Impact of Social Networking Sites on Personality and Attitude of Young Adults (Research covering the young adults' lives within Korangi, Karachi).
The author analyzes the impact of social networking on young adults specifically, youth of our country so the importance or impact of these online social networking can be highlighted. From this research the collected data from young adults working in organizations as well as researching in universities and coaching centers situated within and around Korangi, Karachi. In this research article, the authors describe the impact of these social networks on the attitude and behavior of the young adults. Here is a data which is collected through a questionnaire based on likert scale questions and all the collected data has been processed through statistical software and results are gathered and explained separately for each variable. Statistical Tests were conducted on the basis of regression analysis to check the stability and authentication of the variables.
As per the data collected in this research and processing of results gathered through statistical analysis, the Social Networking Sites do have a strong impact on Attitude and Personality of young adults. As the results shows there is a strong relationship between SNS, Personality and Attitude. It also shows that the increased use of SNS affects both personality and attitude of young adults. Further, the author will recommend that marketing researchers should focus on this research topic because through social networking sites, quality first hand data can be gathered to analyze consumer behavior as well as market trends and demand. This research should not be limited to young adults only but should expand to elder people as well because they spend good time on social networking sites in their daily routine.
Keywords: social networking sites, young adults, personality, attitude.
This article covered the impact of social networking site on our personality and attitude during our routine lives. It will focus on young adults who have the largest share in the internet and social media usage along with the social media efforts shaping personality and attitudes specifically in their professional and student life During last 5 years, we have witnessed a rapid growth in internet and smart phones usage in Pakistan which revolutionized the trends in every aspect of life. It includes marketing, fashion, lifestyle, etc similarly it has also affected our personality, behavior and attitudes. Young adults have the largest share in internet and social media usage. (PAS, 2015)
The research work shows that the youth's interaction with their real life relationships is largely influenced by the usage of social networking sites. During past decade, Social networking sites became the important and effective medium for social interaction. The author also witnessed that the social media usage is also became a trend as fashion or status symbol. Social networking is also a source of marketing, research and businesses because of easy and direct access to customer it is an effective medium of communicating with them. Researchers are not only interested in observing the patterns and economics benefits of social media but they are also interested in knowing the implications of social networking sites on youth's interaction with other people and how it affect their relationships, attitudes and personality. (Noshina, 2015) Politics is a key factor in changing attitudes of people.
Social media played important role in Arab spring which largely impacts the geopolitical situation in gulf countries. In Pakistan, during past 5 years social media played a key role in politics which is also an important factor that changes the attitudes of adults.(Zafar, A., Jan, M., Iqbal, A., 2013)
The main features of Social Networking Sites are continuous and face to face interaction that impacts the personal appearances of young adults. They are keen to remain up to date with the fashion as well as groom themselves.
(Pakistan Today, 2012) Personal appearance is important factor that reflects the personality of a person and social media also influence appearance and fashion of young adults. This research will also cover this aspect of personality. Education is very essential part of an individual's life for every teenager education is more important than anything. Social networking sites effecting the education of young adults in negative way because teenagers are becoming addict and not concentrating on their education and school work. Education also plays an important part in shaping personality and attitude of young people so considering this variable in this research is very important. (Tariq, W., Mehboob, M., Khan, M, A., and FaseeUllah., 2012)
Rapid growth in internet users in Pakistan resulted in dramatically increased in use of social networking websites which is impacting the attitudes and personality of young adults in Pakistan. It was identified that the change in the attitudes and behavior of young adults especially those who are engaged in social interaction with people on internet websites. The author addressed the problem is based on social networking which are change the personality with attitude of young and adult person.
The main objectives of the research are:
* To find out the impact of social networking sites on personality of young adults.
* To find out the impact of social networking sites on attitude of young adults.
Significance of the Research
This research will be significant to those who unaware about the impact of social networking websites on the attitude and personality of young adults such as parents and teachers. It will also help young adults to understand the importance of social networking in shaping their attitudes and personality.
