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Impact of silver thiosulfate and sucrose solution on the vase life of rose cut flower Cv. Cardinal.

Introduction

Rose belongs to family Rosaceae and Genus Rosa which contains more than150 species and 1400 cultivars [12]. Flowers are considered to be silent entertainers. Rose holds superiority over all other flowers as it is being extensively used for decorative purposes and is highly prized for its delicate nature, beauty, charm and aroma. In interior decoration, cut rose flowers play an important role and add charm to different occasions such as marriage ceremonies, as a symbol of sympathy, arrival and departure of dignitaries, gift on birthdays, Valentine's Day etc. They are recognized highly valuable for economical benefits being the best source of raw material to be used in agro-based industry especially in the cosmetics and perfumery. Additionally, roses play a vital role in the manufacturing of various medicinal products and also got nutritional importance [6]. Modern scientific research has proven the key role of cut flowers specially roses in horticulture therapy [20,18].

Successful production of cut flowers and prolonged post harvest stay require appropriate pre and post harvest handling and treatments. There are about 10-30% losses due to post harvest damage in cut flowers. Under ordinary conditions, visual quality and petal turger of rose flower can remain acceptable for only a few days. Since most of the people would like to enjoy their beauty and scenery for a longer period span of time, so keeping in view the socioeconomic value of roses and its popularity as a cut flower, there is a dire need to explore the possibilities of extending vase life by using different holding chemicals at various concentrations & combinations and packaging materials. [5].

Moisture is the utmost requirement for the cut flowers survival. The quality of water at which the blooms are held is also of prime important. Acidic water, (3.0-5.5 PH), check the growth of microorganisms, which clog plant stem. In addition, flowers take up acidic water quicker [17]. The use of preservative solution is now considered a common practice for the storage of floral stems. These preservatives help to control ethylene synthesis, pathogen development, maintenance of hydric and respiration balance, to contribute to color conservation and delay over all senescence of flowers [13,1]. In a study on vase life of roses, Kuiper et al., [19] concluded that sugar plays important roles as substrates for respiration and cell wall synthesis as in plants. Furthermore, treatment with silver thiosulphate (STS) in combination with sucrose is more effective in prolonging the vase life of many flowers such as carnation and roses as compared to STS or sucrose alone as holding solution. [23]. Longevity of many cut flowers is negatively influenced by the presence of ethylene, which induces a variety of physiological responses, including abscission and wilting of leaves, petals and sepals. Silver thiosulphate (STS) is known to suppress autocatalytic ethylene production by inhibition of ethylene action [7]. The cut flowers of different cultivars of rose show variation regarding vase life due to differences in genetic makeup. The use of sucrose with or without certain additive and also the use of some chemicals such as silver thiosulfate and silver nitrate could be of practical significance for prolonging the life of many cultivars of cut roses [5].

Thus a research study was planned in order to investigate the effect of various chemicals and their concentrations on vase life extension of rose cut flowers. The study aims to achieve objectives such exploring the impact of sucrose and silver thiosulfate on the vase life of rose cut flower, to find out the best individual concentration of the sucrose and silver thiosulfate for maximum vase life extension and to know the best combination of sucrose and silver thiosulfate to improve the post harvest life of rose cut flower.

Materials And Methods

The research project was conducted to study the vase life of cut rose flower Cv. Cardinal with sucrose and silver thiosulfate (STS) under room conditions (23[+ or -]1C) with normal day light and natural ventilation at the post harvest research laboratory, Department of Horticulture, Khyber Pukhtoonkhwa Agricultural University Peshawar, Pakistan during the year 2009. Cardinal cultivar is a popular cut flower bearing red color and medium size flower.

Cut roses at tight bud stages were picked and brought immediately to the post-harvest laboratory. Slanting cut was given to each rose maintaining a stem length of 15 cm with one foliage leaf. The flowers were then placed in different combinations of sucrose and silver thiosulfate (STS) and stored at room temperature during the month of September. Sucrose and silver thiosulfate with the following given levels were replicated 4 times in the form of combined solution.

Each treatment combination was applied to a sample of five flowers. The following parameters were studied on these flowers and average was calculated accordingly. The parameters studied were days to flowers opening, days to flowers longevity, flower size (cm), flower fresh weight (gm), flower dry weight (gm), percent fragrance persistence, percent fading and percent petal drop. Data collected was observed statistically by using RCBD in MSTATC and interpreted according to Least Significant Difference (LSD) Test.

