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Impact of Vehicular Countdown Signals on Driving Psychologies and Behaviors: Taking China as an Example.

1. Introduction

While intersections are part of the road system, they are far more complex than the segments connecting them [1, 2]. Driving psychologies and behaviors at road intersections are considerably different compared to those at road sections. According to the control mode, there are two kinds of road intersections: unsignalized and signalized. In recent years, countdown signalized intersections have appeared in some countries or areas. Compared to traditional non-countdown signals, countdown signals can inform a driver in advance about the remaining time to pass through intersections or the time needed to wait for other drivers and pedestrians. Countdown signals can be divided into vehicular countdown signals and pedestrian countdown signals. Vehicular countdown signals further include green, red, and yellow countdown signals.

Out of more than 200 countries, only a few use count-down signal controls at road intersections, such as China, Thailand, India, Singapore, Malaysia, the United States, and the United Kingdom. Of these countries, only a small number allow pedestrian countdown signals to be used at road intersections, such as the United States and Britain. In other words, few countries currently use vehicular countdown signals. The object of this study is to focus on vehicular countdown signals.

China, as one of the pioneer countries, is playing a leading role in the use of vehicular countdown signals. However, no specific manuals or standards are available for guiding the usage of vehicular countdown signals in China [3-5]. Therefore, Chinese local governments encounter difficulties in making a clear decision on extending the application of vehicular countdown signals. Traffic engineers and researchers have different opinions on the application of vehicular countdown signals. Some support the use of countdown signal controls and consider such controls as capable of improving traffic operational efficiency by taking full advantage of the signal time. Others are opposed to the application of countdown signal controls and are concerned about the possibility of such controls increasing traffic crashes and having a negative impact on traffic safety [6].

In theory, vehicular countdown signals are different compared to non-countdown signals and should have an impact on driving psychologies and behaviors. However, to date, it is unclear how and how much vehicular countdown signals influence driving psychologies and behaviors compared with non-countdown signal controls. To answer these questions, the present study explored the influence of vehicular countdown signals from two aspects of driving psychologies and behaviors based on a questionnaire survey. The survey consisted of 32 questions related to vehicular countdown signals.

2. Literature Review

This paper focuses on vehicular countdown signals (hereafter referred to as countdown signals in the following text unless specified otherwise). To date, countdown signal control, as a new traffic control mode of signalized intersections, is applied in China, Singapore, Thailand, Malaysia, India, and other countries. Lum and Halim conducted a before-and-after study by observing driver reactions at a signalized intersection with a green signal countdown display (GSCD) installed [7]. The finding revealed that the number of red-light running violations is significantly mitigated at the initial period after installing the GSCD. However, the effectiveness of the device tends to dissipate over time, with the number of violations bouncing back to almost the same level as before GSCD. Ibrahim et al. introduced countdown timers installed at some intersections in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia [8]. The impact of countdown timers on driving behaviors and intersection approach headways was studied by comparing three intersections with countdown timers with three intersections lacking countdown timers. The result indicated that the countdown timers have a significant impact on headways but a little impact on the initial delay. Limanond et al. studied how countdown timers affect the queue discharge characteristics of through movements during the green phase at a signalized intersection in Bangkok, Thailand [9]. They pointed out that the countdown timers had a significant impact on the start-up lost time at the intersection under study, but the effect on the saturation headway was negligible. Chiou and Chang investigated the impact of GSCD and red signal countdown display (RSCD) on driver behaviors in Taiwan [10]. The results showed that GSCD can reduce the late-stopping ratio, but it increases the likelihood of rear-end crashes. Although RSCD can effectively reduce the start-up delay, saturated headway, and cumulative start-up delay, it cannot significantly improve intersection safety in the long term. Sharma et al. presented the usage of countdown timers at signalized intersections in India [11]. The study conducted a before-and-after analysis by comparing predata with postdata collected at a selected intersection in Chennai. The results reflected that the time information provided at the beginning of the green light (end of the red light) can enhance efficiency and reduce start-up lost time but increase red-light running violations. Papaioannou and Politis found that the percentage of early start violations at the intersection with SCD was 24%, where the percentage for intersections without SCD was less than 1% [12]. Devalla et al. found that GSCD is linked with fewer red light violations (RLVs) cycles, a lower mean number of RLVs per RLV cycle, higher vehicular speeds during the phase transition at different locations upstream to the stop line, a higher number of speeding cars, and higher stop line crossing speeds during amber [13]. Islam et al. found a reduction in start-up lost time at signalized intersections when a red signal countdown timer is present [14].

