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Implementation of hierarchical wireless sensor network for securable building automation.


Incompatibilities and limited opportunities for the integration of building or industrial automation and control systems frustrate the owners, managers and consulting engineers a lot. Moreover some of the latest advantages in networking technology, the advantages of interoperability, configuration, reliability and performance are to be realized, in order to convert the building into intelligent one. Moreover the routing of information from one node to other needs to have hierarchal ordering with more credibility.

Existing Problems

In the existing wired sensor network system for automating the interoperable objects experiences a lack in intelligence in poor routing and configuration,[1 & 2] which leads restrictive congestion control mechanisms causing less reliability and flexibility, among nodes while the information exchanges. In addition, because of using different functional objects it is difficult to integrate them to keep the concept of interoperability.

Proposed Ideas

To solve the first problem of reducing the congestion in 'wireless sensor nework' the existing TCP could be replaced by SCTP and by applying 'network Adopting hierarchical search Routing' the second problem of network flexibility and credibility could also be improved. At last the analysis of BACNET has also been done, which is more appropriate for automating the interoperable objects.

Proposed Network

The proposed wireless sensor network for automation of interoperable objects comprises three different functional objects called sensor nodes, relay nodes and a control node. The sensor node does sense the unwanted signals from outside, which are being conveyed to control node through relay node. The above three kinds of nodes in the network have been interconnected with each other.

System Overview



The relation between one node among others can be found out by logical addresses or IP. Here in the proposed network system the logical address of control node is '1' and 1.2,1.2.2, are the hierarchical nodes addresses for the control node. In the same way 1.1, 1.1.1 are also the hierarchical addresses. The identification of those addresses can be found by means of tree topology.

Hierarchical Routing Algorithm

In the proposal adopting hierarchical algorithm comprises the four procedures to have a connection between nodes as follows.

1. Initialization of inquiry procedures.

2. The intended nodes to have the connection with another go for neighbours searching.

3. The logical address is then to be compared.

4. Finally paging of information done.

The important concept of adopting hierarchical search routing algorithm is, the information send by one node to another based on the relation of parent rather than randomly conveying, by means of verifying the logical addresses. The algorithm as follows.

Step 1:

The proceeding starts with the event occurrence by the sensor node.

Step 2:

The logical addresses of the neighbors are being studied by sensor node to acquire in its memory.

Step 3:

If no nearest neighbour is there with the sensor node, then enquiry procedure starts.

Step 4:

If N=1 {only the neighbour for sensor node}.Then data transfer happens.

Step 5:

If N>1 {no neighbour for sensor node}.Then sensor node starts finding out the shortest path approaches to find its parent.

Step 6:

If same parent node is responsible for receiving the acknowledgement as the configuration on the data reaches the destination.

Step 7:

Once the data reaches the destination properly, then the parent node goes to step 1 and the procedure remains the same.

Algorithm table for adopting parent search routing

If N=0 [right arrow] No parent

If N>0 [right arrow] No Neighbour for sensor node.

If N <0 [right arrow] only the neighbour for sensor node

Our proposed network also does use SCTP instead of TCP over a mobile sensor network. Since tree topology has an advantage of finding a multihop route to the control node or a specific node easily as well as to maintain a network structure.

Role of Bacnet in Interoperability

Since BACNET (Building Automation Control Network) is a connectionless protocol, the need for message segmentation and end-to-end error checking is much less than in a connection-based protocol. Since BACNET is Connectionless, session layers not needed [3 & 4 ]. Further, BACNET uses a fixed encoding scheme and offloads security to the application layer, a separate presentation layer is not needed. This leaves four of seven OSI layers in the BACNET architecture.

BACNET is a set of rules governing the exchange of data over a computer to facilitate interoperability of various building systems [5 ]. The five interoperability areas are Data Sharing, Alarm and Event management, Scheduling, Device & network management and Trending. As a common communication language, BACNET makes it possible for systems from different manufactures and/or systems designed for different building automation and control functions to work together.

Experimental Results

The simulation of our proposed network with wireless sensor nodes has been done to evaluate the efficiency that carries out two experiments.

* At first the measurement of time taken by adjacent nodes and data exchanged between inquiring node and inquired node. The results show that the period is directly propositional to the number of adjacent nodes.

* Secondly the time taken to complete the data transmission between sensor and control nodes has been measured.

* Thirdly, the acknowledgement received by the sensor node also has been measured.

From the experimentation, it is observed that applying parent search algorithm and SCTP, the enquiry time, paging time and transmission time have been considerably reduced.






This paper has examined the performance of wireless mobile sensor network for automation with interoperable objects. From the result it is observed that the congestion control restriction could be considerably reduced, which leads to more reliability and security in the network, while hierarchical way of nodes transmission and communication in the network. Since the nodes are movable, the network members could also be reduced.


[1] Soo-Hwan Choi, Byung-kug Kim, "An Implementation of wireless sensor Network system for Bluetooth ", IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, Vol.50, No. 1,Feb 2004.

[2] R.Stewar, Q.Xie, et al..,"RFC 2960: Stream Control Transmission Protocol", The Internet Society 2000.

[3] Hyang Chang Lee, Hong Lee," Network Based Fire Deduction Mechanism Via can for Smart Automation", IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, pages 1093-1100, Vol 50, Nov 04.

[4] Snoonian,"Smart Buildings using Bacnet", IEEE Spectrum, pages 18-23. Issue 8, Aug 99.

[5] Arpachi, Branderde,"Building Automation and Control Networks", Proceedings of the IEEE, pages 22-31,Vol 23,No 36,July 03

[6] C.E. Perkins and E.M. Royer,"Ad hoc on-demand distance vector routing", Proceedings of the IEEE workshop on mobile computing systems and Applications, pp 90-100,1999.

[7] Hsiao, Jia Hash, "Development of an Energy Management Network for Building Automation", IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering, Vol 1, No 1, July Pages 14-25

[8] Hong Song, Yush Yen," study on the performance analysis of BACNET", IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Vol 1, June 03, pages 184-188.

R. Kanthavel (1), L. Ganesan (2) and R. Dhaya (3)

(1) Research Scholar, Electronics & Communication Engineering Dept, Govt College of Engineering, Tirunelveli, India. Email id:

(2) Professor & Head /Dept of Computer Science and Engg, A.C.Tech, Karaikudi, Tamilnadu, India

(3) Lecturer / IT, National Engg College, Kovilpatti, Tamilnadu, India.
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Author:Kanthavel, R.; Ganesan, L.; Dhaya, R.
Publication:International Journal of Applied Engineering Research
Article Type:Report
Date:May 1, 2008
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