriptions in French.--[PTERIDOPHYTA]. NCU--AZOL

Baccataceae: The Dulac (Fl. Hautes-Pyrenees: 460, 539. 1867) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with a description in French.

Baccatae: The Sprengel (Gen. P. 2: 505. 1831) name is a nom. nud. and was altered subsequently (p. 813) to Beslerieae; see Besleriaceae.

Balaniferae: The Loiseleur-Deslongchamps (Fl. Gall., ed. 2, 1: xxviii. 5-14 Jul 1828) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with a description in Latin.

Balanitaceae M. Roem., Fam. Nat. Syn. Monogr. 1: 26.1846 ("Balaniteae"), nom. cons. Type: Balanites Delile, 1813, nom. cons.--Validated by a description in Latin and a reference to an unranked Endlicher (Ench. Bot.: 547. 15-21 Aug 1841, as "Balaniteae") name with a description in Latin. Family rank traditionally attributed to Endlicher (1841).--First correct orthography: Exell & Ascenqao Mendonga, Consp. Fl. Angol. 1: 282,396. 1951.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--BALT*

Balanopaceae Benth. & Hook.f., Gen. Pl. 3: v, 341.7 Feb 1880 ("Balanopseae"), nom. cons.--Type: Balanops Baill., 1871.--Validated by a description in Latin.--First correct orthography: Caruel in Atti Reale Accad. Lincei, Mem. Cl. Sci. Fis., ser. 3, 10: 249. 1881. Other incorrect orthography: Balanopideae Drude in Schenk, Handb. Bot. 3(2): 409. 1886; Balanopsaceae Kanitz, Novrk. Attek.: 77. 1887; Balanopsidaceae Engl., in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. Nachtr. [1:] 114. 1897.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--BALP

Balanophoraceae Rich. in Mem. Mus. Hist. Nat. 8: 429. 18 Nov 1822 ("Balanophoreae"), nom. cons.--Type: Balanophora J. R. Forst. & G. Forst., 1775.--Validated by a description in Latin.--First correct orthography: Burnett, Outl. Bot.: 1075, 1101. Jun 1835 or Trinius, Gen. Pl.: 2. 1835. Other incorrect orthography: Balanophorae Bertol., Prael. Rei Herb.: 261. 1827; Balanoforeae Becc. in Malesia 1: 99. 1877.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--BALA

Balanopsaceae--see Balanopaceae.

Balanopsidaceae--see Balanopaceae.

Balantiaceae: The Dulac (Fl. Hautes-Pyrenees: 21,442,539. 1867) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with a diagnosis in French in a key. The name is not based on the genus Balanites Delilie (1813-1814), for that see Balanitaceae.

Balbisiaceae: The Baillon (in Payer, Lemons Fam. Nat.: 397. [1860-] 1872, as "Balbisires" (gallice)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with a description in French. Balbisia Cav., 1804, nom. cons.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Baloghiaceae: The M. G. Baumann-Bodenheim (Syst. Fl. Neu-Caled. 4: 39, 127. 1989 & 5: 17. 1989) name is a nom. nud. The Wielgorskaya (Dict. Gen. Names Seed Pl.: 19. 1995) name is cited in synonymy.--Baloghia Endl., 1833.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Balsamaceae--see Balsamifluae.

Balsameaceae Dumort., Anal. Fam. Pl.: 36, 41. 1829.--Type: Balsamea Gled., nom. rej. [= Commiphora Jacq., 1797, nom. cons.].--Validated by a diagnosis in French in a key.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. BALM

Balsameae--see Balsaminaceae.

Balsamifluae: The Blume & J. Fischer (Fl. Javae 17-18: 3. 1829) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with a description in Latin.--Other orthography: Balsamaceae Lindl., Key Bot.: 58. Sep 1835; Balsamiflueae Brongn., Enum. Pl. Mus. Paris: 109. 1843; Balsamifluaceae Kavina in Bot. Zemed. 2: 444. 1924. The name is not based on the later genus name Balsamiflua Griff. (1848).

Balsaminaceae Bercht. & J. Presl, Pfir. Rostlin: 221.1820 ("Balsamineae"), nom. cons.--Type: Balsamina Mill., 1754.--Validated by a description in Czech.--Isonym: A. Rich. in Bory, Dict. Class. Hist. Nat. 2:173.31 Dec 1822 ("Balsamineae"), validated by a diagnosis in French. The earlier Augier (Essai Nouv. Classif. Veg.: 113, 114.1801, as "Balsamiers" (gallice)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with descriptions in French. The Gerardin & Desvaux (Dict. Rais. Bot.: 633.1817, as "Balsamiers" (gallice)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with a diagnosis in French and a reference to Augier (1801). The Caffin (Expos. Meth. Regne Veg.: 70. Feb 1822, as "Balsaminees") family name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with a description in French.--First correct orthography: Dumortier, Anal. Fam. Pl.: 46. 1829. Other incorrect orthography: Balsaminae Ruthe, Fl. Mark Brandenburg: 141. 1827; Balsameae Eaton, Man. Bot., ed. 6: 23. 1833.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--BALS

Bambusaceae Burnett, Outl. Bot.: 375. Jun 1835.--Type: Bambusa Schreb., 1789, nom. cons.--Validated by a diagnosis in English. The earlier Trattinnick (Gen. Pl.: 40. 1802, as "Bambusae") name is a nom. nud. and its rank uncertain ("familias sucundarias").--Isonym: Hochst., Flora 31: 140, 152.7 Mar 1848, with diagnoses in German. Family name traditionally attributed to Nakai (Chosakuronbum Mokuroku [Ord. Fam. Trib. Nov.]: 223.20 Jul 1943) who provided a reference to an effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 33.7) published Link (Hort. Berol. 1 : 272.1827, as "Bambusaceae") name with a diagnosis in Latin; see Buchheim (Willdenowia 3: 375. 1963).--Incorrect orthography: Bambuseae Sugaw., Ill. Fl. Saghalien: 309. 1937. [MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--NCU--BAMB

Bananeae: The Reichenbach (in Mossier, Handb. Gewachsk., ed. 2: xix, xxv. 1827) name is a nom. nud. The Heynhold (Nat. Pflanzensyst.: 58.1840) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with a description in German.

Banisteriaceae: The Caffin (Expos. Mrth. Regne Veg.: 72. 1822, as "Banisteriees" (gallice)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with a description in French. Type: Banisteria L., 1753, nom. rej. [= Heteropteris Kunth, 1822, nom. cons.]--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Baobabs: The Augier (Essai Nouv. Classif. Veg.: 191, 195.1801) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Arts. 18.1, 18.4) published, and is associated with descriptions in French. Although the illegitimate genus Baobab Adans. (1763 [equivalent to] Adansonia L., 1753) was available, Augier only accepted Adansonia.

Barbaceniaceae Am. in Encycl. Brit., ed. 7:134.9 Mar 1832 ("Barbacenieae").--Type: Barbacenia Vand., 1788.--Validated by a description in English.--First correct orthography: Reveal in Phytologia 74: 233. 1993.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--BARN

Barbeuiaceae Nakai in J. Jap. Bot. 18: 105. Mar 1942, basionym: subtrib. Barbeuiinae ("Barbeuinae") H. Walter in Engl., Pflanzenr. IV, 83 (Heft 39): 28, 63.1 Jun 1909.--Type: Barbeuia Thouars, 1806.--Basionym validated by a diagnosis in German in a key and a diagnosis in Latin; family name validated by a description in Latin in a key and a reference to the basionym. Walter also refers to a Baillon (Hist. Pl. 4: 46, 52.1872, as trib. Barbeuieae) name with a diagnosis in French, but as the above name is validated without reference to Baillon, the above basionym is retained.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--BARU

Barbeyaceae Rendle in Oliv. (ed. Prain), Fl. Trop. Aft. 6(2): 14. Mar 1916, nom. cons.--Type: Barbeya Schweinf., 1892.--Validated by a description in English.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--BARB

Barclayaceae H. L. Li in Amer. Midl. Naturalist 54:40.27 Aug 1955, basionym: trib. Barclayeae Endl., Gen. Pl.: 900. Nov 1839.--Type: Barclaya Wall., 1827, nom. cons.--Basionym validated by a diagnosis in Latin; family name validated by a description in Latin and a full and direct reference to the basionym. The earlier A. Kemer (Pflanzenleben 2: 699. 1891) and B. M. Koso-Poljansky (Vved. Filog. Sist. Vyssh. Rast.: unpaged diagram. 1922, as "Barclay.") names are nom. nud.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--BARC

Barreriaceae: The Martins (Consp. Regni Veg.: 41. 1835) and Bullock (Taxon 7: 7. 1958) names are nom. nud. The Post & Kuntze (Lex. Gen. Phan.: 663,710. 1903, as "Barrereaceae"), Barnhart (Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 12: 16. 1895), Moldenke (Prel. Class. Pl. Kingd.: 19. 1944), Airy Shaw (in Willis, Dict. Fl. Pl. Ferns, ed. 7: 120. 1966 & ed. 8: 124. 1973), Hutchinson (Fam. Fl. Pl., ed. 3: 395. 1973) and R. D. Gibbs (Chemotax. Fl. Pl.: 905.1974) names are cited in synonymy.--Barreria Scop., 1777, nom. illeg. (Art. 52.1: [equivalent to] Poraqueiba Aubl., 1775).--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Barringtoniaceae F. Rudolphi, Syst. Orb. Veg.: 56. 1830 ("Barringtonieae"), nom. cons., basionym: trib. Barringtonieae DC. in Schtdl., Linnaea 2: 505. Jul 1827.--Type: Barringtonia J. R. Forst. & G. Forst., 1775, nom. cons.--Basionym validated by a reference to an effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published Candolle (in Bory, Dict. Class. Hist. Nat. 11: 401.10 Feb 1827, as trib. "Barringtonires" (gallice)) name with a description in French; family name validated by a description in Latin and a reference to a later Candolle (Prodr. 3: 288, 318. mid Mar 1828) tribal name with a diagnosis and description in Latin that is corrected (Art. 33.4) to the above basionym.--First correct orthography: Lindley, Veg. Kingd.: 754. 1846. Other incorrect orthography: Baringtonieae Seem., Bot. Voy. Herald: 126. 1854.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--BARR*

Basellaceae Raf., Fl. Tellur. 3: 44. 1837 ("Basellides"), nom. cons.--Type: Basella L., 1753.--Validated by a diagnosis in English.--Original place of publication: Durande, Notions Elrm. Bot.: 261. 1782 ("Basellae"), validated by a description in French.--Isonym: Moq., Chenop. Monogr. Enum.: x. Mai 1840, validated by a description in Latin. The Trattinnick (Gen. PL.: 53.1802, as "Basellae") name is a nom. nud. and its rank uncertain ("familias sucundarias").--Other incorrect orthography: Baselleae Brongn., Enum. Pl. Mus. Paris: 102. 1843; Basellae Lefroy in Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus. 25: 101. 1884. --[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--BASE

Bataceae Mart. ex Perleb, Clav. Class.: 17.1838 ("Batideae"), nom. cons.--Type: Batis P. Browne, 1756. Validated by a description in Latin.--Isonym: Mart. ex Meisn., Pl. Vasc. Gen.: Comm.: 260. 13-15 Feb 1842 ("Batideae"), validated by a reference to Perleb (1838). The earlier Martius (Consp. Regni Veg.: 13. 1835, as "Batideae") name is a nom. nud.--First correct orthography: Lanjouw & al., [Montreal Code] in Regnum Veg. 23: 188. 1961. Other incorrect orthography: Batiaceae Oudem., Leerb. Plantenk. 2(2): 537. 1870; Batidaceae Camel in Atti Reale Accad. Lincei, Mem. Cl. Sci. Fis., ser. 3, 10: 249. 1881; Batidineae Drnde in Schenck, Handb. Bot. 3(2): 407.1886.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--BAT+*

Baueraceae Lindl., Intr. Nat. Syst. Bot.: 50. Sep 1830.--Type: Bauera Banks ex Andrews, 1801.--Validated by a description in English.--Incorrect orthography: Bauereae Bromhead in Edinburgh New Philos. J. 20:252.1836 (family rank uncertain); Baucraceae Albridge in London J. Bot. 1: 595.1842; Baueriaceae Nakai, Chosakuronbun Mokuroku [Ord. Fam. Trib. Nov.]: 244. 1943.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--BAUE

Bauhiniaceae Martynov, Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 67.31 Jul-5 Aug 1820 ("Bauhineae"). Type: Bauhinia L., 1753.--Validated by a reference to an effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published Augier (Essai Nouv. Classif. Veg.: 181, 183. 1801, as "Bauhinires" (gallice)) family name with descriptions in French. The earlier Rafinesque (Anal. Nat.: 183. 1815, as "Bauhinidia") is a nom. nud. The Gerardin & Desvanx (Dict. Rais. Bot.: 634. 1817, as "Bauhinires" (gallice)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with a diagnosis in French and a reference to Augier (1801).--First correct orthography: Reveal in Phytologia 74: 220. 1993.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--BAUH

Baxteriaceae Takht. in Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow & Leningrad) 81(2): 85. 1996.--Type: Baxteria R. Br. ex Hook., nom. cons.--Validated by a diagnosis in Latin. The earlier Takhtajan (Bot. Rev. (Lancaster) 46: 308. 1980), Bedell & Reveal (Phytologia 51: 73, 118. 1982) and Reveal (Ind. Nom. Supragen. Pl. Vasc. Proj. Database, 1995) name is cited in synonymy. The Takhtajan (Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow & Leningrad) 79(12): 66. Dec 1994) name is effectively but not validly published (Art. 41.1) as it is associated with a reference in Latin to the generic description, also in Latin, given by Hooker (1843). --[MAGNOL1OPHYTA]. NCU--BAXT*

Begoniaceae Bercht. & J. Presl, Prir. Rostlin: 270.1820 ("Begoniae"), nom. cons.--Type: Begonia L., 1753.--Validated by a description in Czech.--Isonym: C. Agardh, Aphor. Bot.: 200. 13 Jun 1824, validated by a description in Latin. The earlier Trattinnick (Gen. Pl.: 48. 1802, as "Begoniae") name is a nom. nud. and its rank uncertain ("familias sucundarias"). The Rafinesque (Anal. Nat.: 195.1815, as "Begonidia"), Bonpland (Descr. Pl. Malmaison: 151, 153.1817), R. Brown (in J. H. Tuckey, Narr. Exped. Zaire: 464. 1818), Ker-Gawler (Bot. Reg. 4: ad t. 284. 1818, 5: ad t. 364. 1819) and Candolle (Throria Elem. Bot.: 247. 1819, as "Begoniacres" (gallice) names are nom. nud.--Other incorrect orthography: Begonoides Raf., Sylva Tellur.: 168.1838; Begnoniacea K. Koch in Bot. Zeitung (Berlin) 1: 68. 1843; Begonieae Willk. in Anleit. Stud. Bot. 2: 297. 1854.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--BEGO

Behniaceae Conran, M. W. Chase & Rudall, Kew Bull. 52: 996. Dec 1997.--Behnia Didr., 1855.--Validated by a description in Latin.--Isonym: Reveal in Phytologia 82:273.23 Jan 1998, validated by a description in Latin. The earlier G. Dahlgren (Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 100: 199, 202. 1989) name is a nom. nud.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--BEHN

