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Impact of the nomadic grazing on medicinal plants diversity in Miandam, Swat-Pakistan.

Introduction

The mountainous area of the study is covered by moist temperate coniferous forest, which is highly associated with the life support system of the local inhabitants. Escalation of biotic pressure on natural resources has made the fragile Himalayan ecosystem vulnerable to a variety of ecological maladies. The degradation of the region as a result of the transformation of nomadic pastoralism to nuclear transhumance (migration by only one or two people per family) (VeldKamp and Fresco,1996 and Sarah et al 2010) has increased the resource extraction process. This region has been regarded as a natural reservoir for the collection of a variety of wild medicinal plants (Sher and Hussain,2009) which are supporting the livelihood of many people in the study area.

Grazing in the grasslands has played a key role in changing the botanical composition, which, however, varies with the type of grass cover, its palatability etc. Overgrazing represent the most obvious impact on the native biodiversity of grasslands. As overgrazing causes retrogression, stimulates growth of weeds and loss of diversity. In Assam overgrazing reduces the tall grass cover to tufted grass type to Chrysopogon aciculatus and Imperata cyclindrica (Olsen and Larsen, 2003). Livestock impact on biodiversity through trampling and removal of biomass, alteration of species composition through selective consumption and changed inter-plant competition. Changes in grazing intensity and selectivity will inevitably change biodiversity; under grazing and overgrazing can both have negative effects, but overgrazing by livestock is increasingly problematic Khan (1994). Over-grazing has resulted in land erosion, formation of boggy areas and reduction in plant diversity. The area of natural pasture land has declined from 1.4 million ha in 1940 to 808,000 ha today, and remaining areas have been degraded and have become dominated by rocks (87%), scrub (25%), and inedible (74%) or poisonous plants (47%), while diversity has declined. For example, while between 70 and 80 plant species are normally supported by steppe systems, the number of species found after intensive over-grazing drops to around 15 (Sher et al, 2004).

Grazing animal may exert beneficial or mutual influences on the vegetations for their own good but on the other hand, large concentration of them often have harmful effects on the plants because of selectivity and over grazing. Quantifying the impact of livestock grazing on natural communities (forages) has become a major issue in the management of rangelands especially where the grazing is very widespread and its impacts may be in conflict with conserving biodiversity (Olsen and Larsen, 2003;Sher et al, 2005 & 2010; Muhammad and Shonil, 2010). Lamprey (1979) and Adnan and Dirk (2010) documented that grazing is among the important agents, which influence the distribution of some vegetation types. In most rangeland ecosystems, grazing, browsing and other factors such as fire and climate contribute to vegetation change. Grazing animals influence species composition, change in biomass and distribution of biodiversity. Similarly, Pratt and Gwynne, (1997) and Sher and Hussain, (2009) observed that overgrazing reduces the ground cover vegetation, plant diversity and productivity. Furthermore, the impact of grazing on rangeland vegetation depends on three factors: (a) the type of herbivores (grazers and browsers) (b) Number and type of animals utilizing an area (c) Distribution of use in time and space.

Gathering and processing of medicinal plants for family use in human and livestock treatment is centuries old practice, and have been used virtually in all cultures. Collection and sale of medicinal plants have long been an important economic activity in the Northern parts of Pakistan including the study area. Overshadowed by the vast impact that habitat loss has on plant species survival, it tends to overlook the fact that over-grazing of species can often result in their genetic depletion and in an often-rapid downward trend of their populations. They are being collected for domestic use and also for marketing, where feasible, however, the present overgrazing coupled with the factors of improper harvesting practices are leading to the decreasing population size of many valuable species of medicinal plants, and they have become rare and sparse in many areas of their occurrence. The study area provides vast biological resources for humans and their livestock. The mountainous area endowed by the environmental and topographical conditions offers limited areas for agricultural activities in the narrow fissures of the lowland valleys. The long term use of the mountains has resulted in a montane cultural landscape where the present pattern of resource utilization and habitats and their content of configuration reflect human impacts at different levels. The exploitation of biological resources from remote areas by either moving most livestock from permanent settlements or by nomads and fodder collection has made it necessary to assess the critical areas affecting resources. The present study was, therefore, conducted to assess the impact of nomadic grazing on medicinal plant species in a systematic manner .

Secondly, to know the difference between vegetation cover, plant diversity and regeneration status under grazing and controlled grazing lands. The concluded results will be a good tool for an extension worker to provide awareness to the forest owners about economic importance of their Pastures and adverse effect of nomadic grazing on it.