According to Saleemet all, (2015) that social networking sites have huge impact on personality and attitudes of people. In this regard, a research showed that Social Networking Sites was primarily used for interaction with family and friends. It also has huge influence on interaction of youth. Research also found that males used social networking sites far more often for creating bond with other people while females did not use it as often. Previous research also reveals that the excessive use of social networking sites has a significant impact on the interaction patterns of youth with their families. In Pakistan, social networking is used to communicate with close relatives rather than weak ties or acquaintances. Researcher found that Social Networking Sites were adversely influencing the interactions of the youth with their families. According to Lee and Ashton, (2004) Sociability refers to individual's ability to socialize with other people.
Individuals high in sociability tend to be very interactive and socially active, they also enjoy being the focus of others attention. It is suggests that they love to be the part of a social community. Research supports the view that sociability predicts the attitude and behavior of an individual towards other people in his social community or group. Yinan Yu et all, (2014) Social network sites (SNSs) plot the actual academic and market because of their many more users, vast coverage and shocking increment pace, and allures more and more attentions of them. This kind of paper opinions empirical experiments about social networking sites (SNS) at individual amount, and categorizes these individuals in a couple of components. The primary component investigates the actual factors impact usages involving social networking sites (SNS) and the 2nd component investigates what type of results the actual social networking sites (SNS) carry to help users.
Soon after summarizing the leading articles and top features of both the types of existing scientific studies concerning social networking sites (SNS), we consider together with considerations for future research. Mark et all, (2014) said that the social network sites (SNS) is now the largest media that young adults use to connect and share common interest. Despite this popularity, students of Malaysia still not very much exposed to the use of social media or Social Networking Sites. A research on Malaysian student analyzed the impact of social networking sites on students' academic performance. Most of the students used Face book and Twitter to discuss the classroom lectures and lessons. Research also found that use of social media, i.e. Twitter, Facebook, will be very helpful in facilitating the learning process and use of these social platform or application can promote academic excellence.
As for businesses, they can also gain from promoting business and products that are used by students or young adults through these applications. The discussion from this research however does not represent the general sampling of Malaysian university students include fascinated considerable consideration among kids in addition to adults that are likely to connect in addition to write about widespread curiosity. Despite this acceptance, the matter regarding students' ownership regarding online networks remains being unexplored entirely with Malaysia. Motivated through this specific component, this specific examine ended up being built to analyze your influence regarding online networks in students academics performance with Malaysia.
Having a conceptual technique, the research gathered that will additional pupils desire using Myspace in addition to Twitting with academics associated conversations with complementing conventional classroom educating in addition to finding out pro cedure. So, it really is critical that will researchers in addition to academics companies ought to put into practice using these kinds of apps to promote academics quality. For income focused corporations such as bookshops, laptop or computer in addition to Smartphone one suppliers, they can advertise their particular merchandise via these kinds of apps in addition to employ pupils to make buys by means of these individuals getting grasped a large number of pupils desire in addition to utilize MySpace, Twitting in addition to Google+. The conversation because of this examine nevertheless does not signify the overall trying regarding Malaysian university pupils.
Subrahmanyam and Greenfield (2008) Studies that analyzed the impact of SNS are few in numbers, but fortunately researchers have the opportunity to gather insights from different past researches and combined theories to outline the current literature. The researchers have opportunity to explore new areas to research the impact on different aspects of lives of young adults. Information play a vital role in online interaction and due to continuous interaction on social media and real time updates, the flow of information on social networking websites is very smooth. This information plays an important part in social relationships. Any information related to one individual can affect other individual immediately. It is one of the reasons that Social Networking Sites are one of the major reasons of divorce in western countries. It also leads to fights and quarrels between young adults over different issues arising from the information seen or obtained through social networking sites.
