Implementation of a Holistic Corporate Social Responsibility Method with a Regional Scope/IMPLEMENTACION DE UN METODO HOLISTICO DE RESPONSABILIDAD SOCIAL CORPORATIVA CON ENFOQUE TERRITORIAL/IMPLEMENTACAO DE UM METODO HOLISTICO DE RESPONSABILIDADE SOCIAL EMPRESARIAL COM ENFOQUE TERRITORIAL/MISE EN OEUVRE D'UNE METHODE HOLISTIQUE DE RSE AVEC UNE APPROCHE TERRITORIALE.
Companies are increasingly interested in implementing new strategies to improve corporate governance and new managerial structures in an effort to foster social welfare. Some authors have presented the relationship between innovation and Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) as a strategy to improve an organization's environment (Boubakary & Moskolai, 2016; Gallego, Prado, & Garcia, 2011; Martinez-Martinez, Herrera-Madueno, Larran, & Lechuga-Sancho, 2017; Porter & Kramer, 2006). In this sense, CSR has also become a global phenomenon and gained an important place in the corporate agenda (Barrena-Martinez, Lopez-Fernandez, & Romero-Fernandez, 2016; Gonzalez, 2008). This global trend is also present in Colombia, where CSR development has been increasing in recent years, although in smaller proportions (Giraldo-Cardenas, Kammerer, & Rios-Osorio, 2016; Lopez, Quiroga, Lopez, & Torres, 2006; Nino-Munoz, 2015; Pena, Serra, & Cardona, 2017). The same tendency is observed in the Colombian higher education environment. As an example, the University Social Responsibility Observatory was founded in 2007 with the support of UNESCO International Institute for Higher Education in Latin America and the Caribbean (IESALC). Now, it is linked with IELSALC Social Responsibility Regional Centre for Latin America and the Caribbean (ORSALC, in Spanish) and has 17 Colombian universities affiliated.
In current Colombian context the challenge is to promote CSR practices among organizations and to determine their scope and possibilities as a strategic tool to foster sustainable development. CSR also offers the possibility of increasing a firm's value in an ethical way. The procedures to respond to this challenge should help firms to adopt a responsible and autonomous position regarding the impacts of their actions, including, but not limited to, legal requirements or economic motivations. This means CSR is more than having a good image or acquiring a social license. Therefore, organizations have the responsibility to contribute to the common good by offering social conditions (Akrivou & Sison, 2016; Garriga & Mele, 2013).
We based our study on Sergio Arboleda University, a traditional Colombian higher education institution founded in 1984. In 2015, the University received the High Quality Accreditation certificate, the greatest educational distinction given in Colombia by the National Ministry of Education. Its mission states that the University is at the service of the comprehensive training of new professionals according to humanistic and Christian principles, who are capable of leading economic, social and cultural development. Today, it is present in three regions of the country. Its main campus is located in Bogota (the capital of Colombia) and has two additional campuses in Colombia, located in Santa Marta and Barranquilla, and two other in Madrid (Spain) and Miami (U.S.A.). Sergio Arboleda University has many initiatives to improve its stakeholders' development. Among them, the Entrepreneurship Center, the Female Entrepreneurship Center, the Research and Innovation Direction, and several projects in conjunction with the Mayor's office and the national government.
Based on the above, this paper presents a holistic solution to successfully cope with Sergio Arboleda University needs in terms of CSR practices. The present study is based on the methodology developed by Nino-Munoz (2016), which follows a humanistic approach and strategically identifies available opportunities for a company that is established in several regions within a territory. This proposal contributes to the achievement of the new Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and the past Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which are both important in the Colombian context considering current efforts to achieve peace (Jimenez, 2014). These goals also indicate an understanding of the importance of promoting human development in our country.
The research article is structured in five sections, including this introduction. Section two offers a background review on CSR methodologies in order to understand the best methodology to be applied. Section three briefly explains the methodology to identify CSR strategies with a regional focus. Section four presents the findings of this regional. In an attempt to introduce the abundant material in a practical way, results are exposed through the three main stages of the proposed method: i) Alternatives identification; ii) Prioritization; and iii) CSR strategies design. Last section presents the conclusions of this study.
In light of Colombia's current needs, socio-economic disparities, and the internal armed conflict, organizations--especially academic institutions--have the incentive to contribute to the development of the region where they operate (Barrena-Martinez et al., 2016). Based on this point of view, CSR strategies can be an important channel to achieve human development objectives (Barrera-Duque, 2007; Schuster, Lund-Thomsen, & Kazmi, 2016; Sinkovics, Sinkovics, Hoque, & Czaban, 2015), build a culture of peace (Jimenez, 2014), and contribute to competitiveness at the national level (Boulouta & Pitelis, 2014). When CSR is part of a company's strategy it recognizes its shared responsibility with government and society towards building human development in the territory where it operates. Thus, when corporate behavior has a strategic approach it is possible to achieve collaboration between companies, government, and other key social actors in the territory (Bair & Palpacuer, 2015).
CSR research has been experiencing a significant increase in recent years (Dahlsrud & Dahlsrud, 2008; Engert, Rauter, & Baumgartner, 2016; Lindgreen, Cordoba, Maon, & Mendoza, 2010; Volpentesta, Alcain, Nievas, & Spinelli, 2014). It is also important to highlight the growing tendency to include CSR as part of a company's strategy (Sapien, Pinon, & Gutierrez, 2016; Boubakary & Moskolai, 2016; Carroll & Shabana, 2010; Engert et al., 2016; Toro, 2006; Werther & Chandler, 2006), even in small and medium-sized enterprises (Martinez-Martinez et al., 2017).
Literature has established different approaches and theories of this concept (Argandona, 2007; Carroll, 1999; Garriga & Mele, 2013; Nino-Munoz, 2015; Vera-Acevedo & Pelaez-Villada, 2013). Garriga and Mele (2013) present a complete review surrounding the types of CSR and the strategies that firms actually use or should adopt. Accordingly, these authors categorized CSR strategies in four basic groups: instrumental, political, integrative and ethical theories. In addition, other studies have presented different methodologies for implementing CSR as part of the business strategy (Hernandez-Rodriguez, 2013; Krick, Forstater, Monaghan, & Sillanpaa, 2005; Park, Park, Hong, & Yang, 2017; Porter & Kramer, 2006; Vera-Acevedo & Pelaez-Villada, 2013).
Methodologies for the identification of business behavior in social responsibility are crucial to build a company's holistic strategy (Dhaliwal, Radhakrishnan, Tsang, & Yang, 2012; Gregory & Whittaker, 2013; Rubin & Babbie, 2017). These strategies must aim for the well-being of the society and cover the entire activity of the company, i.e. its internal dimension (human resource, productivity, efficiency, and financial performance) and its external impact on society and the market. Therefore, this kind of methodologies must cover the complete value chain (Deng, Kang, & Low, 2013).
It is also important to harmonize responsibility regarding management reports (Tschopp & Nastanski, 2014; Nunez-Chicharro, Alonso-Carrillo, & Pontones, 2015), as well as the decisions on which instruments and standards will be used by the company for assessing and measuring CSR practices (Schwalb & Garcia, 2004). However, it is frequent that these types of studies include the stakeholder approach (Isa, 2012) and the environmental, economic, and social dimensions of the company. The debate on the implementation of CSR practices and how to carry out this process has been increasing (Correa, 2007; Gonzalez, Rodriguez, & Gonzalez-Millan, 2014; Polanco, 2014).
