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Importance of Herbal Plants in the Management of Urolithiasis.

Introduction

Urolithiasis or nephrolithiasis is the oldest and endemic unpleasant urological disorder (Gilhotra and Christina, 2011). Urolithiasis or nephrolithiasis are generally known as stone formation in virtually any part of the urinary system such as, ureters, urinary bladder, kidneys and urethra and it is the third widespread disorder in urinary tract (Vidhya et al., 2013). Urinary stones are generally induced by bacterial infection while kidney stones are formed because of physicochemical or hereditary derangements resulting in super saturation of the urine with stone forming salts or, less commonly, from repeated urinary tract infections with urease producing bacteria like Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris, Enterobacter spp., Staphylococcus epidermitis, Serratia spp. and Staphylococcus aureus (Alok et al., 2013). Stone formation is a complicated process which occurs because of the successive physicochemical occurrences such as excellent saturation, growth, nucleation, retention and aggregation within the renal tubules (Yadav et al., 2011).

Renal calculi can be broadly categorized in significant organizations: tissue connected and unattached. Connected calculi are mainly included by using calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) renal calculi, with a detectable connection site to the renal papilla and essentially as well as a middle located near the connection website (concave area) and notably striated concentrically laminated peripheral layers. Unattached calculi, without detectable website of connection to papilla, are developed in renal cavities of low or reduced urodynamic efficacy and might showcase numerous composition and structures (Kuo et al., 2003; Grases et al., 2002).

Health professionals typically do not treat kidney stone, they just medicate the ache before the stones released out of the body. Vegetarian food programme, heavy on herbal products and drinks, may be helpful inside the cure and prevention of kidney stone. Therefore, the first-rate manner to save lots of kidney stone is to drink lots of water and have a vegetarian eating regimen excessive in magnesium. The typical pills used to save urolithiasis are not powerful in every sufferer, and lot of them have unfavorable effects therefore stop their permanent use. The modern day management of urolithiasis with open up renal surgery is not unusual and frequently used most reliable because that introduction of extracorporeal surprise wave lithotripsy (ESWL) which includes almost end up being the standard way of postponing off kidney stones. However, further to the irritating effect of shockwaves, continual residue stone fragments and the opportunity of contamination shows that ESWL can also motive severe renal injury, a lesser in renal feature and growth in stone recurrence. Hence, the hunt for antilithiatic pills to be powerful devoid of side effects from herbal resources has received huge capacity.

In the present article, a strive has been designed to emphasize on powerful herbs used in treatment for urinary stones. Herbs and natural tablets have created interest to some of the humans using its clinically examined results like adaptogenic, immuno-modulation, and antimutagenic. Additionally, the overuse of artificial capsules, which results in higher prevalence of destructive drug reactions, has inspired humans to return to nature for secure remedies. The origins, consistent with many, can be sourced to the industry fitness business enterprise's Canberre Convention in 1976, which marketed the idea of 'standard' prescription drug treatments for the growing countries. The trouble of urinary stones or calculi is an extremely historical one and many remedies have been used by people of different age groups in which stones are identified in all parts of the urinary system, the kidney, the ureters and the urinary bladder and can range significantly in size. Weight-reduction plan containing low levels of inferior exceptional proteins and high consumption of animal proteins might augment the chance of stone formation. The incident of urolithiasis is very common in northern areas of Pakistan when compared with Bangladash. It's far speculated that higher incident may be because of whole wheat diets. People living in rocky regions, wherein the local climate is warm and dry, appear to more prone to urinary calculi sickness. Treatment of urinary tract stones was revolutionized with the introduction of ESWL in the 1980s that resulted in 68-86% treatment succession of upper urinary tract stones which are treated on the basis of the size, type and location of the stone (Sarrafchi et al., 2016; Havagiray et al., 2010).

Usage history of medicinal plants prove them harmless than synthetic drugs (Nasri and Shirzad, 2013) that is why main focus of today's research is drug discovery from medicinal plants (Mohsenzadeh et al., 2016). Various studies had demonstrated efficacy of medicinal plant extracts on kidney and urinary tract disorders (Gupta and Chaphalkar, 2016).Hayatdavoudi et al. (2016) evidenced that Kurd tribes treated kidney stones in Abdanan and Dehloran districts of Ilam Province, Iran using Alhagipersarum Boiss & Buhse and Rubia tinctorum, Linum usitatissimum L., Tribulus terrestris L., Prunus cerasus L. and Foeniculum vulgare Mill.

Mechanism of stone formation. (Available from: https//www.healingrosacea.com/urinary-stone-diseases/ 2), (Fig. 1).

