Increasing the efficiency of biologic nitrogen fixation, increasing the function and decreasing nitrogen fertilizers consumption in soya under cultivation farms.
Since Soya has high level of adaptation and 35-45 percent protein, 16-24 percent oil, it deserves high value in the world about oil production and plant protein so it is planted in most countries such as, USA, China, and Brazil which have the highest ranking about Soya production, respectively. Many products are derived from Soya as follow: oil, Soya milk, Soya cheese, soybean milk and many other industrial products. Soybean milk with more than 70% protein has high food value for livestock feed and also Soya oil because of linoleic and oleic fat acids has high value in humans feed. Today Soya as a replacement for animal protein has increasing consumption. The legumes were farmed in Iran for humans food needs supplying.
Today these goals are developed and legumes are planted for their effect on agronomical alternation and nitrogen fixation and helping to stable agriculture. However, it is more than 1000 years that symbiotic relation of nitrogen fixation among different legumes and Rhizobiaceace bacteria is discovered and for many years rhizobium produced inseminations stuff has been used to plant different legumes in order to increase the function and decrease nitrogen fertilizers consumption. Nitrogen is the most important element which a plant absorbs from the soil and nitrogen biologic fixation is the best way that by its help the soil is enriched from this element, naturally. Every year this process releases about 170 million tones of atmosphere nitrogen to the biosphere, but it does not have any economic and environmental problems of fertilizers consumption . The amount of fixed nitrogen by Soya is variable and depends upon soil, environmental, the used bacteria soy and cultivation item of soya factors. Alexander  estimated the amount of fixed nitrogen by Soya about 65-115 kg per hectare and Hardy et al.  are reported this amount about 57-94 kg per hectare . Keyser and Li,  estimated the highest amount of fixed nitrogen by Soya about 237 kg per hectare. Soil microbiologists have always focused on separating and investigating of Soya symbiotic rhizobiums strains which have had proper efficiency about nitrogen fixation, whereas researchers of agronomy have more attempted to find the best seeds. But the best way is that, for every climate area must be introduced proper seeds and items of Soya and tested bacteria efficient strains and the best compound item. According to Elmerich and Kondordsi, the number of root nodes and their distribution pattern on Soya roots, depends upon the seeds, and this condition is different among the seeds. In Iran few studies have been done about nitrogen biologic fixation, but in recent years special attention has been paid to this work.
About investigating different agricultural legumes germ plasm from adaptation with symbiotic strains point of view, less few studies have been done about Soya in Iran from which we can refer to Daneshian report . Moghan plain which is located in north of Ardabil and coast line of Aras (Araz) border river, is considered as an important area in Iran about Soya cultivation. In this attractive plain Soya cultivation has been started since 1981 and the first cultivated seed is related to the imported Williams item. The main parts of Soya cultivation in this plain are as follows: Bilesavar, Babak, Jafarabad, and Parsabad eastern regions.
In this region under cultivation area of Soya has had salient increasing. This is because of farmers welcoming especially for second cultivation (95 percent of region under cultivation area). Special pattern of cultivation, farmers high skill, high level of mechanization, proper climate conditions and enough water availability have prepared proper condition to cultivate Soya after grains harvest.
Materials and methods
In the first year this project was held in order to investigate insemination stuff of domestic produced soya and it's comparison with soya rhizobiums of soya symbiotic and imported insemination stuff in the form of randomized complete blocks in four repetition with 8 treatments: T1-witness(no insemination), T2- insemination stuff, T3-D insemination stuff, T4-soya insemination stuff of domestic production, T5-B insemination stuff , T6-Italian insemination stuff in powder form with nitrogen brand related to Agrifutur Company, T7-urea consumption according to the test, T8- A insemination stuff and after two years in order to increase the efficiency of nitrogen biologic fixation of domestic produced soya insemination stuff which it's superiority was proven and selected on the basis of first year experience results in the form of randomized complete blocks plan in four repetition with tentreatments: T1- witness (no insemination), T2-the elect strain (s), T3-the elect strain(s)+ Micorhizes mushrooms, T4-elect strain(s)+ urea spraying with 3 on thousand percent urea in pod filling level, T5- elect strain(s)+use of Mico-rhizes mushrooms +urea spraying, T6- the elect strain(s)+use of Sedomunas bacteria, T7-the elect strain(s) + use of Sedomunas bacteria + urea spraying, T8-the elect strain(s)+use of Sedomunas bacteria +Mico-rhizes mushrooms, T9-the elect strain(s)+use of Sedomunas bacteria+ use of Mico-rhizes mushrooms +urea spraying, T10- urea spraying, at research farm of Ardabil province natural resources and agricultural research center located in Moghan.
