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Income Level of Nomad Duck Breeders (Moving) on Different Business Scale in South Sulawesi Province.

INTRODUCTION

Duck farming business is a poultry business is quite developed in Indonesia. Although not as popular as chicken farms, ducks have considerable potential as egg and meat producers. When compared with other livestock ungags, duck livestock has the advantages of them have endurance disease. Therefore, duck farming has a relatively smaller risk, so it is potential to be developed [1]Duck is one of the domestic poultry raised by farmers in Indonesia which serve as a source of income, employment and a source of animal protein from the meat and eggs. A high number of ducks and duck egg production will contribute the potential from which opportunities can be taken to provide added value to the business of ducks, and improve the nutritional intake of animal protein for the family, even as commodities of agribusiness [2;3 ].

[4], the production with intensive and semi-intensive maintenance is higher than with the traditional or extensive methods. Intensive livestock production of duck eggs can reach more than 50 percent. According to [5], in developing countries, however, the majority of poultry are still kept by smallholders in less intensive systems. The advantages of these systems are the low levels of input that they require and the unique products they produce. Basically the maintenance of ducks has been done for a long time by rural communities. For them, ducks are a source of everyday livelihood. Usually, they maintain ducks with shepherd systems. Every morning till afternoon the farmers pasture ducks in the fields to get the grain that is scattered as a source of feed. System maintenance is still very simple. However, from eggs and meat produced by duck, rural breeders are able to meet the needs of his family. Duck has become one of the eggs and meat provider's choice so it can be mainstay cattle [6].Business opportunities in the field of duck livestock is quite open as an alternative livestock business. This effort is actually quite a big potential for profit [7].

Duck breeding models mostly use traditional means of small maintenance scale and feeding models that rely on natural feed. Currently grown duck business to meet the needs of meat and for the needs of eggs that have been there before. Along with the growing grocery store all-round duck, the need of broiler duck is not less with the duck lying. In addition, the fulfillment of duck meat from reject duck is not enough anymore. The prospect of duck breeding business is quite good considering the consumption of eggs from year to year continues to increase, maintenance has been directed to semi-intensive or intensive [8].

Duck farming in South Sulawesi Province is still dominated by farmers with traditional maintenance systems where ducks are still grazing in the fields or in places with plenty of water. Maintenance of a system commonly called a nomadic maintenance system is a maintenance system carried out by farmers where farmers take their cattle to move where to get feed for ducks [9].In accordance with the opinion of [10] that the maintenance of ducks by members of the group by grazing on the agricultural lands after the harvest. At certain times, farmers will pasture their livestock outside the area for months and farmers build huts on the land. This is to meet the needs of feed ducks and avoid the cost of feed is quite expensive. The grazed ducks consume the remnants of harvested rice and small animals that live in the fields.

In Padalakkawa Village, Mattirobulu Sub district, Pinrang District there are duck breeder still doing nomadic maintenance system. Farmers raise their livestock by moving from one place to another with their ducks to seek feed and a place to feed their ducks so it is important to know how much the farmer's income is with a nomadic maintenance system on a different scale of business

Research methods:

This research was conducted in Padakkalawa Village, Mattirobulu Sub-district, Pinrang District in November-December 2016. The data types used are qualitative data and quantitative data. Sources of data used are: primary data is data obtained from the original source or through the appropriate resource persons and who made the respondents in the study and secondary data ie data already available from related institutions. Analysis of data used with income analysis: Revenue = Total cost-Total Revenue

RESULT AND DISCUSSION

Nomaden Duck Business Support:

The amount of duck breeders receiving nomad maintenance system per month in Padakkalawa Village, Mattirobulu District, Pinrang Regency can be seen in Table 1.

Table 1 can be seen that the total revenue obtained duck breeders breeding nomadic maintenance system vary greatly, where the lowest duck breeder acceptance is IDR. 12.413.500 whereas the highest duck breeder's acceptance is IDR 17.197.750, this is due to difference of acceptance from selling egg and laying duck (including consumed) and end value of livestock owned by breeder. This is in accordance with the opinion of [11], which states that revenue is the product of the multiplication of total production with the price of unit, total production is the main and sideline while the price is the price at the level of farming or selling price of farmers

Costs on duck business Nomad system:

Production costs represent a number of costs incurred by farmers in production activities; the cost component is one of the factors that need to be paid attention to every economic actor, including the ducking business of the nomadic maintenance system. The total cost representation consisting of fixed costs and variable costs in duck breeding business of nomadic maintenance system in Padakkalawa Village is:

1. Total Fixed Costs:

Fixed costs include depreciation of cages and depreciation of livestock business equipment and depreciation of non-livestock equipment. Depreciation is a consequence of the use of fixed assets, wherein fixed assets will experience depreciation or decline in function. The fixed costs incurred by duck breeders can be seen in Table 2.