Review of literature. Anand et al. (1994) made a comprehensive research on antiurolithiatic activity of Tribulus terrestris and Crateva nurvala in albino rats. The effective constituent isolated from Crateva nurvala was lupeol and it was thoroughly researched. Antiurolithiatic activity of lupeol was evaluated in rats by observing the weight of the stone, biochemical examination of serum and urine and histopathology of bladder and kidney. Lupeol not only prevented the forming of vesicle calculi but also reduced the size of the existing stones. They have concluded that lupeol have significant antiurolithiatic activity. Atmani et al. (2003) had experienced that Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn. has curative influence on stone formation induced by ethylene glycol. Joyamma et al. (2003) experienced that Mimosapudica have good antiurolithiatic property. Ravindra et al. (2006) made a report on Moringa oleifera root in the management of renal calculi (Kokate et al., 1996; Seftel et al., 1990). Bahuguna et al. (2009) discovered that Jasminum auriculatum flowers have effective antiurolithiatic activity. The result of this plant on calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis has been analyzed in male albino rats. Ethylene glycol feeding led to hyperoxaluria as well as increased renal excretion of calcium and phosphate. Supplementation with alcoholic and aqueous extract of Jasminum auriculatum flowers significantly reduced the elevated urinary oxalate significantly, showing a regulatory action on endogenous oxalate synthesis. The increased deposition of stone forming constituents in the kidneys of calculogenic rats were also reduced by this extract treated groups. The effect that shows the flowers of Jasminum auriculatum is endowed with antiurolithiatic activity. Jarald et al. (2011) made a comprehensive research work on Unex for its antiurolithiatic property. The study mainly focused tojudge the potency of Unex capsule on albino rats as a preventive agent resistant to the development of kidney stones. Activity of Unex capsule was researched using the ethylene glycol induced urolithiasis model and the study work shows that Unex capsule restored the urine pH to normal, and increased the urine volume significantly.

Gilhotra et al. (2011) made a report on the result of Rotula aquatic on ethylene glycol induced urolithiasis in rats. The alcoholic extract reduced the oxalate, calcium and phosphate in urine. In addition, it increased the urine volume, reducing the tendency for crystallisation. Anbu et al. (2011) made a study on antiurolithiatic activity of ethyl acetate root extract of Ichnocarpus frutescens using ethylene glycol induced method in rats. Supplimentation with ethyl acetate draw out of Ichnocarpus frutescens significantly reduced the increased urinary oxalate, showing a regulatory action on endogenous oxalate synthesis. The increased deposition of stone developing constituents in the kidneys of calculogenic rats were also decreased by this extract cured groups. The final result that the root of Ichnocarpus frutescens is endowed with antiurolithiatic activity. Ahmadi et al. (2012) studied effects of Alcea rosea root extract as a preventive and curative agent in ethylene glycol induced urolithiasis in rats. Regarding their research idea, Alcea rosea demonstrated a beneficial impact in protecting against and eliminating calcium oxalate deposition in the kidney of rat. This effect is possibly due to diuretic and anti-inflammatory effects or occurrence of mucilaginous polysaccharides in the plant. It could also be related to decrease of urinary concentration of stone-forming constituents. Suganya et al. (2012) made a research work on formulation and analysis of capsule containing poly herbal ingredients as an antiurolithiatic agent. Pre-formulation, formulation and in process quality control tests have been completed and the product was significant in nature (Kulkarni, 2009; Patwardhan et al., 1990).

WHO has approved the utilization of traditional drugs as part of its health programmes. According to a WHO survey, 80% of the populace surviving in developing countries rely almost exclusively on traditional medicines for primary health care needs i.e., in all the system of traditional medications, plants play a significant role and constitute its back bone. There are many possibilities available in the management of uretheral stones. Treatment selection will depends on stone size, composition and location, efficacy of every modality and associated morbidity, equipment available, physician skill, patient health preference and finally its costs. In many cases, the management of urolithiasis is combined with surgical and medical approach using percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL), extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) and antibiotics. These treatments tools are relatively costly, painful and require expert hands and availability of appropriate equipment. For the treatment of larger renal stones they are effective but recurrence rate are high and having their own side effects. Endoscopic stone removal and extracorporeal great shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) brings about traumatic ramifications of shockwaves; persistent residual stone fragments and possibility of infection, very few of literatures suggest that ESWL may cause traumatic renal injury, decrease in renal function and increase in stone recurrence (WHO, 1998). Allopurinol, Cystone etc. are few drugs used in the treatment of renal calculi but these drugs are experiencing their own side effects. It has given rise to activation in the search for looking into natural resources demonstrating anti-urolithiatic activity. There is a tremendous progress in the field of medicine, but still there is no absolutely satisfactory drug for the treatment of renal calculi. Most patients still have to go through surgery to relieve this painful disease. Plants and other natural substances have been used as the rich source of medicine (Prachi et al, 2009; Nidal, 2005). All traditional civilizations have recorded therapeutic uses of plant in their own ethnobotanical texts. The list of drugs obtained from plants source is intensively extensive. Many remedies have been employed through the ages to take care of urolithiasis. A lot of the remedies have been extracted from plants and become useful, although the rationale behind their use is not medically established except for a few plants and some amazing composite herbal drugs (Sharma et al., 2001).

