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Impacting teacher candidates' knowledge, skills, and dispositions regarding diversity: faculty triggers (1).

The increasing diversity of students within our educational systems demands improved training within teacher education programs at institutions of higher education (IHE). This is, also, evident through standards of state and national accrediting bodies, through professional organizations guidance, and through demands of consumers of public education.

Along with training, assessment of teacher candidate knowledge, skills and dispositions about multicultural/diversity is critical (NCATE, 2002). It can assist institutions of higher education in making programmatic decisions as to diversity issues. It can, also, help provide evidence that the diverse needs of children, youth, and their families within our public school systems will be better met than in times past.

Faculty members within teacher education programs have great demands placed upon them. This includes making sure courses have diversity issues embedded throughout them, that field experiences provide hands-on learning with a diverse population of students, that teacher candidates learn to meet individual needs along with collective needs, and that assessment of candidates is successfully conducted. Yet, how are we assuring that faculty members are provided with the training needed to meet these expectations? Where do the knowledge, skills and dispositions regarding diversity issues emanate with faculty who are charged with training our teacher candidates?

Refractive Errors

The Conceptual Framework (CF) of the College of Education at a Midwest university states that:
 The unit's CF reflects the unit's commitment to preparing
 candidates to support learning for all students and provides a
 conceptual understanding of how knowledge, dispositions, and
 skills related to diversity are integrated across the curriculum,
 instruction, field experiences, assessments, and evaluations.

Okay, that is all well and good; however, faculty members at this university may wonder how they are suppose to assure this happens in the program in which they work.

One problem is that the diversity representation of faculty at IHEs and teachers in our public school system do not always mirror the diversity of the students in their classrooms/programs (Campbell-Whatley, 2003; Dieker, Voltz, & Epanchin, 2002; Smith, 1998). So, teachers in school systems and faculty at IHEs "cannot count on being able to relate to the diversity of students in the schools simply based on their own backgrounds" (Miller, Strosnider, & Dooley, 2000, p. 15). Additionally, while the nation's school systems' demographics are increasing in student numbers of racial/ethnic, cultural, and linguistic diversity; the faculty numbers across these diverse areas are not increasing (Fenwick, 2001). The problem is compounded when thought is given to where faculty at IHE originate. If teachers who represent diverse cultures are not entering teacher education programs at doctoral levels, it will be increasingly difficult to gain adequate representation at IHE levels. It is, therefore, imperative that recruitment efforts be developed that help bring diversity within teaching and faculty positions over the next generations in order to overcome these refractive errors. In the mean time, current faculty at IHEs (who represent more mainstream cultures) must be afforded the training required to meet the diverse needs of teacher candidates in personnel preparation programs.

Held Accountable

According to Miller, Strosnider, and Dooley (2000), of the teachers who have graduated from teacher education programs since the mid 1990s, most have been required to take at least one course that addressed multicultural diversity. If this translates as a separate course, not embedded as core content within/across all courses or assessments throughout their program, it may set up dispositions of separatism without this being the intension. Hidalgo, Chavez-Chavez, and Ramage (2002) suggest that teacher educators promote a curriculum infusion approach to diversity training rather than a one-course serves all model.

The early course(s) on multicultural issues, typically, translated only to content about children of African or Latino heritage in urban or inner city settings (Miller, Strosnider, & Dooley, 2000). More recently, requirements have moved beyond this to issues of multicultural/diversity (which encompasses a broader range of learners to include race, ethnicity, physical or mental condition, gender, age, geographic region, sexual orientation, religion, language/linguistic, marital status, socioeconomic status, or other elements within the definition) (Gibson & Follo, 1998; Miller, Strosnider, & Dooley; NCATE, 2002). With this expanded definition comes increased requirements of faculty. Yet for faculty that were educated prior to diversity being embedded in their preparation programs, they may not have the knowledge, skills or dispositions to adequately prepare teacher candidates within their personnel preparation programs. For these faculty members, training may be limited to what they sought or were provided in terms of continued professional development. So how have faculty members acquired the skills needed to train teacher candidates to meet the needs of the diverse students who will be in their classrooms? What triggers have faculty encountered to produce change in their own practice (whether in teaching, scholarship, or service requirements)?

