Importance of embryonic antagonists in regulating populations of processionary Thaumetopoeapityocampa (Denis & Schiffermuller, 1775) Schiff in some Algerian cedar forests.
The purpose of this study is to propose alternative solutions based on the use of antagonists biologic, in order to fight agaagainst the pinprocessionary, Taumetopoeapityocampa (Denis and Schiffermuller). That is considered as a defoliator because of the damage to the silvicultural and health problems in the Algerian forests or wooded areas open to the public. To meet this objective, we have we conducted outings for harvesting the eggs mass of pine processionary. This operation was performed in a random manner in pure cedar forests of three station : Chrea, Theniet El Had and Chelia. The prepared biological material is monitored daily in the laboratory to monitor the emergence, of antagonists over time. A diversity of four parasitoids in control populations of the pine processionary moth was identified: Baryscapusservadeii, Ooencyrtuspityocampae and Trichogrammaembryophagum encountered in three cedar forests (Chrea, Chelia and Theniet El-Had). The fourth species is typical of Anastatusbifasciatus pundits cedar forest Theniet El had. From all the Eggs mass analyzed, the frequency rate of occurrence of the species Baryscapusservadeii stood at 29.31% for the station Chrea, 4.54% and 25% for Chelia and Theniet El Had respectively. For Ooencyrtuspityocampae, it is about 10.34% for the punters harvested site Chrea, 2.27% for, laying harvested Chelia and 6.25% for biological material Theniet El-had. The attendance rate of Trichogrammaembryoph remains very low, with only 3.44% in Chrea and 6.25% in Chelia. This species remains absent in the site Theniet El had. The different rates of parasitism of a site to another depending on the species and in relation to the form of egg mass, cylindrical or plat. in conclusion, the Baryscapus servadeii remains more active than the rest of the parasitoids identified. Based on these results, it is desirable to provide this parasitoid farms, that showed performance on several cases in biological control.
KEYWORDS: Cedar, Egg mass, Moth processionary, parasitoids.
Mediterranean forests cover a geographical area of about 81 million hectares (FAO, 2010). Algerian forest occupies 4.7 million hectares distributed in the northern part of the country (DGF, 2007) it is consists of a mixture of tree species, mainly the Aleppo pine, maritime pine, stone pine, cork oak, holm oak and Atlas cedar. These biotic communities are currently threatened by various species of defoliators and borers(Imbaultet al., 2013; Rossi et al., 2016). The most spectacular defoliation caused by the processionary of softwood and). hardwood(Rousseletetal., 2015). Adults in this group of social insectshave a very limited lifetime. The larvae, known for their gregarious lifestyle, their greed (Fraval, 2007) and their stinging properties pose many health problems even for humans and animals. With the known climate change, the infestations of this defoliator take a wider dimension recorded in her range and accentuated by the decline of her natural enemies (Van Dyck, 2012; Roques et al., 2015).Extending the range of host species plays a very important role in the movements of the insect (Battistiet al., 2015). The temperature remains the determining factor in its distribution and the health of forest stands. Currently, infestations of this insect affect insouthern Europe and northern Africa (FAO, 2010). The population of the pine processionary moth can be controlled by the intervention of various auxiliaries including embryonic parasitoids that play an important role in limiting populations of culmination phase. These parasitoids, belonging to the order Hymenoptera and are mainly part of the family Chalcididae using the eggs processionary as a host for their development (Morel, 2008). This parasitism mechanism is important in biological control to reduce the ecological niche of the processionary in cold areas of the European continent and altitude ecosystems of Mediterranean areas (Demolin, 1987). Several studies on the importance and use of these eggs parasitoids for biological control, have been led by; Suty (2010), kherroubi (2012), Jactel(2014), Battisti (2015), Guyot(2015).
The choice of subject was conducted following the importance of growth processionary populations and the practice of the use of the eggs parasitoids proves of a great interest for the regulation of theprocessionarypopulationsin zones sub-wet and semi-arid of Algeria.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
2.1. Harvest and preparation of the eggs mass:
During the summer of 2014, we conducted outings for harvesting the eggs mass of pine processionary. This operation was performed in a random manner in pure cedar forests in the early dates of adult flights. The eggs mass of varying lots were taken from selected sites. A staff of 78 eggs mass was harvested in the resorts of Chrea (36[degrees]26'4.15"N, 2[degrees]53'20.29"E) and Chelia (35[degrees]18'8.48"N, 6[degrees]37'4.17"E). The third lot represented by 56 eggs mass were harvested in Cedar of Theniet El Had (35[degrees]51'19.64"N, 2[degrees]0'7.33"E). The biological material was gathered by the accessibility and height of man. The eggs mass collected are stored individually in tubes of 10cm in length and 1 cm in diameter plugged with cotton for ensure the ventilation. Each tube is fitted with a label bearing the number of the Ponte.
