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Impact of mineral composition of drinking water on the kidneys morphology of white rats.

INTRODUCTION

Kidneys of mammals are the main organs which provide decorporation of metabolic products, foreign substances and electrolytes [1, 2, 3]. Impact of negative factors, including low-quality drinking water with high composition of ions of ferrum, calcium, magnesium and fluorine, lead to different diseases of kidneys and urinary tract, including renal failure [4, 5]. The quality of water becomes very important during pregnancy [6, 7, 8, 9, 10]. The significance of this problem and insufficient number of practical works induced us to conduct a comparative investigation of impact of tap water with high composition of ions of ferrum, calcium, magnesium and fluorine on the structural and functional state of kidneys of nonpregnant and pregnant laboratory rats.

Methods:

In our work we used artesian water with high composition of ferrum, calcium, magnesium and fluorine that means that this water is hard; chloride-natrium water (hypertonic natrium solution) as well as bottled drinking water "Aquaminerale" with balanced ion composition.

For the biological test-object we used white outbred pubescent female rats with weight of 180-200 g. The total number of animals was 60. According to the set tasks the animals were divided into groups.

The first (control) group consisted of nonpregnant females which drank bottled flat drinking water "Aquaminerale" with the balanced content of micro- and macro-elements.

The second (test 1) group consisted of pregnant rats which drank "Aquaminerale" drinking water.

The third (test 2) group consisted of nonpregnant rats which drank water with high content of ions of ferrum, calcium, magnesium and fluorine from the centralized water system.

The fourth (test 3) group consisted of pregnant rats which drank tapwater with high content of ions of ferrum, calcium, magnesium and fluorine.

The fifth (test 4) group consisted of nonpregnant rats which drank chloride-natrium water.

The sixth (test 5) group consisted of pregnant rats which drank chloride-natrium water.

The experiment was conducted in summer-autumn period indoors under the temperature of 22-25C and relative humidity 67-70%. The animals were on the common regime of vivarium, had free access to the food and water. The pregnancy was stated after the determination of the moment of mating females which were in the state of estrus. The animals were considered pregnant from the morning of the day when sperm cells were found in the vaginal content. The animals were killed on the 21st day of the experiment by means of decapitation under anaesthesia of ether and chloroform according to the principles of humanity stated in the directives of European Community (86/609/EEC) and Declaration of Helsinki and according to the requirements and norms of conducting works with the use of experimental animals.

Aiming at study of morphological changes in organisms of the animals which consumed drinking water "Aquaminerale", tapwater with high content of ions of ferrum, magnesium, calcium and fluorine and hypertonic solution of chloride of sodium we used pieces of a kidney with the size of 10X10 mm. For the histological examination the material was fixed in 10% solution of neutral formalin. The fixed samples after the purging in running water were dewatered by means of putting the investigated material in alcohols of increased concentration and poured them into paraffin according to the common methods. There were prepared histological sections with thickness of 7-10 micron, they were coloured with hematoxilin-eosin by Van-Gison and studied with the help of digital microscope Axio Imager.M2 (ZEISS, Japan) having the software for picture analysis AxioVision SE64 Rel. 4.8.3 and ZEN 2011.

During the review microscopy we conducted the morphological analysis of structural tissular components of kidneys, after this analysis we studied the morphometrical parameters: number of corpuscles per field, pcs., size of renal corpuscle, micron, size of renal glomerulus, micron, diameter of proximal convoluted tubule, micron, diameter of opening of proximal convoluted tubule, micron, size of epithelial of renal tubules, micron2 and size of their nuclears, micron (2).

The specimens were pictured with the digital camera AxioCam MRc5 (ZEISS, Japan) following the processing of pictures in Abode Photoshop Elements 11.

The statistical processing of the acquired digital data was carried out with the help of FStat and Exel. The review of statistical hypotheses was carried out according to Student's t-criterion. While assessing statistical hypotheses we used the following levels of significance: p<0.05.

Body:

Histological investigations of kidneys of rats from the control group showed that the kidney's parenchyma is preserved. The renal cortex and medulla of kidney were well seen. Renal glomerulus surrounded by Bowman-Shumlyansky's capsule has clear borders (Fig. 1). Proximal and distal convoluted tubules are covered with cubical epithelium with big nuclears. There is no substance in the opening of renal tubules.

