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In addition.

The discovery of gold in California the previous year produced a mad rush to share in presumably untold wealth. Very few found wealth, but the movement helped to develop the American West.

The tide of revolution ebbed in Europe. Hungary had risen against the Austrians, but the Austrians, aided by the Russians, sent in an army, and brought Hungary under subjection again.

There was an uprising in the papal dominions against Pius IX (1792-1878), who had become Pope in 1846. It was led by Mazzini and Giuseppi Garibaldi (1807-1882) and was crushed by Austrian and other forces.

Sardinia attempted to fight Austria and gain independence for the Austrian-dominated Lombardy-Venetia region in Italy, but Austrian forces defeated the Sardinians in two battles. The Sardinian king, Charles Albert (1798-1849), abdicated and was succeeded by his son, who reigned as Victor Emmanuel II (1820-1878).

The German states outside Austria tried to form a united nation. On March 27, 1849, delegates meeting at Frankfurt established a constitution for a German Empire and offered to make Frederick William IV of Prussia the emperor.

Lacking the nerve to stand up to Austria, he refused the crown.

The net result of the events of 1849 was that Austria remained dominant in central Europe, apparently stronger than ever.

The American inventor Walter Hunt (1796-1859) produced the safety pin in 1849, and in the same year, the French inventor Joseph Monier (1823-1906) devised reinforced concrete, whereby iron bars were embedded in the concrete, making it much stronger.

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Title Annotation:events of 1849
Author:Asimov, Isaac
Publication:Asimov's Chronology of Science & Discovery, Updated ed.
Article Type:Reference Source
Date:Jan 1, 1994
Words:248
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