Belangeraceae J. Agardh, Theoria Syst. Pl.: 337. Apr-Sep 1858 ("Belangereae").--Type: Belangera Cambess., 1829.--Validated by diagnoses in Latin.--First correct orthography: Bullock in Taxon 7: 7. 1958.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--BELA

Belloniaceae Martynov, Teknno-Bot. Slovar: 67.1820 ("Bellonides").--Type: Bellonia L., 1753.--Validated by a reference to an effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published Augier (Essai Nouv. Classif. Veg.: 156, 164. 1801, as "Bellonides" (gallice)) family name with descriptions in French. The Gerardin & Desvaux (Diet. Rais. Bot.: 635. 1817, as "Bellonides" (gallice)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with a diagnosis in French and a reference to Augier (1801).--First correct orthography: Reveal in Phytologia 74:229.1993.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--BELL*

Belvisiaceae R. Br. in Trans. Linn. Soc. London 13: 222. Mai-Jun 1821 ("Belviseae"), nom. illeg. (Art. 18.3).--Type: Belvisia Desv., 1814, nom. illeg. (Art. 52.1: [not equivalent to] Napleonaea Beauv., 1804).--Validated by a description in Latin.--First correct orthography: Lindley, Intr. Nat. Syst. Bot.: 180. 1830. Other incorrect orthography: Belvisieae Lindl., Nix. Pl.: 18.1833. [MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Bembiciaceae R. C. Keating & Takht. in Bot. Zhum. (Moscow & Lenningrad) 81(2): 85. 1996. Type: Bembicia Oliv., 1883.--Validated by a diagnosis in Latin. The earlier Keating & Takhtajan (Bot. Zhum. (Moscow & Lenningrad) 79(1): 96. 1994) name is effectively but not validly published (Art. 41.1) as it is associated with a reference in English to the generic description, in Latin, given by Oliver. The Reveal (Ind. Nom. Supragen. Pl. Vasc. Proj. Database, 1995) and Wielgorskaya (Diet. Gen. Names Seed Pl.: 20. 1995) name is a nom. nud.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--BEMB*

Bennettiaceae R. Br. ex Schnizl., Iconogr. Fam. Regni Veg. 3: ad t. 172**. 1846-1866 ("Bennettieae"), nom. illeg. (Art. 18.3).--Type: Bennettia R. Br., 1852, nom. illeg. (Art. 53.1: non Gray, 1821).--Validated by descriptions in Latin and German. The earlier R. Brown (in J. J. Bennett, Pl. Java. Rar.: 250. 1852) and probably earlier Schnizlein (Anal. Nat. Ordn. Gew.: 13. 1858) name is a nom. nud.--First correct orthography: Bamhart in Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 22:15.1895.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Berberidaceae Juss., Gen. Pl.: 286. 4 Aug 1789 ("Berberides"), nom. cons.--Type: Berberis L., 1753.--Validated by a description in Latin. The earlier Duchesne (Man. Bot. Cat.: 16.1764, as "Berberidis") name is a nom. nud.--Original place of publication: Durande, Notions Elem. Bot.: 283. 1782 ("Berberides"), validated by a description in French.--First correct orthography: Desvaux, Fl. Anjou: 293. 1827. Other incorrect orthography: Berberinae Batsch, Syn. Univ. Anal. Gen. Pl.: 385. 1794 or Dispos. Gen. Pl. Europ.: 118. 1794; Berberideae Vent., Tabl. Regne Veg. 3: 83. 1799; Berberidia Raf., Anal. Nat.: 180. 1815; Berberieeae Gwinner, Pfl.-Syst.: 101. 1832; Berberaceae Burnett, Outl. Bot.: 831, 1121. 1835; Berberisaceae Ser., Fl. Pharm.: 89. 1852; Berberidineae Drude in Schenk, Handb. Bot. 3(2): 403. 1886. --[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--BERB

Berberidopsidaceae (Veldkamp) Takht. in Bot. Zhum. (Moscow & Leningrad) 70: 1691. 13 Dec 1985, basionym: trib. Berberidopsideae Veldkamp in Blumea 30: 24. 12 Nov 1984.--Type: Berberidopsis Hook.f., 1862.--Basionym validated by a diagnosis in Latin; family name validated by a full and direct reference to the basionym.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--BERD

Berryaceae Doweld, Tent. Syst. Pl. Vasc.: xxxvii. 23 Dec 2001.--Type: Berrya Roxb., 1820, nom. et orth. cons.--Validated by a description in Latin. --[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--BERD

Bersamaceae Doweld, Pl. Syst. Evol. 227:83.7 Mai 2001.--Type: Bersama Fresen., 1837.--Validated by a description in Latin.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--BERS

Bertyaceae J. Agardh, Theoria Syst. Pl.: 190. Apr-Sep 1858.--Type: Bertya Planch., 1845. Validated by diagnoses in Latin.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--BERT

Berzeliaceae Nakai, Chosakuronbun Mokuroku [Ord. Fam. Trib. Nov.]: 241.20 Ju1 1943.-Type: Berzelia Brongn., 1826.--Validated by a description in Latin in a key.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--BERZ

Besleriaceae Raf., Sylva Tellur.: 70. Oct-Dec 1838 ("Beslerides").--Type: Besleria L., 1753.--Validated by a diagnosis in English. The earlier L. Richard ex Jussieu (in Mem. Mus. Hist. Nat. 5: 247. 1819, as "Besleriees" (gallice)), L. Richard ex C. Sprengel (Gen. Pl. 2: 813. 1831) and Seringe & Guillard (Essai Formul. Bot.: 33. 1835) names are nom. nud. First correct orthography: R. Brown in Bennett, Pl. Java. Rar.: 107. 1840. [MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--BESL

Betaceae Burnett, Outl. Bot.: 591, 1091, 1142. Jun 1835.--Type: Beta L., 1753.--Validated by diagnoses in English.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--BET+

Betulaceae Gray, Nat. Arr. Brit. Pl. 2: 222, 243.1 Nov 1821 ("Betulideae"), nom. cons. Note: If this family is united with Corylaceae, the name Betulaceae must be used.--Type: Betula L., 1753.--Validated by an English diagnosis in a key and a description. The earlier A. Richard ex Kunth (in Humb., Bonpl. & Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. Pl. 2: ed. fol.: 16, ed. qu.: 20. 1817, as "Betulinae") name is a nom. nud.--First correct orthography: A. Richard, Bot. Med.: 151.1822. Other incorrect orthography: Betulinae Kunth, Syn. Pl. 1: 363. 1822; Betulineae A. Rich., Nouv. Elem. Bot., ed. 4: 562. 1828; Betuleae E. Meyer, Preuss. Pflanzengatt.: 75. 1839 or K. Koch, Nat. Syst. Pflanzenr.: 140. 1839; Betasaceae Ten., Cat. Orto Bot. Napoli: 12. 1845.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--BETU

Bicornaceae: The Dulac (Fl. Hautes-Pyrenees: 265, 540. 1867) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with a description in French.

Bicornes: The Gerard (Fl. Gallo-Prov.: xxviii, 436. 1761), Linnaeus (Gen. Pl., ed. 6: unpaged [607]. 1764), Wulff (Fl. Borass.: 221. 1765), Oeder (Elem. Bot.: 154. 1766), and Reichard (Linn. Gen. Pl., ed. 7: unpaged [598, 602]. 1778) name is a nom. nud. The Giseke (Prael. Ord. Nat. Pl.: 337. 1792) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with a description in Latin.

Biebersteiniaceae Schnizl., Anal. Nat. Ordn. Gew.: 14. 1858 ("Biebersteinieae").--Type: Biebersteinia Stephan, 1806.--Validated by a description in German and Latin and a reference to an unranked Endlicher (Ench. Bot.: 618. 15-21 Aug 1841, as "Biebersteinieae") name with a description in Latin. Family rank traditionally attributed to Endlicher (1841).--First correct orthography: Bullock in Taxon 7: 8. 1958.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--BIEB*

Bifariaceae Nakai in Bull. Natl. Sci. Mus. Tokyo 31 : 46. Mar 1952.--Type: Bifaria Tiegh.,1896.--Validated by a diagnosis in Latin in a key.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--BIFA

Bignoniaceae Juss., Gen. Pl.: 137.4 Aug 1789 ("Bignoniae"), nom. cons.--Type: Bignonia L., 1753, nom. cons.--Validated by a description in Latin.--Original place of publication: Durande, Notions Elem. Bot.: 265.1782 ("Bignonia"), validated by a description in French.--First correct orthography: Persoon, Syn. Pl. 2: 168. 1807. Other incorrect orthography: Bignoneae Vent., Tabl. Regne Veg. 3: 402. 1799; Binogniae Gerardin & Desv., Dict. Rais. Bot.: 39. 1817; Bignonioideae Vest, Anleit. Stud. Bot.: 272, 295. 1818; Bignoniacae Link, Enum. Hort. Berol. Alt. 1: 31. 1821; Bignonidia and Bignonidiae Dumort., Comment. Bot.: 60. 1822; Bignoninaceae Eaton, Man. Bot., ed. 6:21.1833; Bignoniacea Eaton, Man. Bot., ed. 7: 28. 1836; Bignonides Raf., New Fl. N. Amer. 3: 9. 1838.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--BIGN

Bilabiata: The Rafinesque (Fl. Tellur. 3: 84. 1837) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with a diagnosis in English.

Bilabiatae: The Trattinnick (Gen. Pl.: 5, 62. 1802) and Grrardin & Desvaux (Dict. Rais. Bot.: 636. 1817 & ed. 2: 636. 1822) name is a nom. nud. The Pfeiffer (Nomencl. Bot. 1(1): 410. 1872) name is cited in synonymy but is associated with an unranked Gaudin (Fl. Helv. 4: 1. 1829) name with a diagnosis in Latin

Biligularia: The Dumortier (Comment. Bot.: 55.1822) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with a reference to an effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published Candolle (Ann. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. 16:145 1810, as "tribus labiatiflores" (gallice)) name with a description in French.--Other orthography: Biligulares Dumort., Comment. Bot.: 55. 1822; Biligulaceae R. D. Gibbs, Chemotax. Fl. Pl.: 910. 1974.

Biloculares: The Gerard (Fl. Gallo-Prov.: xxvi, 320. 1761) and Wulff (Fl. Boruss.: 173. 1765) names are nom. nud.

Bischofiaceae Airy Shaw in Kew Bull. 18:252.8 Dec 1965, basionym: subtrib. Bischofiinae Mall. Arg., Linnaea 34: 64. Mar 1865 ("Bischoffieae").--Type: Bischofia Blume, 1827.--Basionym validated by a diagnosis in Latin; family name validated by a description in Latin and a full and direct reference to the basionym.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--BISC

Bivalvia: The Hoffmann (Deutschl. F1. 2: [3], 14. 1796) name is not validly (Arts. 18.1, 32.1(c)) published.

Bixaceae Kunth, Malvac., Buttner., Tiliac.: 17. 1822 ("Bixinae"), nom. cons.--Type: Bixa L., 1753.--Validated by a description in Latin.--Isonym: Link, Handbuch 2: 371. Jan-Aug 1831 ("Bixinae"), validated by descriptions in Latin and German. The earlier Batsch (Syn. Univ. Anal. Gen. Pl.: 387. 1794, as "Bixae"), Turpin (in F. Cuvier, Dict. Sci. Nat., Pl. Bot.: 3: 3.1816-1829, as "Bixinres" (gallice) and Jussieu (in Bory, Dict. Class Hist. Nat. 2: 352. 1822, as "Bixinres" (gallice) names are nom. nud.

First correct orthography: Horaninow, Prim. Lin. Syst. Nat.: 90.1834. Other incorrect orthography: Bixacceae Canizares, Fl. Cubana Cat.: 5. 1901.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU- BIX+*

Blackwelliaceae--see Blakwelliaceae.

Blaeriae: The Trattinnick (Gen. Pl.: 52. 1802) name is a nom. nud. and its rank uncertain ("familias sucundarias").-- Blaeria L., 1753.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Blakeaceae Rchb. ex Bamhart in Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 22: 19. 15 Jan 1895.--Type: Blakea P. Brown, 1756.--Validated by references to a Jussieu (Gen. Pl.: 328.4 Aug 1789, as "'Melastomae") family name with a description in Latin as well as to Rhexiaceae 9 434. 1822, as "Blackwelliacres" (gallice), & ed. 3: 464. 1825, as "Blackwelliacees" (gallice)) name is a nom. nud.--First correct orthography: Reveal in Phytologia 74:214.1993. Other incorrect orthography: Blackvelliaceae Bertol., Prael. Rei Herb.: 262. 1827; Blackwelliaceae Schultz Sch., Nat. Syst. Pflanzenr.: 444. 1832; Blackwelliae V. Peter, Novenyt.: 173. 1836.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]

Blandfordiaceae R. Dahlgren & Clifford in R. Dahlgren & al., Fam. Monocot.: 155. 1985.--Type: Blandfordia Sm., 1804, nom. cons.--Validated by a description in Latin. Bemhardi (Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., ser. 2, 18: 302. 1842) considered "Blandfordia comme le type d'une nouvelle petite famille," gave a brief diagnosis in French, but did not propose a name, deciding instead to consider it a tribe of Liliaceae (p. 308).--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--BLAN

Blattiaceae Engl., Syllabus: 156. Apr 1892.--Type: Blatti Rheede ex Adans., 1763, horn. rej. [= Sonneratia L.f., 1782, nora. cons.].--Validated by a description in German.--Isonym: Nied. in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. III, 7:16. Jun 1892, validated by a description in German.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--BLAT

Blechnaceae (C. Presl) Copel., [Gen. Fil.] in Ann. Cryptog. Phytopathol. 5: 155. medio Sep 1947, basionym: trib. Blechneae ("Blechnaceae") C. Presl, [Epimel. Bot. 103.] in Abh. Konigl. Bohm. Ges. Wiss., ser. 5, 6: 463. ante Oct 1851.--Type: Blechnum L., 1753.--Basionym validated by a description in Latin; family name validated by a reference to the basionym. The earlier Rabenhorst (Linnaea 10: 216. 1835, as "Blechnoideae") name is a nom. nud. The Ching (Sunyatsenia 5: 210, 241. 1940) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 36.1) published, and is associated with a description in English. The (Christensen) Herter (Revista Sudamer. Bot. 6:130. 1940, basionym: subfam. Blechnoideae Chr. in Verdoorn, Man. Pteridol.: 540. 1938) name is effectively but not validly published (Art. 41.1) as the basionym is a nom. nud The Copeland (Sunyatsenia 6: 176. 1941) name is cited in synonymy.--[PTERIDOPHYTA]. NCU--BLEC

Blepharoearyaceae Airy Shaw in Kew Bull. 18:254.8 Dec 1965.--Type: Blepharocarya F. Muell., 1878.--Validated by a description in Latin.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--BLEP

Blisseaceae--see Blyxaceae.