From Rhizomes to Research

The Multicultural/Diversity Outcomes Assessment Project (MC/D) team members (from a participating university located in the Midwest) met often to discuss its plan for the assessment of its candidates within the teacher education programs regarding issues of multicultural/diversity. Discussions ensued about what measurement tools to use, how to distribute them, if the assessment instruments could be embedded within courses, or if they could be placed on-line. The work at hand was exciting, and setting aside time to work with valued and knowledgeable colleagues brought energy to the project. Yet, just as a rhizome sends out roots below to produce new stems and leaves elsewhere, the faculty team began to reach out, discussing broader interests regarding diversity issues within the College of Education. One area of conversation included how the faculty members, who train our candidates, were informed about diversity issues, and whether they could or should be included in the assessments of diversity. Talk of whether assessing faculty would be threatening in any way ensued. It was known that some studies had minimal response to assessment of faculty on diversity issues in the past (e.g., Gibson & Follo, 1998; Miller, Strosnider, & Dooley, 2000). Like all researchers, however, questions began to shoot up as to how information could be gleaned from faculty to produce answers without feeling threatened. Informally, project team members began to ask each other what affected their practice regarding diversity. Shortly, thereafter, a research question emerged and approval was sought from the IHE's Office of Research Administration to add the research as a part of the assessment conducted within the MC/D project.

The Research Question

In order to meet the needs of a busy faculty, information about the MC/D project and the following research question was sent out to all faculty members within the College of Education via email: "What 'triggers' can you identify regarding your knowledge, skills, and/or dispositions about diversity that affected/changed your practice (whether teaching, research or service)." Triggers were more fully defined in the email request so potential participants knew this translated to what training, interactions, or experiences impacted them enough to change their practices.

The Research Participants

The response from faculty was slow in coming, so the question was distributed again via the email system. As faculty members were met in passing, reminders and encouragement were provided to respond to the request. Following the multiple requests, a total of 17 participants (out of a possible 75, which is a 23% return rate) produced data to be analyzed. Participants included faculty from the departments of Curriculum and Instruction, Educational Leadership, and Communication Disorders and Sciences within the College of Education. Diversity among participants included faculty who were Americans with Asian heritage (first generation immigrant), European heritage (majority of respondents), Russian heritage (first generation immigrant), and one who is Australian.

Data Obtained

The participants in this study generated data in three ways. First, most of the participants provided a reply to the email request/research questions. Some, after giving what they wrote more serious consideration, followed up by sending additional email responses, furthering their reply. Others, when met in passing, shared their experiences in person. During these encounters, the researcher immediately located paper/pencil and recorded these responses in the form of field notes. Others, met in passing, stated they did get the email request, but chose not to reply (these individuals were not asked why, so reasons remain unknown).

Second, syllabi from 2001 through 2004 used by the participants responding to the email or in-person request were evaluated to determine what, if any, information could be gleaned that demonstrated what and how multicultural diversity content/performance was embedded in teacher education courses and how it changed over time. Finally, a follow-up email request was distributed to all of the faculty in the College of Education within the participating university. The email request was intended so participants could provide additional information regarding their perceived needs for continued professional development in the area of multicultural diversity.

Gathering and Analyzing the Data

Triggers. In order to better understand the subjective experiences, perspectives, and views of faculty participants of what triggered their change in practice regarding diversity, answers were analyzed using a constant comparative method of qualitative analysis (Maykut & Morehouse, 1994) to arrive at categories and codes across participants from their email and in-person interviews. Three broad areas of categorizing the data emerged for reporting purposes: (a) specific codes for what triggered change; (b) the change, if any, that was produced due to the triggers, and (c) the number of participants who mentioned the coded trigger(s).

Syllabi. Following the email and in-person interviews, syllabi were reviewed to obtain whether the participants (the 17 participants who responded to the trigger request) were embedding content regarding multicultural diversity within their courses taught in the Teacher Education program at the university. Data was compared across the academic years of 2001 through 2004 to note (a) whether or not multicultural information was included within the syllabus/course, and (b) whether or not changes in syllabi/courses regarding multicultural diversity were noted across the target years.

Perceived Professional Development Needs. Finally, email and hard copy survey responses from faculty in the College of Education were analyzed to look for patterns of need for continued professional development in the area of multicultural diversity. Note that only one request was made by email with a follow-up hard copy survey request distributed at a faculty meeting. Further follow-up reminders, thereafter, were not distributed.