From a conventional approach, these methodologies make a special emphasis on mapping stakeholders and achieve their engagement (Krick et al., 2005). Stakeholders are individuals or groups who affect or are affected by an organization and its activities, creating a bidirectional influence between them and the firm (Freeman, 2010). In this sense, in order to guarantee the survival and success of the company, stakeholder theory suggests that it is essential to meet the needs of the company's various stakeholders far beyond the exclusive interest of shareholders (Freeman, 2010). Therefore, this theory steps out of an egocentric firm perspective and is based on a smooth cooperation with its associates (Isa, 2012; Tullberg, 2013), which also reminds of the coherence that CSR practices should maintain with the core business. Since Porter and Kramer approach (2006), there has been an urgency to integrate social needs and businesses. Currently, there is a lack of congruence between CSR activities and the company's core business, an issue that generates doubts in regards to the sincerity of the firm (Garcia-Jimenez, Ruiz-de-Maya, & Lopez-Lopez, 2017; Yoon, Gurhan-Canli, & Schwarz, 2006). For this reason, literature stresses it is particularly important to undertake a diagnosis of the company and its context.
On the other hand, it is important for this paper to highlight that universities have a crucial role in ensuring development, since they are educating professionals towards responding to the country's requirements and enhancing the welfare of future generations (Beltran-Llevador, Inigo-Bajo, & Mata-Segreda, 2014). In this context, the University Social Responsibility (USR) can be defined as the actions derived from a self-criticism analysis (Vallaeys, 2010) based on the formation in values (Marti-Noguera, Marti-Vilar, & Almerich, 2014; Moscoso-Duran & Vargas-Laverde, 2013) in order to deal with the impacts generated by the university in its environment and guide social transformations through actions related with its missions: education, training, research and social participation (Nunez-Chicharro et al., 2015). In Colombia, there is a University Social Responsibility Observatory Network linked with the Regional Social Responsibility Center for Latin America and the Caribbean, dedicated to articulate reflections and actions about USR in order to influence public policy and contribute to sustainable human development at the local, regional, and global levels (ASCUN, 2017). However, this initiative is not the only one, as other universities are contributing with this last purpose (Londono, 2013; Moscoso-Duran & Vargas-Laverde, 2013; Uribe-Macias, 2015), especially to the role of universities in the Colombian peace process (Delgado-Baron, Vargas-Pedraza, & Ramos-Hendez, 2009). In this way, we consider it is necessary to design a CSR methodology that allows identifying opportunities to foster development in a territory which could be easily replicated in other organizations.
This research does not ignore the studies and scientific contributions above mentioned. On the contrary, our methodology includes some of the instruments presented in these works, as the reader will see in the following sections. However, the proposed methodology sometimes modifies such contributions to build a holistic method. The design of this procedure took into account Colombia's current needs, especially in the context of the Colombian peace process. We expect our methodology could be adopted by any firm in any country, since it allows organizations to contribute to the development of its territory by identifying areas of intervention according to its core business. In addition, this method might segment its study by regions, enabling the possibility of designing a better strategy for those companies operating in different locations.
The aim of this paper is to implement a methodology that strategically identifies opportunities for a company in a territory. This methodology allows for the design of Social Responsibility Strategies (SRS) according to the University's core business, always looking to contribute towards the development of Bogota city. This methodology consists of three main stages:
i. Identification of alternatives based on the Region and Enterprise Opportunities Matrix (MORE, by its Spanish acronym): This stage allows the University to recognize its own threats and opportunities. The matrix is inspired by the SWOT analysis, but more has a quantitative perspective and only takes into account the opportunities and threats areas. Likewise, the identification of alternatives helps to identify areas where the organization can intervene given the region's threats. With this mapping, and always striving to maintain an alignment with the core business, the firm can choose a specific problem to be addressed.
ii. Prioritization of alternatives through the Goals and Needs Tree (M&N Tree, by its Spanish acronym): After this identification it is important to establish a diagnosis about the detected problem. This process should include stakeholders' participation. Using this diagnosis we built the problem and objectives trees. To understand the construction of these trees, we used the Logical Framework Approach guidelines, LFA (Camacho, Camara, Cascante, & Sainz 2001; Jackson 1997; Nino-Munoz, 2016). By analyzing the roots of the objectives tree (means), we identified at least three alternatives related with the University's core business. After this process, it is necessary to prioritize the alternatives through the M&N Tree using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), which is "a theory of measurement through pairwise comparisons and relies on the judgments of experts to derive priority scales. It is these scales that measure intangibles in relative terms" (Saaty 2008, p. 83). To build this tree, it is essential to involve stakeholders through a participative methodology in order to maintain a smooth cooperation with them.
iii. Design of CSR strategies: Once the alternative has been prioritized, it is important to develop the CSR strategy for the company. Remember that at this point the firm must align the strategy with its core business and with the incentive to contribute to the regional development. For this purpose, the construction and analysis of the RedH's canvas can be helpful. It is inspired by the original canvas (Osterwalder & Pigneur, 2010), but has been modified to include the life cycle of a product or service to determine the best CSR strategy for the organization. RedH Consultores S.A.S. developed this framework in 2016, therefore its name.
Results of the Methodological Implementation
Identification of Alternatives Based on the Region and Enterprise Opportunities Matrix
In the first stage, it was important to identify the region in which this methodology would be implemented. In our case, we decided on Bogota given that its main campus is located in this city, and therefore its financial and operational center. In order to build the MORE we used a selection of representative MDGs and collected them for Bogota, in an effort to understand the trend for each goal. We collected data for the period 2009-2012 taking into account information availability. However, we assume that this limitation does not affect the present analysis, because the trend of these indicators does not abruptly change in short periods of time. We have not used the new sustainable development goals (SDGs) given that their calculation and presentation still not available. As it is recommended, we also used Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) indicators to understand the performance of the University's CSR practices. Table 1 and table 2 show MDG and GRI information.
As the methodology explains, in order to build the more it is necessary to calculate the performance of the territory regarding MGDs and the performance of the company regarding GRI reports (Nino-Munoz, 2016). First, each selected MDG must be evaluated versus their relationship with the National Goal (NG). Therefore, the ng should become the x axis of the MORE. Then, if [MGD.sub.i] [greater than or equal to] NG, Bogota has achieved a good performance and will be placed in the upper quadrants. Otherwise, if [MGD.sub.i] < NG, the city will be ranked in the lower quadrants. On the other hand, it is important to correctly interpret each GRI indicator. For example, when the energy consumption per capita or the infant mortality rates increase it represents a negative impact on the environment and the society. In these cases, the variation rate must be preceded by a minus sign.
In order to complete the more each MDG must be evaluated according to its evolution during the last two years based on the available information for Bogota. As the methodology describes, if the MDG indicator improves it offers an opportunity for Bogota and will be placed in the second quadrant. But, if it worsens, it will represent a threat and will be ranked in the first quadrant. On the other hand, GRI indicators must follow the analysis of the inward or outward impact of the organization (which is established in table 2). If the university presents an outward impact, this indicator must be placed at the left side of the figure; but if it is an inward impact, this indicator will be ranked at the right side. With the region's and the University's information we built the MORE presented in graph 1.
Graph 1 indicates the areas in which the University can appropriately intervene. In the first quadrant, any company has the possibility to intervene in areas with the presence of threats in the region. This quadrant must be the first one to be examined in terms of its relationship with the University's core business. However, if there is no relation to the core business, then we can analyze the second quadrant, as the company has a positive performance in both of them (first and second). In the other quadrants the University doesn't have the capacity to get involved. In this case, as the first and second quadrants indicate, it is possible to identify the following areas of intervention:
* Threats against maternal mortality in the territory.
* Opportunity to contribute to the reduction of extreme poverty.
* Opportunity to contribute to the reduction of poverty.