Blitaceae Post & Kuntze, Lex. Gen. Phan.: 637, 710.20-30 Nov 1903.--Type: Blitum L. 1753.--Validated by a reference to a pre- 1789 Adanson (Fam. Pl.: 2:258.1763, as "Blita") family name with a description in French, the original place of publication for the name. [MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--BLIT

Blyxaceae Nakai in J. Jap. Bot. 24: 14. Dec 1949, basionym: trib. Blyxeae Aschers. & Gurcke in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. II, 1: 247. Mar 1889.--Type: Blyxa Noronha ex Thouars, 1806.--Basionym validated by a diagnosis in German in a key; family name validated by a diagnosis in Latin and a reference to the basionym. The earlier A. Kerner (Pflanzenleben 2: 645. 1891, as "Blyxeaceae") and Cacciamali (Revista Ital. Sci. Nat. 17:139.1897, as "Blisseacee" (italice)) names are nom. nud. The Barnhart (Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 12: 7. 1895, as "Blyxeaceae") and Moldenke (Prel. Class. Pl. Kingd.: 22. 1944) names are cited in synonymy.--Incorrect orthography: Blisseaceae R. D. Gibbs, Chemotax. Fl. Pl.: 1110. 1974.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--BLYX

Bocconiaceae: The Conzatti & L. C. Smith (Fl. Sin. Mexic. 2: 19, cuadro 14. 1895, as "'Bocconiaceas" (hispanice)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with a description in Spanish.--Bocconia L., 1753.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Boerhaviaceae: The Dostal (Bot. Nomenkl.: 211. 1957) and R. D. Gibbs (Chemotax. Fl. Pl.: 911. 1974) names are cited in synonymy.--Boerhavia L., 1753.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Boerlagellaceae H. J. Lam in Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg ser. 3, 7: 250. Feb 1925.--Type: Boerlagella Cogn., 1891.--Validated by a description in Latin.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--BOER

Bolacaceae: The Barnhart (Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 22: 20. 1895, as "Bolaceae") and Moldenke (Prel. Class. Pl. Kingd.: 20. 1944) names are cited in synonymy.--Bolax Comm. ex Juss., 1789. Bamhart incorrectly attributed family rank to an effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly published (Arts. 32.1 (a) and 33.7) Reichenbach (in Mossler, Handb. Gewachsk., ed. 2, 1:45.1827, as Sect. "Bolaceae") name.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Bolbitidaceae (Pic. Serm.) Ching in Acta Phytotax. Sin. 16(3): 15. Aug 1978, basionym: trib. Bolbitideae Pic. Serm. in Webbia 23:381.30 Jun 1969.--Type: Bolbitis Schott, 1835.--Basionym validated by a description in Latin; family name validated by a full and direct correctable reference to the basionym.-- [PTERIDOPHYTA].--BOLB

Bolivariaceae Griseb., Gen. Sp. Gent.: 20. Oct 1838.--Type: Bolivaria Cham. & Schltd., 1826. Validated by a description in Latin.--Incorrect orthography: Bolivarieae Endl., Ench. Bot.: 285. 1841.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--BOLI

Bombacaceae Kunth, Malvac., Buttner., Tiliac.: 5.20 Apt 1822 ("Bombaceae"), nora. cons.--Type: Bombax L., 1753, nom. cons.--Validated by a description in Latin.--First correct orthography: K. Schumann in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. III, 6: 53. 1890. Other incorrect orthography: Bombacineae Kostel., Allg. Med.-Pharm. Fix 1870. 1836; Bombaxides Raf., Sylva Tellur.: 71. 1838.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--BOMB

Bommeriaceae: The Lohmueller (www.f-lohmueller.de/botany/fam/b/Bommeriaceae.htm. [webpage.] 2004) and the M. Hassler & B. Swale (homepages.caverock.net.nz/-bj/fern/bommeria.htm. [webpage.] 2004) name is a nora. nud.--Bommeria Fourn., 1877.--[PTERIDOPHYTA].

Bonnetiaceae (Bartl.) L. Beauvis. ex Nakai in Bull. Natl. Sci. Mus. Tokyo 22: 25. 1948, basionym: trib. Bonnetieae Bartl., Ord. Nat. Pl.: 336. Sep 1830, as "Bonnetiea".--Type: Bonnetia Marti., 1826, nom. cons.--Basionym validated by a diagnosis in Latin; family name validated by the citation in synonymy of several validly published infrafamilial taxa, the earliest of which is accepted here as basionym (Art. 35.2). The earlier Martius & Zuccarini ex Nees & Martius (in Wied-Neuw., NovaActa Phys.-Med. Acad. Caes. Leop.-Carol. Nat. Cur. 12: 36. 1824, as "Bonnetiae"), Martius & Zuccarini (Flora 8:29-32.1825, as "Bonnetieae'), Planchon (London J. Bot. 6: 592. 1847, as "Bonnetieae'), and Pfeiffer (Nomencl. Bot. 1(1): 437. 1872, as "Bonnetiae") names are nom. nud. The L. Beauvisage (Contr. Etud. Anat. Fam. Ternstroem.: 256,452. 1920, as "Bonnetiacees" (gallice)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with a description in French.--Incorrect orthography: Bonnettiaceae Takht., Proish. Pokryt. Rast.: 89. 1954.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--BONN

Bonplandiaceae: The Baillon (in Payer, Lemons Fam. Nat.: 200. [1860-] 1872, as "Bonplandiees" (gallice)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with a description in French.--Bonplandia Cav., 1800.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Bontiaceae Horan., Prim. Lin. Syst. Nat.: 77.2 Nov 1834 ("Bontiaceae (Myoporin.)"). Type: Bontia L., 1753.--Validated by a description in Latin and proposed as an alternative name (Art. 34.2).--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--BONT

Boopidaceae Cass. in Bull. Sci. Soc. Philom. Paris 1816: 160. 12 Oct 1816 ("Boopideae").--Type: Boopis Juss., 1803.--Validated by a description in French.--Isonym: Bercht. & J. Presl, Prir. Rostlin: 255. 1820 ("Boopideae'), validated by a description in Czech and a reference to Cassini (1816).--First correct orthography: Neger in Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 23: 409. 1896.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--BOOP

Boraginaceae Juss., Gen. Pl.: 128. 4 Aug 1789 ("Borragineae"), nom. cons.--Type: Borago L., 1753.--Validated by a description in Latin.--Original place of publication: Adanson, Fam. Pl. 2: 173. 1763 ("Borragines"), validated by a description in French.--First correct orthography: Burnett, Outl. Bot.: 1005, 1095, 1104. 1835. Other incorrect orthography: Boragineae Bertuch, Taf. Allg. Naturgesch. Gewachs-Reich, ed. 2: vii. 1806; Borragines Raf., Fl. Ludov.: 45. 1817; Boreagineae Beilschm. in Flora (Bieb.) 16(2): 115. 1833; Boragines Raf., New Fl. N. Amer. 4:17. 1838; Borragineas A. A. da Fonseca Benerides in Brot., Comp. Bot. 2: 386. 1839; Borraginaceae Ser., Fl. Pharm.: 492. 1852.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--BORA

Borassaceae Schultz Sch., Nat. Syst. Pflanzenr.: 318. 1832 ("Borasseae').--Type: Borassus L., 1753.--Validated by a diagnosis in German.--First correct orthography: Bromhead in Mag. Nat. Hist., n.s., 4: 336. 1840. Other incorrect orthography: Borassineae Teijsm. & S. Binn., Cat. P1. Hort. Bot. Bogor.: 70. 1866 (family rank uncertain).--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--BORS

Borboraceae: The Dulac (Fl. Hautes-Pyrenees: 44,540. 1867) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with a description in French.

Boroniaceae J. Agardh, Theoria Syst. Pl.: 229. Apr-Sep 1858 ("Boronieae').--Type: Boronia Sm., 1798.--Validated by a diagnosis in Latin.--First correct orthography: A. Kerner, Pflanzenleben 2: 676. 1891.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--BORO

Borraginaceae see Boraginaceae.

Boryaceae (Baker) M. W. Chase, Rudall & Conran, Kew. Bull. 52:416. Jul 1997, basionym: Trib. Boryeae Baker in J. Linn. Soc. London, Bot. 17:408.1 Oct 1879.--T. Borya Labill., 1805.--Basionym validated by a description in Latin; family name validated by a full and direct reference to the basionym. The earlier M. W. Chase, Rudall & Conran (Kew Bull. 51: 676. 1996) name is effectively but not validly published (Arts. 32.4, 33 Note 1, and 36.1).--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--BORY

Boseaceae: The G. Kunkel (Monogr. Biol. Canariensis 3: 31.1972) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 36.1) published, and is associated with a brief description in English.--Bosea L., 1753.-- [MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Bothriaceae: The Dulac (Fl. Hautes-Pyrenees: 15, 38, 540. 1867) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with a diagnosis in French in a key.

Botrychiaceae Horan., Char. Ess. Fam.: 15.30 Jun 1847.--Type: Botrychium Sw., 1801.--Validated by a description in Latin.--[PTERIDOPHYTA]. NCU--BOTR

Botryodendraceae J. Agardh, Theoria Syst. Pl.: 231. Apr-Sep 1858 ("Botryodendreae").--Type: Botryodendrum Endl., 1833.--Validated by diagnoses in Latin.--First correct orthography: Bullock in Taxon 7: 8. 1958.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--BOTD

Bottyosporae: The Schultz-Schultzenstin (Nat. Syst. Pflanzenr.: 278.1832) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with a description in German. The name was not based on the fungal genus Botryosporium Corda (1831).

Bougainvilleaceae J. Agardh, Theoria Syst. Pl.: 364. Apr-Sep 1858 ("Bugainvilleae"). -Type: Bougainvillea Comm. ex Juss., 1789 ("Buginvillaea"), nom. et orth. cons.--Validated by diagnoses in Latin.--First correct orthography: Bullock in Taxon 7: 8. 1958.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--BOUG

Boweniaceae D. W. Stev. in Amer. J. Bot. 68:1114. 11 Sep 1981.--Type: Bowenia Hook.f., 1863.--Validated by a description in Latin.--[CYCADOPHYTA]. NCU--BOWE

Bracteoearpaceae Melikian & A. V. Bobrov in Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow & Leningrad) 85(7): 60. 1 Sep 2000.--Type: Bracteocarpus Melikian & A. V. Bobrov, 1998.--Validated by a description in Latin. [PINOPHYTA]. NCU*

Braetillaceae: The Dulac (Fl. Hautes-Pyrenees: 132, 541. 1867) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with a description in French.

Brassicaceae Burnett, Outl. Bot.: 854, 1093, 1123. Jun 1835, nom. cons., nom. alt.: Cruciferae. Type: Brassica L., 1753.--Validated by diagnoses in English.--Isonym: Lindl., Nat. Syst. But., ed. 2: 58. Jul 1836 ("Cruciferae or Brassicaceae"), validated by a description in English. The earlier Salisbury ex Gerardin & Desvaux (Dict. Rais. But.: 645. 1817, as "Brassiceae") name is proposed as an alternative name to "Siliqueuses" (gallice), an indirect reference to an effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published Giseke (Prael. Ord. Nat. Pl.: 481. 1792, as "Siliquosae") name with a description in Latin; however, the name is not validly published (Art. 34. l (a)) as Gerardin & Desvaux did not accept Brassiceae adopting Cruciferae instead.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--BRAS

Bretschneideraceae Engl. & Gilg, Syllabus, ed. 9-10: 218. Nov-Dec 1924, nom. cons.--Type: Bretschneidera Hemsl., 1901.--Validated by a description in German. The earlier Radlkofer (in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. Nachtr. 3: 209. 1907, as "Bretschneideraceen" germanice) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with a description in German.--Incorrect orthography: Bretschneideriaceae Cronquist, Evol. Classif. Fl. Pl.: 370. 1968.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--BRET

Brexiaceae Loudon, Hort. Brit.: 524. 1-7 Sep 1830 ("Brexieae").--Type: Brexia Noronha ex Thouars, 1806, nom. cons.--Validated by a diagnosis in English.--Isonym: Lindley, Intr. Nat. Syst. Bot.: 112.15-30 Sep 1830, validated by a description in English.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--BREX

Brodiaeaceae: The Traub (Pl. Life 38: 123. 1982) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) not validly (Art. 33.3) published, and is associated with a diagnosis in English in a key.--Brodiaea Sm., 1810, nom. cons.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Bromaceae [1]: The Burnett (Outl. Bot.: 820, 1094, 1119. 1835) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with a diagnosis in English. The name is not based on Bromus L., 1753.

Bromaceae [2]: The Lemaire (in Orb., Dict. Univ. Hist. Nat. 4: 413,441. 1844, as "Bromacres" (gallice)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is proposed as an alternative name for a Jussieu (Gen. Pl.: 28. 1789, as Gramineae) family name with a description in Latin. The Barnhart (Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 22: 7. 1895), Moldenke (Prel. Class. P1. Kingd.: 24. 1944) and Wielgorskaya (Dict. Gen. Names Seed Pl.: 23. 1995) name is cited in synonymy. -Bromus L., 1753.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Bromeliaceae Juss., Gen. Pl.: 49.4 Aug 1789 ("Bromeliae"), nom. cons.--Type: Bromelia L., 1753.--Validated by a description in Latin.--First correct orthography: J. St.-Hilaire, Expos. Fam. Nat. 1: 122. 1805. Other incorrect orthography: Bromelia Lam. & Mirb., Hist. Nat. Veg. 6: 278. 1802; Bromeloideae Mirb. in F. Cuvier, Dict. Sci. Nat. 2: 95. 1804; Bromelioideae Roussel, Fl. Calvados, ed. 2; 154. 1806; Bromeleae Salisb. in Trans. Linn. Soc. London 8:9. 1807; Bromelinae Link, Enum. Hort. Berol. Alt. 1: 307. 1821 ; Bromelidia and Bromelideae Dumort., Comment. Bot.: 65. 1822; Bromelliaceae Vancurova, Bot. Zemed.: 192.1963.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU

Browneae: The Trattinnick (Gen. Pl.: 58. 1802) name is a nom. nud. and its rank uncertain ("familias sucundarias").--Brownea Jacq., 1760, nom. et orth. cons.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--BROM

Bruceaceae: The Caffin (Expos. Meth. Regne Veg.: 83. 1822, as "Bruceacees" (gallice)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with a description in French.--Type: Brucea J. F. Mill., 1779-1780, nom. cons.--First correct orthography: presented here.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Brunellaceae: The Augier (Essai Nouv. Classif. Veg.: 96, 101. 1801, as "Brunellees" (gallice)) family name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with a description in French. The Gerardin & Desvaux (Dict. Rais. Bot.: 646. 1817 & ed. 2: 646. 1822, as "Brunellees" (gallice)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with a diagnosis in French and a reference to Augier (1801). The Jussieu (in Bory, Dict. Class Hist. Nat. 8: 28. 1825, as "Bruniacees" (gallice)) name is a nom. nud. The Post & Kuntze (Lex. Gen. Phan.: 710. 1903) name is cited in synonymy.--Brunella Mill., 1754.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Brunelliaceae Engl. in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. Nachtr.: 182. Aug 1897, nom. cons.--Type: Brunellia Ruiz & Pav., 1794.--Validated by a description in German.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--BRUL