Methodology:

Study Area:

Miandam Valley is located in the north east of district Swat, lies between 34[degrees] 34 to 35[degrees] - 07 N latitudes and 72 [degrees]-36 to 73 [degrees]-35 E longitudes in the Hindu Kush mountain range. The area is a summer resort about 56 km from Saidu Sharif, the capital of Swat (Fig-2). The elevation of the valley ranges from 1200 m to 3660 m. The valley comprises of 11 big villages and 15 small hamlets with a population of about 20,000(Census Report, 2000). The economy of the inhabitants is mostly agro-pastoral. People usually keep goats, sheep, cows and horses/donkeys. Both agricultural and livestock economy are at the subsistence level except for some dry fruits, which are marketed both at local and national levels. The diversity of climate and geophysical features for plants growth signify the phyto-geographic diversity. Phyto-geographically, the district is represented with Sino-Japanese, Irano-Turanian and Euro-Siberian floristic elements. Rough and rugged terrain and extreme climatic conditions in the Montane Ecosystem have developed certain fragile habitats, which are exposed to rapid degradation due to ever increasing biotic pressure. The forest of the Miandam valley is a fundamental and potentially sustainable source of many services including economically important medicinal plants. Miandam is also facing the problem of overgrazing and deforestation. The basic reason of deforestation is commercial harvesting. In 2007, 2.6 million cft timber has been extracted from the forest while the illegal and unrecorded extraction is much more.

Previously people of the valley were relying on herbal remedies as a principal means of preventing and curing illnesses. Beside this collection of medicinal plants from the forest area provides employment and fetches earnings to the poor local people. It has been estimated that almost 3000 people are earning 25% of their total income from the collection and sale of the plants. However, these resources, and local knowledge of these, are being threatened by nomadic grazers. Each year nomads carry more than 40,000 goats to the high altitude of pastures passing and browsing through the young forest crop and shrubs throughout. As per the existing traditions, they have to pay a tax (sum of US $ 85 to 120 per year) to the owners, called "Qalang" for their stay in the pastures. During their stay for 3 to 4 months (i.e May to August) in a year, in addition to grazing their animals, each nomad collect enormous amount of medicinal plants worth of US $ 450, but the owners of the pastures are not aware of such losses. Since 2000, some of the forest owners put a ban on the nomadic grazers on their land. It has been observed that the area where the nomadic grazing has stopped, showing better vegetation cover, improvement in medicinal plants diversity and good regeneration of pine species(Sher et al 2005).

Ecological Survey:

The study was conducted in two sites of natural coniferous forest of Miandam Valley district Swat. One site of the study is protected by the locals from nomadic grazing, while, the second one is open to free grazing. For comparative assessment the data were collected from both sites by using quadrat method of vegetation analysis. Before data collection, a reconnaissance survey was conducted to make sure that all other factors like Aspect, Altitude and Slope remain constant in both the sites; the only variable is grazing pressure. Sample plots (quadrats)were taken randomly from bottom to top in a transect walk in four direction in each site. In this way the whole site was sampled and covered. After every 200 meters sampling was done. The density, frequency, availability and vegetation structure of protected and unprotected sites was recorded in 40 quadrats, each of 5x5m following the method of Hussain (1989) Sher et al (2005).

The data collected in the field for all parameter was analyzed and evaluated by using the parameters like standard deviation and co-relation variance for checking the data accuracy and validity.

The number of plants of each species, average phenological stage of the plants, general habitat, altitude and aspect of the plot were recorded on a Proforrma. The altitude, slope and aspect of each sites were measured by using GPS. This was decided well before starting the counting of plants, and practiced throughout, that all those individual plants whose roots were inside or beneath the quadrat line, irrespective of the place of their shoots, were counted. Similarly, in certain species with rhizomes and bunches, forming compact inseparable clusters having difficulty in defining a single individual, the entire bunch or patch was counted as one individual. Voucher specimens were collected of all species and identification was done with the help of available flora (Nasir and Ali 1971-1995). The nomenclature was later on confirmed from National herbarium and the collected voucher specimens were lodged over there.