Reporting the Results

Trigger Data. Final participants (n=17) were quite articulate in how they gained the knowledge, skills and dispositions about issues of diversity that impacted what was embedded into their practices. Following analysis of the narrative data (email/interview), ten coded categories emerged to explain what triggered (i.e., affected/impacted) changes across their responsibilities (e.g., teaching, scholarship and service). Those categories consisted of (a) professional bodies that set standards/ guidelines for diversity in professional training within educational programs; (b) lived experiences, including those from across their childhood through adulthood; (c) reading of research/literature; (d) involvement from specific grant/other projects that included issues of diversity; (e) interactions and/or friendships from others who influenced or inspired them; (f) information gained from reviewing evaluation/assessment instruments; (g) threats of legal action/grievances; (h) videos; (i) attending conferences; and (j) a final category emerged regarding emphasis from participants wanting to make sure that the researcher knew their definition of diversity went beyond just color. Appendix A summarizes the codes, changes and number of participants within each code.

The category that emerged as the one most discussed by participants was their lived experiences. These examples included those from childhood through adulthood, including personal encounters within their courses. One participant told of an experience in class that triggered change:
 As I taught the Introduction to the Exceptional Learner course, we
 were discussing whether we thought there were biases built into the
 identification process of special education. A lively conversation
 began with candidates talking about how tests were old, so didn't
 contain information relevant to today's society. Others talked about
 how tests were normed. One student, an American girl with African
 heritage, stated that she remembered a time in grade school where
 she would walk the halls past one room that she thought was the
 classroom where all Black males were sent. She found out later it
 was the special education room. This remark stopped the
 conversations cold. From that experience, I immediately began a
 search of the literature for determining biases within special
 education testing. I included this information thereafter in every
 course I taught.

Another participant, along these same lines, remarked:
 I remember visiting a middle school in USD 259 with a very diverse
 population of students. When we passed the classroom where students
 with gifts and talents were in attendance, diversity in that class
 was clearly missing. The population of students did not match the
 population in other classes.

Others talked of professional experiences prior to coming to a position at an IHE:
 Having loved teaching in Detroit, I asked to teach in a low-income
 school where about 25% of the students were minority, both Black and
 Native American. I then took a position as a teacher corps team
 leader in a minority-teaching grant. We had 6 team leaders (I was
 the minority white person) and 40 interns (4 white). My real
 enculturation began here. I studied minority students. I worked with
 minority peers and candidates. I worked in minority schools. I
 attended and taught minority studies workshops. I would go to a
 restaurant with one of the Black team leaders whose husband was a
 vice chancellor at KU. Never did they approach her to ask her to
 follow them to be seated, they always approached me. Never did they
 ask her first what she wanted to eat, they always asked me first.
 Politely with a grin I would say 'please ask her first.' I attended
 dinners, ate things I had never eaten (chitlins and greens are not
 my favorite, but with Tobasco, I went back for seconds).

Some participants talked of personal experiences within community events that impacted a change in attitudes:
 I remember a time when I went to a Cinco de Mayo celebration held
 within a Hispanic community. I couldn't wait to eat some of the
 food being served out of individual booths. I had my three small
 children with me, in order for them to experience a cultural
 celebration different from their own. We appeared to be one of very
 few White faces in the crowd. We were enjoying the music when we
 decided we were hungry. I finally found the booth that served
 authentic tamales--my favorite. We waited quite a while in line,
 finally making our way to the front of the line. I turned in our
 order for tamales only to be told they were all out of food--so
 sorry. I was so disappointed, but thanked them and turned to leave.
 While walking away, I turned to encourage one of my children to
 hurry and catch up, only to see that the individuals in line after
 us (Hispanic heritage) were being served the food. My first reaction
 was of extreme anger--how could they have done this--it was
 discrimination. Then, within seconds, I thought--oh, I get it; now
 I can begin to understand the angry feelings of many of them in
 similar situations. From that moment, my attitude changed.

