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Importante extension del rango geografico conocido para el murcielago nectarivoro de Capixaba, Dryadonycteris capixaba (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae). ?Esta especie rara esta ampliamente distribuida en Brasil oriental?


The genus Dryadonycteris Nogueira, Lima, Peracchi and Simmons, 2012, represented by a single species, D. capixaba, was described based on 3 specimens from the municipality of Linhares, in the southeastern Brazilian state of Espirito Santo. These specimens were identified originally as Choeroniscus minor (Peters, 1868) by Peracchi and Albuquerque (1993) and Peracchi et al. (2011). Nogueira et al. (2012) suggested that Dryadonycteris was the only bat genus endemic to the Brazilian Atlantic Forest biome.

As a member of the tribe Choeronycterini (sensu Baker et al., 2003), D. capixaba is easily distinguished from lonchophylline and glossophagine bats by the absence of lower incisors. In comparison with other Brazilian choeronycterines (Anoura Gray, 1838, Choeroniscus Thomas, 1928, Lichonycteris Thomas, 1895, and Scleronycteris Thomas, 1912), Dryadonycteris is distinguished by a set of unique distinct external and craniodental traits, including the tricolored banding pattern of the dorsal pelage; plagiopatagium inserted at the base of the toes; uropatagium long, extending past knees; calcar and foot subequal in length; well developed pre-maxilla; inflated anterior maxilla and presence of 2 foramina between premaxillae (Wet-terer et al., 2000; Griffiths and Gardner, 2008; Nogueira et al., 2012). Detailed morphological comparisons of the choeronycterine genera are provided by Nogueira et al. (2012).

Although the type series was originally identified as C. minor, the general appearance of Dryadonycteris is closely related to that of Lichonycteris; both genera have similarities in body size, the tricolor banding pattern of dorsal pelage, and the insertion of the plagiopatagium at the base of the fingers. In addition, there is a possibility that the D. capixaba and Lichonycteris obscura Thomas, 1895 are potentially sympatric at the Atlantic Forest of southeastern Brazil (Nogueira et al., 2012). The above mentioned aspects raised the need of a reevaluation of the identification of choeronycterine specimens from other locations in eastern Brazil identified as C. minor and L. obscura.

In the present study we revised the identification of 5 specimens cataloged as C. minor and L. obscura, from 4 localities in northeastern Brazil (Fig. 1), deposited in 3 zoological collections: Colecao Adriano Lucio Peracchi (ALP), Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Colecao de Mamiferos da Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB) and Colecao de Mamiferos da Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE). Three of these specimens were collected by the authors in Sergipe, including an adult female (ALP 9740), previously identified as C. minor, which was captured at Refugio da Vida Silvestre Mata do Junco (10[degrees]32'S, 37[degrees]03'W), a 800-ha protected area of Atlantic Forest with a well structured forest surrounded by sugarcane (Saccharum sp.) plantations in the municipality of Capela. Two adult males (UFPB 6104, UFPB 6105) were captured at a second site called Serra da Guia (9[degrees]58'S, 37[degrees]52'W) in the municipality of Poco Redondo in July and August, 2009, respectively. These specimens were reported as L. obscura by Leal et al. (2013), based on the preliminary identification in an unpublished dissertation (Rocha, 2010). Both specimens were caught with mist nets set in a cloud forest refuge at the top of the mountain range, at an altitude of approximately 750 m. This small patch of forest has a well structured canopy of up to 20 m in height, which is quite distinct from the dry Caatinga scrub habitats of the surrounding area.

Two additional specimens also identified as C. minor were examined. One specimen (UFPE 301) was collected in the cloud forest at Brejo dos Cavalos (8[degrees]22'S, 36[degrees]01'W) in the municipality of Caruaru, Pernambuco (Souza et al., 2004). Finally, the other unpublished specimen (UFPB 4203) was collected in an area of Atlantic Forest in Ibateguara (8[degrees]56'S, 35[degrees]53'W), Alagoas.

