In search of practice-based topics for management accounting education: IMA and AICPA members are surveyed to find the skills and abilities accounting practitioners feel are most important for those entering the management accounting profession. The results indicate a need for changes to the accounting curricula in order to better prepare graduates for their future careers.
This article presents the results of a survey of accounting practitioners regarding the topics that they feel are most important and relevant for accountants in their companies. The primary focus of this study is on the knowledge, skills, and abilities that companies expect from management accountants. The investigation is divided into two sets of topical coverage--entry-level positions and senior-level positions. The results can help accounting educators design new courses or revise their current cost/managerial accounting course contents in order to better prepare students for a more practice-oriented accounting career. In addition to accounting educators, professional organizations can also use the results of this study to identify subject areas that should be included in professional examinations.
The following sections include a brief look at prior studies, discussion of the research methodology and results, and an analysis that compares the practitioners' attitudes based on their membership in either the Institute of Management Accountants (IMA[R]) or American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA), which includes the importance of the topics to an entry-level vs. senior-level position.
During the 1990s, the Accounting Education Change Commission (AECC) announced that developments in the work environment, including the widespread use of communication and presentation tools in business, had changed the role of accountants from providers of accounting information to communicators, consultants, and decision makers. Individuals entering the profession were expected to display effective problem-solving, communication, interpersonal, and leadership skills, and they were expected to demonstrate the ability to effectively control and manage multidimensional and multistep projects throughout their career.
In response to these challenges, IMA launched a series of research projects to examine the changes in management accounting and financial management and determine the skills necessary for a successful career in the newly redefined profession. The results, though very general, identified work activities of corporate accountants along with the knowledge, skills, and abilities required for a successful career in corporate accounting. (3) Results of the research efforts, published in 1994, 1996, and 1999, conclude that corporate accountants perform a wide variety of activities--many of which depend on their role in the organization, position in the firm, years of experience, and company size. Some of these activities are within the realm of traditional management accounting jobs, while others relate to corporate accounting work, including financial reporting, tax accounting, and verification of recorded data. According to The Practice Analysis of Management Accounting, from 1996, the top two work activities corporate accountants perform most frequently are "managing the accounting/finance function" and "accounting systems and financial reporting." (4)
The most recent IMA practice analysis, 1999's Counting More, Counting Less: Transformations in the Management Accounting Profession, concludes that we should expect major changes in the activities of management accountants. The most significant changes include:
* Less reporting of information and more planning and analysis,
* More involvement in operations, and
* More involvement in decision making. (5)
Considering the changes reported by IMA's studies, there appears to be a need for periodic examination of market outlook, including practitioners' expectations of accounting graduates as future corporate managers. According to the 1999 practice analysis:
"To better meet the needs of their students and corporate customers, college and university accounting educators should obtain a better understanding of the work performed in modern corporations.... The insights gained should be used to revise management accounting courses and the management accounting curricula." (6)
While the IMA practice analyses provide a general framework for management accountants, the recommendations are too broad to help faculty in the specific curriculum development.
Several other studies have investigated the topical contents of the management accounting curriculum. (7) While each study has introduced a unique set of management accounting topics prioritized in rank order, similarities abound. The latest of these studies, published prior to IMA's practice analysis projects, was the 1988 study by Michael A. Robinson and M. Edgar Barrett, which identified a total of 51 topics that a management accounting curriculum should include. Robinson and Barrett conclude that substantial differences exist between what is taught in management accounting curricula and the core of topics that educators and practitioners believe should be included. (8) Current curricula could also be deficient both in the breadth of management accounting coverage and the depth of learning, including the amount of time allocated to teaching the topics being covered. (9)
STUDY DESIGN AND PROFILE OF RESPONDENTS
This study is based on responses to a questionnaire sent to 1,000 accounting practitioners (see Management Accounting Topical Survey on next page). The survey asked practitioners to indicate their highest degree earned, major, certification, field of work, nature of business involvement, and years of experience. Further, participants were instructed to rate how important each of the 86 cost/management accounting topics (compiled from the earlier studies) were to a successful career in a staff or senior accounting position. The rating scale was a five-point Likert scale where 1 represented low importance and 5 denoted high importance.
The questionnaire was initially piloted with a small group of accountants in southern California before being mailed to two groups of randomly selected accounting practitioners: a sample of 500 individuals from the IMA membership list and 500 from the membership list of AICPA. The questionnaire assured anonymity and instructed participants to answer each question by relying solely on their own experience, type of work, education, and position within their company.
