Impacts of fish meal and corn gluten meal on performance and body tissue mobilization of Holstein fresh cows.
Dairy cows in postpartum period, have increasing demands to metabolizable protein (MP) to meet their requirements to milk production . Invariably, the early-lactating cow faces a glucose and amino acid deficit . To ameliorate this nutrient deficit, body adipose and protein reserves are mobilized to support the energy requirements for high milk production in early lactation. Although body fat depots are recognized as the major source of energy reserves, the catabolism of both body fat and protein contribute to nutrient requirements in early lactation . During this period, body fat mobilization ranges from 41 to 90 kg , and protein mobilization ranges from 21 to 24 kg [26,27]. Therefore, in addition to being in a negative energy balance, dairy cows experience a negative nitrogen balance in early lactation . Body protein mobilization is driven by the overwhelming need to supply amino acids for hepatic gluconeogenesis and for milk protein synthesis during early lactation . Propionate is the major precursor for gluconeogenesis ; however, limited feed intake during early lactation limits ruminal propionate supply to the liver, raising the requirement for alternative gluconeogenic precursors. Besides amino acids, there is an increased contribution of lactate, pyruvate, and glycerol to hepatic gluconeogenesis, which augment the limited propionate supply . Although skeletal muscle is the primary labile source of amino acids, only a few studies have investigated protein metabolism in this tissue during lactation [33,27,39,7]. Skeletal muscle protein mass has been shown to decrease in early-lactating dairy cows [27,39]. Although the mobilization of protein reserves is necessary to augment the inadequate dietary supply of energy and protein, excessive mobilization can lead to an increased incidence of metabolic disorders, and poor reproductive and lactational performance . Overton et al.,  used alanine as an indicator of gluconeogenesis from amino acids and found that propionate conversion to glucose at 1 and 21 d postpartum was 119 and 129% of that at 21 d prepartum, but that alanine conversion to glucose at 1 and 21 d postpartum was 198 and 150% of that at 21d prepartum. Various approaches to optimize postpartum nutrient supply and, thus, minimize the mobilization of body reserves, have been investigated. These include altering dietary protein [26,37] and amino acid  supply, and feeding supplemental fat [27,9], or gluconeogenic precursors [9,7].
Mobilization of body fat during negative energy balance (NEB) increased plasma concentrations of non esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and beta hydroxyl butyrate ([beta]HBA), both of which have been associated with reduced fertility . Negative energy balance results in loss of body condition score (BCS) as the cow mobilized body fat reserves to support milk production. Greater BCS loss was associated with delayed first ovulation postpartum and reduced conception rate . The magnitude and duration of BCS loss was directly related to BCS at calving, because dairy cows adjust their dry matter intake (DMI) in early lactation to move toward a biological target BCS at around 12 wk postpartum . A recent review  suggested that biological BCS targets were defined by genetics and have reduced over the past 20 yr; therefore, modern dairy cows are more likely to suffer prolonged NEB. The most common strategy used to reduce the extent of NEB and BCS loss in early lactation is to increase dietary energy concentration by increasing the starch or fat components of the ration at the expense of forage components. Such changes in carbohydrate and fat supplies have implications for rumen function, milk composition, nutrient partition, and metabolic hormones.
Therefore, with proper balancing of rumen degradable protein (RDP) and rumen undegradable protein (RUP), some mobilization and depletion of body protein seems to help the cow during the period of transition to lactation. Ruminal microbial protein synthesis alone is insufficient to meet the protein needs of high milk producing cows  and therefore, it is important to include feeds in diets having low protein degradability. Feeds such as fish meal and corn gluten meal, are low in ruminal degradability . To optimize the amount of absorbable amino acids (AA) for high producing dairy cows, one of the diet formulation objectives is to provide adequate amounts of RUP .
The objectives of this study were to investigate whether consuming of different levels of RUP with fixed amounts of RDP would affect performance of Holstein fresh cows, and could decline the detrimental effects of negative protein and energy balance on milk production and BCS and, finally, to determine the concentration of health indicators such as NEFA and [beta]HBA.