Information on the market value of the plants was collected from local collectors, hakims and shopkeepers through interview and discussion. A simple procedure was adopted as to how, from whom, and to whom the plants were sold. Respondents were also asked about their annual revenues earned from the sale of the plants.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Topography of the Area:

The results revealed that the topography of both sites i.e. protected and unprotected from grazing, is rugged with slopes very steep to precipitous, between 60 to 80 %. Both sites occupy predominantly the northern aspect of the main mountain ridge running in north-east direction. The altitude varies between 1,850 to 2200 m in both the sites. All the three main factors including aspect, slope and altitude that influence the vegetation pattern in an area are (more or less) the same. It could be infer that any change in the vegetation density/diversity will be the impact of different grazing pressure in both the sites.

Medicinal Plants Diversity:

The study revealed that 37 and 23 medicinal plants species were found in the protected and unprotected site respectively, during the month of April, 2007. In August, 2007 after the monsoon, 33 MP's species were found in unprotected site, while 78 species were recorded from the site that has been banned for nomadic grazing since 2000. Table-1 and also the Figure-1 showing name of species, recorded from both the sites.

[GRAPHIC OMITTED]

Economically Important species:

The study reported (Table-1) total 78 species of medicinal value from protected site of the investigated area. These are used for the treatment of various health problems in traditional system of medicines. Out of 78 species, 10 medicinal plants viz: Bistorta ampilexicaulis, Morchella esculenta, Valeriana wallichii, Adiantum venustum, Viola biflora, Bergenia ciliata, Geranium wallichianum, Berberis lycium, Podophyllum emodi, and Paeonia emodi have high economic and pharmaceutical value and are collected in large amount for sale (Table-2). The present study observed that the pharmaceutical industries need those herbs in an high quantity. The prices of each species vary from year to year and also depend on demand and supply. Greater demand of herbal industries for those species has threatened their occurrence and abundance. Out of the 10 plant species, four were declared as endangered in Pakistan, (Red Data Book of IUCN threatened species 1998).

Density and Frequency of the Target species:

Density, which is the number of plants of particular specie per unit area, is essential to determine the population density. Hence total number of plants of individual specie in the quadrat was counted and extrapolation for the area of the site was applied. The study revealed that the average population density of the target species decreases upto 90% due to nomadic grazing, while two species, Paeonia emodi and Podophyllum emodi were completely vanished due to overgrazing. Table-3 shows density (Number of plants/ha) of the target species in both sites.

Frequency is the occurrence and distribution of a particular plant in a particular site. A plant may have high density with low frequency when the plants generally occur in patches. This will indicate non uniform distribution on the site and any indiscriminate harvest can endanger the species on the site. The plant will also be vulnerable to the local adverse biotic and ecological collapses. Frequency of all the target species from grazed and no grazed land is given in Table-3.

Comparing the plants frequency of both, protected and unprotected sites shows that there is a clear relation between frequency and overgrazing. The study revealed that the sites banned for nomadic grazing showing uniform distribution of all the target species on the site. On the other hand in unprotected site, frequency occurrence of some of target species was restricted to the steep slops only. Maximum decrease in frequency was recorder in Valeriana wallichii followed by Viola biflora while Paeonia emodi and Podophyllum emodi were completely disappeared from the overgrazed site. The adverse impacts of overgrazing are severe more in terms of frequency than on density. Some plants may have low density with high frequency where the plants will have uniform distribution in a particular site. The harvest of such plants could be safe because of its occurrence throughout the site and the plant will not be threatened if some limits of harvest are imposed. Form the above one can infer that the impact of overgrazing on Valeriana wallichii is more severe as compare to Bistorta ampilexicaulis.

The tabulated value of 't' for 8 degree of freedom (df) is 2.306 at significance level 0.05 while the calculated value of 't' is 6337.3, which are much more than 2.306. Therefore null hypothesis of no difference is rejected. We infer that the density of target species in both the sites is differing significantly from one another.

Discussion:

The natural vegetation in general and medicinal plants of the study area in particular is under heavy biotic pressure in the form of overgrazing, illicit cutting, and conversion of forest land into agricultural land.