Conclusion

On the basis of the above discussion, it has been concluded that nature is better combinatorial chemistry and has possible answers to all or many diseases for mankind. Therapeutic plants play an essential role in stone diseases. The undesirable impact of the modern medication has recently diverted the interest of the individuals towards herbal medicines. To improve the acceptability and awareness among the people, there can be an urgent need to build up trust and faith for the safer indigenous system by establishing its validity in treatment for various diseases. Health care systems are more and more costly; therefore herbal medication systems must be introduced in our health care. Let us hope that in future natural basic products will be contending modern medications with added advantages of more basic safety and lower costs.

Conflict of Interest. The authors declare no conflict of interest.

References

Alok, S., Jain, S.K., Verma, A., Kumar, M., Sabharwal, M. 2013. Pathophysiology of kidney, gallbladder and urinary stones treatment with herbal and allopathic medicine: A review. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Diseases, 3: 496-504.

Gilhotra, U.K., Christiana, A.J.M. 2011. Antilithiatic activity of Kalanchoepinnata Pers. on 1% ethylene glycol induced lithiasis in rats. International Journal ofPharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research, 10: 187-192.

Grases, F., Costa-Bauza, A., Ramis, M., Montesinos, V., Conte, A. 2002. Simple classification of renal calculi closely related to their micromorphology and etiology. Clinica Chimica Acta, 322: 29-36.

Gupta, A., Chaphalkar, S.R. 2016. Anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive activities of some flavonoids from medicinal plants. Journal of Herbal Medicine andPharmacology, 5: 120-124.

Havagiray, R., Shashi, A., Jain, S.K., Sabharwal, S.K. 2010. Herbal treatment for urinary stones. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, 1: 24-29.

Hayatdavoudi, P., Khajavi, R.A., Rajaei, Z., Hadjzadeh, M.A. 2016. Renal injury, nephrolithiasis and Nigella sativa: a mini review. Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine, 6: 1-8.

Kokate, C.K., Purohit, A.P., Gokhale, S.B. 1996. Textbook of Pharmacognosy. IVth edition, Pune, Nirali Prakashan, India.

Mohsenzadeh, A., Ahmadipour, S.H., Ahmadipour, S., Asadi Samani, M. 2016. A review of the most important medicinal plants effective on cough in children and adults. Der Pharmacia Lettre, 8: 90-96.

Nasri, H., Shirzad, H. 2013. Toxicity and safety of medicinal plants. Journal of Herbal Medicine and Pharmacology, 2: 212.

Nidal, A.J. 2005. Medical plants utilized in Palestinian folk medicine for treatment of diabetes mellitus and cardiac diseases. Journal of Al-Aqsa University, 9: 2005.

Patwardhan, B.D. 1990. SearchofImmunomodulatory agent--a review. Indian Drugs, 28: 56-63.

Prachi, N., Chauhan, D., Kumar, M.S. 2009. Medicinal plants of Muzaffar Nagar district used in treatment of urinary tract and kidney stone. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge, 8: 191-195.

Sarrafchi, A., Bahmani, M., Shirzad, H., Rafieian-Kopaei, M. 2016. Oxidative stress and Parkinson's disease: New hopes in treatment with herbal antioxidants. Current Pharmaceutical Descriptions, 2: 238-246.

Seftel, A., Resnick, M.I. 1990. Metabolic evaluation of urolithiasis. Urologic Clinics of North America, 17: 159.

Sharma, P.C., Yelna, M.B., Dennis, T.J. 2001. Database on Medicinal Plants used in Ayurveda. vol. II, New Delhi, CCRAS, India.

Vidhya, G., Sumithra, G., Anandhan, R., Anand, G. 2013. Antiurolithiatic activity of Nardostachys jatamansi DCon modified lithogenic diet induced urolithiasis in rats. International Journal of Advances in Pharmaceutical and Genetic Research, 1: 5263.

Vijay, T.R., Rao, N.V.N., Babu, A., Sathish Kumar, M., Sharmila N.P., Reddy, B.S., Ramarao, N. 2013. Antiurolithiatic activity of methanolic extract of dried leaves of Glochidion velutnium using ethylene glycol induced rats. International Journal of Biology andPharmaceuticalResearch, 4: 878-884.