In China, Wang and Yang conducted a preliminary analysis on the traffic signal countdown by conducting a survey of 337 drivers regarding driver attitudes and behaviors on the green signal countdown in Longyan City, Fujian province [15]. The study advised that the countdown signal should be set cautiously. Wu et al. (2009) focused on the driver's decision-making process at countdown signalized intersections [16]. A logistic model was adopted to build the model of behavior decision at countdown signalized intersections based on vehicle types and speed. Zhang et al. conducted a survey on the countdown signal and collected 200 questionnaires from drivers and pedestrians at four intersections in Wanzhuang, Beijing City [17]. The results showed that the drivers and pedestrians sampled had a preference for the countdown signal. Qian and Han preliminarily studied the influence of green signal countdown on traffic safety through a questionnaire investigation of 390 drivers [18]. The finding indicated that the green signal countdown is good for neither traffic safety nor traffic operational efficiency. Thus, the green signal countdown should be used cautiously. Ma et al. conducted a field observation to obtain critical parameters related to drivers and vehicles at two similar intersections, one with GSCDs and the other without GSCD, in Shanghai City, China [19]. They found that GSCD increased the traffic capacity at the sampled intersection and significantly reduced the number of red-light running violations. Qian carried out an eight-question driver behavior survey of 390 drivers regarding the red signal countdown to analyze driver behaviors [20]. Long et al. studied the impact of the countdown timer on driver behaviors after the yellow onset and found that the countdown timer influences drivers stopping or passing through the intersection [21]. Additionally, a correlation exists between the countdown timer and red-light running violations. Huang et al. found that although GSCD stimulates the drivers in dilemma zones to choose to cross the intersection during amber, which produces a higher RLR risk compared with SCD and GSFD, the intersection with GSCD has the lowest RLR violations due to its strong positive effect in cutting down the range of dilemma zones [22]. Li et al. comparatively analyzed drivers' perception-reaction time (PRT) with and without a countdown timer based on the RGB color model and found that the drivers' PRT was decreased from 2.12 s to 1.48 s with countdown signals [23]. Pan et al. attempted to find effects of the end of a green signal countdown on drivers' behaviors when they drive vehicles through intersections based on the data of vehicle position, time, and speed at the entrance of intersections [24]. Fu et al. characterized and modeled driver's brake perception-reaction time (BPRT) to yellow signal at signalized intersections with and without countdown timer and found an increase in driver's BPRT because countdown timer may induce risky driving behaviors [25]. Pan et al. did an interesting study demonstrating that the value of a driver's car has influence on driving behaviors at countdown signalized intersections [26].

As introduced above, three methods are commonly used to study the effects of countdown signals on drivers, including survey, video, and observation in the field. Evaluating the existing studies through questionnaire survey method revealed that the questionnaires are not designed comprehensively enough, because these only involve a part of driving behaviors and do not investigate driving behaviors from the psychological aspect.

3. Method

3.1. Design of Questionnaire. Considering the complexity of driving psychologies and behaviors and the new mode of countdown signal controls, the questionnaire was designed to fully reflect the common and individual characteristics of the driving psychologies and behaviors involving the aspects listed as follows:

(1) Gender: male and female drivers may have significantly different attitudes toward countdown signal controls

(2) Age: age refers to the length of time that one has existed. It is an important indicator to reflect the differences in driving psychologies and behaviors of different age groups

(3) Driving experience: driving experience is used to examine the differences of driving psychologies and behaviors for drivers with different driving experiences

(4) Specific questions associated with driving psychologies and behaviors on the countdown signal controls

3.2. Online Questionnaire Survey. The designed questionnaire was released and conducted by a professional survey website in China. A total of 1051 valid questionnaires were received.

4. Analysis of Survey Results

The survey results were classified and analyzed to indicate the general understanding of drivers and their psychological characteristics, as well as the behavioral characteristics of different types of drivers surveyed.

4.1. Basic Characteristics of Drivers Surveyed. The characteristics of gender, age, and driving experience for the surveyed drivers are shown in Table 1.

Table 1 shows that the majority of respondents were young drivers and that more male drivers than female drivers responded to the survey. The drivers surveyed below the age of 40 accounted for 76.69%, indicating that young drivers use the Internet more widely in China. For driving age, the drivers with no more than three years of driving experience accounted for 36.06%, which is consistent with the rapid increase of the number of Chinese drivers in the last three years.