Two mailings resulted in 224 usable responses from IMA members (IMAs) and 172 usable responses from AICPA members (AICPAs). The overall response rate was 39.6%, with a participation rate of 44.8% for the IMAs and 34.4% for the AICPAs. Statistical tests on the first and second groups of responses to measure the probability of nonresponse bias showed no significant differences between the two groups, thus leading to the conclusion that the chance of nonresponse bias was statistically insignificant (p=0.05). The response rates in this study are comparable to those experienced in similar studies. (10)
Respondents' background information shows a larger percentage of the IMAs had a master's degree (50%) compared to the AICPAs (33%). The predominant area of study for both groups was accounting. More than one-third had no certification (37.5%), and the rest held either a Certified Public Accountant (CPA) or Certified Management Accountant (CMA[R]) certification. Eighty-six percent of the IMA members were in a management position, compared to only 50% of the AICPA members. Conversely, the percentage of the AICPAs working in a consulting position was twice that of the IMAs. AICPAs generally were in public accounting (76.7%), while the IMAs were involved in a variety of business disciplines, with only 5.4% in public accounting.
RESULTS AND ANALYSIS: A COMMON TABLE OF CONTENTS
The data was analyzed to determine the importance of 86 topics for staff and senior management accounting positions. The mean ratings were used to rank the subjects from the most important to the least important.
Table 1 presents the 30 highest-rated topics by all respondents for an entry-level position. Only 30 topics are listed because Robinson and Barrett found that the average number of topics taught in management accounting courses is 28 in accredited baccalaureate programs and 25 in nonaccredited programs. (11)
As might have been expected following the spate of corporate accounting scandals, respondents consider ethics and fraud the most important topic, giving it a mean rating of 4.09. The next two highest-rated subjects reflect an emerging trend in the knowledge base of management accountants: Practitioners expect their staff accountants to know problem solving using spreadsheets (mean score of 4.05) and problem solving using commercial software (3.83). Other subjects listed are more closely associated with the table of contents of textbooks used in traditional management accounting courses, such as cost allocation, budgeting, standard costing, variance investigation, cost-volume-profit analysis, and absorption/variable costing. The list also contains several subjects not mentioned in previous studies: the value of information, continuous improvement, inventory control, manufacturing cost flows, and management accounting in service entities.
A similar analysis identified the most desired management accounting topic areas for a senior position. The rank and mean ratings of the 30 subjects appear in Table 2. (In 1988, Robinson and Barrett found that an average of 29 topics are taught in master's programs. (12)) Once again, respondents overwhelmingly agreed that ethics and fraud is the most important teaching subject (4.52), followed by financial (4.50) and operating budgets (4.47).
There is considerable overlap between the coverage required for a staff position vs. a senior position. Seventeen of the 30 top-rated subjects appear on both lists. The overall mean ratings obtained for the topics considered important for senior positions (ranging from 4.52 to 3.98), however, are significantly greater than those for staff positions (ranging from 4.09 to 3.20), which suggests that perhaps the depth of knowledge that senior accountants are expected to possess should be significantly greater than that for the entry-level professionals.
Other common topic areas for both staff and senior positions are problem solving using spreadsheets, the value of information, cost-volume-profit analysis, break-even analysis, master budgeting, revenue variance and income analysis, problem solving using commercial software, overhead allocation, inventory control, employee compensation systems, management control systems, variance investigation, flexible budgeting, and comparison to financial accounting.
Compared to the staff positions--and consistent with IMA's findings--senior management accountants seem less involved with standard costing, product costing, detailed variance analysis, and accounting for payroll. Instead, they spend more time on short- and long-term decisions such as make, lease, or buy decisions; capital investment; working capital management; asset management; and tax analyses. Other senior-level subjects include divisional and productivity performance evaluations, cost-system development, pricing decisions, short-term planning, decision making under uncertainty, and behavioral aspects of budgeting.
Tables 3 and 4 show the 30 highest-rated subjects for staff and senior positions based on responses from IMA members. As with the overall findings, IMA members rated ethics and fraud as their number one choice of topical coverage. In fact, the IMA members' ratings are consistent with the overall sample. In 24 out of 30 cases for the staff positions and 27 out of 30 cases for the senior positions, IMA member selections are the same as the overall results. The exceptions cited by IMA members that don't appear on the overall list for staff positions are productivity measurement, divisional performance evaluation, segment profitability analysis, prime/conversion costs, relevant cost analysis, and overhead variances. For senior positions, the exceptions are support department cost allocations, nonfinancial performance measures, and short-term planning with constraints.