Brunfelsiae: The Trattinnick (Gen. Pl.: 62. 1802, as "Brunnfelsiae") name is a nom. nud. and its rank uncertain ("familias sucundarias").--Brunfelsia L., 1753, nom. et orth. cons.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Bruniaceae Bercht. & J. Presl, Prir. Rostlin: 226.1820, nom. cons.--Type: Brunia Lain., 1785, nom. cons.--Validated by a description in Czech.--Isonym: R. Br. ex DC., Prodr. 2: 43. Nov 1825, validated by a description in Latin. The earlier R. Brown (in Abel, Narr. Journey China: 374.1818) name is technically a nom. nud. but Brown gave in Latin (1) a family description of the Hamamelidaceae and (2) the ways in which the Hamamelidaceae differ from the Bruniaceae.--Incorrect orthography: Brunieae C. Sprengel, Gen. Pl.: 183.1830; Bruneaceae Ten., Cat. Orto Bot. Napoli: 13.1845; Brunniaceae Karsch, Vadem. Bot.: xiv. 1894.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--BRUN

Brunoniaceae Dumort., Anal. Fam. Pl.: 19, 21. 1829, nom. cons.--Type: Brunonia Sm. ex R. Br., 1810.--Validated by a diagnosis in French in a key. Initially R. Brown ([Observ. Compositae] in Trans. Linn. Soc. London 12: 132. seors, impr. 1817) indicates that Brunonia belongs to a new family, for which he gives its differences from Compositae and Goodeniaceae but fails to provide a name. Roemer & Schultes (Syst. Veg. 4(2): ii, 6. 1819) reproduce this family description but also fails to propose a family name.--Incorrect orthography: Brunonieae Willk. in Anleit. Stud. Bot. 2:251. 1854.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--BRUO

Brunsvigiaceae Horan., Prim. Lin. Syst. Nat.: 51.2 Nov 1834 ("Brunswigiaceae"). Type: Brunsvigia Heist., 1755 ("Brunsuigia").--Validated by a description in Latin.--First correct orthography: Hutchinson, Fam. Fl. Pl., ed. 3: 789. 1973.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--BRUS

Bryoniaceae G. Mey., Chloris Han.: 6, 112. Jul-Aug 1836.--Type: Bryonia L., 1753.--Validated by a reference to Jussieu (Gen. Pl.: 393.4 Aug 1789, as Cucurbitaceae) family name with a description in Latin.--Original place of publication: Adans., Fam. Pl. 2: 173. 1763 ("Bryoniae").--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--BRYO

Buchneraceae (Benth.) Lilja, Skanes Fl., ed. 2: 979. Apr-Dec 1870, basionym: trib. Buchnereae Benth. in Edwards's Bot. Reg. 21: ad t. 1770.1 Jun 1835.--Type: Buchnera L., 1753.--Basionym validated by a diagnosis in Latin; family name validated by a reference to the basionym. The earlier Bromhead (Edinburgh New Philos. J. 20: 253. 1836, as "Buchnereae") name is a nom. nud. and the family rank is uncertain.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--BUCH

Bucidaceae Spreng., Syst. Veg. 2: 282. Jan-Mar 1825 ("Bucideae").--Bucida P. Browne ex L., 1759, nora. cons.--Validated by a reference to an effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published unranked C. Sprengel (Anleit. Kenntn. Gew. 2(1): 327. 20 Apr 1817, as "Bucideen" (germanice)) family name with a diagnosis in German. The earlier Caffin (Expos. Meth. Regne Veg.: 79. 1822, as "Bucidees" (gallice)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with a description in French.--First correct orthography: F. Voigt, Lehrb. Bot.: 229.1827.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].- -BUCI

Bucklandiaceae J. Agardh, Theoria Syst. Pl.: 155. Apr-Sep 1858 ("Bucklandieae"), nom. illeg. (Art. 18.3).--Type: Bucklandia R. Br. ex Griff., 1836, nom. illeg. (Art. 53.1: non Sternb., 1825 [equivalent to] Eubucklandia R. W. Brown). Validated by diagnoses in Latin. First correct orthography: Braun in Aschers., Fl. Brandenburg 1 : 62. 1860.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Buddlejaceae K. Wilh., Samenpflanzen: 90. Oct 1910 ("Buddleiaceae"), nom. cons.--Type: Buddleja L., 1753.--Validated by a description in German. The earlier Bromhead (Edinburgh New Philos. J. 20: 253. 1836, as "Buddlejeae") name is a nom. nud. and the family rank is uncertain.--First correct orthography: Takhtajan, Proish. Pokryt. Rast.: 90.1954. Other incorrect orthography: Buddleaceae Novak in S. Prat (ed.), Rostlinopis 9: 498. 1943.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--BUDD

Buettneriaceae--see Butneriaceae and Byttneriaceae.

Buttneriaceae--see Byttneriaceae.

Bugainvilleaceae--see Bougainvilleaceae.

Buglossaceae Hoffmanns. & Link, Fl. Portug. 1: 63. 1 Sep 1809 ("Buglossinae").--Type: Buglossum Mill., 1754.--Validated by diagnoses in Latin and French.--First correct orthography: Bullock in Taxon 7: 8. 1958.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--BUGL

Bulbiflorae: The Batsch (Syn. Univ. Anal. Gen. Pl.: 384. 1794 & Dispos. Gen. Pl. Europ.: 118. 1794) name is a nom. nud. and his later (Tab. Affin. Regni Veg.: 145. 1802) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with a description in Latin.--Other orthography: Bulbifloraceae R. D. Gibbs, Chemotax. Fl. Pl.: 1111. 1974.

Bulbocodiaceae Salisb., Gen. Pl.: 52. Apr-Mai 1866 ("Bulbocodeae").--Type: Bulbocodium L., 1753. -Validated by a description in Latin. The earlier Salisbury (Trans. Hort. Soc. London 1: 329. 1812, as "Bulbocodeae") name is a nom. nud.--First correct orthography: Airy Shaw in Willis, Dict. Fl. Pl. Ferns, ed. 7: 165. 1966. [MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--BULB

Bumeliaceae Barnhart in Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 22: 21. 15 Jan 1895.--Type: Bumelia Sw., 1788, nom. cons.--Validated by a reference to a Jussieu (Gen. Pl.: 151.4 Aug 1789, as "Sapotae") family name with a description in Latin.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--BUME

Bupleuraceae Martynov, Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 86. 31 Jul-5 Aug 1820 ("Bupleurae").--Type: Bupleurum L., 1753, nom. cons.--Validated by a reference to an effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published Augier (Essai Nouv. Classif. Veg.: 200, 201. 1801, as "Bupleures" (gallice)) family name with descriptions in French. The Trattinnick (Gen. Pl.: 66. 1802, as "Bupleura") name is a nom. nud. and its rank uncertain ("familias sucundarias"). The Gerardin & Desvaux (Dict. Rais. Bot.: 646. 1817, as "Bupleures" (gallice)) is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with a reference to Augier (1801).--First correct orthography: Post & Kuntze, Lex. Gen. Phan.: 710. 1903. Other incorrect orthography: Bupleureae Pfeiff., Nomencl. Bot. 1(1): 500. 1872.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].-- BUPL

Burchardiaceae Takht. in Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow & Lenningrad) 81(2): 85. Mai-Jun 1996.--Type: Burchardia R. Br., 1810, nora. cons.--Validated by a diagnosis in Latin. The earlier Takhtajan (Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow & Lenningrad) 79(12): 65. Jan-Jul 1995) name is not validly published (Art. 41.1) as it is associated with a reference in Latin to the generic description, also in Latin, given by Brown (1810). The Reveal (Ind. Nom. Supragen. Pl. Vasc. Proj. Database, 1995) name is a nom. nud.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--BURC

Burmanniaceae Blume, Enum. Pl. Javae: 27. Oct-Dec 1827, nom. cons.--Type: Burmannia L., 1753.--Validated by a description in Latin. The earlier C. Sprengel (Syst. Veg. 1: 125. 1824, as "Burmanniae") and F. Voigt (Lehrb. Bot.: 227.1827, as "Burmannieae") names are nom. nud.--Other incorrect orthography: Burmanneae Eaton, Man. Bot., ed. 6:19.1833; Burmaniaceae Martinet, Enum. Gen. Esp. Pl.: 46. 1873.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--BURM

Burseraceae Kunth in Ann. Sci. Nat. (Paris) 2: 346. Jul 1824, nom. cons.--Type: Bursera Jacq. ex L., 1762, nom. cons.--Validated by a description in Latin.--Incorrect orthography: Burseriaceae G. Don, Gen. Hist. 2: 79. 1832; Bursereae F. Voigt, Gesch. Pflanzen-Reichs 1: 151.1848.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--BURS

Buthnereae--see Byttneriaceae.

Butneriaceae Barnhart in Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 22: 24. 15 Jan 1895 ("Buettneriaceae").--Type: Butneria Duhamel, 1755, nom. illeg. (Art. 52.1: non Byttneria Loefl., 1758, nom. cons.).--Validated by a reference to a Lindley (Bot. Reg. 5: ad t. 404. 1 Oct 1819, as "Calycantheae") family name with a description in Latin.--First correct orthography: Reveal in Phytologia 74: 206. 1993.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--BUTN

Butomaceae Mirb., Hist. Nat. Pl. 8: 194. 1804 ("Butomi"), nom. cons.--Type: Butomus L., 1753.--Validated by a description in French.--Isonym: Rich. in Mem. Mus. Hist. Nat. 1: 364, 366, 372. 1815 ("Butomeae"), validated by a diagnosis and description in Latin. The earlier Augier (Essai Nouv. Classif. Veg.: 44, 46.1801, as "Butomiers" (gallice)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with a description in French.--First correct orthography: Gray, Nat. Arr. Brit. Pl. 2:31, 217.1821. Other incorrect orthography: Butomieae Ruch., Cenni Ort. Bot. Venezia: 30. 1847; Butomae G. Pal, Novenytan: 312. 1853.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--BUTO

Buttneriaceae--see Byttneriaceae.

Buxaceae Dumort., Comment. Bot.: 54. Nov-Dec 1822 ("Buxacia" and "Buxaceae"), nom. cons.--Type: Buxus L., 1753.--Validated by a reference to an effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published Loiseleur (Man. Pl. Usuell. 2: 495,496. 1819, as "Buxacees" (gallice)) name with a description in French.--Other incorrect orthography: Buxineae F. Plee ex Le Maout & Decne., Traite General Bot.: 498.1868.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--BUX+

Buxineae--see Bixaceae.

Byblidaceae (Engl. & Gilg) Domin in Acta Bot. Bohem. 1: 3. 1922, nom. cons., basionym: subfam. Byblidoideae Engl. & Gilg, Syllabus, ed. 7: 329. Oct 1912-Mar 1913.--Type: Byblis Salisb., 1808.-Basionym validated by a brief diagnosis in German; family name validated by a reference to the basionym.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--BYBL*

Byttneriaceae R. Br. in Flinders, Voy. Terra Austr. 2: 540. 19 Jul 1814 ("Buttneriaceae"), nom. cons. NOTE: If this family is united with Sterculiaceae, the name Byttneriaceae is rejected in favour of Sterculiaceae.--Type: Byttneria Loefl., 1758, nom. cons.--Validated by a description in Latin. The earlier Trattinnick (Gen. Pl.: 46. 1802, as "Buttneriae") name is a nom. nud. and its rank uncertain ("familias sucundarias").--First correct orthography: A. Richard in Bory, Dict. Class. Hist. Nat. 2: 598. 1822. Other incorrect orthography: Buthnereae DC. & Spreng. (transl. W. Jameson), Elem. Philos. Pl.: 142. 1821; Byttneridia and Byttneridieae Dumort., Comment. Bot.: 62. 1822; Buettneriaceae Perleb, Consp. Meth. Pl. Nat.: 6. 1822 or Hoope in Flora 5:216. 14 Apr 1822; Buttneriaceae Kunth in Humb., Bonpl. & Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. 5: ed. fol.: 240, ed. qu.: 309.1823; Buttnereaea Ende, Comm. Meth. Bot.: 87.1823; Buttnereae Spreng., Syst. Veg. 1: 511. late 1824; Buettneraeae Tratt., Gen. Nov. Pl.: unpaged. 1825; Buttneraeae W. Schafer in Flora 9:187.1826; Byttnerieae Desf., Catal. Pl. Horti Regii Paris., ed. 3: 250. 1829; Buttneriae V. Peter, Novenyt.: 173.1836; Bytneriaceae Ten., Cat. Otto Bot. Napoli: 36. 1845; Bythneriaceae Figuier in Veg. World (transl. W.S.O.): 377.1868.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--BYTT

Cabombaceae Rich. ex A. Rich. in Bory, Dict. Class. Hist. Nat. 2: 608. 1822 ("Cabombeae"), nom. cons.--Type: Cabomba Aubl., 1775.--Validated by a description in French.--Isonym: A. Rich., Nouv. Elem. Bot., ed. 4: 420. 1828 ("Cabombeae"), validated by a description in French. The earlier L. Richard ex Gerardin & Desvaux (Dict. Rais. Bot.: 647. 1817 & ed. 2: 647. 1822) and Martynov (Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 88, 318. 1820) name (as "Cabombeae') is a nom. nud.--First correct orthography: J. Hess, Uebers. Phan. Naturl. Fam.: 38.1832. Other incorrect orthography: Cabomacea R. Hogg, Veg. Kingd.: 37. 1858.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--CABO

Cacaliae: The Trattinnick (Gen. Pl.: 70. 1802) name is a nom. nud. and its rank uncertain ("familias sucundarias").-- Cacalia L., 1753, nom. rej. (Art. 56, App. IV).--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Cacaoaceae Augier ex Post & Kuntze, Lex. Gen. Phan.: 667, 710.20-30 Nov 1903, nom. illeg. (18.3).--Type: Cacao Mill., 1754, nom. illeg. (Art. 52.1 : [equivalent to] Theobroma L., 1753).--Validated by a reference to an effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published Augier (Essai Nouv. Classif. Veg.: 191, 196. 1801, as "Cacaoyers" (gallice)) family name with descriptions in French. The earlier Gerardin & Desvaux (Dict. Rais. Bot.: 647. 1817 & ed. 2:647.1822, as "Cacaoyers" (gallice)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with a diagnosis in French and a reference to Augier (1801).--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Caetaceae Juss., Gen. Pl.: 310. 4 Aug 1789 ("Cacti"), nom. cons.--Type: Cactus L., 1753, nom. rej. [[equivalent to] Mammillaria Haw., 1812, nom. cons.].--Validated by a description in Latin.--Original place of publication: Durande, Notions Elem. Bot.: 287. 1782 ("Cacti"), validated by a description in French.--First correct orthography: Lindley, Key Bot.: 48.1835. Other incorrect orthography: Cactoideae Vent., Tabl. Regne Veg. 3: 289. 1799; Cacteae Fisch., Cat. Jard. Gorenki: 100. 1808; Cactidia Raf., Anal. Nat.: 195. 1815; Cactinae Link, Enum. Hort. Berol. Alt. 2: 21. 1822; Cactoides Raf. in The Casket 1828: 523. 1828; Cactideae Dumort., Anal. Fam. Pl.: 37, 42.1829; Castineae Kostel., Allg. Med.-Phann. Fl.: 1391. 1835; Cactides Raf., New Fl. N. Amer. 1: 26. 1836.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--CACT

Caducae: The Batsch (Dispos. Gen. Pl. Jenens.: 42. 1786) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with a description in Latin.