Table 2, it can be seen that the average fixed cost incurred by the farmers of the nomads maintenance system nomadic in PadalakkawaVillage is the lowest that is IDR. 16.242/months while the highest fixed costs incurred by duck breeders are IDR. 27.135, this is due to differences in the cost of shrinkage of cages (net) and depreciation of equipment used by laying duck farmers. This is in accordance with [12] opinion that fixed costs consist of the cost of depreciation of the pen and the cost of depreciation of equipment of magnitude does not depend on the size of the business scale. The cost of making the cage is removed once with ten years of usage, equipment procurement costs are incurred once for a period of five years.

2. Total Variable Costs:

Costs included in the variable costs of initial livestock costs, drug and vaccine costs, mortality, transportation costs, labor costs, accommodation costs and other costs. These costs will increase along with the increasing number of livestock production. The total variable cost incurred by laying duck breeders nomads maintenance system in Padakkalawa Village, Mattirobulu District, Pinrang Regency can be seen in Table 3

Table 3 shows the average total cost of variables issued by duck breeders laying the lowest nomadic maintenance system at IDR 11,537,470 while the highest total variable cost is IDR. 15488.082, this is due to differences in the number of livestock reared each breeder caused by the ability of farmers, if the longer the maintenance or grazing cattle the more variable costs increase, due to the increasing use of production factors, if more and more or more laying duck breeders do grazing in each area of rice fields that have been harvested then require more costs, this is in accordance with the opinion [13], which states that the greater the output generated the greater the cost of the variable issued.

3. Total Costs:

The total cost is the cost of the fixed cost and variable costs incurred by the duck breeder of the nomadic maintenance system. The total cost is the cost that the farmers are pressing to increase efficiency and ultimately give greater benefit to the breeders. The total cost incurred by duck breeders of nomads maintenance system in Padakkalawa Village, Mattirobulu District, Pinrang Regency can be seen in Table 4.

Table 4 shows that the average total cost consisting of fixed costs with variable costs incurred by duck breeders laying the lowest nomadic maintenance system of IDR. 11,640,702 while the highest is IDR. 61,561,928, this is due to the large fixed costs and variable costs incurred by each farmer. The more fixed costs and variable costs incurred the more the total cost generated. This is in accordance with the opinion of [13], which states that the total cost is the total cost to be incurred by the company or in other words the total cost is the sum of fixed costs and variable costs.

Revenue of Laying Duck Breeders Nomad Maintenance System in Padakkalawa Village:

The amount of income duck breeders laying nomad maintenance system in Padakkalawa Village, Mattirobulu District, Pinrang District can be seen in Table 5.

Table 5, it can be seen that the average income of laying ducks laying the smallest nomadic maintenance system is IDR 851.572/month while the largest revenue is IDR 1.685.413/month, this is due to differences in costs incurred by farmers with receipts obtained. The income earned by the breeder is the difference between the receipts with the costs incurred or the receipts less the cost

Conclusions and recommendations:

Revenue duck breeders raise the highest nomad maintenance system that is IDR.1.685.413/month with a total of 500 cattle while the lowest is IDR. 851.572/months with a total of 350 cattle. Differences in income obtained by farmers are due to differences in the number of laying ducks owned.

It is advisable that the relevant agencies can provide health care assistance to duck breeders as well as to nomadic kept ducks at the time of removal and pasture of paddies in order to reduce mortality rates in livestock and increase incomes.

REFERENCES

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[2] Pangemanan SP, Hartono B, Devadoss S, Sondakh LW, Ali B 2014 Economic analysis of traditional farmer's household in Minahasa Regency, North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Livestock Reseach for Rural Development.26(7).http://www.lrrd.org/lrrd26/7/pang26136.html

[3] Endoh BG, Makalew A, Manese AV, Lumy TFD 2016 Analisisrentabilitasusahaternakitikpetelur di desa WolaangKecamatanLangowanTimurKabupatenMinahasa. JurnalZootek. 36(1), 198-206. http://ejournal.unsrat.ac.id/index. php/zootek/article/view/10470

[4] RetnodanMaloedyn S 2007 Panduanlengkapbeternakitik. AgromediaPustaka. Jakarta.