* Opportunity to contribute to the improvement of secondary education.
* Opportunity to contribute to the sustainable environment in the territory.
* Opportunity to contribute to gender equality in the territory.
* Presence of the University in the local market.
* High performance in training personnel in the activity carried out by the University.
* Good performance in the efficient use of assets, reflected in the roa.
With these areas in mind, this study stated that the best area for the University to intervene is the opportunity to contribute to the improvement of secondary education. Improving education at that level could also positively impact poverty, gender equality, sustainable environment, and conflict risk. In order to identify the University's real alternatives it is important to establish a diagnosis of the problems surrounding school level education in Bogota. For this purpose, our study gathered the experiences of a group of district school teachers (see appendix 1) and a related research study (Osorio, Martinez, Gaviria, Montealegre, & Pedraza 2011). Using this diagnosis, we built the problem and objectives trees.
Prioritization of Alternatives through the Goals and Needs Tree (M&N Tree)
In order to build the problem tree (figure 1), the selection of a mean problem derivative of the MORE analysis is required. In this case, it is essential to understand the diagnosis of school education in Bogota to identify the problem. This diagnosis was built with information of the experiences of different schools teachers and took into account other stakeholders perceptions. After this analysis we could establish that the main problem is the deterioration of the teaching and learning process in public and private schools in Bogota. The diagnosis and the knowledge of the authors allows for the identification of a cause-effect rationale, where the roots of the problem tree are the causes and its branches represent the effects of the main problem.
The problem tree is transformed into an objectives tree by restating the problems as objectives [...] [it is] the positive mirror image of the problem tree [...] The objectives tree can also be considered as an 'ends--means' diagram. The top of the tree is the end that is desired and the lower levels are the means to achieving the end (Jackson, 1997, p. 8).
The objectives tree is presented in figure 2.
Based on the diagnosis, it was possible to build the problem tree and the objectives tree. By analyzing the roots of the objectives tree (means) we identified the following alternatives, which are consistent with the University's core business:
i. Alternative 1: Support initiatives to provide a set of educational parenting and co-responsibility guidelines to parents of public or private schools in Bogota.
ii. Alternative 2: Support initiatives to strengthen the emotions of students in public or private schools in Bogota.
iii. Alternative 3: Methodological support to upgrading teachers in public or private schools in Bogota.
Using AHP methodology to prioritize, Saaty (2008) explains that it requires of the following steps: (i) Problem statement; (ii) Building the hierarchy tree; (iii) Building comparison matrices with a set of pairwise; (iv) Obtaining the global priority. After the diagnosis we built the Goals and Needs Tree, which "structures the decision hierarchy from the top with the goal of the decision, then the objectives from a broad perspective, through the intermediate levels (criteria on which subsequent elements depend) to the lowest level (which ... is a set of the alternatives)" (Saaty, 2008, p. 85). At the top of this tree, the main goal is to contribute to achieving the company's development by taking into account the peace process and the need for reducing regional gaps in Colombia. As observed in figure 3, the lowest level includes the three alternatives before identified, following the objectives tree.
In the intermediate levels the first criterion is to generate development for the company, which is divided into: being in accordance with the core business and the generation of company value. The alignment with the National Development Plan (NDP) and with each of its strategic areas is the second criterion. Santos administration NDP, called "Everyone for a New Country", included six strategic guidelines: (i) Competitiveness and Strategic Infrastructure; (ii) Social Mobility; (iii) Transformation of the Countryside; (iv) Security, Justice and Democracy for Peacebuilding; (v) Good Governance; and (vi) Green Growth. To understand the scope of each area, table 3 summarizes their elements.
The third step requires the construction of matrices to compare a set of pairwise. As suggested by stakeholder theory, the filling out of these matrices should be participatory, incorporating the academic community and the organization's stakeholders. This process supports the validation of our results. Thus, in order to complete each matrix, the AHP recommends taking in account the perspective of all stakeholders by collecting information through a representative sample. Although it is necessary to ensure the representativeness of the sample, the budgetary constraints of this study did not allow the application of such sample. We tried to solve this limitation by preparing a questionnaire for a representative member of each of the University's stakeholders. The stakeholders included a senior director, a member of the research area, a professor, an alumni, a student, and a colleague with constant contact with schools in Bogota (see appendix 3). There are other participatory methodologies that researchers could follow to understand stakeholders' perception (Cohen & Martinez, 2004; Howaldt & Schwarz 2010; Marti-Olive 2002; Moreno, Agirregomezkorta, & Cuadrado 1999).
For those interviews, we explained to the representatives of the stakeholders that the comparison between two elements "need[s] a scale of numbers that indicates how many times more important or dominant one element is over another element with respect to the criterion or property with respect to which they are compared" (Saaty, 2008, p. 85). Table 4 shows Saaty's intensity of importance scale.
In this case, we present eleven matrices to compare each element (see appendix 2). The first matrix compares the two main criteria; the second associates the sub-criteria of achieving the company's development; and the third compares the sub-criteria of contributing with the NDP. The other eight matrices are the combination of the different sub-criteria with each of the alternatives identified in the base of the tree. "Each element in an upper level is used to compare the elements in the level immediately below with respect to it" (Saaty, 2008, p. 85).
Finally, to prioritize the alternatives through the M&N Tree, each matrix must calculate its weighed values and the global priority; table 5 shows this information:
Use the priorities obtained from the comparisons to weigh the priorities in the level immediately below. Do this for every element. Then for each element in the level below add its weighed values and obtain its overall or global priority. Continue this process of weighing and adding until the final priorities of the alternatives in the bottom most level are obtained (Saaty, 2008, p. 85).
In this case, alternative 3 was prioritized. It refers to a methodological support to upgrading teachers in public or private schools in Bogota.
CSR Strategies Design
Finally, it is important to design a CSR strategy. For this purpose, the main goal of the objectives tree and the subsequent prioritized alternative must be explicitly stated at the heart of the RedH's Canvas (table 6). The results of the entire process are summarized on the canvas. The life cycle of the university service used to determine its best CSR strategy is included at the right side of the canvas. This cycle is composed of the following elements: design, transformation, operation, and improvement. The beneficiaries are located also in this side, because the life cycle must be rethought considering this group of stakeholders. At the left side, the university can design its strategy by taking into account their own resources and their possible key partners. At the bottom, the firm must recognize their funding sources and the information required to evaluate new strategies.
The prioritized alternative was to promote methodological support spaces to upgrade the skills of public or private school teachers in Bogota, taking advantage of the experience of the university in this area. As part of the strategy, RedH's canvas allows to understand that it is necessary to establish framework agreements with private schools associations and the district secretary of education to establish a direct communication channel with schools. Likewise, to achieve the main objective, the University must strengthen the study on education methodologies, making use of the knowledge generated by its research groups in education sciences. Finally, once these conditions are met, it is necessary to design and conduct a workshop in the selected schools to support the process of teachers updating. It is important to highlight that the University must implement a monitoring and evaluation system before, during, and after the workshop to measure the impact of its intervention. In this way, this paper reveals that Sergio Arboleda University can contribute to the achievement of human development objectives in the city by implementing a set of practices within a strategy, based on its capabilities, and taking into account the needs of Bogota.
Conclusions and Recommendations
This paper presents the application of a holistic methodology to identify SRS. It follows a humanistic vision and, at this time, it is possible to consider Millennium Development Goals (MDG) as a reference for human development in the territory. The inclusion of the MDGs, and the possibility of including New Sustainable Goals, is especially important in view of the efforts made in Colombia to achieve development. This methodology facilitates the understanding of the company's environment and its interaction with business performance. It also identifies the best alternative for the organization to contribute to the regional development of the country. It was also crucial for SRS design and facilitating stakeholders' participation, especially in the diagnosis and prioritization of alternatives through M&N tree.