Caesalpiniaceae R. Br. in Flinders, Voy. Terra Austral. 2:551.19 Jul 1814 ("Lomentaceae or Caesalpineae"), nom. cons.--Type: Caesalpinia L., 1753.--Validated by a diagnosis in English.--First correct orthography: Henschel, Vita Rumphii: 124. 1833. Other incorrect orthography: Caesalpinieae Oken, Lehrb. Naturgesch. 2: xv. 1826; Cesalpinaceae Karsch, Vadem. Bot.: 144. 1887.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--CAES

Caladiaceae Salisb., Gen. Pl.: 5. Apr-Mai 1866 ("Caladeae").--Type: Caladium Vent., 1801.--Validated by a diagnosis in Latin and a reference to an effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 33.7) published R. Brown (Prodr.: 335.1810, as "sect. Aroideae") name with a diagnosis in Latin. First correct orthography: Airy Shaw in Willis, Dict. Fl. Pl. Ferns, ed. 7:174. 1966.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--CALA

Calamaceae Kunth ex Perleb, Clav. Class.: 13. Jan-Mar 1838 ("Calameae").--Calamus L., 1753.--Validated by a diagnosis in Latin in a key. The earlier Rafinesque (Anal. Nat.: 202. 1815 & Fl. Tellur. 1: 32.1837, as "Calamia") name is a nom. nud.--First correct orthography: Bromhead in Mag. Nat. Hist., n.s., 4: 336. 1840.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--CALM

Calamariae: The Gerard (Gen. Pl., ed. 6: unpaged [604]. 1764), Oeder (Elem. Bot.: 153.1766), and Reichard (Linn. Gen. Pl., ed. 7: unpaged [598, 599]. 1778) names are nom. nud. The Batsch (Dispos. Gen. Pl. Jenens.: 52.1786) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with a description in Latin.--Other orthography: Calmariae Willd., Grundr. Kratuterk.: 179. 1792; Calamarieae Gled. ex Gerardin & Desv., Dict. Rais. Bot.: 647. 1817; Calamaria Mertens & W. D. J. Kock, Rohrlings Deutschl. Fl. 1: 225. 1823; Calamariaceae R. D. Gibbs, Chemotax. Fl. Pl.: 1112. 1974. The name is not based on the illegitimate genus name Calamaria Boehm. (1760 [equivaent] Isoetes L., 1753).

Calandulaceae--see Calendulaceae.

Calcaratae: The Batsch (Dispos. Gen. Pl. Jenens.: 46. 1786) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with a description in Latin.--Other orthography: Calcaraceae Martynov, Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 90. 1820.

Calceolariaceae (D. Don) Olmstead in Amer. J. Bot. 88:357.23 Feb 2001, basionym trib. Calceolarieae D. Don, Edinburgh New Philos. J. 19:112. Apr-Jul 1835.--Type: Calceolaria L., nom. cons.--Basionym validated by a description in Latin; family name validated by a full and direct reference to the basionym. The earlier Bromhead (Edinburgh New Philos. J. 20: 253. 1836, as "Calceolarieae") name is a nom. nud. and its family rank is uncertain. The Rafinesque (Fl. Tellur. 4: 57. medio 1838, as "Calceolides") and Lilja (Skanes Fl. ed 2:811,953,979. 1870) names are nom. nud. The Reveal (Phytologia 74: 229. 1993 & Fl. N. Amer. 1:311. 1993) name is cited in synonymy.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--CACL

Calectasiaceae Schnizl., Icongr. Fam. Regn. Veg. 1: 51******. Jan-Jul 1845 ("Calectasieae").--Type: Calectasia R. Br., 1810.--Validated by descriptions in Latin and German and a reference to an unranked Endlicher (Gen. Pl.: viii. Jun 1838, as "Calectasieae") name with a description in Latin. The Kunth (Enum. Pl. 3: 377. 23-29 Mai 1841, as "Calectasieae") name is also unranked but is associated with a description in Latin. Family rank traditionally attributed to Endlicher (1838).--First correct orthography: Oudemans, Leerb. Plantenk. 2(2): 331. 1870. Other incorrect orthography: Calectiaceae F. Aresch. in Dubens, Handb. Vaxt. Nat. Fam., ed. 2:412. 1870. [MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--CALE

Calendulaceae Link, Handbuch 1: 776.20 Apr 1829.--Type: Calendula L., 1753.--Validated by descriptions in Latin and German. The earlier J. Ponce de Leon (Sist. Fl.-Sex. Bot.: 356. 1814, as "Calendulas" (hispanice)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with a description in Spanish.--Other incorrect orthography: Calenduleae Spenn., Handb. Angew. Bot. 1: 367. 1834.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--CALN*

Calicanthaceae--see Calycanthaceae.

Caliceraceae--see Calyceraceae.

Caliciflorae--see Calyciflorae.

Callaceae Rchb. ex Bartl., Ord. Nat. Pl.: 25, 66. Sep 1830.--Type: Calla L., 1753. - Validated by a description in Latin. The Trattinnick (Gen. Pl.: 72. 1802, as "Callae') name is a nom. nud. and its rank uncertain ("familias sucundarias").--Incorrect orthography: Calladiaceae L. Watson & Dallwitz, Fam. Fl. Pl.: Araceae. 1992.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--CALL

Callicomaceae J. Agardh, Theoria Syst. Pl.: 146. Apr-Sep 1858 ("Callicomeae").--Type: Callicoma Andrews, 1809.--Validated by diagnoses in Latin.--First correct orthography: Bullock in Taxon 7: 9. 1958.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. CALC

Calligonaceae Khalk. in Dokl. Akad. Nauk. Uzbeksk. SSR 1985(11): 45. Nov 1985.--Type: Calligonum L., 1753.--Validated by a description in Latin.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--CALG

Callitraceae Seward, Fossil Pl. 4: 124, 151,336. 1919 ("Callitrineae"), basionym: subtrib. Callitrinae Mast. in J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 30:11.28 Aug 1893.--Type: Callitris Vent., 1808.--Basionym validated by a diagnosis in English in a key and a description in Latin; family name validated by a description in English and an indirect reference to the basionym.--First correct orthography: Kiger & Reveal, Huntia 11: 59, 72.2000. Other incorrect orthography: Callitridaceae Baum.-Bod., Syst. Fl. Neu-Caled. 4:15, 127. 1989.--[PINOPHYTA].--CALl

Callitrichaceae Bercht. & J. Presl, Pfir. Rostlin: 271. 1820 ("Callitricheae"), nom. cons.--Type: Callitriche L., 1753.--Validated by a description in Czech.--Isonym: Link, Enum. Hort. Berol. Alt. 1: 7. 16 Mar-30 Jun 1821 ("Callitrichinae"), validated by a diagnosis in Latin. First correct orthography: Lindley, Key Bot.: 59. 1835. Other incorrect orthography: Callitrichineae Desv., Fl. Anjou: 124. 1827; Callitrichinea Eaton, Bot. Dict., ed. 4: 44. 1836; Callitricheae E. Meyer, Preuss. Pfl.-Gatt.: 83. 1839 or Menge, Cat. Pl. Grudent. Gedan.: 96. 1839; Callitrichenae Grzegorzek in Oesterr. Bot. Wochenbl. 3: 137. 1853; Callitrichieae Willk. in Anleit. Stud. Wiss. Bot. 2: 222. 1854; Calotrichaceae Post & Kuntze, Lex. Gen. Phan.: 661,710. 1903.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--CALH

Caloehortaceae Dumort., Anal. Fam. Pl.: 53.1829 ("Calocorthineae").--Type: Calochortus Pursh, 1813.--Validated by a diagnosis in French in a key.--First correct orthography: Post & Kuntze, Lex. Gen. Phan.: 710. 1903.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--CALO

Calophyllaceae J. Agardh, Theoria Syst. Pl.: 121. Apr-Sep 1858 ("Calophylleae").--Type: Calophyllum L., 1753.--Validated by diagnoses in Latin. The earlier Martins (Consp. Regni Veg.: 41. 1835, as "Calophylleae") name is a nom. nud.--First correct orthography: Bullock in Taxon 7: 9. 1958.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--CALP

Calothamnaceae: The Raspail (Nouv. Syst. Physiol. Veg. 2: 479, 481,560. 1837, as "Calothamnacees" (gallice)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with a diagnosis in French.--Calothamnus Labill., 1806.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Calotrichaceae--see Callitfichaceae.

Calphyllaceae: The Baumann-Bodenheim (Syst. Fl. Neu-Caled. 5: 19. 1989) name is a nom. nud.

Calthaceae Martynov, Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 92.31 Jul-5 Aug 1820 ("Calthoideae").--Type: Caltha L., 1753.--Validated by a reference to an effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published Augier (Essai Nouv. Classif. Veg.: 129, 138. 1801, as "Calthoides" (gallice)) family name with descriptions in French.--The Gerardin & Desvaux (Dict. Rais. Bot.: 648.1817, as "Calthroiddes" (gallice)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with a diagnosis in French and a reference to Augier (1801).--First correct orthography: Barnhart in Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 22: 12. 1895.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--CALT

Calyeanthaceae Lindl. in Bot. Reg. 5: ad t. 404. 1 Oct 1819 ("Calycantheae"), nom. cons.--Type: Calycanthus Kampfer ex L., 1759, nom. cons.--Validated by a description in Latin. The earlier Salisbury (Prodr. Stirp. Chap. Allerton: 343, 379. 1796, as "Calycantheae") name is a nom. nud.--First correct orthography: Sweet, Hort. Brit.: 132. 1826. Other incorrect orthography: Calycanthinae Link, Enum. Hort. Berol. Alt. 2: 66. 1822; Calycanthideae Dumort., Anal. Fam. Pl.: 36, 39. 1829; Calycanthineae Kostel., Allg. Med.-Pharm. Fl.: 434. 1833; Calycanthi and Calycanthae Prter, Nrvdnyt.: 173 resp. 190. 1836; Calicantheae Ten., Cat. Orto Bot. Napoli: 19. 1845; Calicanthaceae Prantl, Lehrb. Bot., ed. 5: 266. 1883.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--CALY

Calycanthemae: The Linnaeus (Gen. Pl., ed. 6: unpaged [607]. 1764), Oeder (Elem. Bot.: 153.1766), and Reichard (Linn. Gen. Pl., ed. 7: unpaged [598, 602]. 1778) name is a nom. nud. The Batsch (Dispos. Gen. Pl. Jenens.: 41.1786) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with a description in Latin. - Other orthography: Calycanthemarum Wahlenb., Fl. Carpat. Princ.: lxxxii. 1814. The name is not based on the later Calycanthemum Klotzsch (1862).

Calyceraceae R. Br. ex Rich. in Mem. Mus. Hist. Nat. 6: 74. Nov 1820 ("Calycereae"), nom. cons.--Type: Calycera Cav., 1797 ("Calicera'), nom. et orth. cons.--Validated by descriptions in Latin. The earlier R. Brown ([Observ. Compositae] in Trans. Linn. Soc. London 12: 132. seors, impr. Aug 1817, as "Calycereae") name is an effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly published (Art. 34.1 (b)) name and arguably a nom. nud. In an addendum, which is already included in the preprint (p. 135 sqq.), Brown clearly rejects his name in favor ofBoopidaceae Cass. (1816), acknowledging that Cassini's name predated his own. Nonetheless, the family name traditionally attributed to Richard (1817).--First correct orthography: Kosteletzky, Allg. Med.-Pharm. Fl.: 722.1833. Other incorrect orthography: Calyceria Dumort., Comment. But.: 56. 1822; Calyceriae Bertol., Prael. Rei Herb.: 261. 1827; Caliceraceae Pfeiff., Vollst. Synon.: 1 : 141. 1870-1871 ; Calycerataceae Post & Kuntze, Lex. Gen. Phan.: 702,710. 1903; Calycerae J. H. Hart, Herb. List Trinidad: 31. 1908.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--CALR

Calyciflorae: The Gerard (Fl. Gallo-Prov.: xxix, 450. 1761), Linnaeus (Gen. Pl., ed. 6: unpaged [607]. 1764), Wulff (Fl. Boruss.: 227. 1765), Oeder (Elem. Bot.: 153. 1766), Reichard (Linn. Gen. Pl., ed. 7: unpaged [598, 602]. 1778) and Giseke (Prael. Ord. Nat. Pl.: 331. 1792) names are nom. nud. The Gerard ex Borkh. (Bot. Worterb. 1: 167. 1897) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with a diagnosis in German.--Other orthography: Caliciflorae Ende, Comm. Meth. Bot.: 21. 1823.

Calycrateae and Calycratia: The Dumortier (Comment. Bot.: 58. 1822) name is a nom. nud.--Other orthography: Calycrateaceae R. D. Gibbs, Chemotax. Fl. Pl.: 920. 1974.

Camarandraceae: The Dulac (Fl. Hautes-Pyrenees: 332, 543. 1867) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with a description in French.

Camarinneaceae: The Ruprecht (Fl. Ingr. 1: 210. 1860, as "Camarinneae") name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with a description in Latin. First correct orthography: Post & Kuntze, Lex. Gen. Phan.: 710. 1903.--Note: The name Camarinnea was never published as Ruprecht took up Chamaetaxus Schaeff. ex Rupr. (Fl. Ingr.: 211. 1860) instead. That name is now considered a synonym ofEmpetrum L.

Camboglaceae Horan., Prim. Lin. Syst. Nat.: 98.2 Nov 1834 ("Cambogiaceae (Guttiferae)").--Type: Cambogia L., 1754.--Validated by a description in Latin and proposed as an alternative name (Art. 34.2).--Incorrect orthography: Cambodgiaceae Post & Kuntze, Lex. Gen. Phan.: 669, 710. 1903; Cambogeaceae Post & Kuntze, Lex. Gen. Phan.: 669. 1903; Camfogiaceae Hutch., Evol. Phylog. Fl. Pl.: 317. 1969.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--CAMB

Camelliaceae DC., Essai Propr. Mrd. Pl., ed. 2: 97. 11 Mai 1816 ("Camellieae").--Type: Camellia L., 1753.--Validated by the reference to an effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published Mirbel (Nouv. Bull. Sci. Soc. Philom. Paris 3(75): 382. 1813, as "Thracres" (gallice)) name with a description in French. The earlier Candolle (Theorie Elem. Bot.: 214. 1813, as "Camelliees" (gallice)) name is a nom. nud.--First correct orthography: Perleb, Consp. Meth. Pl. Nat.: 6. 1822. Other incorrect orthography: Camellidia and Camellidiae Dumort., Comment. Bot.: 62. 1822; Camelliae J. F. Kruger, Handb. Naturgesch. 2:457.1835; Camelieae Lecoq & Juillet, Dict. Rais. Term. Bot.: 104. 1831; Cameliaceae Regel, Cat. Pl. Horto Aksakov.: 25.1860. [MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--CAME

Campanaceae: The Gerard (F1. Gallo-Prov.: xxix, 451. 1761), Linnaeus (Gen. Pl., ed. 6: unpaged [609]. 1764), Wulff (Fl. Boruss.: 227. 1765), Oeder (Elem. Bot.: 154. 1766), and Reichard (Linn. Gen. Pl., ed. 7: unpaged [598, 604]. 1778) names are nom. nud. The Giseke (Prael. Ord. Nat. Pl.: 393. 1792) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with a description in Latin.