4.2. Attitudes and Understanding of Drivers on Countdown Signal Controls. Six questions, questions (4) to (9), were designed to evaluate the attitudes and understanding of drivers on countdown signal controls. The survey data were analyzed, and the results are summarized in Table 2.

Table 2 shows that the majority of the surveyed drivers felt easier driving vehicles on roadway sections than at intersections; they especially felt nervous at unsignalized intersections. Most drivers also supported setting up countdown signal controls, which they considered to be beneficial to driving behavior decisions. Even more drivers thought that countdown signal controls can be conducive to improve traffic safety and traffic operational efficiency. In addition, the proportion of aggressive drivers is not high from the drivers surveyed.

4.3. Attitudes and Understanding of Drivers on Green Countdown Signal Controls. Questions (10)-(15) were designed to investigate driver attitudes on green countdown signal controls and to contrast the behavior of "race against time" at the end of the green light at countdown signal and non-countdown signal control intersections. The analysis results for questions (10)-(13) are shown in Table 3.

According to Table 3, the surveyed drivers who supported the setup of green countdown signals accounted for the majority of respondents. The proportion of drivers who regarded the green countdown signal as having an impact on driving behaviors reaches up to 92.30%. With regard to the display modes of the green countdown, 55.19% of the surveyed drivers selected the partial countdown.

Questions (14)-(15) and their options are described in Table 4, and the comparative analysis is shown in Figure 1.

In comparison with non-countdown signalized intersections (Figure 1), more drivers would like to accelerate passing through intersections while the green light time shifts to the yellow light time at green countdown signalized intersections. However, the difference is not significant. More drivers surveyed agreed with option B at non-countdown signalized intersections than at countdown signalized intersections. The result shows that driving behaviors are more adventurous at countdown signalized intersections than at non-countdown signalized intersections.

4.4. Driver Attitudes and Behaviors on Red Countdown Signal Controls. Questions (16)-(24) were designed to investigate the attitudes and possible driving behaviors of drivers on red countdown signal controls. The analysis results for questions (16)-(19) are shown in Tables 5 and 6. Table 5 summarizes the questions on attitudes and behaviors on red countdown signal controls. Table 6 presents the questions on turning off engines while waiting for the green signal.

Table 5 reveals that most of the drivers surveyed are supportive of red countdown signal controls, and 66.51% of the surveyed drivers considered red countdown signal controls as having an impact on driving behaviors. The proportion of drivers (52.05%) who preferred overall countdowns is close to the proportion of drivers (47.95%) who selected partial countdowns. For question (19), 19.79% of the drivers would accelerate passing through the intersection, which is a very dangerous behavior.

At signalized intersections, the reckless behavior of a driver is largely constrained by other drivers or vehicles. Therefore, the behavior of the first driver in a certain lane is focused on. In Table 6, for question (20), 79.82% of the surveyed drivers would engage the engine gear in advance and accelerate to start once the green light changes. This behavior may cause traffic accidents in conflict directions with vehicles or delayed pedestrians. However, from another angle, it can improve traffic operational efficiency. Regarding question (21), 77.38% of the surveyed drivers who would turn off their engines while waiting would start the engines in advance and then accelerate to move while changing to the green light. For question (22), 58.33% of the drivers surveyed would turn off their engines while waiting when the waiting time is longer than 30 s, which reflects the driver's awareness of conserving energy and reducing exhaust emissions. Question (23) shows that the main causes for not turning off engines at red countdown signalized intersections are feelings of inconvenience and concerns about fuel consumption when restarting the engine. Question (24) indicates that the main causes for not turning off engines are feelings of inconvenience and having no idea of how soon the red light will be over. Note that some questions have a plurality of possible causes or choices; therefore, the percentage sum of multiple-choice questions may be greater than 100%. The calculation principle is the number of times an item is selected divided by the number of drivers surveyed.

4.5. Analysis of Red-Light Running Behaviors and Other Risk Behaviors. Questions (25)-(29) were designed to investigate driving behaviors on red-light running, sudden acceleration, sudden braking, and so on. Question (25) and its options are described in Table 7, and the results are shown in Figure 2.

Question (25) indicates that the proportion of drivers who would intentionally run a red light at countdown signalized intersections is 12.33% (Figure 2). Their main reason for running a red light is to rush through intersections within a very short time, even though the drivers may be well aware of the remaining green light time. In addition, 24.63% of the surveyed drivers revealed good driving behaviors by not running a red light.