Tables 5 and 6 present the top-rated subjects for staff and senior positions, respectively, based on the response from AICPA members. Comparisons of these responses to those of IMA members demonstrate that while there are areas of mutual interest between the two groups (18 of the top 30 topics are common choices for both IMA and AICPA members), the degree of perceived importance varies. For example, AICPA members do not rate ethics and fraud as high as IMA members do. Most subjects favored by AICPA members can be viewed as procedural topics, while IMA members prefer subjects that seem to be more oriented toward decision making. For example, the AICPAs list topics such as break-even analysis and variance investigation, while the IMAs list total quality management and divisional performance evaluation. Comparison of the AICPAs' ratings with those of the overall results in Table 1 finds 23 topics appearing on both lists for staff positions. The other seven skills are procedural in nature, including activity-based costing, Just-in-Time inventory methods, variance computations, and determining how costs behave. There is more agreement in regard to senior positions. The two lists differ by only four topics, involving decision-oriented topical areas such as strategic cost management, benchmarking, and nonfinancial analysis.
A CALL FOR CHANGE
The results from this survey support the call for major changes to the management accounting curriculum. While the traditional management accounting courses remain important and relevant, several new subjects need to be included in the accounting curriculum. First, ethics education plays an important role in how the next generation of managers will choose to practice business. The after-effects of corporate scandals and the resulting court rulings and regulatory actions serve as a wake-up call that it is the responsibility of business professionals to understand what is right and that managers who operate out of self-interest can cause harm to society. Absent this training, college graduates are unlikely to comprehend the full range of job expectations in their new roles as business consultants and corporate managers.
Second, there is a greater demand for processing information, often at speeds never before imagined. The survey results demonstrate a general consensus
among practitioners that accounting graduates should be well-prepared to use computer technology and related software accounting programs, and accounting programs should focus on teaching a full range of spreadsheet applications and other relevant commercial software programs in their management accounting courses.
In addition to technical accounting knowledge, today's accounting graduates are expected to focus on developing their strategic and organizational skills in order to better prepare for the emerging corporate challenges. To better reflect the well-established changing role of the management accountant in the business environment, accounting programs should consider addressing a number of nontraditional subjects within their curricula, including working capital management, productivity and performance evaluation, asset management and tax consequences, productivity and performance evaluation, cost system development, pricing decisions, short-term planning with constraints, and segment profitability analysis.
After examining the topical coverage found by the previous research studies cited earlier, as well as the results of this survey, it appears that much of the knowledge and many of the skills presently lacking in management accounting education are among the topics that are rated as important by members of both IMA and AICPA. (13) Additionally, the depth and breadth of the coverage provided by existing teaching materials need to be expanded, particularly for topics considered important to senior positions. To better prepare students interested in pursuing a career in management accounting, these topics require additional, more thorough coverage within accounting education.
The overall research findings demonstrate that the current accounting curriculum requires major revisions to both increase the extent of topical coverage as well as integrate interdisciplinary materials into management accounting education.
BY NAS AHADIAT, Ph.D.
(1) Rick Swanson, "Is Management Accounting a Dead Profession?" Strategic Finance, August, 1999; Brian Maskell and Bruce Baggaley, "The Future of Management Accounting," Journal of Cost Management, September/October 2000, pp. 24-27.
(2) Germain B. Boer, "Management Accounting Education: Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow," Issues in Accounting Education, May 2000, pp. 313-333.
(3) Gary Siegel and James E. Sorensen, What Corporate America Wants in Entry-Level Accountants, Institute of Management Accountants, Montvale, N.J., August 1994; Gary Siegel, The Practice Analysis of Management Accounting, Institute of Management Accountants, Montvale, N.J., March 1996; and Gary Siegel and James E. Sorensen, Counting More, Counting Less: Transformations in the Management Accounting Profession, The 1999 Practice Analysis of Management Accounting, Institute of Management Accountants, Montvale, N.J., August 1999.
(4) Siegel, 1996.
(5) Siegel and Sorensen, 1999.