Yadav, R.D., Alok, S., Jain, S.K., Verma, A., Mahor, A., Bharti, J.P., Jaiswal, M. 2011. Herbal plants used in the treatment of urolithiasis: A Review. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Technology, 2: 1412-1420.

Muhammad Jamil (a), Muhammad Mansoor (a) *, Noman Latif (a), Sher Muhammad (b), Jaweria Gull (c), Muhammad Shoab (d) and Arsalan Khan (e)

(a) Arid Zone Research Centre (PARC), Dera Ismail Khan, KPK, Pakistan (b) National Agricultural Research Center, Islamabad, Pakistan (c) Department of Biotechnology, Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University, Sheringal, Dir, Pakistan (d) Rehman Medical Complex, Peshawar, KPK, Pakistan (e) FMD Research Centre, Veterinary Research Institute, Peshawar, KPK, Pakistan

(received April 21, 2016; revised May 15, 2017; accepted June 23, 2017)

* Author for correspondence;

E-mail:joyadkpk@googlemail.com

Caption: Fig. 1. Mechanism of stone formation.
Table 1. Lists of plant drugs used in kidney stone, gall stone,
urinary calculi (Prachi et al., 2009; Nidal, 2005)

S.No.    Botanical names                     Common name

1        Alhagi mannifera (Leguminosae)      Camels thorn

2.       Armoracia lopathifolia              Horse radish
           (Brassicaceae)
3.       Aervajavanica (Amaranthaceae)       No Common name

4.       Aerva lanata (Amaranthaceae)        Gorkhabundi

5.       Ammannia baccifera (Lythraceae)     Dadamari,

6.       Arctostaphylos ura ursi             Bearberry
           (Asteraceaer)
7.       Ascyrum hypericoides                Ascus
           (Asclepidaceae)
8.       Asparagus racemosus (Liliaceae)     Satavar

9.       Abutilon indicum (L.) Sweet         Indian Mallow
         (Malvaceae)
10.      Abutilon indicum (L.) (Malvaceae)   Indian Mallow

11.      Aegle marmelose (L.) (Rutaceae)     Wood apple, Bael

12.      Amaranthus spinosus (L.)            Spiny amaranth
           (Amaranthaceae)
13.      Amaranthus viridis (L.)             Slender Amaranth,
         (Amaranthaceae)                     Green Amaranth.
14.      Argemone maxicana (L.)              Slender Amaranth
           (Papaveracea)
15.      Ageratum conyzoides (L.)            Goat Weed
           (Asteraceae)
16.      Amaranthus caudatus (L.)            Love-lies-bleeding
           (Amaranthaceae)
17.      Asphodelus tenuifolius (Cav.)       Weed of fields
           (Liliaceae)
18.      Apium graveolens (Apiaceae)         Lavender

19.      Barbarea vulgaris (Brassicacaea)    Rocket
20.      Berginia ligulata (Saxifragaceae)   Pasanabheda

21.      Bridolia montana (Euphobiaceae)     Chikitsa silianam

22.      Beta vulgaris                       Sugar beet

23.      Bombex ceiba (L.) (Bombacaceae)     Cotton tree

24.      Borhaavia difffusa                  Hogweed,
           (Nyctagenaceae)                   Punarnava

25.      Blumea balsamifera (Asteraceae)     Sambong

26.      Capsella Bursa-pastori              Shepherd's-purse
           (Brassicaceae)
27.      Cucumis sativus (Cucurbitaceae)     Cucu
28.      Caesalpinia huga                    Nicker nut
           (Caesalpinioceae)
29.      Citrusjaponica (Rutaceae)           Celery
30.      Celosia argentla (Amararanthacea)   Plumed cockscomb

31.      Chelidonium majus (Papaveraceae)    Chel

32.      Cassiafistula (L.)                  Golden shower tree
           (Caesalpinioideae)

33.      Ceropegia bulbos (L.)               Caudiciform
           (Asclepidaceace)

34.      Chenopodium album (L.)              Lamb's Quarters
           (Chenopodiaceae)
35.      Coculus hirsutus (L.)               Cocculus Indicus
           (Menispeermacea)

36.      Corbichonia decumbens               Forssk
           (Forrsk.) (Molluginacae)
37.      Costus speciosus (Koen.)            Keukand
           (Costaceae)
38.      Cynodon dactylon (L.) (Poaceae)     Dog's tooth grass

39.      Chimaphila numbellata(Cruciferae)   Prince's pine

40.      Curcuma longa (Zingiberaceae)       Haldi

41.      Desmodium styracifolium             Osbeck
           (Papilionaceae)
42.      Didymocarpuspedicellata             Stone Flower
43.      Daucas carota (L.) (Apiaceae)       Wild carrot