Question (26) was designed to correspond to question (25). Its options are described in Table 8, and the results are shown in Figure 3.

Question (26) reflects that cases of red-light running at non-countdown intersections caused by not knowing the time the yellow light will appear and by the sudden transition of yellow light account for a large proportion (63.6%) of the drivers surveyed (Figure 3). Some drivers even attributed their red-light running to the lack of countdown signals. Red-light running that resulted from inattention still accounts for approximately one-third of the total (29.83%).

Question (27) and its options are described in Table 9, and the statistical results are illustrated in Figure 4. Effective countermeasures to reduce red-light running are installing automatic-capture facilities, enhancing education, and setting up countdown signal lights based on the degree of influence.

Questions (28)-(29) and their statistical results are shown in Table 10. The proportion of acceleration at the end of the green light at countdown signalized intersections is 26.07% more than that at non-countdown signalized intersections. The key factor is the existence of the countdown signal. For sudden braking, the possibility of occurrence at non-countdown signalized intersections is higher than that at countdown signalized intersections. Regardless of whether a driver is at countdown signalized intersections or at non-countdown signalized intersections, sudden braking will increase while the yellow light starts.

4.6. Attitudes and Understanding of Drivers on Display Modes of Countdown Signals. Questions (30)-(32) were designed to investigate the attitudes of drivers on the display modes of countdown signals. The statistical results are shown in Table 11.

According to Table 11, most of the surveyed drivers selected the mode of countdown display with overall lights (red, green, and yellow). Nearly half of the surveyed drivers considered the red countdown light to be beneficial in improving traffic operational efficiency.

4.7. Cross-Analysis of Typical Questions. The psychological and behavioral characteristics of drivers are closely related to the driver's gender, age, and driving experience. The cross-analysis between gender and attitudes toward countdown signals is carried out based on questions (1) and (7) of the survey data. The analysis results shown in Table 12 indicate that the majority of male and female drivers supported the setting up of countdown signal controls, and male drivers are more inclined to support countdown signal controls.

The cross-analysis between gender and behaviors before the end of the green countdown is conducted based on questions (1) and (14), as listed in Table 10. Table 13 shows that the proportions of male and female drivers are very close in decelerating to stop by the end of the green countdown. Compared with the male drivers, the surveyed female drivers were also more likely to accelerate passing through the stop line by the end of the green countdown or by the end of the yellow light, indicating that female drivers may not be conservative about the behavior in question.

The cross-analysis between gender and behaviors while the green light is turning into the yellow light at non-countdown intersections is conducted based on questions (1) and (15), as shown in Table 14. According to the results, at non-countdown intersections, for the option "accelerate and pass the stop line before the end of the yellow light," male drivers are more aggressive than female drivers. In comparison with question (14), the female drivers surveyed were more conservative in the condition of uncertain remaining time than male drivers.

5. Conclusion and Discussion

According to the analysis results of the survey, several conclusions can be drawn. (1) Most of the surveyed drivers preferred countdown signalized intersections and tended to select the mode of countdown display of overall lights (red, green, and yellow). (2) Most of the drivers considered countdown signal controls as capable of improving not only traffic safety but also traffic operational efficiency, which is consistent with the findings from earlier studies [17, 19] but is contrary to the studies in [18, 20]. (3) Regardless of whether green countdown or red countdown controls are set up, most of the drivers considered countdown signal controls as having an impact on driving psychologies and behaviors. However, the impact may not be conducive to improve traffic safety. (4) The proportion of drivers intentionally running red lights is relatively small at countdown signalized intersections or non-countdown signalized intersections. However, the time by the end of the green signal and at the onset of the yellow signal is the key time of red-light running at both types of intersections. According to the survey results, the installation of an automatic-capture system to catch traffic violations is conducive to reduce the occurrence of red-light running. (5) Female drivers are traditionally viewed as having more conservative driving behaviors compared with male drivers. However, the analysis results indicate that the driving behaviors of female drivers surveyed are not conservative under clear green countdown conditions. Nevertheless, female drivers are very conservative under non-countdown conditions, which confirms the general psychological characteristics indicating that males are more adventurous than females under unknown conditions.