Campanulaceae Juss., Gen. Pl.: 163.4 Aug 1789, nom. cons. Type: Campanula L., 1753.--Validated by a description in Latin.--Original place of publication: Adanson, Fam. Pl. 2:132.1763 ("Campanulae"), validated by a description in French.--Other incorrect orthography: Campanuleae J. St.-Hil., Expos. Fam. Nat. 1: 365. 1805; Campanulacae Raf., Fl. Ludov.: 55. 1817; Campanuloideae Vest, Anleit. Stud. Bot.: 273, 299. 1818; Campanulacia Dumort., Comment. Bot.: 57. 1822; Campanacei Ende, Comm. Meth. Bot.: 17. 1823; Campanulinae Bisch., Lehrb. Bot. 2(1): 253. 1836; Campanulides Rat'., Sylva Tellur.: 169. 1838.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU-CAMP

Campynemataceae Dumort., Anal. Fam. Pl.: 57, 58.1829 ("Campynemateae" resp. "Campynemaceae").--Type: Campynema Labill., 1805.--Validated by a diagnosis in French in a key.--First correct orthography: Post & Kuntze, Lex. Gen. Phan.: 710. 1903.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--CAMN

Canacomyrieaceae Baum.-Bod. ex Doweld in Byull. Mosk. Obshch. Ispyt. Prir., Biol. 105(5): 59. 9 Oct 2000.--Type: Canacomyrica Guillaumin, 1940.--Validated by a description in Latin.--The earlier Baumann-Bodenheim (Syst. Fl. Neu-Caled. 4: 51. 1989 & 5: 19, 35. 1989) name is a nom. nud. The Wielgorskaya (Dict. Gen. Names Seed Pl.: 25. 1995) and Doweld (Ann. Bot. (London) 82: 424. 1998) name is cited in synonymy. [MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--CANA

Candelares: The Ende (Comm. Meth. Bot.: 17. 1823) name is a nom. nud. The name is not based on the later lichen genus name Candelaria A. Massal. (1852).

Candolleaceae F. Muell., Syst. Census Austral. Pl.: 85. late 1882-early 1883, nom. illeg. (Art. 18.3).--Type: Candollea Labill., 1805, nom. illeg. (Art. 53.1: non Mirb., 1802).--Validated by a reference to a R. Brown (Prodr.: 565.27 Mar 1810, as "Stylideae") family name with a description in Latin. The earlier F. Mueller (Fragm. 8: 41. 1873) name is a nom. nud.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Canellaceae Mart., Nov. Gen. Sp. Pl.3: 168, 170. Sep 1832, nom. cons.--Type: Canella P. Browne, 1756, nom. cons.--Validated by a diagnosis in Latin.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--CANE

Cannabaceae Martynov, Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 99.31 Jul-5 Aug 1820 ("Cannabinae"), nom. cons.--Type: Cannabis L., 1753.--Validated by a reference to an effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published Augier (Essai Nouv. Classif. Veg.: 129, 132. 1801, as "Cannabines" (gallice)) family name with descriptions in French.--Isonym: Endl., Gen. Pl.: 286. Oct 1837 ("Cannabineae"), validated by a description in Latin. The earlier F. Lestiboudois (Botanogr. Belg., ed. 2, 3(1): 224. 1800, as "Cannabinres" (gallice)) family name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with a description in French. The Gerardin & Desvaux (Dict. Rais. Bot.: 650. 1817, as "Cannabines" (gallice)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with a diagnosis in French and a reference to Augier (1801). Family name traditionally attributed to an unranked Endlicher (Gen. Pl.: 286. Oct 1837, as "Cannabineae") name with a description in Latin.--First correct orthography: Braun in Aschers., Fl. Brandenburg 1: 58. 1860. Other incorrect orthography: Cannabinaceae Lindl., Veg. Kingd.: 265. 1846; Cannabiscaceae Ser. ex A. DC in DC., Prodr. 16(1): 28, 1869; Cannabiaceae Bullock in Taxon 8: 163. 1958; Canabinaceae F. H. Ho & N. V. Duong, Cay-Co Viet-Nam: 39. 1960.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--CANB

Cannaceae Juss., Gen. Pl.: 62.4 Aug 1789 ("Cannae"), nom. cons.--Type: Canna L., 1753.--Validated by a description in Latin. Original place of publication: Durande, Notions Elem. Bot.: 258. 1782 ("Cannae"), validated by a description in French.--First correct orthography: C. Agardh, Aphor. Bot.: 181. 1823. Other incorrect orthography: Canneae Salisb. in Trans. Hort. Soc. London 1: 275. 1812; Cannoideae Vest, Anleit. Stud. Bot.: 272, 294. 1818.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--CANN

Canopodaceae C. Presl, [Epimel. Bot.: 248] in Abh. Konigl. Bohm. Ges. Wiss., ser. 5, 6: 608. ante Oct 1851 ("Canopiaceae").--Type: Canopus C. Presl, 1851.--Validated by direct reference to the generic description in Latin.--First correct orthography: Airy Shaw in Willis, Dict. Fl. Pl. Ferns, ed. 7: 193. 1966. Other incorrect orthography: Canopaceae Pfeiff., VoUst. Synon.: 137. 1870-1871.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--CANP

Canotiaceae Airy Shaw in Kew Bull. 18:255.8 Dec 1965.--Type: Canotia Torr., 1857. Validated by a description in Latin. The earlier Britton (N. Amer. Trees: 635. 1908) name is a nom. nud.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--CANO

Cansjeraceae J. Agardh, Theoria Syst. Pl.: 238. Apr-Sep 1858 ("Cansiereae").--Type: Cansjera Juss., 1789, nom. cons.--Validated by diagnoses in Latin.--First correct orthography: Bullock in Taxon 7: 9. 1958.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--CANS

Cantuaceae The J. Agardh (Theoria Syst. Pl.: 392. 1858) name is a nom. nud. The R. D. Gibbs (Chemotax. Fl. Pl.: 922. 1974) name is cited in synonymy.--Cantua J. de Juss. ex Lam., 1785.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Capillaceae: The Sakhokia in Grossheim (Oliz. Nov. Sist. Esnetk. Past.: 97. 1966) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with a full and direct reference to an Endlicher (Ench. Bot.: 578.15-21 Aug 1841, as "Cyrilleae") family name with a description in Latin. It is not based on the fungal genus name Capillus Granata (1908).

Capitatae: The Haller f. (Enum. Stirp. Helv. 2: 26. 1759; 3: 90. 1760; 4:22.1761; Enum. Stirp.: 47.1760; Misc. Soc. Taur. 2: 28. 1762; & Nomenclator: 16. 1769) and Batsch (Syn. Univ. Anal. Gen. Pl.: 391. 1794 & Dispos. Gen. Pl. Europ.: 121. 1794) name is a nom. nud. The Batsch (Dispos. Gen. Pl. Jenens.: 62.1786) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with a description in Latin.--Other orthography: Capitataceae R. D. Gibbs, Chemotax. Fl. Pl.: 922. 1974.

Capparaceae Juss., Gen. Pl.: 242.4 Aug 1789 ("Capparides"), nom. cons.--Type: Capparis L., 1753.--Validated by a description in Latin. Original place of publication: Adanson, Fam. Pl. 2: 402. 1763 ("Capparides"), validated by a description in French.--First correct orthography: Lanjouw & al. [Montreal Code] in Regnum Veg. 23: 190. 1961. Other incorrect orthography: Capparideae Batsch, Syn. Univ. Anal. Gen. Pl.: 385.1794 or Dispos. Gen. Pl. Europ.: 119. 1794; Capparices J. F. N. Morel, Tabl. Ecole Bot. Jard. Pl. Paris: 54. 1800; CapparideRoussel, Fl. Calvados, ed. 2: 266. 1806 Capparidia Raf., Anal. Nat.: 181. 1815; Capparidae DC. & C. Spreng. (transl. W. Jameson), Elem. Philos. Pl.: 141.1821; Capparoideae Hoppe in Flora 6: 476. 1823; Capparidaceae Burnett, Outl. Bot.: 866, 1093, 1123.1835; Capadeae Tollard f., Traite Veg., ed. 2: 351.1838; Capparides Raf., New Fl. N. Amer. 4: 15. 1838; Caparideae J. Presl, Wseobecny Rostlinopis 1: 91. 1846; Capparisaceae Ser., Fl. Pharm.: 12. 1852; Capparidineae Drude in Schenk, Handb. Bot. 3(2): 403. 1886.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU-CAPP

Caprariaceae Martynov, Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 102. 31 Jul-5 Aug 1820 ("Caprariae").--Type: Capraria L., 1753.--Validated by a reference to an effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published Augier (Essai Nouv. Classif. Veg.: 96, 110. 1801, as "Capraires" (gallice)) family name with a description in French.--The Gerardin & Desvaux (Dict. Rais. Bot.: 651.1817, as "Capraires" (gallice)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with a diagnosis in French and a reference to Augier (1801).--First correct orthography: Barnhart in Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 22: 22. 1895.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--CAPA

Caprifoliaceae Juss., Gen. Pl.: 210. 4 Aug 1789 ("Caprifolia"), nom. cons.--Type: Caprifolium Mill., 1754, nom. illeg. (Art. 52.1: [equivalent to] Lonicera L., 1753).--Validated by a description in Latin.--Original place of publication: Adanson, Fam. Pl.2:153. 1763 ("Caprifolia"), validated by a description in French.--First correct orthography: Ventenat, Tabl. Regne Veg. 2: 593. 1799. Other incorrect orthography: Caprifoliae Pers., Syn. Pl. 1: 213. 1805; Caprifolieae Mirb., Elem. Physiol. Veg. Bot. 2: 888. 1815; Caprifoliineae Kostel., Allg. Med.-Pharm. Fl.: 2010. 1836; Caprifoliosae Rchb., Fl. Saxon., ed. 2:131. 1844.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--CAPR

Capusiaceae: The Gagnepain (Bull. Soc. Bot. France 87: 272. 1941, as "Capusiacres" (gallice; given with the alternative name "Siphonodontacres") name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with a poorly organized diagnosis in French. The Bullock (Taxon 7: 9. 1958 & Taxon 8: 163. 1959) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 34.1 (a)) published but with a reference to Gagnepain (1941). The Hutchinson (Fam. Fl. Pl., ed. 2: 325. 1959 & Evol. Phylog. Fl. Pl.: 360. 1969) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 36.1) published, and is associated with a description in English. The Buchheim (Willdenowia 3: 383. 1963) name is rejected (Art. 34.1(a)). The Takhtajan (Evol. Angiosp.: 327. 1959, Bot. Rev. (Lancaster) 46: 289. 1980, & in C. R. Metcalfe & Chalk, Anat. Dict. ed. 2, 2: 195. 1983, Sist. Magnoliof. [Syst. Magnolioph.]: 195.1987), H. Scholz (in H. Melchior, Engler's Syllabus, ed. 12: 294. 1964), Airy Shaw (in Willis, Dict. Fl. Pl. Ferns, ed. 7: 174. 1966 & ed. 8: 201. 1973), Cronquist (Evol. Classif. Fl. Pl.: 370. 1968), Hutchinson (Fam. Fl. Pl., ed. 3: 406. 1973), Bedell & Reveal (Phytologia 51: 116.1982), R. C. Gunn & al. (Techn. Bull. U.S.D.A. 1796: 14. 1992) and Wielgorskaya (Dict. Gen. Names Seed Pl.: 25. 1995) name is cited in synonymy. The F. A. Barkley (Anthophyta: 61. 1966) name is a nom. nud.--Capusia Lecomte, 1926. [MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Carcerulaceae: The Dulac (Fl. Hautes-Pyrenees: 18, 231, 543. 1867) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with a diagnosis in French in a key.

Carcoditia: The Rafinesque (Anal. Nat.: 186. 1815) name is a nom. nud.--See also Sarcoditia.

Cardamindaceae Link, Handbuch 2: 326. Jan-Aug 1831 ("Cardamindeae"), nom. illeg. (Art. 18.3).--Type: Cardamindum Tournef. ex Adans., Fam. Pl. 2:388 ("Cardamindum"), 532 ("Cardamindon"). Jul-Aug 1763, nom. illeg. (Art. 52.1: [equivalent to] Tropaeolum L., 1753).--Validated by descriptions in Latin and German. First correct orthography: Post & Kuntze, Lex. Gen. Phan.: 711. 1903.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].*

Cardauceae--see Carduaceae.

Cardiaceae--see Carduaceae.

Cardiopteridaceae Blume, Rumphia 3: 205. Jun 1847 ("Cardiopterideae"), nom. cons.--Type: Cardiopteris Wall. ex Royle, 1834.--Validated by a description in Latin.--First correct orthography: Post & Kuntze, Lex. Gen. Phan.: 711. 1903. Other incorrect orthography: Cardiopteridae Ridl., Fl. Malay Penin. 2: 463. 1923; Cardiopterygaceae Airy Shaw in Willis, Dict. Fl. Pl. Ferns, ed. 7: 197. 1966. [MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--CARD

Cardiopterygaceae--see Cardiopteridaceae

Carduaceae Dumort., Comment. Bot.: 56. Nov-Dec 1822 ("Carduacia" and "Carduaceae").--Type: Carduus L., 1753.--Validated by a reference to a Jussieu (Gen. Pl.: 171. 1789, as Fam. Cynaraceae ("Cinarocephalae")) family name with a description in Latin. The earlier Necker (Hist. Commentat. Acad. Elect. Sci. Theod.-Palat. 2:465.1770) and Rafinesque (Anal. Nat.: 192. 1815, as "Carduacea") names are nom. nud. The J. Ponce de Leon (Sist. Fl.-Sex. Bot.: 340. 1814, as "Cardos" (hispanice)) and Merat (Nouv. Fl. Env. Paris, ed. 2:241.1821, as "Cardiacres" (gallice)) names are effective (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and are associated with a description in Spanish resp. French.--Other incorrect orthography: Carduineae Link ex F. Rudolphi, Syst. Orb. Veg.: 46. 1830; Cardiaceae Eaton, Man. Bot., ed. 6: 21. 1833.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].-CARU

Carieaceae [1] Dumort., Anal. Fam. Pl.: 37, 42.1829, nom. cons.--Type: Carica L., 1753.--Validated by a diagnosis in French in a key. The earlier Trattinnick (Gen. Pl.: 53. 1802, as "Caricae") name is a nom. nud. and its rank uncertain ("familias sucundarias"). The Blume (Bij dr.: 851.1826-1827, as "Cariceen" batave) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with a diagnosis in Latin; see Papayaceae (Bijdr: 940).--Incorrect orthography: Cariceae Blume ex Dumort., Anal. Fam. Pl.: 42. 1829.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--CAR1

Caricaceae [2] Burnett, Outl. Bot.: 358, 1155. Jan 1835, nom. illeg. (Art. 53.1).--Type: Carex L., 1753.--Validated by diagnoses in English. The earlier Trattinnick (Gen. Pl.: 41. 1802, as "Carices") name is a nom. nud. and its rank uncertain ("familias sucundarias"). The Rafinesque (Anal. Nat.: 203.1815, as "Carexidia"), Turpin (in F. Cuvier, Dict. Sci. Nat. Atlas Monocot.: ad t. 13. 1816-1829, as "Caricees" (gallice [in the uncoloured set; "Cyperees" in the coloured set]) and Sprengel (Syst. Veg. 3: 758. 1826, as "Cariceae") names are nom. nud. The Kunth ex Martius (Consp. Regn. Veg.: 5. 1835, as "Ordo [= fam.] Cyperaceae fam. [= ?] Caricinae") name is not validly (Art. 32.1 (c)) published.--Other incorrect orthography: Carexides Raf., Fl. Tellur. 4: 96. 1838; Caricineae Schur, [Sert. Pl. Transvilv.] in Verh. Mitt. Siebenb. Ver. Naturw. Hermannstadt 4:78.1853. Note: Use of this name would require conservation although Kobresiaceae Gilly is available.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Caricaceae (3):--see Caricae.