According to previous studies found in literature, this methodology meets the basic requirements of SRS, namely: stakeholder theory, a participative methodology, and being aware of inside-out and outside-in linkages between business and society. It articulates different instruments according to the capabilities of a firm towards Colombian peacebuilding and development processes. The main outcome is that the proposed method presents an efficient path for the design of a CSR strategy in a private higher education institution. However, we recommend to keep in mind some important issues for a better application.
First, the company must be committed to a series of information process regarding their CSR practices. At the beginning of this research it was very difficult to find companies which allowed the use of their information. Therefore, we chose international companies with whom we already had a relationship; or those we had previously worked with on CSR issues. However, in most of them, the main reason for denying the use of information was its unavailability. Even when analyzing the University's case it was difficult to compile all the required information. For the variety of GRI indicators we could only obtain information on ten. This reduction implies that the methodology has a narrow scope regarding the University's capacity.
Second, due to budgetary constraints, it was not possible to obtain a representative sample of all stakeholders as a condition to build the M&N Tree. Nevertheless, we consider that this troublesome situation could be solved using any participative methodology; for example, through interviews with institutional representatives. This process does not need to be statistically representative. It is only necessary to select people who effectively represent the different interests around a specific problem (Marti-Olive, 2002). However, for future research studies on the field, it is essential to include stakeholders from other regions where the firm operates. Despite the fact that we interviewed different individuals with certain knowledge about the other campus, the perception of needs by locals may differ from one region to another. In this sense, and given the budgetary restrictions faced by a company, national meetings are the perfect space to capture regional perspectives.
Third, we note some missing explanations in the applied methodology, focused on two points: (i) the definition of the final effect in the problem tree, and (ii) the awareness of the designed SRS. Regarding the first point, if the aim is to contribute to the peace process, the diagnosis must be centered towards this aspect. For this reason, after the implementation of the problem tree we realized that the final effect, at the top of the tree, must refer to a dimension related with the current context of the Colombian internal conflict; therefore, the problems surrounding the deterioration of the teaching-learning process will eventually have a negative impact in socio-economic disparities and likely to derive in social conflicts within the region. As far as the second point is concerned, to validate the proposed strategy it is necessary to add a final step of the methodology: an awareness stage. Although stakeholders were involved from the beginning, the awareness stage increases the possibility of having positive experiences from collaboration on the implementation of SRS. Moreover, it would help empower beneficiaries to achieve the main objective of the CSR strategy.
Finally, before using this methodology we recommend the company to: (i) strengthen and measure its internal practices; (ii) develop awareness of the importance of CSR; and (iii) be enthusiastic about contributing to the country's development.
The authors wish to thank Sergio Arboleda University and RedH Consultores S.A.S. for their support.
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
Akrivou, K., & Sison, A. (2016). The Challenges of Capitalism for Virtue Ethics and the Common Good. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publisher Limited. Retrieved from http://www.e-elgar.com/shop/ eep/preview/book/isbn/9781784717919/
Alcaldia Mayor de Bogota. (2013). Objetivos de Desarrollo del Milenio, Bogota D.C. Vigencia 2012. Bogota: Alcaldia Mayor de Bogota.
Argandona, A. (2007). Responsabilidad social de la empresa: ?Que modelo economico? Documento de investigacion DI-709. Barcelona: iese Business School. Retrieved from http://www.iese.edu/research/ pdfs/DI-0709.pdf
Asociacion Colombiana de Universidades [ASCUN]. (2017). University Social Responsibility Observatory Network. Retrieved December 19, 2017, from http://www.ASCUN.org.co/red/detalle/ red-observatorio-responsabilidad-social-universitaria
Bair, J., & Palpacuer, F. (2015). crs beyond the corporation: Contested governance in global value chains. Global Networks, 15(S1), 1-19.
Barrena-Martinez, J., Lopez-Fernandez, M., & Romero-Fernandez, P. M. (2016). Corporate social responsibility: Evolution through institutional and stakeholder perspectives. European Journal of Management and Business Economics, 25(1), 8-14. doi: 10.1016/j. redee.2015.11.002
Barrera-Duque, E. (2007). La empresa social y su responsabilidad social. Innovar, 17(30), 59-76.
Beltran-Llevador, J., Inigo-Bajo, E., & Mata-Segreda, A. (2014). La responsabilidad social universitaria, el reto de su construccion permanente. Revista Iberoamericana de Educacion Superior, 5(14), 3-18. doi: 10.1016/S2007-2872(14)70297-5
Boubakary, & Moskolai, D. D. (2016). The influence of the implementation of CSR on business strategy: An empirical approach based on Cameroonian enterprises. Arab Economic and Business Journal, 11(2), 162-171. doi: 10.1016/j.aebj.2016.04.001
Boulouta, I., & Pitelis, C. N. (2014). Who Needs CSR? The Impact of Corporate Social Responsibility on National Competitiveness. Journal of Business Ethics, 119(3), 349-364.
Camacho, H., Camara, L., Cascante, R., & Sainz, H. (2001). El Enfoque del marco logico: 10 casos practicos. Madrid, Espana: Fundacion Cideal. Retrieved from http://preval.org/documentos/00480.pdf
Carroll, A. (1999). Corporate Social Responsibility: Evolution of a Definitional Construct. Business & Society, 38(3), 268-295. doi: 10.1177/000765039903800303
Carroll, A. B., & Shabana, K. M. (2010). The business case for corporate social responsibility: A review of concepts, research and practice. International Journal of Management Reviews, 12(1), 85-105. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2370.2009.00275.x
Cohen, E., & Martinez, R. (2004). Manual Formulacion, Evaluacion y Monitoreo de Proyectos Sociales. Editorial CEPAL. Retrieved from http://scholar.google.com/scholar?hl=en&btnG=Search&q=intitle :MANUAL+FORMULACI?N+,+EVALUACI?N+Y+MONITOREO+DE+P ROYECTOS+SOCIALES#0
Correa, J. G. (2007). Evolucion historica de los conceptos de Responsabilidad Social Empresarial y Balance Social. Semestre Economico, 10(20), 87-102.