(7) Edward B. Deakin and Edward L. Summers, "A Survey of Curriculum Topics Relevant to the Practice of Management Accounting," The Accounting Review, April 1975, pp. 380-383; Neal R. Van Zante, "Educating Management Accountants: What Do CMAs Think?" Management Accounting, August 1980, pp. 18-21; Royal E. Knight and Donald R. Zook, "Controllers and CPAs Evaluate the Relevance of Education Topics," Management Accounting, November 1982, pp. 30-34; Gerald H. Lander and Alan Reinstein, "Identifying a Common Body of Knowledge for Management Accounting," Issues in Accounting Education, Fall 1987, pp. 264-280; and Michael A. Robinson and M. Edgar Barrett, "The Content of Managerial Accounting Curricula," The Accounting Educators' Journal, Spring 1988, pp. 49-60.
(8) Robinson and Barrett, Spring 1988.
(9) G. Richard French and Richard E. Coppage, "Educational Issues Challenging the Future of the Accounting Profession," Ohio CPA Journal, July 2000, pp. 69-73; and W. Steve Albrecht and Robert J. Sack, Accounting Education: Charting the Course Through a Perilous Future, Accounting Education Series, Vol. 16, 2000.
(10) Lander and Reinstein, Fall 1987, and Robinson and Barrett, Spring 1988.
(11) Robinson and Barrett, Spring 1988.
(13) Deakin and Summers, April 1975; Van Zante, August 1980; Knight and Zook, November 1982; Lander and Reinstein, Fall 1987; and Robinson and Barrett, Spring 1988.
Nas Ahadiat, Ph.D., is a professor of accounting in the College of Business Administration at California State Polytechnic University in Pomona, Calif. You can reach him at (909) 869-2434 or email@example.com.
Table 1: Management Accounting Topical Coverage Selected for Staff Positions Ranked by Mean Ratings (1 = LOW IMPORTANCE 5 = HIGH IMPORTANCE) Staff Subject Rank Mean SD Ethics and Fraud 1 4.09 1.10 Problem Solving Using Spreadsheets 2 4.05 1.05 Problem Solving Using Commercial Software 3 3.83 1.05 Overhead Allocation 4 3.68 0.96 The Value of Information 5 3.63 1.10 Operating Budgets 6 3.61 1.04 Financial Budgets 7 3.57 1.15 Variance Analysis 8 3.55 1.06 Comparison to Financial Accounting 9 3.52 1.08 Manufacturing Cash Flows 10 3.52 1.17 Continuous Improvement 11 3.48 1.08 Cost-Volume-Profit Analysis 12 3.46 1.24 Inventory Control 13 3.45 1.19 Support Department Cost Allocations 14 3.43 1.08 Break-even Analysis 15 3.42 1.14 Controllable and Uncontrollable Variance 16 3.35 0.97 Absorption/Variable Costing 17 3.34 1.08 Revenue Allocation and Customer Profitability 18 3.33 1.01 Analysis Standard Costing 19 3.33 1.24 Cost/Managerial Accounting in Service Entities 20 3.32 1.11 Accounting for Payroll 21 3.30 1.26 Management Control Systems 22 3.29 1.02 Employee Compensation/Bonus Systems 23 3.28 1.07 Production Price and Efficiency Variances 24 3.28 1.11 Master Budgets 25 3.27 1.10 Total Quality Management (TQM) 26 3.23 1.15 Job Order Costing 27 3.23 1.33 Operation Costing 28 3.22 1.13 Sales Price and Volume Variances 29 3.22 1.14 Flexible Budgets 30 3.20 1.14 Table 2: Management Accounting Topical Coverage Selected for Senior Positions Ranked by Mean Ratings (1 = LOW IMPORTANCE 5 = HIGH IMPORTANCE) Senior Subject Rank Mean SD Ethics and Fraud 1 4.52 0.85 Financial Budgets 2 4.50 0.83 Operating Budgets 3 4.47 0.89 Make, Buy, or Lease Decisions 4 4.30 0.87 Problem Solving Using Spreadsheets 5 4.30 0.88 The Value of Information 6 4.27 0.83 Capital Budgeting 7 4.26 0.89 Cost-Volume-Profit Analysis 8 4.26 1.03 Working