Results And Discussion

Days to flower opening:

Average flower opening period of cut rose flower is presented in Table 1. According to statistical analysis of variance, data showed that different concentrations of sucrose and silver thiosulfate (STS) had significantly improved the opening period of cut roses. Likewise interaction of sucrose with STS also contributes significantly. Mean values depicted that maximum flower opening period (5.87 days) was observed for flowers kept in vases treated with 25 ppm STS solution, followed by 4.44 days of opening period for flowers held in 20 ppm STS solution, while minimum flower opening period (3.06 days) was observed in flowers kept in distilled water (control). Similarly findings of various levels of sucrose solutions showed that maximum flower opening period (4.79 days) days was recorded for flowers retained in vases applied with 7.5% sucrose solution, followed by 4.31 days for 5% sucrose solution, while minimum flower opening period (3.73 days) were recorded for flowers kept in distilled water (control). However in interaction of sucrose and STS, maximum flower opening period (6.87 days) was observed for flowers kept in vases with 25 ppm STS and 7.5% sucrose solution followed by 5.98 days for 25 ppm STS and 5% sucrose solution. While, minimum flower opening period (2.35 days) was recorded for the vase applied with distilled water (control).

Opening of flowers is the first step of aging in senescing entities. Aging is accelerated due to activities such as respiration and loss of available nutrients substrates. Ethylene tends to enhance all these activities as reported by various researchers. Opening period of cut roses could be attributed to these post harvest physiological processes such as respiration and ethylene synthesis. In present study, opening period was delayed upon application of 25 ppm STS combined with sucrose at 7.5 % concentration which helps in understanding the anti-ethylene nature of sucrose and STS. The results of current study are in line with Ichimura & Hiraya, [17], who reported that compared to control, all the treatments of sucrose and STS promoted opening period, ethylene inhibition and extended longevity of flowers of cut sweat pea flowers. [8] also found that treatment with STS followed by sucrose solution, cut rose cv. "First Red" significantly responded in terms of extended vase life. When exogenous ethylene was applied to these flowers, STS still gave a vase life of 7 days.

Days to flower longevity:

Data regarding flowers average longevity is tabulated in Table 2. As the mean values demonstrates, the maximum flower longevity (8.99 days) was observed for flowers kept in vases having holding solution of 25 ppm STS solution, followed by 7.44 days observed in flowers held in 20 ppm STS solution, while minimum flowers average longevity (6.12 days) was observed in flowers kept in distilled water (control). Likewise, answers of various levels of sucrose solutions showed that maximum flower longevity (7.92 days) was recorded for flowers retained in vases applied with 7.5% sucrose solution, followed by 7.37 days observed for vases having 5% sucrose solution, while minimum flower longevity (6.73 days) was recorded for flowers kept in distilled water (control). Meanwhile, in interaction between the preservatives, maximum flower longevity (10.12days) was observed for flowers kept in vases with 25 ppm STS and 7.5% sucrose solution followed by 9.23 days for flowers provided with 25 ppm STS and 5% sucrose solution. While, minimum flowers average longevity (5.35 days) was recorded for the vases applied with distilled water (control).

Flower vase life is affected by respiration, carbohydrates deterioration, disease inoculation, water uptake etc. During vase life of cut flowers, ethylene synthesis plays a major role in senescence. Similarly carbohydrates and soluble sugars in the petals also help in quality retention of cut roses for longer period. So vases applied with adequate amount of sugars such as sucrose and an appropriate preservative such as silver thiosulfate certainly can be of great usefulness. Making an acidic medium, STS helps to prevent blockage of conducting vessels due to bacterial plugging and thus improve the water uptake by flower stem. Findings are in close agreement to Liao et al., [20], who reported that the pulse treatment of silver thiosulfate (STS) at 0.2 mM for 2 h or STS for 2 h followed by sucrose at 120 g [L.sup.-1] supplemented with HQC (Hydroxyquinoline citerate) for 10 h extended the vase life of cut rose flowers to about 9 and 10 days, individually. In another study, Chamani et al., [7] reported that STS complex with application of sucrose gave promising results in prolonged vase life and enhanced flower vase quality.