Caricae: The Link (Enum. Hort. Berol. Alt. 2: 448. 1822) name is a nom. nud. The Post & Kuntze, Lex. Gen. Phan.: 711.1903 ("Caricaceae") name is cited in synonymy. The name is not based on the genus name Carica L., see Caricaceae Dumort.

Carinophijlleae--see Caryophyllaceae.

Cariophyllaceae--see Caryophyllaceae.

Caryophyllaei--see Caryophyllaceae.

Carissaceae Bertol., Nuevo Giorn. Bot. Ital. 23:212.8 Jan 1891.--Type: Carissa L, 1767, nom. cons.--Validated by a reference to Jussieu (Gen. PL: 143.4 Aug 1789, as "Apocineae") family name with a description in Latin. The earlier Blume (Catalogus: 22. 1823, as "Carisseen" germanice) and Nees (Flora 8: 130. 1825, as "Carisseae") names are nom. nud.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--CARS

Carlemanniaceae Airy Shaw in Kew Bull. 19: 511. 26 Jul 1965.--Type: Carlemannia Benth. 1853.--Validated by a description in Latin.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--CARL

Carludovicaceae: The A. Kemer (Pflanzenleben 2: 649. 1891, as "Carludoviceae") name is a nom. nud.--Carludovica Ruiz & Pav., 1794.--First correct orthography: Wielgorskaya, Dict. Gen. Names Seed Pl.: 26. 1995.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Carophilleae--see Caryophyllaceae.

Carophyllatae--see Caryophyllaceae.

Carpantheous: The Rafinesque (Med. Repos., ser. 2, 5: 357. 1808) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with a diagnosis in English--Carpanthus Raf., 1808. --[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Carpesia: The Trattinnick (Gen. Pl.: 69. 1802) name is a nom. nud. and its rank uncertain ("familias sucundarias"). Carpesium L., 1753.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Carpinaceae Vest, Anleit. Stud. Bot.: 265, 280. 1818 ("Carpinoideae").--Type: Carpinus L., 1753.--Validated by a description in German.--Isonym: Kuprianova in Taxon 12: 13. 1963, validated by a description in Latin.--Other incorrect orthography: Carpineae Bromhead in Edinburgh New Philos. J. 20: 253. 1836 or in Mag. Nat. Hist., n.s., 4: 337. 1840, the family rank in the first instance uncertain.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--CARP

Carpodetaceae Fenzl in Denkschr. Konigl.-Baier. Bot. Ges. Regensburg 3:155.28 Nov 1841 ("Carpodeteae"). Type: Carpodetus J. R. Forst. & G. Forst., 1775.--Validated by a direct reference ("Character generis") to a description of the genus in Latin on the same page. First correct orthography: Bullock in Taxon 7: 9. 1958.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--CARO

Carpodontaceae: The Bromhead (Edinburgh New Philos. J. 20: 253. 1836, as "Carpodonteae" & Mag. Nat. Hist., n.s., 4: 337. 1840) names are nom. nud., the family rank uncertain in the first instance Carpodontos Labill., 1800.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Cartonemataceae Pichon in Notul. Syst. (Paris) 12: 219. Feb 1946, nom. cons.--Type: Cartonema R. Br., 1810.--Validated by a description in Latin.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--CART

Caryaephylleae--see Caryophyllaceae.

Caryocaraceae Voigt, Hort. Suburb. Calcutt.: 88. 1845, nom. cons.--Type: Caryocar Allemand ex L., 1771.--Validated by a reference to the validly published but illegitimate (Art. 18.3) Candolle (Prodr. 1: 599. mid Jan 1824, as "Rhizobolaceae" ("Rhizoboleae")) family name associated with a description in Latin.--Isonym: Szyszyl. in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. III, 6: 153. Mai 1893 ("Caryocaraceae (Rhizoboleae)"), validated by a description in German and a reference to Candolle (1824). [MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--CARR*

Caryophyllaceae Juss., Gen. Pl.: 299. 4 Aug 1789 ("Caryophylleae"), nom. cons.--Type: Caryophyllus Mill., 1754, nom. illeg. (Art. 53.1: non L., 1753 [equivalent to] Dianthus L., 1753).--Validated by a description in Latin. The earlier Gerard (Fl. Gallo-Prov.: xxviii, 400. 1761, as "Caryophylleae"), Linnaeus (Gen. Pl., ed. 6: unpaged [608]. 1764, as "Caryophillei"), Wulff (F1. Boruss.: 205. 1765), The Oeder (Elem. Bot.: 154.1766, as "Caryophyllaei"), and Reichard (Linn. Gen. Pl., ed. 7: unpaged [598, 603]. 1778, as "Caryophylleae") names are nom. nud. The Barbeau-Dubourg (Bot. Fran9. 1:124. 1767, as "Cariofillees" (gallice)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with a description in French.--Original place of publication: Durande, Notions El6m. Bot.: 285. 1782 ("Caryophyllae"), validated by a description in French.--First correct orthography: Lindley, Obs. Struct. Fruits: 37. 1819. Other incorrect orthography: Caryophyllea Delarbre, Fl. Auvergne, ed. 2: 331. 1800; Cariophylleae Morel, Tabl. Ecole Bot. Jard. Pl. Paris: 61. 1801; Caryophyleae Mirb., Hist. Nat. Pl.5: 376. 1803; Caryophillae and Caryophilleae Pers., Syn. Pl. 1: 519 resp. 530. 1805; Caryophillaei Thouars, Gen. Nov. Madagasc.: 20. 1806; Carophyllatae Titford, Hort. Bot. Amer.: 21. 1811; Coryophylleae and Carophilleae Bonpl., Descr. Pl. Malmaison: ad t. 14, resp. 45. 1814; Cariophyllaceae Schuurm.-Stekh., Kruidk. Kunstwoordenb.: 91. 1825; Caryophyllaeae Bertol., Prael. Rei Herb.: 262. 1827; Cariophylles Raf. in The Casket 1827: 439. 1827; Caryophyllineae Kostel., Allg. Med.-Pharm. Fl.: 1914. 1836; Caryophyles Raf., New Fl. N. Amer. 1: 30. 1836; Caryophylles Raf., Fl. Tellur. 3: 34, 35. 1837; Caryaephylleae Boitard in Dubois, Meth. Eprouv., ed. 3: 468. 1840; Carijophijlleae Filet, Pl. Bot. Tuin Weltevreden: 116. 1855; Caryophylle Sagot in Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., ser. 12, 11: 149. 1880; Caryopilleae J. E. Gonzalez, Naturalleza (Mexico City) 5:188.1882; Caryophillaceae Ovando, Clasif. Alfab. Fam. Div. Angiosp.: 13. 1979.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--CARY

Caryotaceae: The O. F. Cook (Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 16: 253,254. 1913) name is a nom. nud. The Airy Shaw (in Willis, Dict. Fl. Pl. Ferns, ed. 7: 205. 1966 & ed. 8: 210. 1973), Hutchinson (Fam. Fl. Pl., ed. 3: 820. 1973), Bedell & Reveal (Phytologia 51: 119. 1982), C. R. Gunn & al. (U.S.D.A. Tech. Bull. 1796: 14. 1992) and Wielgorskaya (Dict. Gen. Names Seed Pl.: 26.1995) names are cited in synonymy.--Caryota L., 1753.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Caseariaceae: The M. G. Baumann-Bodenheim (Syst. Fl. Neu-Caled. 4: 31. 1989 & 5: 21. 1989) name is a nom. nud.--Casearia Jacq., 1760.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].*

Cassiaceae Vest, Anleit. Stud. Bot.: 270, 291. 1818 ("Cassioideae").--Type: Cassia L., 1753, nom. cons.--Validated by a description in German. The earlier F. Lestiboudois (Botanogr. Belg., ed. 2, 3(1): 142. 1800) and Augier (Essai Nouv. Class. Veg.: 181, 182. 1801) family name (as "Casses" (gallice)) is effectively (Art. 41.1) but is not validly published (Art. 18.4), and is associated with a description in French. The Trattinnick (Gen. Pl.: 58. 1802, as "Cassiae") name is a nom. nud. and its rank uncertain ("familias sucundarias"). The Rafinesque (Anal. Nat.: 183. 1815, as "Cassinia") name is a nom. nud. The Gerardin & Desvaux (Dict. Rais. Bot.: 654. 1817, as "Cassidres") family name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with a reference to Augier (1801).--First correct orthography: Reichenbach, Consp. Regni Veg.: 139 [153 as "Cassieae"]. 1828-1829. Other incorrect orthography: Cassideae Martynov, Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 109. 1820; Cassieae Rchb. in Mossler, Handb. Gewachsk., ed. 2: x1iii, x1viii. 1827; Cassiceae Coker in Shattuck (ed.), Bahama Isl.: 255.1905.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--CASI

Cassiniaceae: The Schultz Bipontinus (Flora 35: 129. 1852) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with a reference to a Giseke (Prael. Ord. Nat. Pl.: 538. Apr 1792, as Compositae) family name with a description in Latin. The family was named for the French botanist Alexander Henri Gabriel de Cassini (1781-1832) and therefore not based on a validly published genus name. Nonetheless, two genera named for Cassini were mentioned: Cassinia R. Br. (in W. T. Aiton, Hort. Kew., ed. 2, 5:184. Dec 1813, nom. rej.) and Cassinia R. Br. ([Observ. Compos.] in Trans. Linn. Soc. London 12: 126. seors, impr. Aug 1817, nom. cons.). Schultz Bipontinus gives this new name as he considers the hitherto used names Compositae (or Composititiflorae) and Synanthereae to be inappropriate (see Jahresb. Pollichia 18/19: 157. 1861).

Cassiopaceae: The Kron (Aliso 15: 107. Nov 1997) name is a nom. nud. and not accepted by the author.--Cassiope D. Don, 1834.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Cassipoureaceae J. Agardh, Theoria Syst. Pl.: 246. Apr-Sep 1858 ("Cassipoureae").--Type: Cassipourea Aubl., 1775.--Validated by diagnoses in Latin.--First correct orthography: Oudemans, Leerb. Plantenk. 2(2): 439. 1870. [MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--CASP

Cassuthineae: The Menge (Cat. Pl. Grundent. Gedan.: 297. 1839) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with a description in Latin.

Cassuviaceae Juss. ex R. Br. in Tuckey, Narr. Exped. Zaire: 431.5 Mar 1818 ("Cassuviae (or Anacardeae)"), nom. illeg. (Art. 18.3).--Type: Cassuvium Rumph. ex Lam., 1783, nom. illeg. (Art. 52.1: [equivalent to] Anacardium L., 1753).--Validated by a diagnosis in English and a reference to an effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly published (Art. 34.1(b)) unranked Jussieu (Gen. Pl.: 376. 1789, as "Cassuvia") name with a description in Latin. Brown gave Anacardiaceae ("Anacardeae") as an alternative name; both names are validly published (Art. 34.2), but only Anacardiaceae is legitimate. First correct orthography: Burnett, Outl. Bot.: 628, 1092, 1139. Jun 1835 ("Cassuviaceae or Anacardiaceae") or Trinius, Gen. Pl.: 4. 1835. Other incorrect orthography: Cassuvieae Allman, Anal. Gen. Pl. Phanerostem.: 15. 1828; Cassuvicae Schmid & Curtman, Pflanzenr. 2: 44. 1856.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Cassythaceae Bercht. & J. Presl, Prir. Rostlin: 235. 1820 ("Cassytheae"), nom. cons.--Type: Cassytha L., 1753.--Validated by a description in Czech.--Isonym: Bartl. ex Lindl., Nix. Pl.: 15. 17 Sep 1833 ("Cassytheae"), validated by a diagnosis in Latin in a key and a reference to Bartling (Ord. Nat. Pl.: 112. 1830) who gives a diagnosis of the characters by which Cassytha differs from the other Lauraceae (as "Laurineae"), but did not exclude the genus from Lauraceae.--First correct orthography: Lindley, Key Bot.: 60. 1835. Other incorrect orthography: Casytides Raf., Fl. Tellur. 4: 93. 1838; Casythides Raf., Sylva Tellur.: 169. 1838; Cassytaceae Horan., Tetractys: 24. 1843; Cassithaceae A. Ponce de Leon in Mem. Soc. Cub. Hist. Nat. "Felipe Poey" 18: 31. 1946; Cassytheaceae R. D. Gibbs, Chemotax. Fl. Pl.: 926. 1974.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].NCU--CASS

Castaneaceae [1] Adans., Fam. Pl. 2: 366. Jul--Aug 1763 ("Castaneae"). Type: Castanea Mill., 1754.--Validated by a reference to a description in French. The Trattinnick (Gen. Pl.: 73. 1802, as "Castaneae") name is a nom. nud. and its rank uncertain ("familias sucundarias").--First correct orthography: Baillon, Dict. Bot. 1:6 50. 25 Mai 1878 or Engler in Bot. Jahresber. (Just) 4: 577. 1878.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--CAST*

Castaneaceae [2]: The Link (Enum. Hort. Berol Alt. 1: 354. 1821) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with a diagnosis in Latin. The name is not based on the genus name Castanea Mill., 1754, see Castaneaceae Adans.

Castelaceae J. Agardh, Theoria Syst. Pl.: 181. Apr-Sep 1858 ("Casteleae").--Type: Castela Turpin, 1806, nom. cons.--Validated by diagnoses in Latin.--First correct orthography: Bullock in Taxon 7: 10. 1958. --[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--CASL

Castineae--see Cactaceae.