Capital Management 9 4.24 0.94 Break-even Analysis 10 4.23 0.87 Master Budgets 11 4.22 0.97 Revenue Allocation and Customer Profitability 12 4.21 0.97 Analysis Problem Solving Using Commercial Software 13 4.20 0.88 Overhead Allocation 14 4.19 0.88 Asset Management and Tax Consequences 15 4.18 0.89 Inventory Control 16 4.13 0.91 Divisional Performance Evaluation 17 4.10 0.95 Productivity and Performance Evaluation 18 4.08 1.06 Cost Systems Development 19 4.07 0.91 Employee Compensation/Bonus Systems 20 4.07 0.98 Relevant Cost Analysis 21 4.07 0.98 Management Control Systems 22 4.06 0.99 Variance Analysis 23 4.05 1.01 Pricing Decisions 24 4.05 1.08 Short-term Planning 25 4.04 0.90 Flexible Budgets 26 4.04 1.05 Decision Making under Uncertainty 27 4.03 1.01 Segment Profitability Analysis 28 4.02 0.04 Comparison to Financial Accounting 29 4.02 1.01 Behavioral Aspects of Budgeting 30 3.98 1.23 Table 3: Management Accounting Topical Coverage Selected by IMA Members for Staff Positions Ranked by Mean Ratings (1 = LOW IMPORTANCE 5 = HIGH IMPORTANCE) Staff Subject Rank Mean SD Ethics and Fraud 1 4.17 1.08 Problem Solving Using Spreadsheets 2 4.07 1.03 Problem Solving Using Commercial Software 3 3.78 1.06 Overhead Allocation 4 3.72 0.95 Continuous Improvement 5 3.64 0.98 The Value of Information 6 3.63 1.03 Operating Budgets 7 3.61 1.02 Variance Analysis 8 3.58 1.01 Manufacturing Cost Flows 9 3.57 1.28 Financial Budgets 10 3.55 1.14 Support Department Cost Allocations 11 3.51 1.04 Inventory Control 12 3.50 1.23 Productivity and Performance Evaluation 13 3.48 1.15 Controllable and Uncontrollable Variances 14 3.46 0.95 Cost-Volume-Profit Analysis 15 3.45 1.25 Cost/Managerial Accounting in Service Entities 16 3.42 1.18 Total Quality Management (TQM) 17 3.36 1.11 Accounting for Payroll 18 3.36 1.27 Comparison to Financial Accounting 19 3.34 1.07 Management Control Systems 20 3.32 1.00 Revenue Allocation and Customer Profitability 21 3.29 1.00 Analysis Divisional Performance Evaluation 22 3.29 1.06 Production Price and Efficiency Variances 23 3.28 1.11 Segment Profitability Analysis 24 3.28 1.21 Standard Costing 25 3.25 1.29 Master Budgets 26 3.24 1.19 Prime/Conversion Costs 27 3.20 1.18 Relevant Cost Analysis 28 3.19 1.04 Absorption/Variable Costing 29 3.19 1.08 Overhead Budget/Efficiency/Volume Variances 30 3.19 1.12 Table 4: Management Accounting Topical Coverage Selected by IMA Members for Senior Positions Ranked by Mean Ratings (1 = LOW IMPORTANCE 5 = HIGH IMPORTANCE) Senior Subject Rank Mean SD Ethics and Fraud 1 4.45 0.93 Financial Budgets 2 4.41 0.89 Operating budgets 3 4.38 1.02 Overhead Allocation 4 4.32 0.80 Cost-Volume-Profit Analysis 5 4.30 0.99 Make, Buy, or Lease Decisions 6 4.26 0.92 Problem Solving Using Spreadsheets 7 4.26 0.92 Capital Budgeting 8 4.25 0.89 Working Capital Management 9 4.23 0.93 Problem Solving Using Commercial Software 10 4.20 0.94 Revenue Allocation and Customer Profitability 11 4.20 1.00 Analysis The Value of Information 12 4.19 0.85 Break-even Analysis 13 4.18 0.94 Variance Analysis 14 4.16 0.86 Relevant Cost Analysis 15 4.15 0.94 Assets Management and Tax Consequences 16 4.13 0.95 Master Budgets 17 4.13 1.09 Employee Compensation/Bonus Systems 18 4.12 0.92 Support Department Cost Allocations 19 4.12 1.02 Inventory Control 20 4.10 0.99 Productivity and Performance Evaluation 21 4.10 1.08 Divisional Performance Evaluation 22 4.09 0.86 Cost System Development 