Other categories included how participants sought out knowledge from reading relevant literature, from choosing specific sessions on diversity at professional conferences, and from professional organizations.
 Your question is a good one but also a difficult one to answer. I
 started integrating issues of diversity into my teaching and
 research quite a few years ago. I'm hoping I remember correctly!
 I suppose the "triggers" were two. First, ASHA has been promoting
 the importance of cultural and linguistic diversity (CLD) for quite
 a few years. A person in higher ed would be hard pressed not to
 know of the importance of infusing the curriculum with diversity or
 being aware of having a diverse population when studying specific
 aspect of language and literacy research. Second, just being in
 child/adolescent language and literacy, it is difficult not to
 understand the effect that CLD has on language and literacy
 acquisition. As far as how my teaching and research has changed,
 I guess there are two more answers. First, I integrate literature
 and lecture much more on the effects of CLD on language and literacy
 development. Second, I try to ensure I have a range of CLD in the
 participants in my studies.

From the 17 participants, 10 made sure that the researcher understood first that they have been influenced in areas of diversity beyond that of race/ethnicity only.
 In both Masters programs, we have teachers from large school
 districts (urban) and people from small school districts (suburban
 and rural). This has made me reexamine the various strategies that
 I present in methods classes as most of my teaching experience is in
 urban settings. I seek examples of major topics from students in
 suburban and rural settings to add to the course content--so
 application is more easily pictured by students.

This same respondent provided additional information for this category by stating "Poverty is another diversity issue with the teachers in my classes and how they can 'deal' with it so that students learn." One participant who is Australian provided the following:
 More recent and more subtle influences on my current behavior and
 attitude have resulted from my own experience as "not so much a
 stranger in a foreign land." The fact that I look like many of my
 colleagues in this institution has de-emphasized that my heritage
 and background experience are different. In this culture there seems
 to be an unspoken belief that race or ethnicity doesn't really count
 unless one's skin is a dramatically different color or unless one
 belongs to one of a small number of officially recognized
 minorities. Reflection on the situations that result from this
 disparity is instructive personally and professionally.

A few participants talked of gaining additional knowledge and skills from grant projects in which they were involved:
 When I think of the way my treatment of diversity issues has
 evolved in the past two years, three triggers come to mind. The
 first was the IMPACT Project. Though I have always included issues
 of special education in my elementary methods courses (science
 methods and integrated mathematics-science methods), my knowledge
 of those issues was largely based in experience as a classroom
 teacher, and my formal knowledge was somewhat superficial. The
 IMPACT Project helped to deepen my knowledge and consider some new
 possibilities. The way that this new knowledge was enacted in my
 classroom was greatly influenced by the second trigger: team
 teaching for a semester with one of our special education faculty
 who also has expertise in mathematics. As a result of her modeling,
 I've become much more insistent that my students take their
 responsibilities seriously during field experiences. Finally, I've
 been increasingly influenced by the situations that I see as I
 supervise my students in their field experiences. Many of them are
 placed in schools and classrooms with significant numbers of
 children with limited English proficiency, and it has become
 abundantly clear that they must be prepared to reach this population
 as well. What we find, of course, is that many of the strategies
 that are most successful in reaching special needs populations are
 also very successful in meeting the needs of the general population.
 With thoughtful planning, the adjustments in instruction and
 assessment often turn out to be quite minor.

Reading and listening to what affected and changed participant's knowledge, skills and disabilities about issues of diversity, again, produced a rhizome effect. As more and more participants mentioned that it was their "lived experiences" (largest coded category) that impacted a change, additional questions began to emerge for future research efforts. For example, if this is true of faculty, would it, also, be true of our current candidates. Do preservice and graduate level professional programs need to make sure that candidates have increased and more diverse experiences within their programs? Do programs need to rethink what those experiences consist of, rather than just assuming that placements in diverse schools alone will meet requirements and produce educators with the required knowledge, skills and dispositions?

Syllabi Review. Syllabi from faculty participants were examined between the academic years of 2001 through 2004. Specific content was searched for information about multicultural diversity within the course title, course description, major topics, candidate/student outcomes, and assessments. One immediate, notable difference was that syllabi for the years of 2001, 2002, and 2003 had various formats of preparation by the faculty members teaching the courses. By 2004, however, all faculty members used a common template that aligned the major topics and candidate learning outcomes with the College of Education's (COE) Conceptual Framework (which includes the guiding principle of human development and diversity), the NCATE standard on diversity (NCATE, 2002), and state standards (which for some included standards with indicators requiring content of multicultural diversity). Additionally, syllabi were all noted to increase the content for multicultural diversity between the years reviewed. Examples of changes in selected syllabi (three of the 17 faculty participants, representing courses at the early childhood, elementary and secondary levels) regarding inclusion of content about multicultural diversity across the years of 2001 through 2004 are found in Appendix B.