Materials And Methods
Diets and Cow Management:
Cows were randomly assigned to a dietary treatment randomly within each block; Holstein cows (n = 58; Treatment 1 = 17, Treatment 2 = 21, Treatment 3 = 20) were blocked by parity (16 primiparous, 11 at second calving and 31 at third or higher lactation) At calving, they were randomly assigned in a completely randomized block design with unequal repeats, for 21 days of lactation to three experimental diets: 1) LRUP: contained 17.1% CP with 6.65% RUP, 2) MRUP: contained 19% CP with 7.72% RUP, and 3) HRUP: contained 20.1% CP with 8.79% RUP). RDP was constant between diets (11.3%, based on NRC recommendations). They received supplemental CGM and fish meal, partially substituted with SBM and barley, during early postpartum period (wk 1 to 3). The amount of CGM and fish meal fed was designed to raise ration CP by 1.1 to 2.2 percentage units.
Experimental diets are shown in Table 1. The diets were offered throughout the trial ad libitum to achieve 5-10% orts daily total mixed ration (TMR) at 0830 and 1530. Cows were milked at 0500, 1300, and 2100.
Orts were measured daily and feed offered was adjusted to allow for 5 to 10% of orts. Because cows were housed in pens, it was not possible to measure individual feed intakes. Instead, the intake of each pen was recorded daily. Weekly samples of rations and orts were taken to determine DM content. These DM percentages were then used to calculate the pen average daily DM intakes (DMI).
Milk production was recorded daily throughout the trial. Milk samples were collected from milking of three sampling days. The Milko-Scan B-133(Foss, Denmark) was used to determine milk fat, protein, lactose and SNF, and milk urea N was measured using the chromatography method. Body weight was calculated as the average of measurements performed in the morning of days 0, +7, +14 and +21 relative to parturition, before morning meal and after morning milking. The body condition score of each animal was evaluated by the same person in the morning of days 0, +7, +14 and +21 relative to parturition, before morning meal and after morning milking.
Blood samples were also collected at days +2, +7, +14 and +21 after parturition from the coccygeal vein or artery of each cow into heparinized vacutainers at 0110 h and immediately cooled to 4[degrees]C. Plasma was separated by centrifugation of whole blood for 10 min at 2300x g at 4[degrees]C, was separated, and frozen at -20[degrees]C until analyzed for NEFA(by Randox kits), and [beta]HBA (by Randox kits).
The completely randomized block design was used. Data measured over time, within the period of interest were subjected to ANOVA by using the REPEATED measurement of MIXED procedure of SAS . For all analysis, least squares means were calculated. Means were evaluated by Tukey test. In this study, differences among treatments were considered significant if P < 0.05.
Results And Discussion
Dry matter intake:
Least square means of DMI during experimental period for LRUP, MRUP, and HRUP were 14.15, 14.40 and 15.04 kg/d, respectively (Table 3). In comparison with LRUP, DMI in MRUP and HRUP showed a trend to increase (P = 0.054).
Dry matter intake has special importance to meet nutrient requirements of fresh cows to maintain their health and production. Low DMI and deficiency in nutrient supply, specially protein and amino acids, lead to immunosuppression  and incidence of metabolic disorders consisted of rapid loss of BCS, ketosis, fatty liver and displaced abomasum [14,13,12]. Thus, diets that have higher levels of crude protein and RUP, are effective in maintaining the production and BCS . Fresh cows in first days of lactation period, specially immediately after parturition, face loss of appetite, because of an increased level of estrogen in plasma  and since NRC  recommended a high concentration of CP for high levels of milk yield, because of low DMI in fresh cows, this amount of CP, must be given in the form of high concentrate of RDP and RUP in diets .
Decreasing DMI in the early postpartum period causes declining in passage rate and consequently protein degradability in the rumen increases; thus, ruminal outflow of non ammonia nitrogen (NAN), non ammonia non microbial nitrogen (NANMN) and essential amino acids (EAA) into the small intestine will decreased . Therefore, ratio of RUP supplements (corn gluten meal and fish meal) could be increased.
Our findings were in agreement with Law et al. , Broderick , that reported higher DMI using RUP. Researchers reported that cows received higher amounts of RUP (10%) than NRC  recommendations have 2.1 kg higher DMI per day .