23 4.06 0.91 Nonfinancial Performance Measures 24 4.06 0.92 Short-term Planning 25 4.04 0.90 Management Control Systems 26 4.04 1.03 Pricing Decisions 27 4.02 1.16 Segment Profitability Analysis 28 4.00 0.95 Decision Making Under Uncertainty 29 4.00 1.01 Short-term Planning with Constraints 30 3.96 1.07 Table 5: Management Accounting Topical Coverage Selected by AICPA Members for Staff Positions Ranked by Mean Ratings (1 = LOW IMPORTANCE 5 = HIGH IMPORTANCE) Staff Subject Rank Mean SD Problem Solving Using Spreadsheets 1 4.03 1.08 Ethics and Fraud 2 3.97 1.13 Problem Solving Using Commercial Software 3 3.89 1.03 Break-even Analysis 4 3.80 0.99 Comparison to Financial Accounting 5 3.76 1.07 Overhead Allocation 6 3.63 0.98 Operating Budgets 7 3.62 1.09 The Value of Information 8 3.62 1.21 Financial Budgets 9 3.61 1.18 Absorption/Variable Costing 10 3.57 1.07 Job Order Costing 11 3.53 1.28 Variance Analysis 12 3.51 1.15 Activity-Based Costing (ABC) 13 3.50 1.06 Just-in-Time Inventory Methods (JIT) 14 3.50 1.08 Manufacturing Cost Flows 15 3.47 1.03 Cost-Volume-Profit Analysis 16 3.47 1.25 Standard Costing 17 3.43 1.17 Sales Price and Volume Variances 18 3.42 1.08 Production Mix and Yield Variances 19 3.42 1.23 Revenue Allocation and Customer Profitability 20 3.41 1.04 Analysis Inventory Control 21 3.39 1.15 Master Budgets 22 3.32 0.97 Support Department Cost Allocations 23 3.32 1.13 Flexible Budgets 24 3.30 1.00 Flexible Budget Variance for Product-Related 25 3.29 1.13 Costs Cost Behavior 26 3.27 1.10 Assets Management and Tax Consequences 27 3.27 1.10 Operation Costing 28 3.27 1.12 Using ABC for Analyzing Customer Profitability 29 3.27 1.18 Continuous Improvement 30 3.26 1.17 Cost Systems Development 31 3.26 1.29 Table 6: Management Accounting Topical Coverage Selected by AICPA Members for Senior Positions Ranked by Mean Ratings (1 = LOW IMPORTANCE 5 = HIGH IMPORTANCE) Staff Subject Rank Mean SD Financial Budgets 1 4.63 0.71 Operating Budgets 2 4.61 0.64 Ethics and Fraud 3 4.61 0.72 Flexible Budgets 4 4.43 0.75 The Value of Information 5 4.39 0.79 Master Budgets 6 4.36 0.76 Problem Solving Using Spreadsheets 7 4.35 0.82 Make, Buy, or Lease Decisions 8 4.34 0.81 Break-even Analysis 9 4.31 0.76 Behavioral Aspects of Budgeting 10 4.30 0.94 Capital Budgeting 11 4.27 0.90 Working Capital Management 12 4.27 0.96 Assets Management and Tax Consequences 13 4.25 0.81 Revenue Allocation and Customer Profitability 14 4.23 0.93 Analysis Comparison to Financial Accounting 15 4.23 0.97 Problem Solving Using Commercial Software 16 4.21 0.80 Cost-Volume-Profit Analysis 17 4.21 1.09 Strategy Implementation 18 4.20 1.08 Inventory Control 19 4.18 0.80 Divisional Performance Evaluation 20 4.11 1.06 Cost System Development 21 4.09 0.92 Management Control Systems 22 4.08 0.94 Nonfinancial Information Analysis 23 4.08 0.97 Pricing Decisions 24 4.08 0.98 Decision Making Under Uncertainty 25 4.08 1.02 Segment Profitability Analysis 26 4.06 1.10 Productivity and Performance Evaluation 27 4.05 1.05 Benchmarking 28 4.05 1.09 Overhead Allocation 29 4.03 0.95 Strategic Cost Management 30 4.03 1.14 Short-term Planning with Constraints 31 4.00 0.83 Sales Mix 32 4.00 0.89 Cost Behavior 33 4.00 1.04 Employee Compensation/Bonus Systems 34 4.00 1.07
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|Publication:||Management Accounting Quarterly|
|Date:||Jun 22, 2008|
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