Although, plants have vital role in improving the livelihood of mountainous dwellers, yet they are not properly managed. Vesk and Westoby (2000) and Sher et al (2010).reported that the number of endangered species is increasing due to environmental degradation and over grazing. The present study also revealed that the pattern of distribution and availability of economically valuable MAP species and other economically important forest resources were found to be quite variable according to differences in grazing and conifeous forest stand. For instance the population size of some medicinal plants (especially Morchella esculenta, Viola biflora, Paeonia emodi,Podophyllum hexandrum, Valeriana wallichii, and Berberis lyceum etc.) in unprotected site was highly threatened due to rapid destruction of habitat by grazing coupled with unsustainable harvesting.Similar results were also reported by Sher et al (2005); Muhammad and Shonil (2010).who stated that protection from grazing and over-harvesting for two to three years increase medicinal plant diversity in alpine pasture and meadows.The results of the present study were very promising in protected site and the density,frequency and availability of Morchella esculenta, Viola biflora, Paeonia emodi,Podophyllum hexandrum, Valeriana wallichii, and Berberis lyceum etc were in increasing by protection from grazing.The results also indicate that these species occur in large quantities in the reserved/protected site of the study. Similar results were also reported by Hegland et al(2001) and Sher et al (2005)who reported that protection might help in the revival oforiginal vegetation and recovery of natural habitats where degradation resulted due to heavy grazing and other biotic pressure.The results of the present study also revealed that in unprotected site some medicinal plants like Morchella esculenta, Viola biflora, Paeonia emodi,Podophyllum hexandrum, Valeriana wallichii, and Berberis lyceum etc were declining. As a results these species along with other biodiversity components have been occurred rar in the site. The present findings are in line with the study of Hurska (1991) who documented that some components of the biodiversity are threatened and becoming extinct by over use and habitat destruction in many parts of developing world.

It is generally believed that the relationship exists between the growth of plants and the impact of grazing. The regeneration response of most medicinal plant species to over grazing is poor (Oba et al,2001). Although most of the medicinal plants are non-palatable species, but under certain conditions even their mature plants are grazed and browsed. The species do not reach to the maturity to complete their life cycle. Similar results were also reported by Vesk and Westoby (2000) and Sher et al (2005 & 2010) They observed that overgrazing is a dove tail to the degradation of existing vegetation and reduces the spread of species not only through direct consumption but also through materially altering their habitats. However, a detailed study is required to establish such relationship in different sites of the different intensities of grazing and impact on various plant species. The indirect effects of overgrazing include soil compaction, mechanical injuries to seedling and soil organism. These practices increase the susceptibility of the soil to erosion and loss of soil fertility. The browsed part of the species is susceptible to fungus infestation. As a result most of the plants now appear rare in most of the grazing sites.

Most of the species especially targeted plants reported here have multiple uses. These were invariably used for curing various diseases and for earning livelihood. However, the target plants were severely grazed by the local livestock. This agree with the findings of Watkinson and Ormerod (2000) and Landsbery et al (2001); Adnan and Dirk (2010) who documented that overgrazing has caused the destruction, as green parts are being removed and damaged due to trampling. It, therefore, becomes important to manage the grazing system and encourage the regeneration of medicinal plants. This aspect must be correlated with phenological cycle. Plants or shoots that are grazed and collected for medicinal purposes are a threat to their regeneration. Similarly, a grazeable plant that is collected for roots, rhizome or bulb is threatened. The plants fail to develop flowers and seeds while under ground parts are destructively collected. This definitely reduces the chances of their regeneration.

During the survey, sapling of Pine trees was also counted in the quadrat while mother trees were calculated through full enumeration. It has been observed that overgrazing had negative impact on the natural regeneration of pine trees. Total number of plants recorded from protected site were 840 while those from unprotected were 66 saplings/ha. This could jointly be attributed to the presence of low number of mother trees, but this could not be regarded that much significant. The findings are in line with the study of Champion et al (1965) and Adnan et al (2006) they documented that 24 mature trees/ha is required to established good regeneration in the moist temperate zone, while during survey 27 mother trees/ha has been recorded from the unprotected site. From the above one can infer that the major contributing factor that signifies is the over grazing resulting in much reduced regeneration capability of the forest.

Conclusion:

Medicinal plants are the sustained source of income for improving the livelihood of rural poor especially in the northern parts of Pakistan and can be use as a tool for biodiversity conservation. Miandam is rich in floral diversity, particularly in medicinal plants. However, these precious resources are facing a tremendous danger due to the nomadic grazing thus threatening their occurrence and abundance in its natural habitat. Results of the study indicate that overgrazing represent the most obvious impact on the floral diversity. The areas which were opened to nomadic grazing shows a massive decline in their density, frequency and specie diversity. 33 species were only found in the unprotected site making a huge difference of 78 species in the site banned for nomadic grazing. The study suggests that areas protected for 2-3 years had an increase diversity of medicinal plants and their measured growth paramaters. The study, therefore, recommend rehabilitation and recovery practices of the present study in order to enhance restoring of vegetation/plant diversity in general and medicinal plants wealth in particular

[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]

Acknowledgements

We express our sincere thanks to Plant Life International for the financial support of the present study. Our special thanks also go to Dr.Alan Hamilton and Liz Radford of Plant Life International for technical support and advise. We greatly thank the local communities for their willingness to protect the site from nomadic grazing.