Driving psychologies and behaviors are complex phenomena. To further study the effects of countdown signals on driving psychologies and behaviors, several ways may be recommended: (1) using professional equipment to collect indicator parameters of driving psychologies and behaviors at countdown and non-countdown signalized intersections with actual traffic conditions and then analyzing the data; (2) at countdown signalized or non-countdown signalized intersections, observing or photographing driving behaviors and then analyzing the behaviors; and (3) using a more scientific comparison and analysis of data obtained by different methods to draw reasonable conclusions.

https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/5838520

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Acknowledgments

The authors acknowledge the support of the Natural Science Foundation of Shandong Province, China (ZR2016EEM14 and ZR2012EEM05), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (51408288 and 51505244), and the Humanities and Social Science Fund Project under the Ministry of Education of the People's Republic of China (12YJCZH162).

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Fuquan Pan, (1) Lixia Zhang, (1) Changxi Ma, (2) Haiyuan Li, (3) Jinshun Yang, (1) Tao Liu, (1) Fengyuan Wang, (1) and Shushan Chai (1)

(1) School of Automobile and Transportation, Qingdao University of Technology, Qingdao, Shandong 26650, China

(2) School of Traffic and Transportation, Lanzhou Jiaotong University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730070, China

(3) Nevada Department of Transportation, Carson City, NV 89712, USA

Correspondence should be addressed to Lixia Zhang; zlxzhanglixia@163.com

Received 31 January 2017; Accepted 8 March 2017; Published 10 April 2017

Academic Editor: Xiaolei Ma

Caption: FIGURE 1: Comparison of driving behaviors before the end of the green light at two types of intersections.

Caption: FIGURE 2: Distribution of reasons for running a red light at countdown signalized intersections.

Caption: FIGURE 3: Distribution of reasons for running a red light at non-countdown signalized intersections.

Caption: FIGURE 4: Distribution of measures to reduce the chances of running a red light.
TABLE 1: Characteristics of drivers surveyed.

Questions                Options                         Proportion
                                                            (%)

(1) Gender               (A) Male                          62.32
                         (B) Female                        37.68
(2) Age                  (A) Younger than 25 years old     16.94
                         (B) 25-30 years old               37.68
                         (C) 31-40 years old               22.07
                         (D) 41-50 years old               16.46
                         (E) 51-60 years old                5.80
                         (F) More than 60 years of age      1.05
(3) Driving experience   (A) 0-3 years                     36.06
                         (B) 4-5 years                     26.17
                         (C) 6-10 years                    20.36
                         (D) More than 10 years            17.41

TABLE 2: Attitudes and understanding of surveyed drivers on countdown
signal controls.

Questions                            Options                Proportion
                                                               (%)

(4) Which kind of city road          (A) Roadway section      80.21
conditions do you find the least     (B) Signalized           13.42
stressful? [single choice]           intersection
                                     (C) Unsignalized          6.37
                                     intersection

(5) What are your attitudes          (A) Support              81.83
regarding the setting of countdown   (B) Do not support       12.18
signal controls at intersections?    (C) Does not matter       5.99
[single choice]

(6) If countdown signals are set     (A) Helpful              84.87
up at intersections, do you think    (B) Not helpful          11.61
it will help drivers make            (C) Does not matter       3.52
behavioral decisions? [single
choice]

(7) Do you think what kind of        (A) Countdown signal     76.88
signal controls more conducive to    controls
traffic safety? [single choice]      (B) Non-countdown        23.12
                                     signal controls
(8) Do you think what kind of        (A) Countdown signal     88.39
signal controls more conducive       controls
to traffic operational efficiency?   (B) Non-countdown        11.61
[single choice]                      signal controls

(9) You think your own driving       (A) Aggressive           15.43
behavior tends to [single choice]    (B) Conservative         55.90
                                     (C) Neutral              28.67

TABLE 3: Attitudes of surveyed drivers on green countdown signal
controls.

Questions                            Options                Proportion
                                                                (%)

(10) Do you support setting up a     (A) Support.             80.02
green                                (B) Do not support.      17.89
countdown signal at intersections?   (C) Does not matter.      2.09
[single choice]                      (D) Others.               0.00

(11) If the green countdown signal   (A) Through the          23.98
control                              countdown signal, I
is set up at intersections, what     can see the green
kind of                              time decreasing.
impact will this have on you?        Thus, I accelerate
[single choice]                      to pass through the
                                     intersection as fast
                                     as possible in this
                                     phase, thereby
                                     increasing my
                                     chances of red-light
                                     running.
                                     (B) Through the          68.32
                                     countdown signal, I
                                     can see the green
                                     time decreasing.
                                     Thus, I can control
                                     vehicle speed
                                     better, which
                                     reduces my chances
                                     of red-light
                                     running.
                                     (C) Neither the           6.76
                                     countdown signal nor
                                     the
                                     non-countdown signal
                                     (D) Others.               0.95