Flower size:

Data regarding average flower size is given in Table 3. Statistical analysis of variance showed that different concentrations of sucrose and silver thiosulfate (STS) had significant effect on the improvement of average flower size of cut roses. Likewise interactions of chemicals also produce significant effect on cut rose flower size increase. According to the mean values, maximum flower size (6.62 cm) was observed for flowers kept in vases with 25 ppm STS solution, followed by 5.92 cm in 20 ppm STS solution. Minimum flower average size (5.25 cm) was observed in flowers kept in distilled water (control). Similarly findings of various levels of sucrose solutions showed that maximum flower size (6.33 cm) was recorded for flowers retained in vases applied with 7.5% sucrose solution, followed by 5.84 cm for 5% sucrose solution, while minimum flower size (5.44 cm) was recorded for flowers kept in distilled water (control). However interaction of sucrose with STS revealed that maximum flower size (7.01 cm) was observed for flowers kept in vases with 25 ppm STS and 7.5% sucrose solution followed by 6.55 cm for 25 ppm STS and 5% sucrose solution. While, minimum flower size (4.38 cm) was recorded for the vase applied with distilled water (control).

Adequate supply of nutrients is necessary for cut flowers to continue their normal post harvest developmental processes e.g., respiration, fresh weight and flower size gain etc. Sucrose is a soluble carbohydrate and can act as a substrate for respiration. STS is a good option to be used as a biocide and can provide a good acidic medium. Thus the combination of these chemicals improved the flower size of cut roses as a result of better intake of nutrients and post harvest developmental stages such as respiration. Results are in line with Bhatacharjee, [4], who demonstrated that sugars such as glucose, sucrose, D-fructose, maltose and lactose gave greatest flower diameter, high water absorption ratio and longest vase life of cut rose flowers CV. Happiness. Furthermore, Ichimura & Hiraya, [17] also explore that STS and sucrose combinations compared to control, gave significant and promising results in improving floret size, floret opening and flower longevity.

Flower fresh weight (gm):

Table-4 presents the data regarding flower fresh weight. Statistical analysis of variance showed that treatment of rose cut flowers with different concentrations of sucrose and silver thiosulfate (STS) had significantly improved flower fresh weight. Similarly interaction of sucrose and STS also contributed in the same fashion. According to the mean values, maximum flower fresh weight (11.01 g) was observed for flowers kept in vases treated with 25 ppm STS solution, followed by 10.66 g of flower fresh weight for flowers held in 20 ppm STS solution, while minimum flower fresh weight 10.07 g was observed in flowers kept in distilled water (control). Similarly findings of various levels of sucrose solutions showed that maximum flower fresh weight (11.18 g) was recorded for flowers retained in vases applied with 7.5% sucrose solution, followed by 10.77 g for 5% sucrose solution, while minimum flower fresh weight (9.99 g) was recorded for flowers kept in distilled water (control). Interaction of sucrose with STS revealed that, maximum flower fresh weight (12.42g) was observed for flowers kept in vases with 20 ppm STS and 7.5% sucrose solution followed by 11.59 g for 25 ppm STS and 5% sucrose solution. While, minimum flower fresh weight (9.67 g) was recorded for the vase applied with distilled water (control).

Fresh weight is attributed to the higher uptake of water and better development of corolla [14]. Flower fresh weight is lost gradually due to loss in available carbohydrates through the process of respiration. Respiration rate is accelerated by ethylene production in the senescing tissues. So the recorded improvement of fresh weight in these findings can be attributed to the continuous supply of sucrose and thus in turn, approaching the carbohydrate starvation due to respiration. Furthermore, STS can be prized as an anti-ethylene factor resulting in reduced respiration rates and achievement of greater fresh weight. The present results are in confirmation with the findings of Hutchinson et al., [16] who found that STS + sucrose was the most efficient solution in obtaining largest floret spike and achieving greater fresh weight than distilled water. Likewise, Da Silva, [9] reported that sucrose delays the onset of hydrolysis of structural components of cell, decrease ethylene production and sensitivity which means that flower structural integrity is maintained and fresh weight is increased.

Flower dry weight (gm):

Findings regarding flower dry weight of cut rose flowers is demonstrated in Table 5. Concerning the mean values, maximum flower dry weight (3.83 g) was observed for flowers held in 25 ppm STS solution, followed by 3.41 g for flowers held in 20 ppm STS solution, while minimum flower dry weight (3.0 g) was observed in flowers kept in distilled water (control). Similarly treatment with various levels of sucrose solutions showed that maximum flower dry weight (3.81 g) was recorded for flowers in vases applied with 7.5% sucrose solution, followed by 3.55 g for 5% sucrose solution, while minimum flower dry weight (2.53 g) was recorded for flowers kept in distilled water (control). However, the interaction of STS and sucrose objected that, maximum flower dry weight (4.38 g) was observed for flowers kept in vases with 25 ppm STS and 7.5% sucrose solution followed by (4.06 g) for 25 ppm STS and 5% sucrose solution. While, minimum flower weight (2.37 g) was recorded for the vase applied with distilled water (control).