Milk Production and Composition:
Least square means of whole milk production and fat corrected milk (FCM) 4% were 35.42, 35.81, 38.54 kg/d, and 29.89, 31.24, 33.0 kg/d, respectively (Table 3). Increasing level of RUP is accompanied by enhancing MP and the supply of EAA in the small intestine [6,17]. Shwab and Foster  suggested that limiting factor for milk production in the first weeks of lactation is MP but not NEl; therefore, enhancing RUP has a beneficial effect on milk production. A quadratic relationship between milk production and dietary CP at the range of 16 to 21% was reported ; however, this CP enhancement using RDP had less benefits.
Flis and Wattiaux  indicate that diets contained over 10% of CP than the NRC recommendation, permits 1.5 kg more milk per day this increase in milk production is due to RUP enhancement. In agreement with our findings, Broderick  reported an increment of 2.8 kg/d, whereas, Cunningham et al.  reported an increment of 2.7 kg/d.
Heated SBM compared with raw SBM, increase milk yield , which is due to high passage of ruminally undegradable protein to small intestine. This idea is supported by the findings of Grummer et al.  who indicate that a higher milk production is obtained when the animals are fed with increased levels of RUP. Diets in early lactation having high amounts of CP (17 to 19%) which permits an increment of both milk yield and milk persistency .
Least square means of milk fat content and yield of the treatments LRUP, MRUP and HRUP were 3.01, 3.22, 3.17%, and 1.048, 1.12, 1.17 kg/d, respectively (Table 4). There were no difference in the fat percentage and content of milk between the treatments (P > 0.05) but differences were registered between blocks and treatment x block.
Least square means of milk protein content and yield of the treatments LRUP, MRUP and HRUP were 3.41, 3.53, 3.53% and 1.20, 1.26, 1.36 kg/d, respectively (Table 4). Milk protein significantly increased with enhancing RUP (P < 0.05). This increase, was probably due to the providing of good profiles of amino acids that were similar to the milk amino acids profile, and enhancing RUP specially with FM could have led to optimal levels of Lys to Met ratios in the small intestine [45,48], and since Lys and Met are limiting amino acids for milk production and milk protein, high levels of RUP cause an increment of milk protein. In agreement with our findings, Broderick  found that milk protein yield was improved by enhancing dietary CP from 15.3 to 16.7%, but he did not found any changes with 18.4% of CP.
Somatic cell count (SCC):
Least square means of SCC of the treatments LRUP, MRUP and HRUP were 293000, 150000, and 142000 per ml (Table 3). Increasing levels of RUP caused that SCC of milk decreased significantly (P = 0.03).
Our findings were in agreement with Ellison Henson  that increased RUP caused SCC linearly decreased. Houdijk et al.,  indicated that competition for metabolizable energy did not result to immunosuppression and it was correct only about MP. In other words, MP deficiency would make immune-suppression. These findings are based on this fact that immune system has a protein nature.
Metabolic changes accompanied by inflammation and infectious diseases, increased needs for protein and amino acids. Increased in production of cytokines (IL-6, IL-1, TNF-[alpha]) leads to change in protein metabolism, and during immunological stress, amino acids go to inflammated tissues instead of protein production (lactation, growth, ... ) .
On average, cows have 3500 neutrophil per microliter of blood and half time of neutrophils is about 6 hours. Therefore amino acids requirements for proliferation of leukocytes to improve the immune system, must be met by addition protein supplementary; in this study, the SCC diminished with the increment of RUP in the diet, which probably enhances the power of immune system and consequently, a diminution of the incidence of mastitis .