44.      Digera Muricata (L.)                Digera Muricata
           (Amaranthaceae)
45.      Diospyros melaoxylon (Rox)          Digera Muricata
           (Ebenaceae)
46.      Dolichos biflorus (Leguminaceae)    Horse gram

47.      Elettaria cardamomum                Cardamom
           (Zingiberaceae)
48.      Equisitum arvense (Equisetaceae)    Horsetail

49.      Fogonia bruguieri (Umbelliferae)    Fagonia

50.      Ficus carica (Moraceae)             Fig

51.      Garciniapictoria (Guttiferae)       Tamal. Pers.
52.      Gynocardia odorata                  Coffee Plum
           (Flacourtiaceae)

53.      Gomphrena celosioidest              Gomphrena Weed
           (Amaranthaceae)
54.      Grewiaflavescens (A.Juss)           Sandpaper Raisin
           (Tiliaceae)

55.      Hygrophila spinosa (Acanthaceae)    Gokulakanta
56.      Lavendula officinalis (Lamiaceae)   Ginger

57.      Menthapiperita (Lamiaceae)          Peppermint

58.      Mimosapudica (Mimosaceae)           Touch-me-not

59.      Ocimum (Labiatae)                   Holy Basil, tulsi

60.      Onosma bracteatum (Boraginaceae)    Sedge

61.      Olea europeae (Oleaceae)            Olive
62.      Pavonia odorata (Malvaceae)         Fragrant Swamp

63.      Pimpinella anisum (Umbelliferae)    Anise

64.      Pedalium murea (Pedaliaceae)        Burra Gokhru

65.      Phylllanthus emblica (L.)           Gooseberry or amla
           (Euphorbiaceae)
66.      Phyllanthusfraternus (Webster.)     Gulf leaf-flower
           (Euphorbiaceae)

67.      Rosmarinus officinalis              Rosemary
           (Lamiaceae)

68.      Rubia cordifolia (Rubiaceae)        Madder or Indian
                                               Madder
69.      Solanum surattence (Solanaceae)     Yellow-Berried
                                               Nightshade
70.      Santalum album (Solanaceae)         White sandal
71.      Tectona grandis (Verbenaceae)       Teak
72.      Theobroma cocao (Malvaceae)         Cacoa
73.      Tamarind indica (Fabaceae)          Tamarindus
74.      Tinospora cordifolia (Wild L)       Guduchi
           (Menispermaceae)
75.      Tribulus terrestis (L)              Puncture Vine
           (Zygophyllaceae)
76.      Tridexprocumbens (L.)               Coat buttons
           (Asteraceae)
77.      Tubiflora acaulis (L.F.)            Kuntze
           (Acanthaceae)

78.      Urgina maritime (Asparagaceae)      Squill bulb
79.      Urtica dioica (Urticaceae)          Stinging nettles
80.      Vernomia cineea (Compositae)        Little iron weed
81.      Zingiber officinale                 Ginger
           (Zingiberaceae)
82.      Zea mays (Poaceae)                  Maize

S.No.    Botanical names                     Part use

1        Alhagi mannifera (Leguminosae)      Roots

2.       Armoracia lopathifolia              Seeds
           (Brassicaceae)
3.       Aervajavanica (Amaranthaceae)       Seed heads

4.       Aerva lanata (Amaranthaceae)        Leaves

5.       Ammannia baccifera (Lythraceae)     Root

6.       Arctostaphylos ura ursi             Fruits
           (Asteraceaer)
7.       Ascyrum hypericoides                Root/Leaves
           (Asclepidaceae)
8.       Asparagus racemosus (Liliaceae)     Root

9.       Abutilon indicum (L.) Sweet         Seed &
         (Malvaceae)                         Leaf extract
10.      Abutilon indicum (L.) (Malvaceae)   Leaves

11.      Aegle marmelose (L.) (Rutaceae)     Leaves and
                                             fruit

12.      Amaranthus spinosus (L.)            Root or plant
           (Amaranthaceae)
13.      Amaranthus viridis (L.)             All parts
         (Amaranthaceae)
14.      Argemone maxicana (L.)              Root
           (Papaveracea)
15.      Ageratum conyzoides (L.)            Leaves
           (Asteraceae)
16.      Amaranthus caudatus (L.)            Leaves
           (Amaranthaceae)
17.      Asphodelus tenuifolius (Cav.)       Leaves
           (Liliaceae)
18.      Apium graveolens (Apiaceae)         Flowers