Flowers get food from plants until it is attached to the plant. On detachment, the flowers shift to the stored food for their survival. This is why, it is necessary to provide cut flowers with required nutrients for enhanced vase life. Sucrose is a good nutrient medium which acts as readily available substrate for respiration, and responsible for maintaining valuable turgidity over a longer period of time. STS being an effective opponent to ethylene also contributes to an enhanced vase life. Reddy et al., [22] found that cut gladiolus spikes held in vase solution containing 200 ppm 8 Hydroxyquinoine citrate (8 HQC) and 4% sucrose maintained fresh weights above initial weights even up to the 8th day of vase life, while those held in distilled water lost their fresh weight gains to below their initial weight on the 4th day. The pattern and findings of current study and other studies conducted at different parts of the world suggest that STS and sucrose play vital role in changing the dry weight of cut flowers.

Percent Fading:

Data with regard to percent fading of cut rose flower is presented in Table 6. A significant affect was determined on percent fading of cut roses due to application of different concentrations of sucrose and silver thiosulfate (STS). However, the interaction between chemicals was non-significant. Mean values revealed that maximum percent fading of flowers (46.88 %) was observed in control (distilled water), followed by 29.69 % for flowers held in 15 ppm STS solution, while minimum percent fading (10.94 %) was observed in flowers kept in vases having 25 ppm STS solution. Similarly findings of various levels of sucrose solutions showed that maximum flower percent fading (43.75 %) was recorded for flowers retained in vases containing distilled water (control), followed by 25.0 % fading for 2.5% sucrose solution, while minimum flower fading (15.63 %) was recorded in7.5 % sucrose solution. In interaction, maximum percent fading (56.25 %) was observed for flowers in vases having distilled water (control), followed by (50 %) for 0 STS and 2.5% sucrose solution. While minimum percent fading (0.00 %) was recorded for the vase applied with 25 ppm STS and 7.5% sucrose and 25 ppm STS and 5% sucrose solution respectively.

Blockage of vascular system and ethylene synthesis are the main factors causing wilting of cut flowers. This blockage results in water stress on the cut flowers and eventually leads to an imbalance in the stored water and transpiration rate. This imbalance is expressed as premature loss of cell turgidity or fading of the cut flowers. STS and other silver containing preservative solutions are strong inhibitors of ethylene, and as the flowers grows through its life span towards senescence, the level of ethylene raises which combat the carbohydrate level in the petals and results in fading or wilting. Also STS provides an acidic medium which prevents any possible pathogenic plugging of vascular tissues and in turn, guarantee a smooth supply of water to the flowers. Sucrose supply increase flower vase life by approaching carbohydrate starvation. It is also an osmotically active molecule leading to the promotion of subsequent water relations. So by application of these chemicals, blockage of vessels is prevented and ethylene levels retain resulting in prolonged fresh vase life, thus decreasing flower fading percentage. Current study findings confirms the results of Elgimabi & Ahmad, [11] who reported that treatment of 100ppm HQS and 3% sucrose solutions decreased percent fading by reducing chlorophyll degradation and carbohydrates preservation in petals. Similar results are reported by Hutchinson et al., [15] who depicted that 10% sucrose pulsing and placing in 25 mg LBA resulted in highest water uptake and lowest transpiration losses.

Percent petal drop:

Flowers percent petal drop is illustrated in Table 7. A significantly response of flower in terms of percent petal drop was observed upon subjection to treatments with different concentrations of sucrose and silver thiosulfate (STS). Likewise interaction of chemicals also played a significant role in limiting the percent petal drop of cut roses. According to the mean values, maximum flower percent petal drop (30.90 %) was observed for flowers kept in vases contained distilled water (control), followed by 25.50 % for flowers held in both 15 ppm and 20 ppm STS solutions, while minimum percent petal drop (21.69 %) was observed in flowers kept in solution with 25 ppm STS. Similarly findings of various levels of sucrose solutions showed that maximum flower petal drop (27.95 %) was recorded for flowers retained in vases applied with distilled water, followed by 25.50 % for 2.5% sucrose solution, while minimum percent petal drop (22.25 %) was found for flowers kept in 7.5 % sucrose solution. Interaction of chemicals showed that maximum flower petal drop (36.75 %) was observed in the flowers held in distilled water (control), followed by (33.0 %) for 2.5% sucrose solution. While, minimum flower percent petal drop (15.0 %) was recorded for the vases having 25ppm STS and 7.5 % sucrose solution.