Body condition score and Body weight:
Least square means of body weight changes were -53.89, -24.85 and -37.12 kg/d for LRUP, MRUP and HRUP respectively (Table 4); differences among treatments, blocks and treatments x block were not significant (P > 0.05). Least square means of BCS changes were -0.76, -0.36 and -0.43, respectively (Table 3) which represent significant improvement (P = 0.0001) in BCS by consuming medium and high RUP diets. An indicator of the energy balance status is BCS. Loss of BCS is correlated with fat mobilization and, therefore, BCS might be used as indicator of energy balance during early lactation . Van Knegsel et al.  suggest that glucogenic diets in comparison with lipogenic diets, resulted in deposition of body reserves. These findings show that glucogenic nutrients such as RUP supplements in our study, lead to improve the BCS due to decreased body tissue mobilization by increasing DMI. Santos et al.  reported that replacement of RDP with RUP supplements in lactating cows, improved the energy balance and led to an increase of 9% in the amount of NEl consumption.
Furthermore, Leucine is effective in milk synthesis and BW changes during the lactation period; furthermore, the infusion of branched chain amino acids (Leu, Ile, Val) leads to retention of nitrogen in the body . However, using CGM as a rich source of Leu in diets of fresh cows could be an effective factor in maintaining protein reserves in the body and consequently improving BCS changes. Likewise, branched chain amino acids have several roles in the body metabolism and could influence insulin secretion. It has been suggested that these amino acids could influence secretion of metabolic hormones, specially prolactin and insulin [18,28]. Leucine directly stimulates the mRNA level of insulin in pancreatic cells . Law et al.  reported that increasing the dietary CP from calving day to 150 DIM, could lead to an increased energy consumption and BW and BCS of cows, which were in agreement with our findings.
NEFA and [beta]HBA.:
Least square means of NEFA of plasma of the treatments LRUP, MRUP and HRUP were 0.60, 0.55, and 0.48 mM/lit (Table 4). By increasing RUP sources in the diet, concentration of NEFA had decreased significantly (P < 0.05).
Nydam et al.  and Ospina et al. , at Cornell university, studied on 104 herds with 2758 cows, that blood samples of 1440 cows prepartum and 1318 cows postpartum were collected. They found that high NEB (measured by NEFA and [beta]HBA) at transition period, led to clinical diseases and had negative effects on productive and reproductive efficiency in cows that housed in freestalls and fed TMR. Condensed management programs to minimizing risks of these diseases are: the cut point of NEFA at 14 to 2 days prepartum, should not be more than or equal 0.3 mM/lit and for postpartum cows, should not be more than or equal 0.6 mM/lit and concentration of [beta]HBA for 3 to 14 days after parturition, should not be more than or equal 0.96 mM/lit.
These researchers [36,37,14] reported that recognition of a target level for NEFA and [beta]HBA are difficult, because of variation between animals; however, critical threshold for metabolic disorders such as displaced abomasums, clinical ketosis, metritis or retained fetal membranes are 0.72, 0.57, and 0.36 mM/lit and odds ratios are 9.7, 5, and 16, respectively.
Le Blank et al.  and Van Saun,  reported that if NEFA concentrations were higher than 0.4 mM/lit for close-up period and were higher than 0.6 mM/lit for fresh cows, they increase the risks of metabolic disorders by 4 to 5 fold.
Drackley et al.  suggested that one of the most important strategies for prevention of fatty liver, is to cause labor for the liver, such as ATP produced in beta-oxidation pathway and krebs cycles, do not shift to unuseful pathways. If ATP produced, do not used in useful metabolic pathways, fatty acids would be used to synthesis of tree acyl glycerol (TAG) or ketone bodies in liver. This was indicated that, by enhancing dietary protein in order to increasing gloconeogenesis and ureogenesis in hepatocyts, as an induction of labor for the liver, can reduce incidence of fatty liver, as suggested by Bobe et al. .
Piepenbrink and Overton  reported a negative correlation (r = -0.4) between TAG in liver and capacity of hepatocyts in conversion of propionate to glucose in vitro.
Least square means of plasma [beta]HBA were 0.65, 0.51, and 0.55 mM/lit (Table 3) that treatments did not have any significant differences.
Law et al.  reported that from calving date to 150 DIM, increasing CP from 11.4 to 17.3% of DM, concentration of [beta]BHA decreased significantly. Cornell researchers [36,37] and Daffield et al. reported that critical threshold of [beta]HBA for metabolic disorders such as displaced abomasums, clinical ketosis, metritis or retained fetal membranes are 0.96, 0.96, and 0.67 mM/lit and odds ratios are 6.9, 4.9, and 2.3, respectively.