2.2. Control of biological material in the laboratory:
The prepared biological material is monitored daily in the laboratory to monitor the emergence over time. hatching caterpillars and Parasitoidsare noted in control cards. Meanwhile, daily temperatures are recorded using a thermometer to record the variability of outbreaks related with temperatures.
2.3. Enumeration of emergences:
With the emergence, theparasitoids are identified with Professors Chakali G. and Doumandji S. All parasitoids are counted to derive information on the parasitism rate on each species in the surveyed stations.
2.4. Methods of data analysis:
Frequency distribution and the analysis of variance. The statistical analysis of the parasitism rates was conducted on Excel Stat 9.
RESULT AND DISCUSSION
3.1. Parasitic diversity of eggs of the processionary:
Four parasite Hymenopteraoophages belonging to Chalcidoidae have emerged from the biological material controlled; the identificationwas made by Professor Chakali Gahdab and confirmed by Professor Doumandji Salaheddine. The species, Ooencyrtuspityocampae, Baryscapusservadeiiand Trichogrammaem bryophagum have been noted in the three stations explored. The fourth species is Anastatusbifasciatuswas obtained only from two eggs mass fromthe Cedar Forest of Theniet El-Had.
3.2. Analyses Frequency of the parasitoidspresence:
It is important to emphasize that an egg laying maybe parasitized, by one, two or three species simultaneously. All combinations are noted in our experimentation.
Case of the Cedar Forest of Chrea:
On 70 Eggs mass placed under observation, 12 have not been parasitized, either a calculated rate of 83% of the eggs mass have given at least a parasite. Similarly, Kherroubi (2012) showed a parasitism rate of 58% in the region Chrea, at this subject, Arkam (2011) notes the importance of parasitoids on eggs mass of processionary vary a biotope to another and from a year to another. It is important to emphasize that the percentage represents the eggs mass who have suffered a parasitism. In the biological material examined, it existed of eggs mass that are heavilyattacked, other moderately attacked and the last category is represented by eggs mass weakly attacked. The combinations of the presence of the three parasitoids are noted on the biological material consider born with a dominance of the species, Baryscapusservadeii, representing a rate 29,31% of the global workforce. The frequency of the presence of B.servadeiiand T. embryophagumamountsto 20.68%. Other combinations of presence is limited between 3.44 and 10.34% however only variant O. pityocampae with T.embryophagumhas not been noted. Schmidt et al. (1997) at his study about the parasitoides of processionary had noted a parasitismrate of 21,4% by Baryscapusservadeiiand Ooencyrtuspityocampae. The extremities of the eggs mass are the most sought by the parasitoids identified. On the basis of these results, it is important to emphasize that the parasitoids, O.pityocampa and T.embryophagum seem to recognize to not to return in specific competition. These antagonists appear to recognize the parasitized.
Case of the Cedar Forest of Chelia:
On a batch of 50 eggs mass, sixeggs mass only do not contain parasitoides. Unlike the previous site of Chrea, we note a low rate 4.54% of parasitism by Baryscapusservadeii. The presence of the three parasitoids sets represented the highest percentage, either 40, 90% of the total workforce. The Combination of Baryscapusservadeii with Trichogrammaembryophagum occupies a frequency of 15.90% and the combination of B.servadeii and O.pityocampaeoccupies 13.63%. The presence of T.embryophagum with 6.81% allows to draw a first idea on the performance and the ability to parasitize the eggs mass in this site despite the protection of eggs mass per the scales. This ability opens up prospects for research for its use on a large scale. It should be noted that the T. embryophagum is the most common species with frequency of the presence of 6.81 % in the Cedar Forest of Chelia. The species B. servadeii occupies the second rank. The third species O. pityocampae is limited to 2.27%.