In the course of consumption of drinking water "Aquaminerale" by the pregnant rats there were no significant differences from the control both in histological and morphometric pattern of kidneys.

Histological investigations of the renal cortex of nonpregnant rats which had consumed drinking water with high content of ions of ferrum, calcium, magnesium and fluorine (test 2) showed insignificant distention of capillaries of renal glomeruluses and their plethory. Histological structure of proximal convoluted tubules is preserved.

Morphometric investigations showed that in this test group (test 2) the size of renal corpuscle and the size of its glomerulus are 9.98% and 10.66% higher than those of the control group, comparing to the control. The quantity of renal corpuscles per field is 4.97% decreased comparing to the control. The diameter of the proximal convoluted tubule and its opening, size of epithelian cell and its nuclear have no significant changes comparing to the control (see Table 1).

Histological changes of kidneys of pregnant females which consumed tap water (test 3) is characterised by the formation of glomeruluses hypertrophy with expanded and plethorical anses capillaires. In some areas of renal cortex we observed focal necrosis of glomeruluses. Histological structure of tubules is preserved; local albuminous and hydropic degeneration is being formed in the epithelium of tubules. Necrosis of the tubule epithelium is absent (Fig. 2).

While comparing the morphometric indices of renal structure of pregnant rats which had consumed tapwater (test 3) with indices of the third group of animals we revealed the increasing of the size of renal corpuscles in 20.70% (P[less than or equal to]0.05) and 23.98% (P[less than or equal to]0.05), diameter of the proximal tubule in 10.62% and the diminution of the opening of its tubule in 10.12%. Also, comparing to the control animals, we revealed the increasing of the average size of epithelian cells of the proximal convoluted tubule in 9.49%, and decreasing of the size of the nuclear in 16.88% (P[less than or equal to]0.05) (see Table 1).

Histological investigations showed that nonpregnant rats which had consumed chloride-natrium water had insignificant dystrophic changes with the swelling in all parts of nephron. We noted the capillary plethory and extension of glomeruluses (Fig. 3), which speaks for the microcirculation disorder.

During the morphometry of renal cortex of the this experimental group (test 4) we detected the increasing of the size of renal corpuscle and renal glomerulus in 13.24% (P[less than or equal to]0.05) and 12.69% (P[less than or equal to]0.05) respectively comparing to the control. Number of corpuscles per field decreased in 6.34 %. The measurement of proximal convoluted renal tubules showed that the diameter of tubules did not differ from those of the control group. The diameter of the opening did not change, size of the epithelial cells of the tubules and the the size of their nuclears had no significant changes (see Table 1).

Histological investigations of the kidneys of pregnant rats which consumed chloride-natrium water (test 5) showed the florid formation of renal glomeruluses hypertrophy, anses capillaires are expended and plethorical. Renal corpuscles polymorphism is observed (Fig. 4). Renal cortex tubules are expanded, their opening is narrowed due to the swelling of epithelial cells (Fig. 5). Interstitial edema is observed both in cortex and medulla of kidney. There observed a florid plethory of the vessels of kidney medulla.

Morphometric investigations of the animals from this group (test 5) showed that the number of renal corpuscles per field is 17.65% (P[less than or equal to]0.05) decreased; the size of renal corpuscle is 36.72% (P[less than or equal to] 0.05) increased; the size of renal glomerulus is 29.92 % (P[less than or equal to]0.05) increased comparing to the control. The opening of the proximal convoluted tubule is 10.9% (P[less than or equal to]0.05) narrowed. Cytomorphometric measurements of the proximal convoluted renal tubules showed the increasing of the size of epithelial cells of the tubules in 22.04% (P[less than or equal to]0.05), decreasing of the size of the epithelial cell nuclear in 14.01% (P[less than or equal to]0.05) comparing to the control (see. Table 1).

Report:

The analysis of the literature shows that the influence of the drinking water with high content of ions of ferrum, calcium, magnesium and fluorine on the kidneys morphology is not yet studied. The impact of the chloride-natrium water on the kidneys morphology is also not defined.

The comparative analysis of the morphological and morphometrical changes in different test groups showed the formation of morphological and morphometrical changes in kidneys of pregnant rats which had consumed tapwater with high content of ions of ferrum, calcium, magnesium and fluorine.