(12) Which of the following          (A) The countdown        44.81
control                              from the beginning
modes of green countdown is          to the end of
better?                              the overall period
[single choice]                      of green light is
                                     better.
                                     (B) Beginning to         10.37
                                     show the countdown
                                     30 s before the
                                     end of the green
                                     light is better.
                                     (C) Beginning to         19.31
                                     show the countdown
                                     20 s before the
                                     end of the green
                                     light is better.
                                     (D) Beginning to         25.50
                                     show the countdown
                                     10 s before the
                                     end of the green
                                     light is better.
(13) When a green light changes to   (A) Non-countdown        13.99
a red                                green [right arrow]
light, which transition do you       yellow [right arrow]
think is                             red.
more reasonable? [single choice]     (B) Countdown green      47.86
                                     [right arrow] yellow
                                     [right arrow] red.
                                     (C) Non-countdown        28.83
                                     green [right arrow]
                                     countdown green
                                     [right arrow]
                                     yellow [right arrow]
                                     red.
                                     (D) Non-countdown         9.32
                                     green [right arrow]
                                     countdown green
                                     [right arrow] red.

TABLE 4: Behaviors of surveyed drivers on the green signal coming to
an end in the two cases.

Questions                                 Options

(14) At countdown signalized              (A) Accelerate and pass the
intersections, what will                  stop line before the end of
you do when you approach the              the green countdown or
intersection stop line,                   before the end of the yellow
see the green countdown coming to an      light.
end and the                               (B) Decelerate and make sure
yellow light starting at once? [single    to stop before the stop
choice]                                   line prior to the end of the
                                          yellow light.
                                          (C) Maintain the original
                                          speed; if I cannot stop
                                          safely
                                          in front of the stop line,
                                          then I will pass the stop
                                          line
                                          before the end of the yellow
                                          light.
                                          (D) Others.
(15) At non-countdown signalized          (A) Accelerate and pass the
intersections,                            stop line before the end of
when you approach the intersection stop   the yellow light.
line, see the green                       (B) Decelerate and make sure
light is changing yellow light, how do    to stop before the stop
you do?                                   line prior to the end of the
[single choice]                           yellow light.
                                          (C) Maintain the original
                                          speed; if I cannot safely
                                          stop
                                          in front of the stop line,
                                          and then pass the stop line
                                          before the end of the yellow
                                          light.
                                          (D) Others.

TABLE 5: Attitudes and behaviors of surveyed drivers on red countdown
signal controls.

Questions                  Options                          Proportion
                                                               (%)

(16) Do you support        (A) Support.                       79.64
setting up a red           (B) Do not support.                14.65
countdown signal           (C) Does not matter.                4.85
at intersections?          (D) Others.                         0.86
[single choice]
(17) If red countdown      (A) Through the countdown
signal controls are set    signal, I can know the
up at                      remaining time of the red          36.44
intersections, what        light, be ready to drive, and
kind of impact will        accelerate to pass through the
this have on               intersection.
you? [single choice]       (B) Through the countdown
                           signal, I know the
                           remaining time of the red          30.07
                           light and can decide whether
                           or not to turn off the engine
                           according to the remaining
                           time, thereby reducing fuel
                           consumption.
                           (C) Through the countdown
                           signal, I can know the
                           remaining time of the red          29.97
                           light, and thus reduce the
                           anxiety of waiting for a red
                           light.
                           (D) Either countdown or             3.52
                           non-countdown has no
                           impact on me.
(18) Do you think which    (A) The countdown from the         52.05
of the following control   beginning to the end of
modes                      the overall period of red
of red countdown is        light is better.
better? [single choice]    (B) Beginning to show the          12.94
                           countdown 30 s before the
                           end of the red light is
                           better.
                           (C) Beginning to show the          10.47
                           countdown 20 s before the
                           end of the red light is
                           better.
                           (D) Beginning to show the          24.55
                           countdown 10 s before the
                           end of the red light is
                           better.
(19) If you happen to      (A) Accelerate into the            19.79
approach an intersection   intersection.
at                         (B) Decelerate into the            56.99
normal speed and no        intersection.
other vehicles are in      (C) Maintain the original          21.03
front of your              speed and enter the
vehicle, that is to say,   intersection.
your vehicle is the        (D) Others.                         2.19
first vehicle in a
certain lane, if you
find the red countdown
is coming to
end, what will you do?
[single choice]

TABLE 6: Behaviors on whether engines should be turned off while
waiting for the green light.