Petal drop is associated with the leaf abscission caused by ethylene production in cut flowers. Literature review showed that both sucrose and STS proved to be useful in this regard as sucrose reduces chlorophyll content and preserves carbohydrate contents of cut roses [11]. It can be understood that sucrose acts as anti-ethylene compound and thus prolonging vase life and leaf abscission. STS is also an anti-ethylene in nature [10,8], thus limiting the activities of ethylene by application of sucrose and STS, leaf abscission and petal drop can be reduced. Hutchinson et al., [15] also approved that STS, sucrose and Accel and Benzylaminopourine resulted in longer vase life and reduced petal drop as compared to distilled water in tuberose flowers.

Conclusions and recommendations:

On the basis of this experiment we can thoughtfully conclude that Sucrose and Silver Thiosulfate enhanced the post harvest quality of cut roses as compared to control (distilled water), the best concentrations were 7.5 % sucrose and 25 ppm STS in all studied parameters and Sucrose and STS gave best results when used in combination of S3T3. So these recommendations are pinched in the light of the above conclusions that Sucrose and silver thiosulfate should be used combined as preservative solution for rose cut flowers and also these chemicals should be studied on the post harvest behavior of other cut flowers.

Refrences

[1.] Arboleda, P.J.A., 1993. Principios fundamentals de la postcosecha de flores. E.:Tercer Seminario Tecnico de Floricultura/EXPOFLOR 93. 11-14 de junio. Huixquilucan, Estado de Mexico, Mexico, pp: 44.

[2.] Bhattacharjee, P. Kumar, 1999. Evaluation of different types of sugars for improving post harvest life and quality of cut roses. Ann of Agri. Research, 20(2).

[3.] Butt, S.J., 2005. Extending the vase life of roses (Rosa Hybrida) with different preservatives. Int. J. Agri. Biol., 7(1): 112-115.

[4.] Butt, S.J., 2003. A Review on Prolonging the Vase Life of Roses. Pak. N. Rose Society, pp: 49-53.

[5.] Chamani, E., M. Arshad and Y. Pourbeyrami, 2009. Response of various cut lisianthus cultivars to silver thiosulfate treatment. J. Food, Agric. & Env, 7(2): 746-748.

[6.] Chamani, E., A. Khalighi, D.C. Joyce, D.E. Irving, Z.A. Zamani, Y. Mostofi and M. Kafi, 2005. Ethylene and anti-ethylene treatment effects on cut 'First Red' rose. J. of App. Hort, 7(1): 3-7.

[7.] Da Silva, J.A.T., 2003. The cut flower: Postharvest considerations. J. Biol. Sci., 3: 406-442.

[8.] Elgar, H.J., A.B. Woolf and R.L. Bieleski, 1999. Ethylene production by three lily species and their response to ethylene exposure. Postharvest Biol. Tec., 16: 257-267.

[9.] Elgimabi, M.N. and O.K. Ahmed, 2009. Effects of Bactericides and Sucrose-Pulsing on Vase Life of Rose Cut Flowers (Rosa hybirida). Bot. Res. Int, 2(3): 164-168.

[10.] Farooq, M.U., I. Ahmad and M.A Khan, 2004. Storage and Vase Life of Cut Rose Flowers as Influenced by Various Packing Materials. Int. J. Agri. Bio, 6(2): 22-24.

[11.] Halevy, A.H. and S. Mayak, 1981. Senescence and post harvest physiology of cut flowers, Part 2. Hort. Rev, 3: 59-143.

[12.] Hojjati, Y., A. Khalighi and A.R. Farokhzad, 2007. Chemical Treatments of Eustoma Cut Flower Cultivars for Enhanced Vase Life. J. of Agri. & Soci. Scien, 3: 75-78.

[13.] Hutchinson, M.J., D.K. Chebet and V.E. Emangor, 2003. Effect of accel, Sucrose and silver thiosulphate on the water relations and postharvest physiology of cut tuberose flowers. African Crop Sci. J, 11: 279-287.