Dahlsrud, A., & Dahlsrud, A. (2008). How Corporate Social Responsibility is Defined: an Analysis of 37 Denitions. Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, 13(November), 1-13. doi: 10.1002/csr
Delgado-Baron, M., Vargas-Pedraza, J. A., & Ramos-Hendez, I. (2009). Los retos de la responsabilidad social universitaria: construyendo paz desde la universidad. Revista Educacion Superior y Sociedad, 13(2), 63-90. Retrieved from http://ess.IESALC.UNESCO.org.ve/ ess3/index.php/ess/article/view/41
Deng, X., Kang, J., & Low, B. S. (2013). Corporate social responsibility and stakeholder value maximization: Evidence from mergers. Journal of Financial Economics, 110(1), 87-109. doi: 10.1016/j. jfineco.2013.04.014
Dhaliwal, D. S., Radhakrishnan, S., Tsang, A., & Yang, Y. G. (2012). Nonfinancial Disclosure and Analyst Forecast Accuracy: International Evidence on Corporate Social Responsibility Disclosure. The Accounting Review, 87(3), 723-759. doi: 10.2308/accr-10218
Departamento Nacional de Planeacion [DNP]. (2014). Plan Nacional de desarrollo 2014-2018: Todos por un nuevo pais. Retrieved from https://colaboracion.dnp.gov.co/CDT/Prensa/ArticuladoVF.pdf
Engert, S., Rauter, R., & Baumgartner, R. J. (2016). Exploring the integration of corporate sustainability into strategic management: A literature review. Journal of Cleaner Production, 112, 2833-2850. doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2015.08.031
Freeman, E. (2010). Strategic Management: A Stakeholder Approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Gallego, I., Prado, J. M., & Garcia, I. M. (2011). Corporate social responsibility and innovation: a resource-based theory. Management Decision, 49(10), 1709-1727. doi: 10.1108/00251741111183843
Garcia-Jimenez, J. V., Ruiz-de-Maya, S., & Lopez-Lopez, I. (2017). The impact of congruence between the CSR activity and the company's core business on consumer response to CSR. Spanish Journal of Marketing-esic, 21, 26-38. doi: 10.1016/j.sjme.2017.01.001
Garriga, E., & Mele, D. (2013). Corporate Social Responsibility Theories: Mapping the Territory. In A. C. Michalos & D. C. Poff (Eds.). Citation Classics from the Journal of Business Ethics (Vol. 2, pp. 69-96). Springer Netherlands. doi: 10.1007/978-94-007-4126-3_4
Giraldo-Cardenas, L., Kammerer, Y., & Rios-Osorio, L. (2016). Responsabilidad social en pymes del area metropolitana de Medellin, Colombia. Dimension Empresarial, 14(1), 123-135. doi: 10.15665/ rde.v14i1.649
Gonzalez, J. J., Rodriguez, M. T., & Gonzalez-Millan, O. (2014). Medicion de las practicas de responsabilidad social empresarial y gobierno corporativo en las minas de la vereda de Morca en Boyaca, Colombia. Revista Civilizar de Empresa y Economia, 5(9), 39-67.
Gonzalez, J. L. (2008). Responsabilidad social empresarial: un enfoque alternativo. Analisis Economico, XXIII, 227-253.
Gregory, A., & Whittaker, J. (2013). Exploring the Valuation of Corporate Social Responsibility-A Comparison of Research Methods. Journal of Business Ethics, 116(1), 1-20. doi: 10.1007/s10551-012-1465-5
Hernandez-Rodriguez, D. R. (2013). Modelo de contabilidad para la responsabilidad social empresarial. Civilizar de Empresa y Economia, 8, 60-77.
Howaldt, J., & Schwarz, M. (2010). Social Innovation : Concepts, research fields and international trends. Dortmund: esf, eu, and Aachen University. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-36540-9
Isa, S. M. (2012). Corporate Social Responsibility: What can we Learn from the Stakeholders? Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 65, 327-337. doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.11.130
Jackson, B. (1997). Designing Projects and Project Evaluations Using The Logical Framework Approach. Switzerland: iucn The world Conservation Union.
Jimenez, G. (2014). Multinacionales y responsabilidad social empresarial en la construccion de paz en Colombia. Cuadernos de Administracion, 27(48), 67-96.
Krick, T., Forstater, M., Monaghan, P., & Sillanpaa, M. (2005). The Stakeholder Engagement Manual Volume 2. Retrieved from http:// www.accountability.org/images/content/2/0/208.pdf
Lindgreen, A., Cordoba, J. R., Maon, F., & Mendoza, J. M. (2010). Corporate social responsibility in Colombia: Making sense of social strategies. Journal of Business Ethics, 91(Supl. 2), 229-242. doi: 10.1007/s10551-010-0616-9
Londono, I. C. (2013). Responsailidad Social Universitaria. Una Estrategia de Gestion para la Educacion Superior. Revista de Investigaciones de La Escuela de Administracion y Mercadotecnia del Quindio, 5(5), 137-151.
Lopez, A. P., Quiroga, A., Lopez, C., & Torres, M. (2006). La responsabilidad social de las empresas bogotanas y su relacion con el empleo y la pobreza. Revista Equidad & Desarrollo, 6, 83-110.
Marti-Noguera, J. J., Marti-Vilar, M., & Almerich, G. (2014). Responsabilidad social universitaria: Influencia de valores y empatia en la autoatribucion de comportamientos socialmente responsables. Revista Latinoamericana de Psicologia, 46(3), 160-168. doi: 10.1016/S0120-0534(14)70019-6
Marti-Olive, J. (2002). La investigacion: accion participativa, estructura y fases. La Investigacion Social Participativa, 79-123. Retrieved from http://dialnet.unirioja.es/servlet/articulo?codigo=839007
Martinez-Martinez, D., Herrera-Madueno, J., Larran, J. M., & Lechuga-Sancho, M. P. (2017). The strategic nature of corporate social responsibility in smes: a multiple mediator analysis. Industrial Management & Data Systems, 117(1), 2-31. doi: 10.1108/ IMDS-07-2015-0315
Moreno, M. J., Agirregomezkorta, R. B., & Cuadrado, M. (1999). Manual para la introduccion de la perspectiva de genero y juventud al desarrollo rura. Sevilla: Empresa Publica para el Desarrollo Agrario y Pesquero de Andalucia.
Moscoso-Duran, F., & Vargas-Laverde, J. (2013). La Responsabilidad Social Universitaria: mas alla de la proyeccion y extension social, una mirada a la experiencia de la Universidad EAN de Colombia. Recherches En Sciences de Gestion, 98, 83-106. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth& AN=94721964&lang=es&site=eds-live Nino-Munoz, D. (2015). Corporate social responsibility of Colombian tobacco industry: Is it a strategy? Civilizar, 15(29), 113-134.
Nino-Munoz, D. (2016). Metodologia para identificar Estrategias de Responsabilidad Social en el territorio (Informe interno). Bogota: Universidad Sergio Arboleda.
Nunez, R., Aranda, M., & Bello, L. A. (2015). Aplicaciones. In Algebra Lineal con aplicaciones (pp. 287-339). Bogota: Universidad Sergio Arboleda.
Nunez-Chicharro, M., Alonso-Carrillo, I., & Pontones, C. (2015). Responsabilidad Social Universitaria: Estudio empirico sobre la fiabilidad de un conjunto de indicadores de Gobierno Corporativo. Innovar, 25(58), 91-103. http://doi.org/10.15446/innovar. v25n58.52428
Osorio, A., Martinez, M. C., Gaviria, A. R., Montealegre, I. M., & Pedraza, M. B. P. (2011). Problematicas educativas, docentes investigadores y politica publica educativa de Bogota. Bogota: IDEP.
Osterwalder, A., & Pigneur, Y. (2010). Business Model Generation: A Handbook for Visionaries, Game Changers, and Challengers. Zurich: Strategyzer.
Park, Y., Park, Y., Hong, P. C., & Yang, S. (2017). Clarity of CSR orientation and firm performance: Case of Japanese smes. Benchmarking-An International Journal, 24(6), 1581-1596. doi: 10.1108/ BIJ-03-2016-0035
Pena, D., Serra, A., & Cardona, J. (2017). Perfil caracteristico y responsabilidad social empresarial del sector hotelero de la region Caribe colombiana. Pensamiento y Gestion, 43, 128-149.
Polanco, J. (2014). La responsabilidad social del grupo epm: una nueva postura politica frente al territorio. Cuadernos de Administracion, 27(49), 65-85. doi: 10.11144/Javeriana.cao27-49.rsge.
Porter, M. E., & Kramer, M. R. (2006). Strategy and Society: The Link Between Competitive Advantage and Corporate Social Responsibility. Harvard Business Review, 84(December), 78-92. doi: 10.1287/mnsc.1090.1070
Rubin, A., & Babbie, E. R. (2017). Essential Research Methods for Social Work. Boston: Cengage Learning.