To do the project we used a farm in which Soya has not been cultivated for four years.
In spring it was plowed again and then by centrifuge fertilizing set about 100 kg per hectare ammonium phosphate and 50 kg urea as starter fertilizers were added. By faraway set, the streams and mounds became ready to cultivate. First to do this, seeds insemination was done according to the instruction (proper and unharmed seeds with high potential were prepared, suitable amount for each treatment distributed and spilled into a plastic sack with proper amount). Then to each of seed sacks insemination stuff added according to the instruction and mixed well so that inseminating and mixing of seeds comes in. In cultivation time first, witness and urea spraying treatment were cultivated and other treatments were planed according to treatment differences, respectively and then it was irrigated. Total numbers of patches were 40 and dimensions of each patch were 6. 2/4. Each patch was involved 4 lines of plant with 60 cm distance in which seeds were planted on lines with 7 cm distance from each other. Among patches two lines remained unplanted to prevent infection and intermixing of bacteria. The distance among repetitions was 4 meters. Irrigation streams were prepared so that extra watering of each repetition was emptied by an exit stream.
During growing all of the operations: irrigation, weeding, diseases and blights prevention and taking notes for all of the treatments were done, equally.
Discussion and Conclusion: First Year of the Project Execution:
Variance analysis results of the first year (Table1) showed that from crop function point of view and nodules number among treatments the difference on probability level was 5% meaningful. The best function was related to the fifth treatment T5 and (3625 kg. per hectare) and maximum nodules number was related to the second treatment T2 (113 in five plants).About the pods number and nodule weight among the treatments, the difference was not meaningful (Table 2).
Next Two Years of the Project Execution:
The compound variance of next two years analysis results (Table3) showed that fresh and dry weight of plant, pod number, nodule number and crop function of the treatments in comparison with the witness on probability level of 5% and 1% difference was meaningful. And the best treatment was T2 (the elect strain (s). About the weight of each seed among the treatments in comparison with the witness the difference was not meaningful (Table4).
The compound variance of next two years analysis results showed that the treatments crop function in comparison with the witness on probability level of 5% has meaningful difference and the best treatment was T2 (Table4).
The compound variance of next two years analysis results showed that the weight of each seed among the treatments about the difference was not meaningful (Table 4).
The compound variance of next two years analysis results showed that nodules number in the treatment in comparison with the witness on the probability level of 5% has meaningful difference and the best treatment is T2 (Table4).
The compound variance of next two years analysis results showed that about pod numbers among the treatments the difference is meaningful (Table 4).
The compound variance of next two years analysis results showed that the dry plant weight of the treatments in comparison with the witness on probability level of 5% has meaningful difference and the best treatment is T2 (Table4).
The compound variance of next two years analysis results showed that the fresh plant weight in the treatments in comparison with the witness on probability level of 5% has the meaningful difference (Table4).
[1.] Alexander, M., 1977. Introduction to sohl microbiology, second edition., 305-328.
[2.] Asadi, Rahmani, H., 1999. Study of soya insemination necessity foretelling possibility on the basis of Study the possibility of necessity predicting of soya insemination on the basis of determining the number of japonicum Brady rhizobium bacteria and measuring potential mineralization in under cultivation soya of soil. Tehran University MS Thesis.
[3.] Daneshian, J., 1996. The effects of soya cultivars inoculated seeds by b.japonicum bacteria on qualitative and quantitative characteristics of soya cultivars. Tarbiat Modares (teacher training) University. MS Thesis.
[4.] Elmerich., C., A. kondordsi and W.E. Nnewton., 1997. Biological nitrogen fixation for the 21st xentury. Klawer academic publiahers, 207-237.