[14.] Hutchinsen, M.J., D.K. Chebet and V.E. Emongor, 2005. Effect of ACCL, sucrose and silver thiosulfate on the water relation and post harvest physiology of cut Tuberose flowers. African Crop. Sci. J, 11(4): 279-287.

[15.] Ichimura, K., and T. Hiray, 1999. Effect of silver thiosulfate complex (STS) in combination with sucrose on the vase life of cut sweet pea flowers. J. Japan. Soc. Hort. Sci., 68: 23-27.

[16.] Kim, E. and R.H. Mattson, 2002. Stress recovery effects of viewing red-flowering geraniums. J. Ther. Hort, 13: 4-12.

[17.] Kuiper, D., S. Ribot, H.S. Van-Reenen, and N. Marissen, 1995. The effect of sucrose on the flower bud opening of Madelon cut roses. Sci. Hort, 60: 325-336.

[18.] Liao, L., Y. Lin, K. Huang, W. Chen, Y. Cheng, L.J. Liao, Y.H. Lin, K.L. Huang, W.S. Chen and Y.M. Cheng, 2000. Post harvest life of cut rose flowers as affected by silver thiosulfate and sucrose. Botanical Bulletin of Academia Sinica, 4(41): 299-303.

[19.] Lohr, V.I. and C.H. Pearson-Mims, 2000. Physical discomfort may be reduced in the presence of interior plants. Hort Technology, 10(1): 53-58.

[20.] Reddy, B.S., A.K. Gupta and K. Singh, 1994. Physiological role of 8-hydroxyquinoline sulphate and sucrose in the post harvest physiology of gladiolus cv. Sylvia. In J. Prakash & K. R. Bhandary (Eds.), Floriculture Technology, Trades and Trends (pp.496-502). Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd. Calcutta.

[21.] Reid and S. Michael, 2002. Postharvest Handling Systems:Ornamental Crops. Int. Postharvest Technology of Horticultural Crops, Third Edition. University of California Publication, 3311: 315-325.

(1) Sikandar Hayat, (1) Noor Ul Amin, (1,2) Muhammad Ali khan, (2) Tarek M.A. Soliman, (2) Ma Nan, (3) Kashif Hayat, (1) Imran Ahmad, (2) Muhammad Rezaul Kabir, (3) LiangJun Zhao

(1) Department of Horticulture, Khyber Pukhtoonkhwa Agricultural University Peshawar, Khyber Pukhtoonkhwa, Pakistan.

(2) College of Agronomy and Biotechnology, China Agricultural University Beijing 100193 P.R. China.

(3) Department of Botany, Abdul Wali Khan Univeristy, Mardan, Pakistan

Corresponding Author

LiangJun Zhao, College of Agronomy and Biotechnology, China Agricultural University Beijing 100193 P.R. China

E-mail: zhaolj5073@sina.com; Tel: +86-01062733315
Table 1: Opening period of cut rose flower affected by
different concentrations of sucrose and STS.

Sucrose                Silver thiosulfate (STS)           Mean

               0 ppm       15 ppm    20 ppm    25 ppm
               (control)

0% (control)   2.35 i      3.65 fg   3.99 ef   4.93 c     3.73 C
2.5%           3.00 h      3.81 ef   4.25 de   5.70 b     4.19 B
5%             3.24 gh     3.30 gh   4.73 cd   5.98 b b   4.31 B
7.5%           3.65 fg     3.86 ef   4.80 c    6.87 a     4.79 A

Mean           3.06 D      3.65 C    4.44 B    5.87 A

Means followed by the same letter are not significantly different
using LSD test at 5% level of probability

Table 2: Average longevity of cut rose flower affected by different
concentrations of sucrose and STS.

Sucrose                 Silver thiosulfate (STS)          Mean

               0 ppm       15 ppm     20 ppm    25 ppm
               (control)

0% (control)   5.35 j      6.65 fgh   6.99 ef   7.93 c    6.73 C
2.5%           6.00 i      7.06 ef    7.25 de   8.70 b    7.25 B
5%             6.24 hi     6.30 ghi   7.73 cd   9.23 b    7.37 B
7.5%           6.90 ef     6.86 efg   7.80 cd   10.12 a   7.92 A

Mean           6.12 D      6.72 C     7.44 B    8.99 A

Means followed by the same letter are not significantly different
using LSD test at 5% level of probability

Table 3: Average flower size (cm) of cut rose flower affected by
different concentrations of sucrose and STS.

