In-vitro evaluation of a newer biocide against livestock and companion animal ticks.
Tick control is an ongoing challenge as it causing great economic losses to livestock both directly or indirectly. Numerous strains of ticks have developed resistance to wide range of pesticides despite the fact that these compounds have varied modes of action and several distinct primary sites of attack in ectoparasites. The evolution of tick resistance to acaricides has been a major determinant of need for new products. It is therefore generally accepted that it is highly desirable to develop and commercialize additional active agents with new modes of action for tick control. The present study was undertaken to evaluate a new biocide (Indispron D-110 (a)) efficacy on different tick species in vitro.
Materials and Methods
Indispron D-110a contains hexamethyldisilazane, reaction product with silica, 3% aqueous dispersion. Mechanism of action of Indispron D110a is both physical and mechanical in nature. The effect of Indispron D-110 (a) is of a purely physical nature. The development of resistance to insecticide is therefore not a concern.
Collection of ticks
The sheep, cattle and dogs were screened for presence of ticks at various slaughter houses, farms, animals which were brought to Veterinary hospitals in and around Bengaluru.
The common tick species Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Haemaphysalis intermedia were collected from cattle, dog and sheep respectively and reared in laboratory by using ear bag method on rabbits (Srivastava and Sharma, 1976).
In vitro evaluation of efficacy
The test was carried out on round Whatman no 1 filter papers (Diameter of 11.0 cm) placed in petri dishes (inner diameter of 10.5 cm), coated with aqueous dispersion of new acaricide at three concentrations 0.5 ml, 1 ml and 2 ml. After drying, known number of different stages of ticks (100 for eggs, 50 for larvae, 20 for nymphs, 10 for adult male ticks, 5 for adult engorged females) were placed on surface of test paper. Thereafter, the petri dishes were closed and margins of cover were sealed with parafilm after making small holes on lid for aeration. The control was maintained with equal number of ticks. Three replicates were maintained for treatment and control groups and the experiments were repeated twice. The plates were examined at 6, 24 and 48 hrs post treatment to calculate survivability and mortality percentage of ticks.
Corrected percentage mortality was calculated by Abbott's formula as per Bagherwal et al. (1995). Efficacy was calculated on basis of percentage of death of ticks post treatment as per Bagherwal et al. (1994).
Indispron D-110 (a) showed ovicidal efficacy of about 80, 88 and 95% at concentrations of 0.5 ml, 1 ml and 2 ml against R. sanguineus. In R. microplus 87, 93 and 100% ovicidal efficacy was observed respectively. Mortality of 76, 85 and 91% was observed against eggs of H. intermedia at 0.5 ml, 1 ml and 2 ml of Indispron D-110 (a) with delayed hatchability period compared to control.
Efficacy against larva and nymphs
All concentrations (0.5, 1 and 2 ml) of Indispron D-110 (a) showed 100% efficacy against larva and nymphs of R. sanguineus and R. microplus and H. intermedia ticks after 24 hrs of treatment.
Efficacy against adult male ticks
100% mortality was observed at concentrations of 1 ml and 2 ml whereas 90% mortality was found at 0.5 ml in adult males of R. sanguineus and R. microplus ticks. 100% mortality was observed against adult males of H. intermedia at 2 ml of Indispron D-110 (a) whereas 90% mortality was observed at 0.5 ml and 1 ml of Indispron D-110 (a) after 36 hrs of treatment.
Efficacy against adult engorged female ticks
Few ticks in treatment group laid eggs and delayed hatching was also observed but larvae did not survive for more than 24 hours. Whereas in control group, ticks laid eggs and hatching of eggs into larvae was also observed which were alive even after 4 weeks. Hence 100% efficacy of Indispron D-110 was observed against adult engorged females of R. microplus, R. sanguineus and H. intermedia.
The acaricidal efficacy of Indispron D-110 (a) on eggs and adult male ticks of both species of ticks viz. R. sanguineus, R. microplus and H. intermedia was analysed statistically by one-way analysis of showed variance. Eggs of all three tick species a significant difference between concentrations whereas there was no significant difference between concentrations against adult male ticks.
Since the biocide is newly prepared and not yet marketed in India, reviews pertaining to these aspects have not been reviewed.
As the biocide Indispron D-110 (a) has been developed recently, it has to be evaluated on the target hosts before its commercialization. In the present study Indispron D-110 (a) gave better efficacy at all the concentrations used against different stages of ticks viz. Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Haemaphysalis intermedia. Against eggs of these ticks in vitro efficacy of Indispron D-110 (a) ranged from 76-100%. The adult engorged female, larvae and nymphal stages showed 100% efficacy at all the three concentrations of Indispron D-110 (a). Efficacy against adult male ticks ranged from 90-100%.
The authors are thankful to PNP and associates, Faridabad, Haryana for funds and free supply of samples for trials. The facilities provided through Centre Advanced Studies, ICAR, New Delhi for the study is thankfully acknowledged.
Bagherwal, R.K., Ashok Sharma and Dhanotiya, R.S. (1994). Studies on the efficacy of deltamethrin against different stages of Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum. Indian Vet. J. 71: 1073-76.
Bagherwal, R.K., Sisodia, R.S., Ashok Sharma, Dhanotiya, R.S. and Ghosal, S.B. (1995). In vitro studies on the susceptibility of the tick Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum to acaricides using F.A.O test kit. Indian Vet. J. 72: 332-35.
Srivastava, P.S. and Sharma, N.N. (1976). On the rearing of Hyalomma anatolicum anatollicum Koch, 1844 and their infection with Theileria annulata (Dscunowsky and Luhs, 1904) in the laboratory. Indian. J. Ani. Res. 10: 21-26.
Placid E. D'Souza (1), B.S. Pradeep (2) * and C. Renukaprasad (3)
Department of Parasitology
Karnataka Veterinary, Animal and Fisheries Sciences University (KVAFSU)
* Part of Post Graduate Thesis
(1.) Professor and Head cum Director, Dept of Parasitology, Centre for Advanced Faculty Training
(2.) Assistant Professor, Dept of Parasitology, Veterinary College, Bidar and Corresponding author.
(3.) Vice Chancellor, KVAFSU, Bidar
(a)--Brand of PNP Associates, Faridabad
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|Title Annotation:||Research Article|
|Author:||D'Souza, Placid E.; Pradeep, B.S.; Renukaprasad, C.|
|Date:||Jan 1, 2015|
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