Casuarinaceae R. Br. in Flinders, Voy. Terra Austr. 2: 571. 19 Jul 1814 ("Casuarineae"), nom. cons.--Type: Casuarina L., 1759.--Validated by a reference to an effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published Mirbel (Ann. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. 16:451. 1810, as "Casuarinees" (gallice)) family name with a diagnosis in French.--Isonym: Bercht. & J. Presl, Prir. Rostlin: 261. 1820 ("Casuarineae"), validated by a description in Czech.--First correct orthography: Kosteletsky, Allg. Med.--Pharm. Fl.: 365. 1833. Other incorrect orthography: Casuarinae Martynov, Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 276. 1820; Casuaraceae Lindl., Key Bot.: 57. 1835; Casuarinidae H. Nicholson & Lydekker, Man. Palaeot. 2: 1544. 1889.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--CASU

Casytaceae--see Cassythaceae.

Catesbaeaceae Martynov, Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 111. 31 Jul-5 Aug 1820 ("Catesbiaceae").--Type: Catesbaea L., 1753.--Validated by a reference to an effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published Augier (Essai Nouv. Classif. Veg.: 86, 94. 1801, as "Catesbiacees" (gallice)) family name with a description in French. The Gerardin & Desvaux (Dict. Rais. Bot.: 655. 1817, as "Catesbiacees") name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with a diagnosis in French and a reference to Augier (1801).--First correct orthography: Reveal in Phytologia 74: 227. 1993. Other incorrect orthography: Catesbyaceae Post & Kuntze, Lex. Gen. Phan.: 711. 1903.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--CATE

Cathedraceae Tiegh. in Bot. Jahresber. (Just) 25(2): 406. Oct-Dec 1899.--Cathedra Miers, 1852.--Validated by a diagnosis in German in a key and by a reference to a Tieghem (Compt. Rend. Hebd. Seances Acad. Sci. 124: 873, 874. 1897, as "Cathedracees" (gallice)) family name with diagnoses in French. The earlier Tieghem (Compt. Rend. Hebd. Seances Acad. Sci. 124: 924. 1897, Bot. Centralbl. 73: 186. 1898, as "Cathedracees") name is a nom. nud. The Tieghem (Bull. Soc. Bot. France 43: 565. 1897, Elem. Bot., ed. 3, 2: 313. 1898, as "Cathedracees" (gallice)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with a description or a diagnosis in French. The L. Pierre (Bull. Mensuel Soc. Linn. Paris 2: 1295. 1897, as "Cathedracees" (gallice)) and Tieghem (Bot. Jahresb. 25(2): 406, 407. 1899) names are nom. nud.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--CATH

Caulinlaceae J. Presl, Wseobecny Rostlinopis 2: 1687. 1846, nom. illeg. (Art. 18.3).--Type: Caulinia DC. 1805, nom. illeg. (Art. 53.1 : non Willd., 1801 [equivalent to] Posidonia K. D. Koenig, 1805, nom. cons.).--Validated by a description in Czech.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Ceeroplaceae C. C. Berg in Taxon 27:39.23 Mar 1978.--Type: Cecropia Loefl., 1758, nom. cons.--Validated by a description in Latin.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--CECR

Cedraceae Vest, Anleit. Stud. Bot.: 265, 280. 1818 ("Cedroideae").--Type: Cedrus Belon du Mansex Trew, 1757, nom. cons.--Validated by a description in German. The earlier Barbeau-Dubourg (Bot. Franc. 1: 137. 1767, as "Cedrines" (gallice)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with a description in French. The Gerardin & Desvaux (Dict. Rais. Bot.: 656. 1817, as "Cedrines" (gallice)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with a refernce to Barbeau-Dubourg.--First correct orthography: Reveal & Hoogland in Taxon 41 : 116. 1992. Other incorrect orthography: Cedrinae Perleb, Clav. Class.: 15. 1838.--[PINOPHYTA].--CEDR

Cedrelaceae R. Br. in Flinders, Voy. Terra Austral. 2: 595, 596. 19 Jul 1814 ("Cedreleae").--Type: Cedrela P. Browne, 1756.--Validated by a minimal diagnosis in English. The Salisbury (Prodr. Stirp. Chap. Allerton: 284, 317. 1796, as "Cedrelleae") name is a nom. nud.--First correct orthography: A. Jussieu in Mem. Mus. Hist. Nat. 19: 213, 247. 1830. Other incorrect orthography: Cedrelae Salisb. ex Gerardin & Desv., Dict. Rais. Bot.: 656. 1817; Cedrelea Dumort., Comment. Bot.: 62. 1822; Cedreliaceae and Cedreleaceae G. Don, Gen. Hist. 1: xxiv resp. 686. 1831.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--CEDL

Ceibaceae: The Rafinesque (Anal. Nat.: 183. 1815, as "Ceibania" & Fl. Tellur. 1 : 29. 1837, as "Zeibania") names are nom. nud.--Ceiba Mill 1754.--First correct orthography: presented here.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Celastraceae R. Br. in Flinders, Voy. Terra Austral. 2: 554. 19 Jul 1814 ("Celastrinae"), nom. cons. Note: If this family is united with Hippocrateaceae, the name Celastraceae must be used.--Type: Celastrus L., 1753.--Validated by a description in Latin. First correct orthography: Horaninow., Prim. Lin. Syst. Nat.: 95. 1834. Other incorrect orthography: Celastrineae Gerardin & Desv., Dict. Rais. Bot.: 656. 1817; Celastrides Raf., Sylva Tellur.: 138. 1838; Celastreae Perleb, Clav. Class.: 30. 1838; Celastrinaceae Scoffern, Outl. Bot.: 156. 1857; Celastryneae Leunis, Schul-Naturgesch. 2, ed. 7: 162. 1872.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--CELA

Celosiaceae Martynov, Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 117.31 Jul-5 Aug 1820 ("Celosiae").--Type: Celosia L., 1753.--Validated by a reference to an effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published Augier (Essai Nouv. Classif. Veg.: 129, 135. 1801, as "Celosies" (gallice)) family name with a description in French. The earlier Rafinesque (Anal. Nat.: 183. 1815, as "Celosia") name is a nom. nud. The Gerardin & Desvaux (Dict. Rais. Bot.: 656. 1817, as "Celosies") name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with a diagnosis in French and a reference to Augier (1801).--First correct orthography: Post & Kuntze, Lex. Gen. Phan.: 711. 1903. Other incorrect orthography: Celosida Raf., Fl. Tellur. 1: 29. 1837; Celosidia and Celosides Raf., Fl. Tellur. 3:42 resp. 43. 1837. --[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--CELO

Celsiaceae: The Lilja (Skanes Fl., ed. 2: 874. 979. 1870) name is a nom. nud.--Celsia L., 1753.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Celtidaceae Link, Handbuch 2: 441. Jan-Aug 1831 ("Celtideae").--Type: Celtis L., 1753.--Validated by descriptions in Latin and German. The earlier A. Richard ex Bartling (Ord. Nat. Pl.: 100. 1830, as "Celtideae") name is cited in synonymy.--First correct orthography: Walpers in Ann. Bot. Syst. 3: 394. 1852. Other incorrect orthography: Celtides Raf., Sylva Tellur.: 11. 1838.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--CELT*

Centaureaceae Martynov, Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 117.31 Jul-5 Aug 1820 ("Centaureae").--Type: Centaurea L., 1753.--Validated by a reference to an effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published Augier (Essai Nouv. Classif. Veg.: 165, 168. 1801, as "Centaurees" (gallice)) family name with a description in French. The Gerardin & Desvaux (Dict. Rais. Bot.: 657. 1817, as "Centaurees" (gallice)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with a reference to Augier (1801). The Rafinesque (Anal. Nat.: 192. 1815, as "Centaurinia") name is a nom. nud.--First correct orthography: Barnhart in Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 22: 24. 1895.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--CENR

Centrolepidaceae Endl., Gen. Pl.: 119. Dec 1836 ("Centrolepideae"), nom. cons.--Type: Centrolepis Labill., 1804.--Validated by a description in Latin. The earlier Beauvois ex Desvaux (Ann. Sci. Nat. (Paris) 13:41. 1828, as "Centrolepidees" (gallice)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with a description in French. The Desvaux ex Trinius (Gen. Pl.: 4. 1835, as "Centrolepideae") name is cited in synonymy.--First correct orthography: Hieronymus in Abh. Naturf. Ges. Halle 12: 209. 1873. Other incorrect orthography: Centrolepidae Welw. in J. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 3: 156. 1859; Centrolepidineae Drude in Schenk, Handb. Bot. 3(2): 337. 1886; Centrolipedeae Bessey in C. K. Adams, Johnson's Universal Cyclop. 8: 460. 1895; Centrolepidiaceae Bessey in Nebraska Univ. Stud. 7: 329. 1907.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--CENT

Centroplacaceae (Radcl.-Sm.) Doweld & Reveal, New Syllabus: 000. Dec 2004; basionym: trib. Centroplaceae Radcl.-Sm., Gen. Euphorb.: 78. 2001.--Type: Centroplacus Pierre, 1889.--Basionym validated by a diagnosis in Latin; family name validated by a full and direct reference to basionym.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--CENP*

Cepaceae Salisb., Gen. Pl.: 88. 1866 ("Cepaeeae").--Type: Cepa Mill., 1754.--Validated by a description in Latin.--First correct orthography: Hutchinson, Fam. Fl. Pl., ed. 3: 789. 1973. Other incorrect orthography: Cepaeaceae Airy Shaw in Willis, Dict. Fl. Pl. Ferns, ed. 7: 216. 1966.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--CEP+*

Cephaelidaceae: The Strong (Amer. Fl. 2:1 76. 1848, as "Cephaelideae") name is a nom. nud.--Cephaelis O. Sw., 1788, nom. cons.-- [MAGNOLIOPHYTA].*

Cephalanthaceae Raf. in Ann. Gen. Sci. Phys. Bruxelles 6: 86. Oct-Dec 1820 ("Cephalantia").--Type: Cephalanthus L., 1753.--Validated by a diagnosis in French. The earlier Trattinnick (Gen. Pl.: 64. 1802, as "Cephalanthi") name is a nom. nud. and its rank uncertain ("familias sucundarias").--First correct orthography: Reveal in Phytologia 74: 227. 1993. Other incorrect orthography: Cephalanthidia and Cephalanthideae Dumort., Comment. Bot.: 57. 1822; Cephalantheae Perleb, Lehrb. Naturgesch. Pflanzenr.: 234. 1826.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--CEPN

Cephalotaceae Dumort., Anal. Fam. Pl.: 59, 61. 1829 ("Cephaloteae"), nom. cons.--Type: Cephalotus Labill., 1806, nom. cons.--Validated by a diagnosis in French in a key.--First correct orthography: Lindley, Key Bot.: 45. 1835. [MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--CEPH

Cephalotaxaceae Neger, Nadelholzer: 23, 30. Oct-Nov 1907, nom. cons.--Type: Cephalotaxus Siebold & Zucc. ex Endl., 1842.--Validated by a diagnosis in German in a key.--[PINOPHYTA]. NCU--CEPX

Ceraceae: The Barnhart (Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 22: 5. 1895) name is a nom. nud.--Note: Barnhart (1895) rejected the name because it was not "formed, directly or indirectly, from the name of some genus" although he considered all names published from 1759 onward with an -aceae ending to be family names regardless of their original rank. The earlier unranked Klotzsch (in F. G. Hayne, Getreue Darstell. Gew. 14: ad t. 24 1846) name is associated with a diagnosis in German.

Cerantheraceae: The Dulac (Fl. Hantes-Pyrenees: 416, 547. 1867) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with a description in French. The name is not based on the genus name Ceranthera P. Beauv., 1808, or either of its illegitimate homonyms: Ceranthera Raf. (1819 [equivalent to] Androcera Nutt., 1818) or Ceranthera Ell. (1821 [equivalent to] Dicerandra Benth., 1830).

Cerastiaceae Vest, Anleit. Stud. Bot.: 271,292. 1818 ("Cerastoideae").--Type: Cerastium L., 1753.--Validated by a description in German.--First correct orthography: Reveal in Phytologia 74: 207. 1993.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. CERS

Ceratoniaceae Link, Handbuch 2: 135. Jan-Aug 1831 ("Ceratonieae").--Type: Ceratonia L., 1753.--Validated by descriptions in Latin and German.--First correct orthography: Bullock in Taxon 7: 10. 1958.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--CERT*

Ceratophyllaceae Gray, Nat. Arr. Brit. Pl. 2: 395, 554. 1 Nov 1821 ("Ceratophyllae"), nom. cons.--Type: Ceratophyllum L., 1753.--Validated by an English diagnosis in a key and a description.--First correct orthography: Horaninow, Prim. Lin. Syst. Nat.: 47. 1834. Other incorrect orthography: Ceratophylleae Rchb. in Mossler, Handb. Gewachsk., ed. 2: xxvi. 1827; Ceratophyllineae Kostel., Allg. Med.--Pharm. Fl.: 2009. 1836; Cheratophyllaceae Irvine, London Fl.: 46, 119. 1838; Ceratophyleae H. Nicholson & Lydekker, Man. Palaeont.: 1547. 1889.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--CERA

Ceratopteridaceae Underw., Our Native Ferns, ed. 6: 65, 78. Jul-Aug 1900.--Type: Ceratopteris Brongn. in Bull. Sci. Soc. Philom. Paris 1821: 186. 1822.--Validated by an English diagnosis in a key and a description.--[PTERIDOPHYTA]. NCU--CERP

Cerberaceae Martynov, Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 119.31 Jul-5 Aug 1820 ("Cerberides").--Type: Cerbera L., 1753.--Validated by a reference to an effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published Augier (Essai Nouv. Classif. Veg.: 139, 144. 1801, as "Cerberides" (gallice)) family name with a description in French. The Gerardin & Desvaux (Dict. Rais. Bot.: 657. 1817, as "Cerberides" (gallice)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. l 8.4) published, and is associated with a diagnosis in French and a reference to Augier (1801).--First correct orthography: Baumann-Bodenheim, Syst. Fl. Neu-Caled. 4: 59. 1989.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA].--CERB

Cercaceae: The Dulac (Fl. Hautes-Pyrenees: 25, 152, 548. 1867) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.1) published, and is associated with a diagnosis in French in a key. The name is not based on Cercis L., 1753.

Cercides: The Trattinnick (Gen. Pl.: 58. 1802) name is a nom. nud. and its rank uncertain ("familias sucundarias").--Cercis L., 1753. [MAGNOLIOPHYTA].

Cercidiphyllaceae Engl., Syllabus, ed. 5: 126. Jul 1907, nom. cons.--Type: Cercidiphyllum Siebold & Zucc., 1846.--Validated by a description in German.--Isonym: Engl., Syllabus: ed. 6:132. Jun--Dec 1909, validated by a description in German. The earlier Tieghem (J. Bot. (Morot) 14: 274. 1900, nom. nud. & Elem. Bot., ed. 4, 2: 385. 1906, as "Cercidiphyllacees" (gallice)) name is effectively (Art. 41.1) but not validly (Art. 18.4) published, and is associated with a description in French.--[MAGNOLIOPHYTA]. NCU--CERC
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Title Annotation:Part 1: Abstract-Index to Family Names (Abaminaceae-Cercidiphyllaceae)
Author:Hoogland, Ruurd D.; Reveal, James L.
Publication:The Botanical Review
Date:Jan 1, 2005
Words:37659
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