DMI and plasma NEFA are conversely correlated and accretion of TAG in liver resulted to hepatocyts disfunction acetyle-coA conveted to acetoacetate and beta hydroxyl butyrate. Elevated levels of these keton bodies in blood, milk, and urine are primary indices of ketosis [36,37,14], and since in this study, DMI increased by HRUP and NEFA concentration decreased, so it could be concluded, by increasing level of MP in early post partum period, to prevent incidence of fatty liver and ketosis.
The results of this study show that by increasing the amounts of RUP in the diets of fresh cows, an increase of milk yield and protein. Moreover, improving the BCS could be effective in the prevention of mastitis. Furthermore, concentrations of NEFA and [beta]HBA decrease with the increment of RUP, which suggests that high concentration of MP in this period (0-3 weeks of lactation) has better benefits to prevent metabolic disorders; however, BCS loss could be related to poor fertility.
The authors gratefully acknowledge the Sharif-Abad agri-industrail Co. for feeding and caring of the cows and we would like to thank S. Ebrahimi, M. Mosavi and F. Niazi for their excellent technical assistance in all aspects of this work.
HRUP = high RUP diet, MRUP = medium RUP diet, LRUP = low RUP diet, MUN = milk urea nitrogen, FM = fish meal, CGM = corn gluten meal, SBM = soybean meal, MP = metabolizable protein, NEB = negative energy balance, NEFA = non esterified fatty acids, [beta]HBA = beta hydroxy butyrate.
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(1) Mehran Aboozar, (2) Hamid Amanlou, (3) Ali Mirza Aghazadeh, (1) Kambiz Nazer-Adl, (4) Moosa Moeini
(1) Department of Animal Science, Islamic Azad University, Shabestar branch, Shabestar, Iran
(2) Department of Animal Science, Zanjan University, Zanjan, Iran
(3) Department of Animal Science, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran
(4) Department of Animal Science, Islamic Azad University, Abhar branch, Abhar, Iran
Mehran Aboozar, Department of Animal Science, Islamic Azad University, Shabestar branch, Shabestar, Iran
E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Fax: +982425226988
Table 1: Ingredients of Experimental Diets (%DM) (1) Feedstuffs LRUP MRUP HRUP Alfalfa hay 26.30 26.30 26.30 Corn silage 12.60 12.60 12.60 Beet pulp 9.50 9.50 9.50 Barley, steam rolled 13.90 12.30 11.0 Corn grain, ground 9.70 9.70 9.70 Soybean meal 7.70 6.20 4.60 Roasted soybean 3.60 3.60 3.60 Whole cottonseed 6.70 6.70 6.70 Canola meal 0.51 0.51 0.51 Fish meal 2.0 3.60 5.15 Corn gluten meal 2.0 3.60 5.15 Fat 0.51 0.51 0.51 Salt 0.25 0.25 0.25 Sodium bicarbonate 1.0 1.0 0.92 Calcium carbonate 0.61 0.56 0.51 Magnesium oxide 0.15 0.15 0.13 Di-calcium phosphate 0.2 0.15 0.13 Min-Vit supplement (2) 