Questions                  Options                          Proportion
                                                               (%)

(20) At countdown          (A) Engage the engine gear in      44.62
signalized                 advance, and then
intersections, if you do   accelerate to pass through the
not turn off the engine    intersection when the
while waiting, assuming    green light begins.
your vehicle is the        (B) Engage the engine gear in      35.20
first vehicle in a         advance, slowly glide, and
certain lane, when you     then accelerate to pass
see the red countdown is   through the intersection when
coming to end, what will   the green light begins.
you do? [single choice]    (C) Continue to wait until the     18.93
                           green light begins, and
                           then engage the engine gear to
                           pass through the
                           intersection.
                           (D) Others.                         1.24
(21) At countdown          (A) Start the engine in            46.01
signalized                 advance, engage the engine
intersections, if you      gear
turn                       beforehand, and then
off the engine while       accelerate to pass through the
waiting, assuming your     intersection when the green
vehicle is                 light begins.
the first vehicle in a     (B) Start the engine in            31.37
certain lane, when you     advance, engage the engine
see the red                gear
countdown is coming to     beforehand, slowly glide, and
end, what will you do?     then accelerate to pass
[single                    through the intersection when
choice]                    the green light begins.
                           (C) Start the engine in            20.53
                           advance, continue to wait
                           until
                           the green light begins, and
                           then engage the engine gear
                           to pass through the
                           intersection.
                           (D) Continue to wait until the      2.09
                           end of the red light, start
                           the engine, and then engage
                           the engine gear to pass
                           through the intersection.
                           (E) Others.                          0
(22) At countdown          (A) 30-39 s.                        5.33
signalized                 (B) 40-49 s.                        5.71
intersections, you will    (C) 50-59 s.                        6.95
turn off the engine to     (D) 60-69 s.                       20.36
wait at how many           (E) >70 s.                         19.98
remaining seconds of the   (F) Never turn off the engine.     41.67
red countdown? [single
choice]
(23) At red countdown      (A) Turning off and restarting     65.75
signalized                 the engine is
intersections, when        inconvenient.
you meet a red light but   (B) Turning off and restarting     48.72
do not turn off the        the engine will consume
engine to                  more fuel.
wait, what are the         (C) Turning off and restarting     27.69
causes? (Drivers who       the engine will increase
will turn off              the wear of the vehicle.
their engines do not       (D) Others.                         7.33
need to reply to the
question.)
[multiple choices]
(24) At non-countdown      (A) Turning off and restarting     57.66
signalized                 the engine is
intersections, when you    inconvenient.
meet a red light but do    (B) Not knowing how much time      54.52
not turn off the engine    of the red light is left.
to wait, what are the      (C) Turning off and restarting     29.59
causes? (Drivers who       the engine will increase
will turn off              the wear of the vehicle.
their engines do not       (D) Others.                         7.71
need to reply to the
question.)
[multiple choices]

TABLE 7: Reasons for running a red light at countdown signalized
intersections.

Questions           Options

(25) At countdown   (A) Inattention, not intentionally running a red
signalized          light.
intersections,      (B) In a hurry, intentionally running a red light.
what are your       (C) Intending to pass through the intersection
reasons for         before the end of the green countdown or
running a red       the end of the yellow light, but runs a red light.
light? [multiple    (D) Others.
choices]            (E) Never runs a red light.

TABLE 8: Reasons for running a red light at non-countdown signalized
intersections.

Questions               Options


(26) At non-countdown   (A) Inattention, not intentionally running a
signalized              red light.
intersections, what     (B) Not knowing the time that the yellow light
are your reasons for    will appear, not intentionally
running a red light?    running a red light.
[multiple choices]      (C) Transition of the yellow light is too
                        sudden, and I cannot brake to stop before
                        the stop line, not intentionally running a red
                        light.
                        (D) In a hurry, intentionally running a red
                        light.
                        (E) Others.
                        (F) Never runs a red light.

TABLE 9: Measures for reducing the chances of running a red light.

Questions                  Options

(27) Which of the          (A) Install automatic facilities to capture
following measures do      the behavior of red-light running (e.g.,
you think can reduce the   electronic police, camera, etc.).
chances of running a red   (B) Install countdown signal lights.
                           (C) Strengthen education on traffic safety,
                           and raise awareness on traffic safety.
                           (D) Others.