Saaty, T. L. (2008). Decision making with the analytic hierarchy process. International Journal of Services Sciences, 1(1), 83-98. doi: 10.1504/IJSSCI.2008.017590
Sapien, A., Pinon, L., & Gutierrez, M. (2016). Responsabilidad social empresarial en empresas chihuahuenses que obtuvieron el distintivo esr 2013. Civilizar, 16(30), 223-232. doi: 10.22518/16578953.545
Schuster, T., Lund-Thomsen, P., & Kazmi, B. A. (2016). Corporate social responsibility (CSR). Insights from South Asia. South Asian Journal of Global Business Research, 5(2). doi: 10.1108/ SAJGBR-03-2016-0020
Schwalb, M. M., & Garcia, E. (2004). Instrumentos y normas para evaluar y medir la responsabilidad social empresarial. Lima: Universidad del Pacifico.
Sinkovics, N., Sinkovics, R. R., Hoque, S. F., & Czaban, L. (2015). A reconceptualisation of social value creation as social constraint alleviation. Critical Perspectives on International Business, 11(3/4), 340-363. doi: 10.1108/cpoib-06-2014-0036
Toro, D. (2006). El enfoque estrategico de la responsabilidad social corporativa: revision de la literatura academica. Social Corporativa: Revision De La Literatura Academica, 2, 338-358. Retrieved from http://upcommons.upc.edu/handle/2099/2942
Tschopp, D., & Nastanski, M. (2014). The Harmonization and Convergence of Corporate Social Responsibility Reporting Standards. Journal of Business Ethics, 125(1), 147-162. doi: 10.1007/ s10551-013-1906-9
Tullberg, J. (2013). Stakeholder theory: Some revisionist suggestions. Journal of Socio-Economics, 42, 127-135. doi: 10.1016/j. socec.2012.11.014
Uribe-Macias, M. E. (2015). Responsabilidad social en la Universidad del Tolima: una mirada desde la comunidad vecina Resumen. Cuadernos de Administracion (Universidad del Valle), 31(54), 89-98.
Vallaeys, F. (2010). La responsabilidad social universitaria: un nuevo modelo universitario contra la mercantilizacion. Perfiles Educativos, 32(128), 27-54. doi: 10.1016/S2007-2872(14)71945-6
Vera-Acevedo, L. D., & Pelaez-Villada, D. C. (2013). Analisis de los dominios etico, legal y economico de la responsabilidad social empresarial: un caso empresarial. Civilizar, 13(25), 85-102.
Volpentesta, J. R., Alcain, M. F., Nievas, G. R., & Spinelli, H. E. (2014). Identificacion del impacto de la gestion de los stakeholders en las estructuras de las empresas que desarrollan estrategias de responsabilidad social empresarial. Revista Universidad & Empresa, 16(26), 63-93.
Werther, W. B., & Chandler, D. B. (2006). Strategic Corporate Social Responsibility: Stakeholders in a Global Environment. California: sage Publications, Inc.
Yoon, Y., Gurhan-Canli, Z., & Schwarz, N. (2006). The Effect of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Activities on Companies With Bad Reputations. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 16(4), 377-390. doi: 10.1207/s15327663jcp1604_9
Appendix 1. Experiences of a group of district schools teachers. Studied No Experience population School's name City 1 To improve Children IED Marruecos y Bogota interpersonal between 9 and Molinos relationships with 12 years peers and authority figures 2 Towards a familiarly Teachers Colegio Bogota responsible between 25 and Federico Garcia institution 50 years Lorca 3 Links between Parents and/or Colegio Nicolas Bogota parents and school guardians Gomez Davila belonging to cycle one 4 Aggressive, hostile First grade Colegio Bogota and disrespectful students Distrital behaviors by Rafael Uribe children Uribe 5 Rates of child abuse 20 families Colegio Bogota in families in first Fernando Soto grade Aparicio 6 Psychoactive 15 students and Colegio Cedid Bogota substance use, their parents Ciudad Bolivar consequences, and prevention 7 Inclusion and Families Colegio Paulo Bogota retention in school VI of children in overage status Appendix 2. Matrix 1. Comparison of the two main criteria. To generate Alignment with company the National development Development Plan To generate company's development 1 5 Alignment with the National 1/5 1 Development Plan Source: Own elaboration. Matrix 2. Association between sub-criteria of generating company's development. Being in accordance with the Generation of core business company's value Being in accordance with the 1 1/9 core business Generation of company's value 9 1 Source: Own elaboration. Matrix 3. Association between sub-criteria of alignment with the National Development Plan. Being in Being in line with line with strategic strategic area # 1 area # 2 Being in line with strategic area # 1 1 1 Being in line with strategic area # 2 1 1 Being in line with strategic area # 3 2 2 Being in line with strategic area # 4 2 2 Being in line with strategic area # 5 3 2 Being in line with strategic area # 6 1/3 1/4 Being in Being in line with line with strategic strategic area # 3 area # 4 Being in line with strategic area # 1 1/2 1/2 Being in line with strategic area # 2 1/2 1/2 Being in line with strategic area # 3 1 1/2 Being in line with strategic area # 4 2 1 Being in line with strategic area # 5 2 2 Being in line with strategic area # 6 1/4 1/5 Being in Being in line with line with strategic strategic area # 5 area # 6 Being in line with strategic area # 1 1/3 3 Being in line with strategic area # 2 1/2 4 Being in line with strategic area # 3 1/2 4 Being in line with strategic area # 4 1/2 5 Being in line with strategic area # 5 1 7 Being in line with strategic area # 6 1/7 1 Source: Own elaboration Matrix 4. Eight combinations of the different sub-criteria with each alternative. Being in line with the core business Alternative 1 Alternative 2 Alternative 3 Alternative 1 1 1 1/3 Alternative 2 1 1 1/5 Alternative 3 3 5 1 Generation of company's value Alternative 1 Alternative 2 Alternative 3 Alternative 1 1 1 1/3 Alternative 2 1 1 1/5 Alternative 3 3 5 1 Being in line with strategic area # 1 Alternative 1 Alternative 2 Alternative 3 Alternative 1 1 1 1/2 Alternative 2 1 1 1/3 Alternative 3 2 3 1 Being in line with strategic area # 2 Alternative 1 Alternative 2 Alternative 3 Alternative 1 1 1/2 1/5 Alternative 2 2 1 1/2 Alternative 3 5 2 1 Being in line with strategic area # 3 Alternative 1 Alternative 2 Alternative 3 Alternative 1 1 1 1 Alternative 2 1 1 1 Alternative 3 1 1 1 Being in line with strategic area # 4 Alternative 1 Alternative 2 Alternative 3 Alternative 1 1 1/2 1/3 Alternative 2 2 1 1/3 Alternative 3 3 3 1 Being in line with strategic area # 5 Alternative 1 Alternative 2 Alternative 3 Alternative 1 1 1 1 Alternative 2 1 1 2 Alternative 3 1 1/2 1 Being in line with strategic area # 6 Alternative 1 Alternative 2 Alternative 3 Alternative 1 1 1 3 Alternative 2 1 1 2 Alternative 3 1/3 1/2 1 Source: Own elaboration. Appendix 3. Interviews with representative members of each stakeholder group. Stakeholders group Position Date of interview University director Director of the Economics 26th April, 2016 Department Member of the Member of the Direction for 25th April, 2016 research area Research and Innovation of the University Professor Full-time teacher at the 27th April, 2016 School of Economics Alumni 2014 alumni 25th April, 2016 Student Student in 10th semester 26th April, 2016 Permanent contact Psychologist working for the 29th April, 2016 with schools in Admissions Office at the Bogota University Source: Own elaboration.