Case of the Cedar Forest of Theniet El-Had:
On a batch of 37 eggs mass placed under observation, five have not given of emergence of parasitoides. The rate of parasitism is 86.48% of the presence of a parasite at least in the biological material taken into consideration. Among the antagonists the more frequent that have emerged is Baryscapusservadeii occupies a percentage of 25%. As noted earlier the combination of the three parasitoids simultaneously occupies the greater frequency, is 31.25%. As the region of Chrea the absence of combination between the two Oophages, O. Pityocampae and T. embryophagum is remarkable. However the presence of T. embyophagum with Baryscapusservadeii is noted. The frequency of the presence of T. embryophagum alone is zero. Contrary to the region of Chelia, the species remains the most representative. The presence of three parasitoid sets still the highest percentage 31.25%. It is important to point out the presence of a fourth species. Anastatusbifasciatus a workforce of 4 individuals has emerged only of two eggs mass harvested from this site.
3.3. Chronology ofemergences of active species according to the regions:
3.3.1. Emergence of Baryscapusservadeii:
Case of the Cedar Forest of Chrea:
The cumulative curve of emergences of this embryonic parasitoid on a population of 58 eggs mass is represented by the figure 1. according to biological material from the Cedar Forest of Chrea, the first Emerging Baryscapusservadeii have been noted in the first week of the month of July 2014. The emergences were staggered on 36 days. The date of timing, corresponding to 50 % of the emergence of the population is carried out at 12 July 2014.
Case of the Cedar Forest of Chelia:
The cumulative curve of emergences of this embryonic parasitoid on a number of 78 eggs mass is illustrated by Figure 2. According to the graph above, we note that the species Baryscapusservadeii emerged with a low number with respect to the station of Chrea. The emergencesare carried out in the second week of the month of July 2014 and are spaced out during 14 days. There comparing with the data collected on the previous population of Chrea. It is apparent that the emergences are more late and more limited in the time to Chelia. The date of the shimming (50% of the emergence) was registered on 15 July 2014.
Case of the Cedar Forest of Theniet El-had:
The cumulative curve of emergences of this embryonic parasitoid on a number of 56 eggs mass is represented by the figure 3. The first emerging Baryscapusservadeii in the region of Theniet El-Had have been noted from the third week of the month of August 2014 with a very low number. It is from the 3 October that the population is manifested significantly. It is possible that a few individuals are released before the late harvest of our biological material. Despite this delay a large number of individuals have emerged and are lagging behind in their emergence which ran up to the end of the month of 'October. The date of timing, corresponding to 50% of the emergence of the population is carried out on 12 October 2014. A variability between the dates of emergences of populations of servadeii Baryscapus is noted and likely in relationship with thecharacteristics of the environment particularly the geographic position.
3.3.2. Emergence of Ooencyrtuspityocampae:
Case of the Cedar Forest of Chrea:
Figure 4 illustrates the cumulative curve of emergences of Ooencyrtuspityocampae. As well as the species Baryscapusservadeii. The first emergence of the Ooencyrtuspityocampaewas noted from the first week of the month of July 2014. The first individuals to have emerged on 05 July in contrast to the previous generation of 2013, for the same region the emergence as were held later to 22 July and are staggered over a period of 25 days. The year 2014 the emergences were staggered on 23 days. About ten days after the observation of the biological material, 70% of the population have emerged. The date of timing is 13 July 2014.
Case of the Cedar Forest of Chelia:
The cumulative curve of emergences embryonic parasitoid The Ooencyrtuspityocampae establishes from a workforce of 78 eggs mass is represented by the figure 5. In the site of Chelia the species of Ooencyrtuspityocampae. Began their emergence from the second week of the month of July with a more important in relation to the site before. The date of shimming done at 17 July 2014. The timing of emergences was carried out with 12 days.
Case of the Cedar Forest of Theniet El-Had:
The cumulative curve of collected data is illustrated in Figure 6. The biological material harvested from the Cedar Forest of Theniet El-Had has highlighted the greatest strength of the parasitoid Ooencyrtuspityocampae. The first outputs of the adults were recorded late in relation of the previous population. This have only from the fourth week of the month of August 2014 that the first individuals to have emerged. The emergences were spread out over two months. The date of timing, corresponding to 50% of the emergence of the population is carried out on 17 October 2014.
3.4. Comparative analysis of the rate of parasitism in the three regions according to the species:
To perform a comparison between the rates of parasitism of each species in the different regions according to the form of eggs mass (cylindrical or in plate). It has counted the number of parasitized eggs according to the holes in output of each species.
Case of Baryscapusservadeii:
The results obtained are illustrated by the histogram of the figure 7. According to the histogram below, we note that the rates of parasitism of eggs mass by the Baryscapusservadeii in the two sites Chrea and El-Had Theniet is very similar for the two forms of eggs mass (cylindrical and plate). The bioclimatic floor and the altitude of the sites may have an effect on the evolution of these parasitoids. The reduced number of cylindrical Eggs mass harvested at Chelia does not give reliable results. A study on a greater number of samples gives more information on the evolution of this parasitoid.