Knowing that the university underwent NCATE accreditation review in the fall of 2004, the use of a common syllabus template that aligned content with the COE Conceptual Framework and the standards became a trigger for change for all faculty members in the teacher education programs. Additionally, as faculty prepared for the NCATE review during the fall of 2004, the diversity standard (NCATE, 2002) became a topic of discussion that contributed to faculty focusing on how their syllabi reflected what was taught in the course (faculty participant emails and interviews).

Perceived Needs for Continued Professional Development. As a final, culminating act of this research, faculty participants were provided with both an email and follow-up survey request (handed out at a faculty meeting) asking what they perceived as further professional development needs in the area of multicultural diversity. Faculty responses (n=12) were analyzed for distinct categories. The needs included: (a) need for additional resource support such as attending trainings at conferences and/or workshops on diversity/multicultural education, and additional videos or other materials that could be viewed in courses regarding issues of multicultural diversity; (b) additional training on recruiting and retaining of candidates/students who are from diverse backgrounds, (c) additional training on how to work with candidates/students who are from diverse backgrounds in order to provide the support needed to be successful in their programs, and (d) additional training on the culture of poverty to make sure this diversity is included in our courses and field experiences.

Research Limitations

This information is intended as only a beginning to understanding how faculty members within IHEs gain their own knowledge, skills and dispositions regarding multicultural/diversity. The participants were limited in numbers and to only one university teacher education program. Additionally, faculty were not observed regarding whether or not what was said in their emails or interviews or what was reflected in their course syllabi was actually taught/included within their courses/practice. Therefore, there are limitations to this current study. In order to fully understand the issues, the what, when, why, and how of ways faculty gain the information embedded in their programs, and how it "triggers" change in their practices, additional research needs to be conducted.


The field of education is uniquely poised to make real differences for our future. Through quality educational programs, students will learn to live and work together in an increasingly diverse global society. By providing strong adult models, including teachers and other educators, that mirror the children's and youth's culture, by sharing dispositions that all children belong and are valued members of our society, and by meeting individual needs at higher levels, all of our futures will be brighter.

First steps toward meeting this goal is to increase not only the knowledge, skills, and dispositions of teacher candidates/students, but to, also, increase it for the faculty who train them. Inquiring about the current strengths and needs of faculty regarding multicultural education can be a beginning. Providing resources, whether sending faculty to conferences/workshops or conducting in-house training, can be an asset. Existing literature can be obtained for faculty that provides strategies for multicultural education of teachers (e.g., Smith, 1998; Vavrus, 2002).

Secondly, in order to meet the diverse needs of students and their families within our school systems, greater effort must be placed in recruiting and retaining diverse teacher candidates and the faculty who teach them. Research has been conducted regarding effective strategies for recruitment of diverse teacher candidates and faculty (Patton, Williams, Floyd, & Cobb, 2003), yet much remains to be done in order to catch up with our increasingly diverse society.

Bowers and Apffel-Marglin (2005) suggest that teachers (both faculty at institutions of higher education and within public school systems) should be provided "with an in-depth understanding of these aspects of culture, with an emphasis on differences between modern and traditional cultures" (p. 174). Additionally, they suggest that issues regarding various cultures should be taught to students in other college/university departments and not just those housed in teacher education programs, yet this is not usually the case. If professors in other departments included "tradition, technology and other topics" (p. 175) indigenous in diverse cultures within their courses, this could assist in raising awareness across society, including school-based systems, without it always falling just to the shoulders of teachers.

Even though teacher preparation programs at IHE may not be where education on diversity begins, or where it should begin, for candidates/ future educators, but it can certainly affect changes thereafter. Teacher education programs can make diversity the core of its pedagogy, content knowledge, field/community experiences, and assessments so that future educators can better meet the diverse needs of students within their classrooms/programs. Faculty can, also, connect and collaborate with other departments across campus to assist in embedding diversity content into other courses. Assessing candidate knowledge, skills and dispositions regarding diversity can provide valuable information for individual and/or program improvement. In order to begin this process, however, efforts must be placed on educating the trainers of these future teachers.