0.825 0.825 0.825 Vitamin A (3) 0.05 0.05 0.05 Vitamin E (4) 0.5 0.5 0.5 Toxin binder 0.07 0.07 0.07 Glycoline (5) 1.29 1.29 1.29 Monensin 0.01 0.01 0.01 Availa 4 (6) 0.01 0.01 0.01 (1.) LRUP = low rumen undegradable protein, MRUP = medium rumen undegradable protein, HRUP = high undegradable protein (2.) Contained 196 gr Ca ;96gr P; 71 gr Na; 19gr Mg; 3gr Fe; 0.3 gr Cu; 2 gr Mn; 3 gr Z: 0.1 gr Co: 0.1 gr I: 0.001 gr Se: 3 gr antioxidant; 5000 IU vit A: 100000 IU vit D3; and 100 mg vit E. (3.) Contained: 5000000 IU vit A (4.) Contained: 4400 IU vit E (5.) Net energy = 1500 kcal; Ca 1.45%; EE 0.8% ; CF 0.3% (6.) Zn not less than 5.15% ; Mn not less than 2.88%; Cu not less than 1.08%; Co not less than 0.18% Table 2: Chemical composition of diets (1) Items LRUP MRUP HRUP N (E.sub.L) (Mcal/kg) 1.65 1.67 1.68 CP (%) 17.9 19 20.1 RDP (% of CP) 11.31 11.28 11.25 RUP (% of CP) 6.65 7.72 8.79 Soluble protein (%) 23 22.3 21.4 Metabolizable protein 1893 2023 2149 (g/d) Methionine (g/d) 39 43 46 Lysine (g/d) 121 128 135 NDF (%) 33.2 32.7 32.2 PeNDF (4) (%) 24 23 23 NFC (5) (%) 36.5 35.7 35 Ether Extract (%) 4.7 4.9 5.1 (1.) LRUP = low rumen undegradable protein, MRUP = medium rumen undegradable protein, HRUP = high undegradable protein (2.) PeNDF = predicted neutral detergent fiber (3.) NFC = non fibrous carbohydrates, NFC(%) = 100- (%CP + %NDF + %EE + %Ash) Table 3: Least square means [+ or -] SE of DMI and milk yield and composition (1) Items LRUP MRUP DMI (kg/d) 14.15 [+ or -] 0.17 14.40 [+ or -] 0.17 Milk yield 35.42 (b) [+ or -] 0.92 35.81 (ab) [+ or -] 0.85 (kg/d) FCM 4 % (kg/d) 29.89 (b) [+ or -] 0.9 31.24 (ab) [+ or -] 0.83 (2) FCM 3.5 (kg/d) 32.20 (b) [+ or -] 0.98 33.68 (ab) [+ or -] 0.91 (3) Milk fat (%) 3.01 [+ or -] 0.14 3.22 [+ or -] 0.13 Milk fat (kg/d) 1.048 [+ or -] 0.04 1.12 [+ or -] 0.04 Milk protein 3.41 (b) [+ or -] 0.02 3.53 (a) [+ or -] 0.02 (%) Milk protein 1.20 (b) [+ or -] 0.03 1.26 (ab) [+ or -] 0.03 (kg/d) Milk lactose 5.18 [+ or -] 0.03 5.18 [+ or -] 0.03 (%) Milk lactose 1.83 [+ or -] 0.04 1.85 [+ or -] 0.04 (kg/d) Milk SNF (%) 9.29 [+ or -] 0.06 9.41 [+ or -] 0.06 Milk SNF (kg/d) 3.29 [+ or -] 0.08 3.36 [+ or -] 0.07 ECM (kg/d) (4) 31.95 (b) [+ or -] 0.85 33.47 (ab) [+ or -] 0.82 Milk Energy 0.67 [+ or -] 0.01 0.69 [+ or -] 0.01 (kg/d) (5) SCC (x 1000/ml) 293 (a) [+ or -] 2.01 150 (b) [+ or -] 2.31 (6) Future Milk 42.94 [+ or -] 1.47 41.99 [+ or -] 1.36 yield (7) (kg/d) Items HRUP p-value Treatment Block DMI (kg/d) 15.04 [+ or -] 0.17 0.0542 0.0002 Milk yield 38.54 (a) [+ or -] 0.89 0.028 0.0001 (kg/d) FCM 4 % (kg/d) 33.0 (a) [+ or -] 0.87 0.0477 0.0001 (2) FCM 3.5 (kg/d) 35.57 (a) [+ or -] 0.95 0.0477 0.0001 (3) Milk fat (%) 3.17 [+ or -] 0.14 0.5464 0.0011 Milk fat (kg/d) 1.17 [+ or -] 0.04 0.1995 0.0241 