Ph. D. Candidate in Economic and Business Sciences
Researcher, Universidad Sergio Arboleda
Research Group in Public Policies and Business Economics
Author's role: Conceptual and Experimental
Professor, Universidad Sergio Arboleda
Research Group in Public Policies and Business Economics
Author's role: Experimental.
Ph. D. in Economics and Businesses
Professor and Researcher, Universidad Sergio Arboleda
Research Group in Competitiveness and Markets
Author's role: Communicative.
ENLACE DOI: https://doi.org/10.15446/innovar.v29n72.77890
CLASIFICACION JEL: M14, R11, R58
RECIBIDO: marzo 2017. APROBADO: enero 2018.
DIRECCION DE CORRESPONDENCIA: Diana Nino-Munoz. Carrera 15 #74-96, direccion de publicaciones cientificas, Universidad Sergio Arboleda. Bogota, Colombia.
* This paper derived from the research project "System of Cities in Colombia and its Relationship with Institutional Structures?" (Sistema de ciudades en Colombia: ?Cual es su relacion con la estructura institucional?), by the Research Group in Public Policies and Business Economics. Funding for this research was provided by Sergio Arboleda University.
Caption: Graph 1. MORE (Region and Enterprise Opportunities Matrix). Source: Own elaboration.
Caption: Figure 1. Problem tree around the alternative of contributing to the improvement of school education. Source: Own elaboration.
Caption: Figure 2. Objectives tree around the opportunity to contribute in the improvement of school education. Source: Own elaboration.
Caption: Figure 3. Goals and Needs Tree (M&N Tree). Source: Nino-Munoz (2016), based on Nunez, Aranda, & Bello (2015).
Table 1. Millennium Development Coals. MDG Indicator 2009 2010 2011 To eradicate Poverty 0.0% 15.5% 13.1% extreme Extreme poverty 0.0% 2.6% 2.0% poverty and Unemployment rate 0.0% 10.6% 9.6% hunger Prevalence of chronic 0% 0.193 0.181 malnutrition or height deficit in children under 5 Percentage of children 12.80% 12.90% 13.30% with low birthweight To achieve Primary 108.60% 106.70% 102.60% universal Secondary 108.00% 109.10% 107.70% primary Last years of high 85.70% 89.40% 91.40% education school To promote Percentage of women in 17.80% 17.80% 17.80% gender the municipal council equality and empower women To reduce Mortality rate in 20.00% 25.50% 23.30% child children under 5 (per mortality 1,000 live births) DPT vaccination coverage 96.60% 94.20% 89.60% in children under 1 year Immunization coverage 98.70% 97.50% 93.20% for MMR in 1-year-old children To improve Maternal mortality ratio 48.90% 37.30% 36.70% maternal per 100,000 live births health To ensure Proportion of total 51.10% 27.80% 27.80% environmental protected areas by the sustainability National Parks System Rate of change MDG Indicator 2012 (2011-2012) To eradicate Poverty 11.6% -11.45% extreme Extreme poverty 2.0% 0.00% poverty and Unemployment rate 9.5% -1.04% hunger Prevalence of chronic 0.182 0.55% malnutrition or height deficit in children under 5 Percentage of children 12.90% -3.01% with low birthweight To achieve Primary 97.20% -5.26% universal Secondary 107.80% 0.09% primary Last years of high 88.30% -3.39% education school To promote Percentage of women in 20.00% 12.36% gender the municipal council equality and empower women To reduce Mortality rate in 21.50% -7.73% child children under 5 (per mortality 1,000 live births) DPT vaccination coverage 86.30% -3.68% in children under 1 year Immunization coverage 89.00% -4.51% for MMR in 1-year-old children To improve Maternal mortality ratio 39.20% 6.81% maternal per 100,000 live births health To ensure Proportion of total 27.80% 0.00% environmental protected areas by the sustainability National Parks System Colombian Qualitative MDG Indicator goal indicator To eradicate Poverty 28.5% Threat extreme Extreme poverty 8.8% Threat poverty and Unemployment rate 8.5% Opportunity hunger Prevalence of chronic 0.08 Opportunity malnutrition or height deficit in children under 5 Percentage of children 10.00% Opportunity with low birthweight To achieve Primary 100.00% Threat universal Secondary 100.00% Opportunity primary Last years of high 93.00% Threat education school To promote Percentage of women in 17.80% Opportunity gender the municipal council equality and empower women To reduce Mortality rate in 18.98% Opportunity child children under 5 (per mortality 1,000 live births) DPT vaccination coverage 95.00% Threat in children under 1 year Immunization coverage 95.00% Threat for MMR in 1-year-old children To improve Maternal mortality ratio 45.00% Threat maternal per 100,000 live births health To ensure Proportion of total 6.57% Opportunity environmental protected areas by the sustainability National Parks System Right interpretation of the indicator MDG Indicator to improve To eradicate Poverty By decreasing extreme Extreme poverty By decreasing poverty and Unemployment rate By decreasing hunger Prevalence of chronic By decreasing malnutrition or height deficit in children under 5 Percentage of children By decreasing with low birthweight To achieve Primary By increasing universal Secondary By increasing primary Last years of high By increasing education school To promote Percentage of women in By increasing gender the municipal council equality and empower women To reduce Mortality rate in By decreasing child children under 5 (per mortality 1,000 live births) DPT vaccination coverage By increasing in children under 1 year Immunization coverage By increasing for MMR in 1-year-old children To improve Maternal mortality ratio By decreasing maternal per 100,000 live births health To ensure Proportion of total By increasing environmental protected areas by the sustainability National Parks System Source: Based on Nino-Munoz (2016) and completed with information from Bogota city Mayor's Office (Alcaldia Mayor, 2013). Table 2. GRI Indicators. Rate of change Indicators Explanation (2014-2015) Economic Financial Growth rate of 0.22% performance performance generated economic value. Growth rate of N/A economic value distributed. Return on equity for 10.46% a determined time period. Market Relationship between N/A presence the starting salary by gender and local minimum wage in places where significant operations are carried out in a given period for a determined time period. Percentage of senior 0.00% executives from the local community in places where significant operations are carried out for a determined time period. Indirect Efficient use of 10.93% economic assets, reflected in consequences the ROI for a determined time period. Procurement Rotation growth rate 6.38% practices of suppliers. Growth rate of the N/A cash cycle (How long the company takes to recover a dollar inverted). Environmental Water Per capita Internal 78.63% performance water consumption rate for a determined time period. Energy Per capita Internal 100.00% energy consumption rate for a determined time period. C[O.sub.2] Carbon footprint. N/A Emissions Regulatory Percentage of the N/A compliance monetary value of fines for noncompliance with laws and environmental regulations for a determined time period. Social Labor Rate of employee 49.96% performance practices turnover, broken and decent down by age group, work: Jobs gender and region. Training Percentage of 100.00% employees trained in those aspects relevant to their activities. Diversity Composition of the N/A and equal governing bodies by opportuni- professional ties category and sex, age, minority and other diversity indicators. Evaluation Evaluation taking N/A of practices into account labor by suppliers practices, human rights, child and forced labor. Society: Percentage of -5.45% Local investment in communities development and social impact projects. Fighting Management of third N/A Corruption party resources. Mitigate the risk of the source of funding. Product res- Percentage of N/A ponsibility: categories of Health and significant products safety of and services whose customers impacts on health and safety have been evaluated to promote improvements. Expected Indicators Explanation impact Economic Financial Growth rate of Outwards performance performance generated economic value. Growth rate of Inwards economic value distributed. Return on equity for Inwards a determined time period. Market Relationship between Inwards presence the starting salary by gender and local minimum wage in places where significant operations are carried out in a given period for a determined time period. Percentage of senior Outwards executives from the local community in places where significant operations are carried out for a determined time period. Indirect Efficient use of Inwards economic assets, reflected in consequences the ROI for a determined time period. Procurement Rotation growth rate Outwards practices of suppliers. Growth rate of the Outwards cash cycle (How long the company takes to recover a dollar inverted). Environmental Water Per capita Internal Outwards performance water consumption