This study gives only a beginning insight into what triggers faculty at institutions of higher education to fit diversity into their practices, whether teaching, research or service. It cannot be assumed that all faculty, whether long-term veterans or newly hired doctoral program graduates, have extensive preparation in the area of diversity, or that what is embedded in their practice comes only through their formal training. Ongoing recruitment and retention of a diverse faculty, professional develop and personal experiences in the area of multicultural diversity, in its broadest sense (e.g., beyond race and inclusive of the culture of poverty), through a variety of venues, and additional resources must be provided in order for real change to occur.
Appendix A
Trigger Data

Category/Code Changes Suggested Number
for Triggers Due to Triggers1 of Respondents
 Who Mentioned
 This Trigger

Professional * Used as guides to embed 4
Bodies Who Set into courses/syllabi
Guidelines * Used as guides to better 3
(NCATE, document what is currently
ASHA, CEC) done regarding diversity
 within courses

 * Used as knowledge-base 4
 for many areas of

 Total Respondents
 to this Trigger
 Code = 4/17

Lived * Increased/changed 14
Experiences dispositions regarding
(Childhood biases, inequities in self
experiences 2/10;
As teachers in * Used in class lecture 6
programs 5/10;
Via students * Use in class discussions 12
comments or
behaviors in * Used in research, as 3
courses/class 6/10; examples
In a leadership
role 1/10; * Used to guide interactions 2
Observations with students
within educational
settings during * Prompted additional 4
students supervised learning (read books, took
visits 5/10) classes, attended

 Total Respondents
 to this Trigger
 Code = 14/17

Research/Literature * Used information, 5/17
(Seek out written embed in areas of
forms of knowledge) teaching and research

Specific Projects * Increased information 1
(IMPACT grant, for class lecture
SpEd focus),
MC/D grant * Changed dispositions (to 1
(inclusive become more inclusive)
diversity focus)
 * No response to change 1

 Total Respondents
 to this Trigger
 Code = 3/17

Individuals Who * Changed dispositions 4
Have Influenced
or Inspired * Use information in course 3
(Interactions and work
relationships Total Respondents
developed between to this Trigger
faculty and another Code = 4/17
who had a different
cultural background)

Beyond "Color" * Faculty who described 10/17
as a Definition triggers beyond just as
 described by race/color
 (including exceptionality,
 SES level, geographic
 location, gender,
 international views, sexual

Lack of valid and * Seeking additional 1/17
reliable assessment knowledge/skills on how to
instruments modify assessments so they
 are appropriate (not biased)
 for students with special

Threat of legal * No change mentioned 1/17
action or grievance
being filed

Watching Videos * No change mentioned 1/17

Attended * Included information in 1
Conferences courses

 * No change mentioned 1

 Total Respondents
 to this Trigger
 Code = 2/17

Appendix B
Syllabi and Multicultural Content Changes over Time for Three Courses

Course--Instructional Strategies

Preschool Education

2001 2002 2003 2004

MC/D Content: MC/D Content: MC/D Content: MC/D Content:
Major Topics: Major Topics: Major Topics: [Aligned with COE
(only place Same as 2001, Same as 2001 Conceptual
that included plus added in and 2002 Framework: Human
diversity): special Development and
 education Diversity; NCATE
 Standard 4; and
"DAP Assessments: Assessments: State Licensure
Curriculum- Comprehensive Multicultural Standards.]
multicultural" Written Unit - Story Outline
 added in to and Lesson Major Topics:
"Integrated remember the Plan (choose remained the same as
Curriculum- different ages, a book from 2003
socially stages, another
understanding families, and culture than Assessment:
self and cultures of the your own and Same as 2003
others" children. make an
 outline that Outcomes:
 can be tied Added included:
 into a lesson "Incorporate
 plan) concepts and
 materials from many
 Graduate cultures in planning
 Project was learning
 added to environments for
 create a DAP young children;" and
 activity "Demonstrate respect
 related to for differences in
 multicultural family values and
 lesson plan describe strategies
 for working in
 partnership with
 families to
 encourage young