References

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Muhammad, S.K. and A.B.Shonil, 2010. Protected Areas: A Resource or Constraint for Local People, A Study at Chitral Gol National Park, North-West Frontier Province, Pakistan. Journal of Mountain Research and Development, 30(1): 14-24.

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Sher, H, Z.D. Khan. A.U. Khan. and F. Hussain, 2005. In-situ conservation of some selected medicinal plants of Upper Swat, Pakistan. Journal of Acta Botanica Yunnanica., 27: 27-36.

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Sher, H., F. Hussain and H. Sher, 2010. Ex-SITU MANAGEMENT STUDY OF SOME HIGH VALUE MEDICINAL PLANT SPECIES IN SWAT, PAKISTAN. Journal of Ethnobotany Research and Application., (8): 17-24.

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Corresponding Author: Hassan Sher, Department of Botany, College of Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Email: botany@gmail.com;hassansher_2000@yahoo.com

(1) Hassan Sher; (2) Ashiq Ahmad; (3) Mohammad Eleyemeni, (4) Syed Fazl-i-Hadi and (5) Hazrat Sher

(1,3) Department of Botany, College of Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; (2) WWF-Pakistan. (4) Admin Bloc. Peshawar University and (5) KUST Pakistan.
Table 1: List of medicinal plants reported from Protected and
unprotected sites.

Protected Site

S. No   Scientific Name

1       Acorus calamus
2       Aconitu, violaceum
3       Adiantum capillus-veneris L.
4       Adiantum venustum
5       Aesculus indica Coleb. Ex Wall.
6       Allium sativum
7       Ajuga bracteosa Benth.
8       Amaranthus viridis
9       Ariseama flavum (Foresk.) Schott
10      Ariseama jacquemontii Blume,
11      Ariseama scoparia Waldst. & Kit
12      Artimisia scoparia Wall.
13      Artimisia vulgaris L.
14      Asgparagus adsendens
15      Avena sativa
16      Berberis lycium Royce.
17      Bergenia ciliata (Haw.) Sternb.
18      Bistorta ampilexicaulis (D. Don) Greene
19      Bunium persicum
20      Caltha alba Jacquem.
21      Celtis australis
22      Caralluma edulis Benth. Ex Hook. f
23      Chenopodium album
24      Chamomilla recutita Rauschert.
25      Chenopodium botrys L.
26      Corydallis govantia Wall

Unprotected Site

S. No   Scientific Name

27      Cynodon dactylon
28      Cynoglossum lanceolatum
29      Dryupteris jaxtaposta christ.
30      Dospynos lotus
31      Flaegnus umbellate
32      Fagonia arabica Linn.
33      Ficus palmate
34      Fragaria vesica
35      Fumaria indica Pugsley
36      Geranium wallichianum D. Don
37      Hedera nepalensis K. Koch
38      Hypericium heterania
39      Hypericium perforantrum Linn.
40      Indegofera trifoliate
41      Isadon rugosus
42      Lanthyrus aphaca
4       Launea procumbens
44      Male fern
45      Mentha longifolia
46      Mentha spicata L.
47      Micromeria bilfora
48      Myrsine africana L
49      Nepta govantiana
50      Onosma hispidium
51      Otostagia limbata
52      Oxalis corniculata
53      Paeonia emodi Wall.
54      Plantago lanceolata L.
55      Piamago major
56      Podophyllum emodi Wall.
57      Podophyllum hexandrum Royle,
58      Primula denticulata Sm.
59      Rubia cordifolia Hochst. Ex A. Rich
60      Rumaz hastatus
61      Ricinus communis
62      Skimmia laureola Sieb. & Zucc. ex Walp.
63      Solanum nigrum L.
64      Stachyus parviflora Benth.
65      Salvia moorcorftiana
66      Swartia elata
67      Silene uugaris
68      Sonchus asper
69      Sambacus wightina
70      Taxus buccata
71      Taraxcicum oficinale weber
72      Trachysepermum ammi
73      Urtica diotica
74      Valeriana jatamansi Jones.
75      Valeriana wallichii DC.
76      Verbena offcinalis L.
77      Viola biflora L.
78      Viola serpens Wall.