All the mentioned specimens present the unique combination of characters that distinguish D. capixaba from the other choeronycterin genera (Nogueira et al., 2012), such as (1) lower edge of the horseshoe confluent with the upper lip, (2) lateral edges of the horseshoe confluent with the face on the inferior margin, but with superior edge free, (3) small ears, with rounded tips and strongly convex inner margins, (4) dorsal and ventral surfaces of the forearm covered with fur, (5) plagiopatagium inserted at the base of the toes, (6) long uropatagium, extending past the knees and the short tail, (7) calcar approximately the same length as the foot, (8) dorsal fur tricolored, with a pale brown base and narrow dark brown tip, separated by an ample, cream-colored middle band (Fig. 2), (9) premaxillae well developed, (10) presence of 2 foramina between premaxillae, (11) anterior portion of the maxilla inflated conspicuously (Fig. 3), (12) presence of well developed diagonal lines on the orbital portion of the frontal bones, (13) coronoid process as high as the mandibular condyle, (14) U-shaped upper incisor arcade (Fig. 3), and (15) first lower premolar with concave lingual surface. The dental formula of the specimens--I 2/0, C 1/1, P 2/3, M 3/3 x 2 = 30--is also the same as that of D. capixaba. The measurements of the specimens analyzed, obtained following the guidelines in Vizotto and Taddei (1973), are also generally consistent with those recorded for the type series (Table 1).


The results of the present study constitute a major advance in the understanding of the zoogeography of D. capixaba, given that the northernmost sites are 1200 km north of the type locality of this species in the southeast of the country. Assuming that the known localities do not represent 2 isolated populations in the north and south of the Atlantic Forest, it would seem reasonable to conclude that the species is distributed throughout most of this biome on the tropical eastern coast of Brazil, although it is presumably rare at most sites.

In addition, while Nogueira et al. (2012) suggested that the species (and genus) is endemic to the Atlantic Forest, the herein analyzed specimens from Serra da Guia and Brejo dos Cavalos indicate the occurrence of the species within the neighboring Caatinga xeric scrublands of northeastern Brazil, albeit in isolated enclaves of cloud forest, which are considered to be Atlantic Forest refugia (Andrade-Lima, 1982). In the specific case of Serra da Guia, the small size of the cloud forest enclave--approximately 25 hectares--suggests that the local D. capixaba almost certainly utilize the Caatinga scrub, even if they may not be permanent residents in this ecosystem. On the other hand, the association with cloud forest suggests that they may be dependent on mesic habitats. The cloud forest enclaves of the Brazilian Northeast are known for their faunal diversity, including many endemic and endangered species (Andrade and Lins, 1964; Theulen, 2004; Pereira Filho and Montingelli, 2011).



Based on this reassessment of the available specimens, C. minor would now be restricted to only 3 sites in the Atlantic Forest (Fig. 1), all relatively close to the type locality of D. capixaba--Ilheus and Una in southern Bahia (Faria et al., 2006), and Caratinga in eastern Minas Gerais (Aguiar et al., 1995). The specimens from Minas Gerais are similar in size to D. capixaba (Nogueira et al., 2012), but smaller than the C. minor specimens collected in French Guiana (Simmons and Voss, 1998). Given the findings presented here, it seems likely that these specimens may also represent D. capixaba. In the original description of Nogueira et al. (2012), these individuals were not available for analysis. Assuming that these specimens do in fact represent D. capixaba, the geographic range of C. minor would be restricted to the Amazon basin and adjacent areas of northern and northwestern South America.

Recibido 24 febrero 2014. Aceptado 7 julio 2014. Editor asociado: H Mantilla-Meluck

Acknowledgments. We are grateful to Jadson Brito for technical assistance, to Diego de Moraes Astua for access to the collection of mastozoology of the UFPE. AF and PAR were supported by graduate stipends from CAPES. SFF (processes 302747/2008-7 and 483220/2013) and PAR (501701/2013-3) thank CNPq for research stipends.