Hypertonic solution of chloride of sodium has significant influence of the morphology of both pregnant and nonpregnant white rats. This, first of all, is expressed in the form of expanding of the renal corpuscle and glomerulus size, change of the size of proximal convoluted tubule opening.

Conclusion:

1. While consuming tapwater with high content of ions of ferrum, calcium, magnesium and fluorine the most significant changes are observed in kidneys of the pregnant animals which is expressed in the decreasing of the number of renal corpuscles and their inhomogeneity; increasing of the average size of renal corpuscle and glomerulus.

2. Hypertonic solution of chloride of sodium has significant influence of the morphology of both pregnant and nonpregnant white rats. This, first of all, is revealed in formation of renal glomeruluses hypertrophy, renal corpuscles polymorphy and increasing of the size of renal glomerulus and change of the size of proximal convoluted tubule opening.

ARTICLE INFO

Article history:

Received 25 March 2014

Received in revised form 20 April

2014

Accepted 15 May 2014

Available online 5 June 2014

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The work was carried out with financial support from the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation within the framework of the governmental task of the Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Professional Education "M. E. Evseviev Mordovian State Pedagogical Institute" ("Influence of the anthropogenic factors on the morphofunctional state of the organism" project).

REFERENCES

[1] Natochin, Yu, V, 2005. Clinical physiology: its role in the development of the fundamental problems of human kidneys function regulation. Human Physiology, 5: 80-87.

[2] Bulatov, VP., A.V Ivanov and N.V. Rylova, 2004. Influence of the continuous consumption of drinking water with unfavourable mineral composition. Pediatry, 1: 71-74.

[3] Avdeeva, T.G. and E.V Morozova, 2006. Influence of the drinking water composition on the children's health. Polyclinic, 1: 62-63.

[4] Shubina, O.S. and N.A. Smertina, 2009. Influence of drinking Water Quality on Blood Parameters. Europen Journal of Natural History, 4: 76.

[5] Smertina N.A., O.S. Shubina and N.A. Melnikova, 2013. The Effect of Drinking Water Quality on the Morphological and Biochimical Characteristics of Blood and Organs of Female White Rats. Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research, 14(12): 1660-1664.

[6] Bala, S., M.H. Kombrabail and B.S. Prabhananda, 2001. Effect of phloretin on ionophore mediated electroneutral transmembrane translocations of [H.sup.4]", [K.sup.+] and [Na.sup.+] in phospholipid vesicles. Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1-2: 258-69.

[7] Walker W.A., 2005. Microflora role in development of protective functions of intestines. Pediatrics, 1: 85-91.

[8] Aizman, R.I., G. Celsi, L. Grahnquist, Z.M. Wang, Y. Finkel and A. Aperia, 1996. Ontogeny of K+ Transport in Rat Distal Colon. Am. J. Physiol, pp: 268-274

[9] Shubina, O.S., N.A. Smertina, N.A. Melnikova and M.V Lapshyna, 2011. Impact of mineral composition of drinking water on the kidneys and intestinal tract structure of white rats. Russian scientific journal, 3: 275-279.

[10] Shakhmatova E.I., N.A. Osipova and Yu. V Natochin, 2000. Dynamics of osmolality and ion concentration in blood serum of pregnant women. Human Physiology, 1: 107-111.

Nina Anatolievna Smertina and Olga Sergeevna Shubina

Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Professional Education <<Mordovian State Pedagogical Institute named after M. E. Evsevjev>>, Studencheskaya Street, 11 A, Mordovia, 430007, Saransk, Russia

Corresponding Author: Nina Anatolievna Smertina, Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Professional Education <<Mordovian State Pedagogical Institute named after M. E. Evsevjev>>, Studencheskaya Street, 11 A, Mordovia, 430007, Saransk, Russia

Table 1: Morhpometric indices of the kidneys structure of white
rats which consumed "Aquaminerale" water, tapwater with high
content of ions of ferrum, calcium, magnesium and fluorine and
chloride-natrium water.

Indicators                         Control

Number of renal              10.25 [+ or -] 1.18
corpuscles
per field

Size of renal              5849.03 [+ or -] 193.65
corpuscle,
[micron.sup.2].