S. No    Scientific Name

1       Acorus calamus
2       Adiantum venustum
3       Ajuga bradeosa Benth.
4       Arisaema jacquamontii Blume,
5       Ariimisia vsalgaris L.
6       Berberis tycium Royle.
7       Bergenia ciliata (Haw.) Sternb.
8       Bistorta ampilexicaulis (D. Don) Greene
9       Caltha alba Jacquem.
10      Cannabis sativa L
11      Chenopodium album
12      Corydalis govaniana Wall.
13      Cynodon dactylon
14      Cynoglossum tanceolatum
15      Fragana vasica
16      Geranium wallichianum D. Don,
17      Hedera nepalensis K- Koch,
18      Hypencum heterantha
19      Indegofera trifoliate
20      Isodon rugosus
21      Male fern
22      Mentha spicata L.

Table 2: Medicinal Plants of Miandam Valley Prices Quantities
harvested

Botanical Name                   Part Used

Bistorta ampilexicaulis    Rhizomes
Morcirella esculenta       Fruiting Bodies
Valerrana wallichii        Rhizomes
Adianium vernrstum         Leaves
Viola biora                Leaves & Flowers
Bergenia ciliate           Rhizomes
Cerarnon wallichianum      Rhizomes
Berberis lyceum            Rhizomes
Padophyllum emodi          Rhizome
Paonia emodi

Botanical Name             Prices (Rs/kg) for
                           Collector    Retailer      Customer

Bistorta ampilexicaulis    10           12           15
Morcirella esculenta       7,000        10,000       14,000
Valerrana wallichii        60           100          130
Adianium vernrstum         16           20           30
Viola biora                180          280          450
Bergenia ciliate           10           20           30
Cerarnon wallichianum      40           60           100
Berberis lyceum            80           150          300
Padophyllum emodi          75           100          170
Paonia emodi               10           18           30

Botanical Name             Qty Extracted (kg/yr)

Bistorta ampilexicaulis    15,000
Morcirella esculenta       300
Valerrana wallichii        20,000
Adianium vernrstum         12,000
Viola biora                10,000
Bergenia ciliate           1,000
Cerarnon wallichianum      1,000
Berberis lyceum            100
Padophyllum emodi          l00
Paonia emodi               0

Source: Local and national Medicinal Plants Dealers; Export
Promotion Office Swat, Pakistan.

Table 3: Density of the Target species in both sites

Species                   Density (#/ha)                    Reduce in
                                                             % age
                          Protected        Unprotected

Bistona ampilexicavlis    53200            3900             92
Momhella esculenta        145              0                Not Found
Valeriana wallichii       2900             533              81
Adiantum venustum         37200            800              79
Viola biflora             13560            1100             91
Bergenia ciliata          240              133              45
Geranium wallichianum     12340            800              93
Berheris lycium           1000             300              70
Paeonia emodi Wall        920              0                Not Found
Podophyllum emodi Wall.   320              0                Not Found

Species                   Frequency
                          in %
                          Protected    Unprotected

Bistona ampilexicavlis    100          75
Momhella esculenta        10           0
Valeriana wallichii       70           30
Adiantum venustum         90           40
Viola biflora             100          50
Bergenia ciliata          20           10
Geranium wallichianum     80           40
Berheris lycium           50           40
Paeonia emodi Wall        50           0
Podophyllum emodi Wall.   30           0

Test the hypothesis that there is no statistically significant
difference in the population density of the target species in both the
sites.

X1 (A) Density    X2 (B) Density    d = (A- B)        [d.sup.2]
in protected      in Unprotected
site              site

53200             3900              49300             2.43E+09

2900              533               2367              5602689

37200             800               36400             1.32E+09

13560             1100              12460             1.55E+08

240               133               107               11449

12340             800               11540             1.33E+08

1000              300               700               490000

920               0                 920               846400

320               0                 320               102400

Total                               [summation]d =    [summation]
                                    114114            [d.sup.2] =
                                                      4.05E+09

N = 9

D = [summation] d/N=114114/9=1267.3

[S.sup.2] = {[summation][d.sup.2] - ([[summation]d).sup.2] / N}/ N -1
=1/8 (4.05E+09 - [(114114).sup.2] 9} = 3.26E+08

S = 19026

t = (D -O) / S/ [square root of N]= 6337.3
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Title Annotation:Original Articles
Author:Sher, Hassan; Ahmad, Ashiq; Eleyemeni, Mohammad; Fazl-i-Hadi, Syed; Sher, Hazrat
Publication:American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9PAKI
Date:May 1, 2010
Words:5029
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