Sucrose                 Silver thiosulfate (STS)         Mean

               0 ppm       15 ppm     20 ppm    25 ppm
               (control)

0% (control)   4.38 hg     4.53 h     6.32 b    6.53 b   5.44 C
2.5%           5.14 g      5.48 efg   5.33 fg   6.41 b   5.59 C
5%             5.57 def    5.40 fg    5.82 de   6.55 b   5.84 B
7.5%           5.89 cd     6.22 bc    6.22 bc   7.01 a   6.33 A

Mean           5.25 C      5.40 C     5.92 B    6.62 A

Means followed by the same letter are not significantly different
using LSD test at 5% level of probability

Table 4: Average fresh weight of cut rose flower affected by
different concentrations of sucrose and STS.

Sucrose                 Silver thiosulfate (STS)            Mean

               0 ppm       15 ppm     20 ppm     25 ppm
               (control)

0% (control)   9.67 g      10.07 fg   9.68 g     10.50 de   9.99 C
2.5%           9.68 g      10.06 fg   9.97 fg    11.07 c    10.19 C
5%             10.29 ef    10.63 de   10.56 de   11.59 b    10.77 B
7.5%           10.66 cde   10.76 cd   12.42 a    10.90 cd   11.18 A

Mean           10.07 D     10.38 C    10.66 B    11.01 A

Means followed by the same letter are not significantly different
using LSD test at 5% level of probability

Table 5: Average dry weight of cut rose flower affected by
different concentrations of sucrose and STS.

Sucrose                Silver thiosulfate (STS)       Mean

               0 ppm       15 ppm   20 ppm   25 ppm
               (control)

0% (control)   2.37        2.38     2.38     3.00     2.53 B
2.5%           3.13        3.31     3.69     3.88     3.50 A
5%             3.13        3.31     3.69     4.06     3.55 A
7.5%           3.38        3.63     3.88     4.38     3.81 A

Mean           3.00 B      3.16 B   3.41 B   3.83 A

Means followed by the same letter are not significantly different
using LSD test at 5% level of probability

Table 6: Percent fading of cut rose flower affected by different
concentrations of sucrose and STS

Sucrose                Silver thiosulfate (STS)          Mean

               0 ppm       15 ppm    20 ppm    25 ppm
               (control)

0% (control)   56.25       43.75     37.50     37.50     43.75 A
2.5%           50.00       31.25     12.50     6.25      25.00 B
5%             43.75       25.00     12.50     0.00      20.31 BC
7.5%           37.50       18.75     6.25      0.00      15.63 C

Mean           46.88 A     29.69 B   17.19 C   10.94 C

Means followed by the same letter are not significantly different
using LSD test at 5% level of probability

Table 7: Percent petal drop of cut rose flower affected by different
concentrations of sucrose and STS.

Sucrose                    Silver thiosulfate (STS)

               0 ppm       15 ppm       20 ppm       25 ppm
               (control)

0% (control)   36.75 a     27.50 bcd    23.00 cdef   24.50 cdef
2.5%           33.00 ab    22.00 def    19.75 efg    27.25 bcd
5%             28.50 bc    24.25 cdef   19.00 fg     20.00 efg
7.5%           25.50 cde   28.25 bc     20.25 efg    15.00 g

Mean           30.94 A     25.50 B      20.50 C      21.69 C

Sucrose        Mean

0% (control)   27.94 A
2.5%           25.50 AB
5%             22.94 BC
7.5%           22.25 C

Mean

Means followed by the same letter are not significantly different
using LSD test at 5% level of probability

Sucrose: S0 (control), S1 (2.5%), S2 (5%), S3 (7.5%).

Silver thiosulfate: T0 (control), T1 (15 ppm), T2
(20 ppm), T3 (25 ppm).

Solution Combination:

S0T0 (control)   S0T1   S0T2   S0T3
S1T0             S1T1   S1T2   S1T3
S2T0             S2T1   S2T2   S2T3
S3T0             S3T1   S3T2   S3T3
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Title Annotation:Original Article
Author:Hayat, Sikandar; Amin, Noor Ul; Khan, Muhammad Ali; Soliman, Tarek M.A.; Nan, Ma; Hayat, Kashif; Ahm
Publication:Advances in Environmental Biology
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9CHIN
Date:May 1, 2012
Words:5256
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