[5] Weimin M 2010 Distribution and characteristics of duck-fish farming systems in Eastern China. FAO Smallholder Poultry Production Paper. Rome. http://www.fao.org/docrep/013/al672e/al672e00.pdf

[6] Sipora, S., I.Wharahap,dan Z. Hidayati, 2009. Usaha ItikPetelur Dan TelurTetas. Program StudiManajemenHutan.DepartemenKehutanan.FakultasPertanian.Universitas Sumatera Utara. Medan.

[7] Noviyanto, A.S., W.Roessali, M.Handayani, 2016. AnalisisPendapatan Usaha TernakItikPetelur di KecamatanBanyubiruKabupatenSemarang.JurnalIlmuPertanian.Mediagro, 12(1):56-64.

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(1) Department of Socio economic, Faculty of Animal Science, Hasanuddin University, Makassar 90245, South Sulawesi, Indonesia.

(2) Department of Socio economic, Faculty of Animal Science, Hasanuddin University, Makassar 90245, South Sulawesi, Indonesia.

(3) Department of Socio economic, Faculty of Animal Science, Hasanuddin University, Makassar 90245, South Sulawesi, Indonesia.

(4) Department of socio economic Faculty of Animal Science, Hasanuddin University, Makassar 90245, South Sulawesi, Indonesia.

(5) Department of Socio econmomic, Faculty of Animal Science, Hasanuddin University, Makassar 90245, South Sulawesi, Indonesia.

(6) Department of Socio economic, Faculty of Animal Science, Hasanuddin University, Makassar 90245, South Sulawesi, Indonesia.

Address For Correspondence:

Amrullah T,Department of Socio economic, Faculty of Animal Science, Hasanuddin University, Makassar 90245, South Sulawesi, Indonesia.

E-mail:amrullah.sosek.unhas@gmail.com

Received 12 August 2017; Accepted 25 September 2017; Available online 20 October 2017
Table 1:Total Revenue of Layer Duck Breeders Laying System
MaintenanceNomadic in Padakkalawa village, Mattrirobulu sub-district,
Pinrang district

Business Scale  Adds duck breedes  Revenue(IDR/Month)

350             1                  12.413.500
360             1                  12.550.500
400             1                  14.215.000
450             2                  15.818.000
500             4                  17.197.750

Source :Primary data,2016

Table 2: Fixed Cost Components of Duck Breeders Nomad Maintenance System
in Padakkalawa Village, Mattirobulu District, Pinrang District.

Business Scale(tail)  Adds Duck Breeder(People)  Fix costs(IDR/month)

350                   1                          24.458
360                   1                          16.242
400                   1                          23.278
450                   1                          27.135
500                   1                          24.255

Source :Primary data,2016

Table 3:Total Variable Costs Output Layer Layer Farmers System Nomad
maintenance in Padakkalawa Village, Mattirobulu District, Pinrang
District.

Business Scale  Adds duck breeder  Variable costs (IDR/month)

350             1                  11.537.470
360             1                  11.615.460
400             1                  12.981.460
450             2                  14.419.215
500             4                  15.488.082

Source : Primary data,2016

Table 4:Total Costs Layer LayerLayer Spends Nomad maintenance in
Padakkalawa Village, Mattirobulu District, Pinrang District.

Business Scale  Adds breeders duck  Total cost (IDR/month)

350             1                   61.561.928
360             1                   11.640.702
400             1                   13.004.738
450             2                   14.440.950
500             4                   15.512.337

Source : Primary data,2016

Table 5: Revenue of Layer Duck Breeders Nomad Maintenance System at
Padakkalawa village,Mattirobulu District, Pinrang Regency

Business Scale  Adds duck breeder  Revenue(IDR/month)

350             1                    851.572
360             1                    909.798
400             1                  1.210.262
450             2                  1.371.650
500             4                  1.685.413

Source:Primary data,2016
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Article Details
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Title Annotation:Sulawesi, Indonesia
Author:Amrullah, T; St. Rohani; Sitti, Nurani Sirajuddin; Siti, Nurlaelah; Amidah, Amrawaty; Ikrar, Moh. Sa
Publication:Advances in Environmental Biology
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9INDO
Date:Sep 1, 2017
Words:2357
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