Size of renal              4079.71 [+ or -] 159.16
glomerulus,
[micron.sup.2].

Diameter of proximal         32.28 [+ or -] 2.60
convoluted
tubule, micron.

Diameter of proximal         11.93 [+ or -] 1.52
convoluted tubule
opening, micron.

Size of                      109.46 [+ or -] 2.25
epithelian cell,
[micron.sup.2].

Size of                      31.15 [+ or -] 2.89
epithelian cell,
[micron.sup.2].

Indicators                          Test 1

Number of renal               9.80 [+ or -] 1.17
corpuscles
per field

Size of renal              6689.48 [+ or -] 321.0 *
corpuscle,
[micron.sup.2].

Size of renal              4375.05 [+ or -] 149.50
glomerulus,
[micron.sup.2].

Diameter of proximal         33.09 [+ or -] 2.65
convoluted
tubule, micron.

Diameter of proximal         12.45 [+ or -] 0.57
convoluted tubule
opening, micron.

Size of                      117.47 [+ or -] 3.27
epithelian cell,
[micron.sup.2].

Size of                      30.18 [+ or -] 2.70
epithelian cell,
[micron.sup.2].

Indicators                          Test2

Number of renal               9.74 [+ or -] 1.06
corpuscles
per field

Size of renal              6430.90 [+ or -] 201.25
corpuscle,
[micron.sup.2].

Size of renal              4494.26 [+ or -] 154.52
glomerulus,
[micron.sup.2].

Diameter of proximal         33.07 [+ or -] 1.81
convoluted
tubule, micron.

Diameter of proximal         12.01 [+ or -] 0.30
convoluted tubule
opening, micron.

Size of                      113.82 [+ or -] 3.30
epithelian cell,
[micron.sup.2].

Size of                     31.97 [+ or -] 2.08 *
epithelian cell,
[micron.sup.2].

Indicators                          Test3

Number of renal              8.90 [+ or -] 1.01*
corpuscles
per field

Size of renal             7060.27 [+ or -] 178.14 *
corpuscle,
[micron.sup.2].

Size of renal             5057.33 [+ or -] 194.46 *
glomerulus,
[micron.sup.2].

Diameter of proximal        35.50 [+ or -] 2.87 *
convoluted
tubule, micron.

Diameter of proximal        10.87 [+ or -] 0.49 *
convoluted tubule
opening, micron.

Size of                     124.63 [+ or -] 10.70
epithelian cell,
[micron.sup.2].

Size of                     25.89 [+ or -] 2.78 *
epithelian cell,
[micron.sup.2].

Indicators                          Test 4

Number of renal               9.60 [+ or -] 0.05
corpuscles
per field

Size of renal             6623.66 [+ or -] 180.20 *
corpuscle,
[micron.sup.2].

Size of renal             4597.37 [+ or -] 162.20 *
glomerulus,
[micron.sup.2].

Diameter of proximal         33.60 [+ or -] 2.60
convoluted
tubule, micron.

Diameter of proximal        11.45 [+ or -] 1.30 *
convoluted tubule
opening, micron.

Size of                      114.47 [+ or -] 8.99
epithelian cell,
[micron.sup.2].

Size of                      32.05 [+ or -] 2.67
epithelian cell,
[micron.sup.2].

Indicators                          Test 5

Number of renal               8.44 [+ or -] 0.51
corpuscles
per field

Size of renal             7996.85 [+ or -] 469.68 *
corpuscle,
[micron.sup.2].

Size of renal             5300.44 [+ or -] 148.25 *
glomerulus,
[micron.sup.2].

Diameter of proximal         35.09 [+ or -] 2.54
convoluted
tubule, micron.

Diameter of proximal        10.22 [+ or -] 1.01 *
convoluted tubule
opening, micron.

Size of                      133.58 [+ or -] 4.90
epithelian cell,
[micron.sup.2].

Size of                      27.32 [+ or -] 1.99
epithelian cell,
[micron.sup.2].

Note: * P[less than or equal to]0.05 comparing to the
animals of the control group.
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Author:Smertina, Nina Anatolievna; Shubina, Olga Sergeevna
Publication:Advances in Environmental Biology
Article Type:Report
Date:Jun 1, 2014
Words:2718
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