[5.] Ghorbani Nosratabadi, R.N., Saleh V. Rastin,, H. Alikhani, 2002. Study the effect of sulfur and Thiobacillus with Brady rhizobium inoculum on soya growth and nitrogen fixation. Journal of Soil and Water Sciences, Volume 16 / 2.
[6.] Hardy., R.W.F and U.D. Havelka., 1976. Phytosynthate as a major factor limiting nitrogen fixation by field-grown legumes with emphasis on soybean. In symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation in plants. Ed. P S Nutman., 421-439.
[7.] Keyserand, hand li, f., 1992. Potential for increasing biological nitrogen fixation in soybean. plant and soil., 141: 119-135.
(1) Anvar asadi, (2) Kazem Khavazi, (1) Mitra Afshari, (1) Marefat Ghasemi
(1) Faculty Member of Agriculture Research Center of Ardabil, Ardabil, Iran
(2) Faculty Member at the Institute of Soil and Water Research.
Anvar asadi, Faculty Member of Agriculture Research Center of Ardabil, Ardabil, Iran
Table 1: Results of analysis of variance for measured traits. SOV df nodule nodule MS Number of Yield number weight pods per plant (Kg/ha) Block 2 165.37 0.79 835.29 156047.16 Treatment 7 1539.04 * 2.23 338.64 582054.75 * Error 14 498.61 2.57 1036.62 193345.73 CV (%) -- 33.9 24.11 22.29 15.67 * and ** Significant at the 5% and 1% levels of probability, respectively Table 2: Mean Comparison for measured traits. Treatment Yield Number of Nodule Nodule (Kg/ha) Pods per Plant Weight Number T1 2224c 134a 5.407a 31.67b T2 2622bc 134.3a 7.2a 113a T3 3077ab 156.6a 5.93a 58b T4 2571bc 145a 7.343a 69.67b T5 3625a 159.3a 7.317a 63b T6 3123ab 133a 6.747a 64.67b T7 2623bc 140.6a 7.6a 70.67b T8 2578bc 152.3a 5.64a 56.33b Table 3: Results of Combined analysis of variance for Increase the efficiency of biological nitrogen fixation. sov df Plant fresh Plant dry Ms Number of weight weight pods per plant year 1 9.8 132.61 3142.52 Error 1 6 454.15 70.89 124.8 treatment 9 3525.36 ** 885.4 ** 396.8 ** YIT 9 293.6 42.94 176.92 Error 2 54 500.057 90.507 82.28 CV (%) - 12.94 12.1 14.97 sov Number of 1000-grain Yield (gr/P0) nodes per plant weight year 15.312 3564.45 297070.33 Error 1 17.77 179.29 8438.64 treatment 56.41 ** 524.4 68629.201 ** yIt 9.95 220.43 15136.97 Error 2 14.49 361.009 5398.83 CV (%) 151.52 10.3 6.6 * and ** Significant at the 5% and 1% levels of probability, respectively Table 4: Mean Comparison for Increase the efficiency of biological nitrogen fixation. Treatment Plant fresh Plant dry Number of pods weight weight per plant T1 126.9c 60.5c 50.47c T2 204.9a 97.13a 70.97a T3 196.3ab 89.38ab 65.95ab T4 176ab 77.25bcd 59.83abc T5 170.9ab 77.88bcd 61.35abc T6 167.3b 81.5bcd 66.53ab T7 176.6ab 76.38bcd 55.63bc T8 180.9ab 69.5de 59.45abc T9 166.5b 85.88abc 66.18ab T10 162.1b 71cde 49.9c Treatment Number of 1000-grain Yield (gr/P0) nodes per plant weight T1 0b 170.8a 985d T2 7.375a 164.5c 1252a T3 6ab 188.8a 1234ab T4 1.8ab 196a 1122bc T5 2.725ab 184.4a 11.28bc T6 1.25b 187.2a 1133bc T7 0.7b 174.5a 1054cd T8 0.45b 178a 1021cd T9 4.82ab 185.3a 1184ab T10 0b 184.8a 1017cd
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|Title Annotation:||Original Article|
|Author:||Asadi, Anvar; Khavazi, Kazem; Afshari, Mitra; Ghasemi, Marefat|
|Publication:||Advances in Environmental Biology|
|Date:||Jul 1, 2011|
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