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Patricio A. da Rocha (1, 5), Anderson Feijo (1), Daniela Dias (2), Jefferson Mikalauskas (3), Juan Ruiz-Esparza (4), and Stephen F. Ferrari (5)

(1) Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Sistematica e Ecologia, Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Zoologia, 58059-900 Joao Pessoa, Paraiba, Brazil [correspondence: Patricio A. da Rocha <>].

(2) Laboratorio de Biologia e Parasitologia de Mamiferos Silvestres Reservatorios, Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz, Pavilhao Lauro Travassos, Avenida Brasil 4365, 21040-900 Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

(3) Laboratorio de Mastozoologia, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, BR 465 km 7, 23890-000 Seropedica, RJ, Brazil.

(4) Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Desenvolvimento e Meio Ambiente--PRODEMA, 49100-000 Sao Cristovao, Sergipe, Brazil.

(5) Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Departamento de Ecologia, 49100-000 Sao Cristovao, Sergipe, Brazil.
Table 1
Selected measurements (weight in grams, all other values in mm) of
specimens of Dryadonycteris capixaba from 4 localities in
northeastern Brazil and the type series from Linhares, Espirito
Santo (after Nogueira et al., 2012). The collection acronyms are
detailed in the main text.

                           Espirito Santo             Sergipe

Measurement                Range of values for   Serra de Guia, Poco
                             the type series            Redondo

                                                 UFPB 6104   UFPB
                                                  (male)     6105

Body mass                  4.1-5                   6.0        5.0
Total length               49.9-56.4               54.0        -
Body length                 -                      46.0        -
Tail length                4.4-6.4                 8.0         -
Hind foot length           7.5-8.3                 8.0         -
Ear length                 9.0-10                  12.0        -
Forearm length             29.1-32.3               30.0       31.0
Greatest length of skull   19.5-20.2               18.9       19.4
Condylobasal length        18.9-19.8               18.6       18.7
Mastoidal breadth          7.8-8.2                 7.8        7.6
Breadth of braincase       7.6-7.7                 7.7        7.5
Postorbital constriction   3.8-4.2                 4.0        3.9
Breadth across upper
  canines                  3.3-3.4                 3.1        2.9
Breadth across upper
  molars                   4.0-4.1                 4.2        3.9
Maxillary toothrow
  length                   6.1-6.8                 6.8        5.9
Length of mandible         13.9-14.2               13.4       13.1
Mandibular toothrow
  length                   6.2-7.0                  -          -

                            Sergipe    Pernambuco    Alagoas

Measurement                 RVS Mata   Brejo dos
                               do       Cavalos,    Ibateguara
                             Junco,     Caruaru

                            ALP 9740   UFPB 4203    UFPE 301
                            (female)   (male)       (male)

Body mass                   6.0          -             -
Total length                56.5         -             -
Body length                 49.0         -             -
Tail length                 6.4          -             -
Hind foot length            7.7          -             -
Ear length                  12.1         -             -
Forearm length              31.2         -             -
Greatest length of skull    19.9       19.7         18.3
Condylobasal length         19.4       18.8         18.1
Mastoidal breadth           7.9        7.2             -
Breadth of braincase        7.6        7.4           7.4
Postorbital constriction    3.8        4.3           3.8
Breadth across upper
  canines                   3.3        3.2           2.8
Breadth across upper
  molars                    3.9          -             -
Maxillary toothrow
  length                    6.8        6.3           5.8
Length of mandible          14.0       13.1         12.2
Mandibular toothrow
  length                    6.9          -             -
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Author:da Rocha, Patricio A.; Feijo, Anderson; Dias, Daniela; Mikalauskas, Jefferson; Ruiz-Esparza, Juan; F
Publication:Mastozoologia Neotropical
Date:Dec 1, 2014
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