rate for a determined time period. Energy Per capita Internal Outwards energy consumption rate for a determined time period. C[O.sub.2] Carbon footprint. Outwards Emissions Regulatory Percentage of the Outwards compliance monetary value of fines for noncompliance with laws and environmental regulations for a determined time period. Social Labor Rate of employee Inwards performance practices turnover, broken and decent down by age group, work: Jobs gender and region. Training Percentage of Inwards employees trained in those aspects relevant to their activities. Diversity Composition of the Inwards and equal governing bodies by opportuni- professional ties category and sex, age, minority and other diversity indicators. Evaluation Evaluation taking Inwards of practices into account labor by suppliers practices, human rights, child and forced labor. Society: Percentage of Inwards Local investment in communities development and social impact projects. Fighting Management of third Inwards Corruption party resources. Mitigate the risk of the source of funding. Product res- Percentage of Inwards ponsibility: categories of Health and significant products safety of and services whose customers impacts on health and safety have been evaluated to promote improvements. Right interpretation of the indicator Indicators Explanation to improve Economic Financial Growth rate of By increasing performance performance generated economic value. Growth rate of By increasing economic value distributed. Return on equity for By increasing a determined time period. Market Relationship between By increasing presence the starting salary by gender and local minimum wage in places where significant operations are carried out in a given period for a determined time period. Percentage of senior By increasing executives from the local community in places where significant operations are carried out for a determined time period. Indirect Efficient use of By increasing economic assets, reflected in consequences the ROI for a determined time period. Procurement Rotation growth rate By increasing practices of suppliers. Growth rate of the By decreasing cash cycle (How long the company takes to recover a dollar inverted). Environmental Water Per capita Internal By decreasing performance water consumption rate for a determined time period. Energy Per capita Internal By decreasing energy consumption rate for a determined time period. C[O.sub.2] Carbon footprint. By decreasing Emissions Regulatory Percentage of the By decreasing compliance monetary value of fines for noncompliance with laws and environmental regulations for a determined time period. Social Labor Rate of employee By decreasing performance practices turnover, broken and decent down by age group, work: Jobs gender and region. Training Percentage of By increasing employees trained in those aspects relevant to their activities. Diversity Composition of the By increasing and equal governing bodies by opportuni- professional ties category and sex, age, minority and other diversity indicators. Evaluation Evaluation taking By increasing of practices into account labor by suppliers practices, human rights, child and forced labor. Society: Percentage of By increasing Local investment in communities development and social impact projects. Fighting Management of third By decreasing Corruption party resources. Mitigate the risk of the source of funding. Product res- Percentage of By increasing ponsibility: categories of Health and significant products safety of and services whose customers impacts on health and safety have been evaluated to promote improvements. Source: Based on Nino-Munoz (2016) and complemented with information from Sergio Arboleda University. Table 3. Strategic areas of the National Development Plan (2014). Strategy Items included Competitiveness Mining and energy development for regional equity and strategic Productive development infrastructure Information and communications technology (ICT) as a platform for equity, education, and competitiveness Science, technology and innovation Infrastructure, logistics, and transportation services for territorial integration Social mobility Close gaps in the access and quality of education Promote "Friendly and Sustainable Cities for Equality" Minimum vital: building capacities for the population in extreme poverty Alternatives to guarantee quality employment Improve health conditions Rural Poverty reduction and expansion of the rural middle transformation class Boost rural competitiveness Institutional strengthening of territorial presence Rural planning and access to land by rural residents Close the urban-rural gaps and lay the foundations for social mobility Security, Provide management and access to justice services justice and Strengthen mechanisms for the transition to peace democracy for Guarantee the effective enjoyment of rights by peacebuilding victims Promotion, respect, and protection of human rights National Security and defense Confront drug-trafficking problems Criminal policy with a restorative approach Comprehensive actions against anti-personnel mines Good government Fight against corruption, incorporating transparency and accountability Optimal information management Administrative efficiency Strengthen the nation-territory bond Promote and ensure national interests Optimal management of public resources Strengthening the treasury Green growth Advance towards sustainable growth Achieve resilient growth and reduce vulnerability to disasters and climate change Protect and ensure the sustainable use of natural capital and improve environmental quality Source: DNP (2014, p.p. 2-4). Table 4. The fundamental scale of absolute numbers. Intensity of importance Definition Explanation 1 Equal importance Two activities contribute equally to the objective 2 Weak or slight 3 Moderate importance Experience and judgment slightly favor one activity over another 4 Moderate plus 5 Strong importance Experience and judgment strongly favor one activity over another 6 Strong plus 7 Very strong or An activity is favored very demonstrated importance strongly over another; its dominance demonstrated in practice 8 Very, very strong 9 Extreme importance The evidence favoring one activity over another is of the highest possible order of affirmation Table 5 Summary of weighed values and global priority. Being in Generation Being in Being in line with of line with line with the core company's strategic strategic business value area # 1 area # 2 Weighed values 8% 75% 2% 2% Alternative 1 19% 19% 21% 12% Alternative 2 16% 16% 19% 27% Alternative 3 66% 66% 49% 58% Being in Being in Being in Being in line with line with line with line with strategic strategic strategic strategic area # 3 area # 4 area # 5 area # 6 Ranking Weighed values 3% 4% 5% 1% Alternative 1 27% 15% 27% 39% 0.19110 Alternative 2 27% 23% 34% 34% 0.17610 Alternative 3 27% 56% 21% 15% 0.61087 Source: Own elaboration. Table 6 RedH's canvas. Strategies Key Main Service Beneficiaries Establish partners objective Design University framework Selected Strengthen Generation teachers, agreements schools, the of service students, or education teaching- design parents, and cooperation secretary, learning through a directors of agreements. Red Papaz- process in participa- the selected Strengthen Parents public and tory schools. the Network, private diagnosis research on associa- schools in involving The community methodolo- tions of Bogota. the real of selected gies of private needs of schools. education. schools. the Design and/ population. or conduct a workshop Service to support transforma- the process tion of updating Implementa- some metho- tion of the dological workshop schools in with the Bogota. help of every community in each school. Service operation Community empowerment in each school to ensure the operation and sus- tainability of the workshop. Resources Prioritized Service The support alternative improvements of experts Promote Periodic in teaching methodolo- monitoring methodo- gical of logies support initiatives. (School of spaces to Education upgrade and Master/ public or Specializa- private tion in school Teaching teachers in and Bogota. Research). Logistics needed to perform diagnostic meetings, empowerment and monitoring each of the schools. Funding sources Sources of Information University funds. Donations in cash or in kind from other Proceedings of schools entities such as school associations, iso reports of the Red Papaz or secretary of education. University Interviews with key persons Source: Own elaboration.
|Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback|
|Title Annotation:||Estrategia y Organizaciones|
|Author:||Nino-Munoz, Diana; Galan-Barrera, Javier; Alamo, Pablo|
|Date:||Apr 1, 2019|
|Next Article:||ORGANIZATIONAL PURPOSES AS AN ALTERNATIVE FOR SOLVING PROBLEMS ESTABLISHED BY CANVAS AND LEAN CANVAS MODELS/PROPOSITOS ORGANIZACIONAIS COMO...|