19.      Barbarea vulgaris (Brassicacaea)    Roots, Leaves
20.      Berginia ligulata (Saxifragaceae)   Rhizomes

21.      Bridolia montana (Euphobiaceae)     Bark

22.      Beta vulgaris                       Rhizomes

23.      Bombex ceiba (L.) (Bombacaceae)     Stem and bark

24.      Borhaavia difffusa                  Root
           (Nyctagenaceae)

25.      Blumea balsamifera (Asteraceae)     Flowering
                                             plant

26.      Capsella Bursa-pastori              Entire plant
           (Brassicaceae)
27.      Cucumis sativus (Cucurbitaceae)     Leaves
28.      Caesalpinia huga                    Root
           (Caesalpinioceae)
29.      Citrusjaponica (Rutaceae)           Whole plant
30.      Celosia argentla (Amararanthacea)   Leaves/Stem

31.      Chelidonium majus (Papaveraceae)    Leaves

32.      Cassiafistula (L.)                  Fruit
           (Caesalpinioideae)

33.      Ceropegia bulbos (L.)               Tubers
           (Asclepidaceace)

34.      Chenopodium album (L.)              Leaves
           (Chenopodiaceae)
35.      Coculus hirsutus (L.)               Leaves
           (Menispeermacea)

36.      Corbichonia decumbens               Leaves
           (Forrsk.) (Molluginacae)
37.      Costus speciosus (Koen.)            Tubers
           (Costaceae)
38.      Cynodon dactylon (L.) (Poaceae)     Root

39.      Chimaphila numbellata(Cruciferae)   Flower

40.      Curcuma longa (Zingiberaceae)       Rhizome

41.      Desmodium styracifolium             Rhizome
           (Papilionaceae)
42.      Didymocarpuspedicellata             Leaves
43.      Daucas carota (L.) (Apiaceae)       Rhizome

44.      Digera Muricata (L.)                Leaves
           (Amaranthaceae)
45.      Diospyros melaoxylon (Rox)          Fruit and bark
           (Ebenaceae)
46.      Dolichos biflorus (Leguminaceae)    Seeds

47.      Elettaria cardamomum                Seeds
           (Zingiberaceae)
48.      Equisitum arvense (Equisetaceae)    Seeds

49.      Fogonia bruguieri (Umbelliferae)    Fruit

50.      Ficus carica (Moraceae)             Fruit, latex

51.      Garciniapictoria (Guttiferae)       Leaves
52.      Gynocardia odorata                  Fruit
           (Flacourtiaceae)

53.      Gomphrena celosioidest              Whole plant
           (Amaranthaceae)
54.      Grewiaflavescens (A.Juss)           Root
           (Tiliaceae)

55.      Hygrophila spinosa (Acanthaceae)    Leaves
56.      Lavendula officinalis (Lamiaceae)   Rhizomes

57.      Menthapiperita (Lamiaceae)          Entire herb

58.      Mimosapudica (Mimosaceae)           Leaves

59.      Ocimum (Labiatae)                   Leaves

60.      Onosma bracteatum (Boraginaceae)    Leaves

61.      Olea europeae (Oleaceae)            Oil
62.      Pavonia odorata (Malvaceae)         Rhizomes,
                                             Leaves

63.      Pimpinella anisum (Umbelliferae)    Fruit

64.      Pedalium murea (Pedaliaceae)        Fruits

65.      Phylllanthus emblica (L.)           Seed Powder
           (Euphorbiaceae)
66.      Phyllanthusfraternus (Webster.)     Whole plant
           (Euphorbiaceae)

67.      Rosmarinus officinalis              Leaves
           (Lamiaceae)

68.      Rubia cordifolia (Rubiaceae)        Leaves, Roots

69.      Solanum surattence (Solanaceae)     Roots

70.      Santalum album (Solanaceae)         Oil
71.      Tectona grandis (Verbenaceae)       Wood
72.      Theobroma cocao (Malvaceae)         Seed
73.      Tamarind indica (Fabaceae)          Fruits
74.      Tinospora cordifolia (Wild L)       Stem
           (Menispermaceae)
75.      Tribulus terrestis (L)              Leaves
           (Zygophyllaceae)
76.      Tridexprocumbens (L.)               Leaves
           (Asteraceae)
77.      Tubiflora acaulis (L.F.)            Leaves
           (Acanthaceae)

78.      Urgina maritime (Asparagaceae)      Bulb leaves
79.      Urtica dioica (Urticaceae)          Roots
80.      Vernomia cineea (Compositae)        Leaves
81.      Zingiber officinale                 Rhizomes
           (Zingiberaceae)
82.      Zea mays (Poaceae)                  Seeds Oil
                                               Tassel