TABLE 10: Risky driving behaviors at different intersections.

Questions                 Options                           Proportion
                                                               (%)

(28) What kind of         (A) Countdown signal control,       61.75
signal controls make      the green countdown is coming
you inclined to           to an end.
accelerate to pass        (B) Non-countdown signal            35.68
through                   control, the green light is
an intersection?          flashing.
[single choice]           (C) Others.                          2.57
(29) What kind of         (A) Countdown signal control,       19.31
signal controls that      the green countdown is coming
make you incline to       to an end.
urgently decelerate?      (B) Countdown signal control,       27.40
[single choice]           the yellow countdown begins to
                          counting.
                          (C) Non-countdown signal            21.50
                          control, the green light is
                          flashing.
                          (D) Non-countdown signal            30.73
                          control, the yellow light is
                          starting.
                          (E) Others.                          1.05

TABLE 11: Attitudes and understanding of surveyed drivers on the
display modes of countdown signals.

Questions                  Options                          Proportion
                                                               (%)

(30) Do you think it is    (A) Reasonable.                    23.69
reasonable to show only    (B) Unreasonable.                  65.37
the red countdown, but     (C) Does not matter.               10.94
not the yellow and
green countdowns?
[single choice]
(31) If you answered       (A) It is not easy to lead to      85.82
"Reasonable" in question   red-light running at the end
(30), what are the         of the
reasons? [multiple         green light.
choice]                    (B) It allows the drivers          47.76
                           waiting for the red light to
                           be prepared
                           to start in advance, which is
                           conducive to traffic
                           operational
                           efficiency.
                           (C) Others.                         5.33
(32) If you answered       (A) It is easy to lead to red-     67.46
"Unreasonable" in          light running at the end of
question (30), what are    the green
the reasons? [multiple     light.
choice]                    (B) It allows the drivers          46.81
                           waiting for the red light to
                           be prepared
                           to start in advance, which may
                           result in a traffic accident,
                           especially with no vehicle
                           waiting for the red light in a
                           certain
                           lane.
                           (C) Others.                         3.62

TABLE 12: Cross-analysis between gender and attitudes toward countdown
signals.

X                                  Y
             (A) Support   (B) Do not support   (C) Does not matter

(A) Male       87.75%            6.84%                 0.85%
(B) Female     76.12%            16.42%                3.48%

X                       Y
             (D) Others   Total

(A) Male       4.56%      100%
(B) Female     3.98%      100%

TABLE 13: Cross-analysis between gender and behaviors before the end
of the green countdown.

X                         Y
             (A) Accelerate and pass the
             stop line before the end of
                the green countdown or
             before the end of the yellow
                        light

(A) Male                18.23%
(B) Female              20.40%

X                         Y
               (B) Decelerate and make
             sure to stop before the stop
              line before the end of the
                     yellow light

(A) Male                62.96%
(B) Female              61.69%

X                          Y
               (C) Maintain the original
             speed; if I cannot safely stop
               in front of the stop line,
               then pass stop line before
              the end of the yellow light

(A) Male                 14.25%
(B) Female               10.95%

X                       Y
             (D) Others   Total

(A) Male       4.56%      100%
(B) Female     6.97%      100%

TABLE 14: Cross-analysis between gender and behavior before the end of
the green light at non-countdown signalized intersections.

X                         Y
             (A) Accelerate and pass the
             stop line before the end of
                   the yellow light

(A) Male               19.09%
(B) Female              4.98%

X                         Y
               (B) Decelerate and make
             sure to stop before the stop
              line before the end of the
                     yellow light

(A) Male                67.24%
(B) Female              75.62%

X                          Y
               (C) Maintain the original
               speed; if I cannot safely
               stop in front of the stop
             line, then pass the stop line
             before the end of the yellow
                         light

(A) Male                10.83%
(B) Female              13.93%

X                       Y
             (D) Others   Total

(A) Male       2.85%      100%
(B) Female     5.47%      100%
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Title Annotation:Research Article
Author:Pan, Fuquan; Zhang, Lixia; Ma, Changxi; Li, Haiyuan; Yang, Jinshun; Liu, Tao; Wang, Fengyuan; Chai,
Publication:Journal of Advanced Transportation
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9CHIN
Date:Jan 1, 2017
Words:7127
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