Milk protein 3.53 (a) [+ or -] 0.02 0.0008 0.0841 (%) Milk protein 1.36 (a) [+ or -] 0.03 0.0072 0.0001 (kg/d) Milk lactose 5.09 [+ or -] 0.03 0.1282 0.4262 (%) Milk lactose 1.95 [+ or -] 0.04 0.0913 0.0001 (kg/d) Milk SNF (%) 9.39 [+ or -] 0.06 0.1172 0.443 Milk SNF (kg/d) 3.61 [+ or -] 0.07 0.0901 0.0001 ECM (kg/d) (4) 35.35 (a) [+ or -] 0.83 0.0242 0.0001 Milk Energy 0.68 [+ or -] 0.01 0.3898 0.0001 (kg/d) (5) SCC (x 1000/ml) 142 (b) [+ or -] 2.41 0.0300 0.001 (6) Future Milk 43.97 [+ or -] 1.42 0.8435 0.0001 yield (7) (kg/d) Items Period DMI (kg/d) 0.618 Milk yield 0.0001 (kg/d) FCM 4 % (kg/d) 0.0001 (2) FCM 3.5 (kg/d) 0.0001 (3) Milk fat (%) 0.0001 Milk fat (kg/d) 0.0001 Milk protein 0.0001 (%) Milk protein 0.0001 (kg/d) Milk lactose 0.0001 (%) Milk lactose 0.0001 (kg/d) Milk SNF (%) 0.0001 Milk SNF (kg/d) 0.0001 ECM (kg/d) (4) 0.0001 Milk Energy 0.0001 (kg/d) (5) SCC (x 1000/ml) 0.0001 (6) Future Milk 0.0001 yield (7) (kg/d) (1.) a, b, c indicated to significant difference (p < 0.05). (2.) Fat corrected milk (FCM) 4% = [0.4 x milk (kg)] + [15 x milk fat(kg)] (3.) FCM 3.5% = [0.4324 x milk (kg)] + [16.216 x milk fat (kg)] (4.) Energy corrected milk (ECM) = milk (kg) x [383 x fat (%) + 242 x protein (%) + 165.4 x lactose (%) + 20.7]/3140 (sjaunja,1990) (5.) Milk energy (Mcal/kg) = (0.0929 x fat%) + (0.0547 x protein%) + (0.0395 x lactose%) (NRC,2001) (6.) Somatic cell counts. (7.) Milk production from day 21 to day 120 of lactation. Table 4: Least square means [+ or -] SE of BW, BCS changes, and plasma NEFA and [beta]HBA (1) Items LRUP MRUP BW changes -53.89 [+ or -] 10.29 -24.85 [+ or -] 9.91 (kg/d) BCS changes -0.76 (b) [+ or -] 0.06 -0.36 (a) [+ or -] 0.06 Initial BW 668.51 [+ or -] 11.94 653.25 [+ or -] 11.5 (kg/d) Initial BCS 3.30 [+ or -] 0.07 3.30 [+ or -] 0.07 NEFA 0.60 (a) [+ or -] 0.04 0.55 (b) [+ or -] 0.05 (mmol/L) [beta]HBA 0.65 [+ or -] 0.08 0.51 [+ or -] 0.09 (mmol/L) Items HRUP p-value Treat Block BW changes -37.12 [+ or -] 11.62 0.1368 0.5335 (kg/d) BCS changes -0.43 (a) [+ or -] 0.07 0.0001 0.1215 Initial BW 662.65 [+ or -] 13.49 0.6516 0.0001 (kg/d) Initial BCS 3.31 [+ or -] 0.08 0.9973 0.0239 NEFA 0.48 (b) [+ or -] 0.04 0.04 0.05 (mmol/L) [beta]HBA 0.54 [+ or -] 0.09 0.5303 0.8544 (mmol/L) Items Treat x Block BW changes 0.1191 (kg/d) BCS changes 0.1157 Initial BW 0.9177 (kg/d) Initial BCS 0.9921 NEFA 0.47 (mmol/L) [beta]HBA 0.57 (mmol/L) (1-a, b, c) indicated to significant difference (p < 0.05).
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|Title Annotation:||Original Article|
|Author:||Aboozar, Mehran; Amanlou, Hamid; Aghazadeh, Ali Mirza; Nazer-Adl, Kambiz; Moeini, Moosa|
|Publication:||Advances in Environmental Biology|
|Date:||Jan 1, 2012|
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