S.No.    Botanical names                     Used

1        Alhagi mannifera (Leguminosae)      For kidney pebbles and
                                               Sands
2.       Armoracia lopathifolia              Diuretic, Kidney Stones
           (Brassicaceae)
3.       Aervajavanica (Amaranthaceae)       Herb Diuretic, Purgative,
                                               Demulcent
4.       Aerva lanata (Amaranthaceae)        Cough, Sorethroat,
                                               Diabetes, Lithiasis
5.       Ammannia baccifera (Lythraceae)     Ringworm, Parasitic skin
                                               affection,
                                               Anti-typhoid,
                                               Anti-tubercular
                                               properties
6.       Arctostaphylos ura ursi             Diuretic, Diaphoretic,
           (Asteraceaer)                       Gout, Skin affection
7.       Ascyrum hypericoides                Emetic and Catharatic
           (Asclepidaceae)
8.       Asparagus racemosus (Liliaceae)     Herb tonic, Diuretic,
                                               Galactagogue
9.       Abutilon indicum (L.) Sweet         Extract is given for
         (Malvaceae)                           urinary disorder
10.      Abutilon indicum (L.) (Malvaceae)   Juice taken twice daily
                                               for two weeks
11.      Aegle marmelose (L.) (Rutaceae)     I spoon of Fruit pulp
                                               powder is taken orally
                                               with coconut milk for
                                               14 days to dissolve
                                               kidney stones
12.      Amaranthus spinosus (L.)            I cup of whole plant is
           (Amaranthaceae)                     taken
13.      Amaranthus viridis (L.)             Given in kidney stone
         (Amaranthaceae)
14.      Argemone maxicana (L.)              Root powder is given for
           (Papaveracea)                       burning urination
15.      Ageratum conyzoides (L.)            Leaf extract is given
           (Asteraceae)                        twice a day
16.      Amaranthus caudatus (L.)            Extract is given in
           (Amaranthaceae)                     kidney stone
17.      Asphodelus tenuifolius (Cav.)       Decoction ofleaves
           (Liliaceae)
18.      Apium graveolens (Apiaceae)         Decrease cholesterol
                                               level, Condiment.
19.      Barbarea vulgaris (Brassicacaea)    For kidney stone
20.      Berginia ligulata (Saxifragaceae)   Astringent, Diuretic,
                                               Lithontriptic
21.      Bridolia montana (Euphobiaceae)     Bark Astringent,
                                               Anthelminetic
22.      Beta vulgaris                       Daily two glass of
                                               rhizomesjuice is given
                                               in kidney stone
23.      Bombex ceiba (L.) (Bombacaceae)     Given for urinary
                                               problems
24.      Borhaavia difffusa                  Root decoction is given
           (Nyctagenaceae)                     daily for one month in
                                               kidney stone
25.      Blumea balsamifera (Asteraceae)     Diuretic, common cold,
                                               urolithiasis
                                               expectorant, an
                                               anti-diarrheal
26.      Capsella Bursa-pastori              Diuretic, For bladder &
           (Brassicaceae)                      kidney spasm
27.      Cucumis sativus (Cucurbitaceae)     Kidney stones, Emollient
28.      Caesalpinia huga                    Root Diuretic,
           (Caesalpinioceae)                   Lithontriptic
29.      Citrusjaponica (Rutaceae)           Antispasmodic, Eczema
30.      Celosia argentla (Amararanthacea)   Diarrhoea, Eye troubles,
                                               Sore mouth
31.      Chelidonium majus (Papaveraceae)    Diuretic, Antispasmodic,
                                               bitter
32.      Cassiafistula (L.)                  Fruit powder is given
           (Caesalpinioideae)                  with water for 3-4
                                               month to expel the
                                               kidney stone
33.      Ceropegia bulbos (L.)               Decoction of tubers is
           (Asclepidaceace)                    used to remove urinary
                                               bladder stone
34.      Chenopodium album (L.)              Coked leaves is given in
           (Chenopodiaceae)                    urinary trouble
35.      Coculus hirsutus (L.)               Leaf dried powder is
           (Menispeermacea)                    given during burning
                                               urination
36.      Corbichonia decumbens               Crushed leaves given
           (Forrsk.) (Molluginacae)            orally
37.      Costus speciosus (Koen.)            Decoction of tubers
           (Costaceae)                         orally for stones
38.      Cynodon dactylon (L.) (Poaceae)     Root decoction is given
                                               in case of urolithiasis
39.      Chimaphila numbellata(Cruciferae)   Diuretic, Expectorant,
                                               Stimulant
40.      Curcuma longa (Zingiberaceae)       Diuretic, Choleretic,
                                               Hepatoprotective