Case of the Ooencyrtuspityocampae:
The results obtained are presented by the histogram of the figure 8. The parasitoid Ooencyrtus embryonic pityocampaeremains more meaning on the cylindrical Eggs mass to Chelia. Has Chrea rates of parasitism relating to two forms of eggs mass, remain comparable. Has Theniet El-Had a slight difference is noted in favor of eggs mass in plate.
Case of Trichogrammaembryophagum:
The results obtained are illustrated by the histogram of the figure 9. The Eggs mass harvested in the three cedars explored have shown that the species Trichogrammaembryophagumchosen more of the eggs mass in the form of likely plate the species to more preference on these hosts that are better exposed. The Eggs mass parasitized by T.embyophagum are limited to draw significant information.
3.5. Overall analysis of the rates of parasitism in relationship with the shape of the eggs mass:
The results obtained are illustrated by the histogram of the figure 10. In a general way the parasitoids are evolving preferentially to ends on the eggs mass in plates. The eggs mass in plates are better exposed and allow a facility to species to parasitize a maximum of eggs with a movement limited.
A entomological diversity of four embryonic parasitoids has been identified; Baryscapusservadeii, Ooencyrtuspityocampae and Trichogrammaembryophagumencountered in the three stations studied and Anastatusbifasciatus, typical to the eggs mass of the Cedar Forest of Theniet El-had. On the whole of eggs mass analysed the frequency rate of the presence of the species Baryscapusservadeiiamounts to 29, 31% for the station of Chrea, 4.54% for Chelia and 25% for Theniet El-Had. For the Ooencyrtuspityocampae, itsa order of 10.34% for the eggs mass harvested from site of Chrea, 2.27% for the eggs mass harvested from Chelia and 6.25% for the biological material of the Theniet El-had. The rate of presence of Trichogrammaem br yophagumremains very low with only 3.44%, either two eggs mass on a workforce of 70 eggs masscollected from the region of Chrea Atlas cedar and 6.25% in the site of Chelia. This species remains absent in the site of Theniet El-had. It is desirable to seek more the species on a larger number of samples. The possibility of simultaneously have one, two or three parasitoids is very frequent on lots of eggs mass harvested in the three sites with rates very variable depending on the species and the Middle prospected. As the sites surveyed are not localized in the same floor bioclimatic nor has the same altitude, the rates of different parasitism from a site to the other depending on the species and in relationship with the form of Ponte (cylindrical or in plate). The eggs mass have a form in plate are relatively more favorable for all parasitoid species particularly for the Trichogrammaembryophagum.in conclusion, the Baryscapus servadeii remains more active than the rest of the parasitoids identified. Based on these results, it is desirable to provide this parasitoid farms, that showed performance on several cases in biological control. The use of parasitoids in forests requires a choice of species among the more effective and better adapted. This requires a thorough understanding of the diversity of indigenous auxiliaries. Among the parasitoids, the polyphagous, Trichogrammaembryophagum is a species to retain and develop in the framework of fight against possibly several species of insect Lepidoptera. Its low presence on the eggs mass of the processionary, is explained by the barrier on the protective scales. A research investigation must be conducted to draw information on its power to parasitize eggs mass protected.
This study was funded by the Ministry of high education and scientific research, Ecole Nationale Superieure Agronomique, PhD program, Algeria. Thanks go to Professor Doumandji Salaheddine, Department of Zoology agricultural and forest, ENSA Algiers, Algeria for his assistance.
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(1) Mounir Kherroubi, (1) Fazia Mouhouche (2) Chakali Gahdab
(1) Laboratory of Phytopharmacology, Zoology agricultural and forest department, High School of Agronomy, Hassan Badi, El Harrach, Algiers, Algeria
(2) Laboratory of Entomology, Zoology agricultural and forest department, High School of Agronomy, Hassan Badi, El Harrach, Algiers, Algeria
Address For Correspondence:
Mounir Kherroubi, Laboratory of Phytopharmacology, Zoology agricultural and forest department, High School of Agronomy, Hassan Badi, El Harrach, Algiers, Algeria
This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution International License (CC BY).
Received 28 August 2016; Accepted 18 October 2016; Available online 22 October 2016
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|Author:||Kherroubi, Mounir; Mouhouche, Fazia; Gahdab, Chakali|
|Publication:||Advances in Environmental Biology|
|Date:||Oct 1, 2016|
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