Course--Instructional Strategies in Math and Science

Elementary School

2001 2002 2003 2004

MC/D Content: MC/D Content: MC/D Content: MC/D Content:
 [Aligned with COE
Major Topics: Same as 2001 Same as 2002, Conceptual
"Teaching except added: Framework: Human
mathematics Textbooks- Development and
and science to Readings Guided Diversity; NCATE
ALL students - included the Inquiry Standard 4; and
diversity" National Math Section - "4. State Licensure
 and Science How will Standards.]
Student Standards, multiple
Outcomes: which calls diverse Same as 2003, plus
"Plan, teach & for issues of perspectives added in
display a diversity enhance the Assessments: Added
knowledge of teaching of in Teacher Work
diversity mathematics Sample, which
issues" and science includes
 in your requirements of
 classroom?" identifying special
 cultures within the
 school placement and
 how individual
 needs, based on
 culture, would be
Course--Instructional Strategies


2001 2002 2003 2004

MC/D Content: MC/D Content: MC/D Content: MC/D Content:
 [Aligned with COE
Major Topics: Same as 2001 Major Topics: Conceptual
"Gender and "No child Framework: Human
ethnic equity left behind, Development and
issues in meeting needs Diversity; NCATE
science" of all Standard 4; and
 students" State Licensure
Outcomes: "Gender and Standards.]
"Demonstrate ethnicity
an awareness equity issues Major Topics and
of and a way in science" Outcomes were the
of addressing same, except added
gender equity Outcomes: to Outcomes and
while teaching "Identify linked to COE
science." strategies Conceptual
 for reaching Framework:"The
 every student teacher understands
 in the the abilities and
 classroom. developmental
 Describe the readiness of
 students students to learn
 and the science content and
 strategies skills" and "The
 which meet teacher understands
 their needs." the psychological
 "Demonstrate and social
 an awareness environment
 of and a way conducive to the
 of addressing students'
 gender equity intellectual,
 while social, and personal
 teaching growth in science
 science" education"


Bowers, C. A., & Apffel-Marglin, F. (2005). Rethinking Freire: Globalization and the environmental crisis. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Campbell-Whatley, G. D. (2003). Recruiting and retaining of culturally and linguistically diverse groups iin special education: Defining the problem. Teacher Education and Special Education, 26(4), 255-263.

Dieker, L., Voltz, D., & Epanchin, B. (2002). Report of the wingspread conference: Preparing teachers to work with diverse learners. Teacher Education and Special Education, 25(1), 1-10.

Fenwick, L. T. (2001). Patterns of excellence: Policy perspectives in diversity in teaching and school leadership. Atlanta, GA: Southern Education Foundation.

Gibson, S. L., & Follo, E. J. (1998). The status of multicultural education in Michigan. Multicultural Education, 6(2), 17-22.

Hidalgo, F., Chavez-Chavez, R., & Ramage, J. C. (2002). Multicultural education landscape for reform in the twenty-first century. Retrieved September 9, 2004, from 8_MULTICULTURAL %EDUCATION.htm/.

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Miller, M., Strosnider, R., & Dooley, E. (2000). States' requirements for teachers' preparation for diversity. Multicultural Education, 8(2), 15-18.

National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (2002). Professional standards for the accreditation of schools, colleges, and departments of education. Washington, DC: Author.

Patton, J. M., Williams, B. R., Floyd, L. O., & Cobb, T. R. (2003). Recruiting and retaining culturally and linguistically diverse teachers in special education: Models for successful personnel preparation. Teacher Education and Special Education, 26(4), 288-303.

Smith, G. P. (1998). Common sense about uncommon knowledge: The knowledge bases for diversity. Washington, DC: American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education Publications.

Vavrus, M. (2002). Transforming the multicultural education of teachers: Theory, research, and practice. New York: Teachers College Press.

Linda Mitchell

Wichita State University


(1) This paper was presented at the 2nd National Conference on Assessment of Multicultural/Diversity Outcomes, April 3, 2004, Kansas City, Missouri.

(2) Note that not all participants provided how their triggers changed their practice.
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Author:Mitchell, Linda
Publication:Journal of Thought
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Sep 22, 2005
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