41.      Desmodium styracifolium             Roots Emmenagogue,
           (Papilionaceae)                     Stomachic
42.      Didymocarpuspedicellata             Lithontriptic
43.      Daucas carota (L.) (Apiaceae)       One glassjuice is given
                                               midnight to remove
                                               kidney stone
44.      Digera Muricata (L.)                Once in a day for
           (Amaranthaceae)                     urinary complains
45.      Diospyros melaoxylon (Rox)          Fruit is given in urinary
           (Ebenaceae)                         disorders
46.      Dolichos biflorus (Leguminaceae)    Diuretic, Astringent,
                                               Tonic
47.      Elettaria cardamomum                Diuretic, Carmintive,
           (Zingiberaceae)                     Aromatic stimulant
48.      Equisitum arvense (Equisetaceae)    Diuretic, Dropsy, Graval,
                                               Renal affection
49.      Fogonia bruguieri (Umbelliferae)    Diuretic, Mildly
                                               carminative
50.      Ficus carica (Moraceae)             Destroy urinary &
                                               gall Stone
51.      Garciniapictoria (Guttiferae)       Dropsical affection
52.      Gynocardia odorata                  Fish poision,
           (Flacourtiaceae)                    Insecticidal, Skin
                                               aliments
53.      Gomphrena celosioidest              Juice is given twice a
           (Amaranthaceae)                     day for ten days
54.      Grewiaflavescens (A.Juss)           Decoction of root powder
           (Tiliaceae)                         to stop bleeding in
                                               urine
55.      Hygrophila spinosa (Acanthaceae)    Strongly Diuretic
56.      Lavendula officinalis (Lamiaceae)   Stop bleeding, Ant
                                               rheumatism
57.      Menthapiperita (Lamiaceae)          Treatment in stone
                                               disease
58.      Mimosapudica (Mimosaceae)           Gravel, Urinary
                                               complaints
59.      Ocimum (Labiatae)                   Stomachic, alexipharmac,
                                               antipyretic,
                                               antihelminitic
60.      Onosma bracteatum (Boraginaceae)    Tonic, Demulcent,
                                               Diuretic, Spasmolytic
61.      Olea europeae (Oleaceae)            Treatment of kidney stone
62.      Pavonia odorata (Malvaceae)         Antipyretic, Stomachic,
                                               Refrigerent, Dysentery
                                               Mallow
63.      Pimpinella anisum (Umbelliferae)    Antispasmodic, Diuretic,
                                               Treatment of kidney
                                               stones
64.      Pedalium murea (Pedaliaceae)        Decoction of fruit is
                                               used for urinary
                                               complains
65.      Phylllanthus emblica (L.)           Given to avoid burning
           (Euphorbiaceae)                     urination
66.      Phyllanthusfraternus (Webster.)     Plant extract is given
           (Euphorbiaceae)                     orally for 3-4 day to
                                               dissolve the stones
67.      Rosmarinus officinalis              Relive menstrual cramps,
           (Lamiaceae)                         increase, urine flow,
                                               and reduce kidney pain
68.      Rubia cordifolia (Rubiaceae)        Antidysentric,
                                               Antiseptic, Deobstruent
69.      Solanum surattence (Solanaceae)     Root decoction is given
                                               for seven day
70.      Santalum album (Solanaceae)         For urinary bladder.
71.      Tectona grandis (Verbenaceae)       Urinary discharge
72.      Theobroma cocao (Malvaceae)         urinary tracts diseases
73.      Tamarind indica (Fabaceae)          For kidney and gall stone
74.      Tinospora cordifolia (Wild L)       Crushed stem to expel
           (Menispermaceae)                    the stone
75.      Tribulus terrestis (L)              Used in treatment
           (Zygophyllaceae)                    of kidney stone
76.      Tridexprocumbens (L.)               Leaf paste is given for
           (Asteraceae)                        kidney stone
77.      Tubiflora acaulis (L.F.)            Leaf powder with water
           (Acanthaceae)                       is given for urinary
                                               complains
78.      Urgina maritime (Asparagaceae)      Diuretic
79.      Urtica dioica (Urticaceae)          Diuretic.
80.      Vernomia cineea (Compositae)        Anthelmintic, Diarrhoea
81.      Zingiber officinale                 Stop bleeding, Ant
           (Zingiberaceae)                     rheumatism
82.      Zea mays (Poaceae)                  For bladder & Kidney
                                               spasm. Given orally to
                                               expel the stone
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Author:Jamil, Muhammad; Mansoor, Muhammad; Latif, Noman; Muhammad, Sher; Gull, Jaweria; Shoab, Muhammad; Kh
Publication:Pakistan Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research Series B: Biological Sciences
Geographic Code:9PAKI
Date:Mar 1, 2019
Words:4238
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