Information also used to build business and academic links which also play useful role for student engage in social networking. Research suggests that trust has an important role in social networking; a minor distrust can lead to breakups and completely change attitude of an individual with others. (Hersberger, Murray, and Rioux, 2007; Christofides, Muise, andDesmarais, 2009; Mital, Israel, andAgarwal, 2010)
June Ahn, (2011) concluded that the youngsters usually are among the most public users involving social network sites (SNS). Rising studies and that will childhood commit some considerable percentage of their own existence interacts-e through web. Hereafter, inquiries as well as controversies arise regarding the consequences social networking sites (SNS) have got with teenage development. This specific evaluation shapes the actual theoretical frameworks researchers have used to know youth as well as social networking sites (SNS). Abdullah et al, (2014) indicates that the technology mediated social networking web page ideally will allow it is people to help communicate, develop and maintain relationships. User routine associated with social networking utilizes period along with reveals people report facts to help online menace.
Escalating protection problem need to get an examinee especially as the human population in the largely utilized online social networking web page has quickly enhanced to help concerning 4. 545 billion dollars people wasting a typical period associated with two a long time 43 just a few seconds daily. Your design influence associated with social networking web page reviewed targets the data used by verbal exchanges, connection also to interact socially along with some other people. The research highlighted alternative pathway to help defend against online protection dangers. According to Dr. Biswajitet all, (2013) actual expanding acceptance associated with social networking web-sites (SNS) one of the Internet users needs a great more self-examination associated with private in addition to societal behavior associated with human beings. Today 1.5 billion folks throughout the world possess his or her single profiles within social networking web-sites.
Everything seems pleasant once you produce a account with social networking web site, however the method that you experience while an individual will begin blackmailing using your private facts. Your manager threatens to help fireplace anyone regarding posting reviews with social networking sites (SNS). You sense compulsive to check the account through perform hours. SNS gets to be a reason regarding anxiousness in addition to dependency. The idea will begin which affects private romantic relationship with partner in addition to members of the family. Like websites help make individual existence in addition to community existence of your particular person searching. Another research surrounding social networking sites (SNS) and its impact on young adults, says that SNS are an intriguing new environment to research because the technology is such an integral part of teenage life.
Popularity of social media also raised the concerns of parents and teachers towards young adults because of the disturbance in studies and their routines. These concerns range from youth privacy, social development, psychological well-being, physical safety and academic performance. However, all the researches in this regards are in exploratory stages and researchers are still gathering data. Technology itself does not affect the learning or wellbeing of an individual however the change in behavior is caused by the social interaction and groups. Social interaction largely depends on the group to which a individual likely to belong and the other people in that social group or social networking sites (SNS)play key role in shaping the personality and behavior of that individual(June Ahn 2014)
Word of Mouth
Word of Mouth (WOM) is a powerful communication and marketing tool previously used by experts but now the word of mouth by customers on social networking sites also impact the buying decision of people (Brown, Broderick, and Lee, 2007; Kozinets, De Valck, Wojnicki, andWilner, 2010; Trusov, Bucklin, andPauwels, 2009). Word of mouth is one thing that also influence the young adults and through social media the this tool is widely used thus it has its own impact on youth which is sensitive to the change in fashion or lifestyle depending on the word of mouth circulation on Social Networking Sites or Community to which they belong. Social Networks are used by all type of people and WOM o social networking sites (SNS) covers formal, informal all type of information regarding a product or service rather than just advertising so the decision making for people using Social Networking Sites is relatively easy. (Taylor, Lewin, andStrutton, 2011)
Advertising directly affects the attitude of consumers and SNS are used to directly address consumers. It is observed that young adults are more interested in online advertisement than those on Televisions or on any other media (Kelly, Kerr, and Drennan, 2010). A research shows that attitude of young adults who uses social networking sites have more tendencies to change according to the advertisement done through social networks. (Ana Maria Soares, Jose Carlos Pinhoand Helena Nobre 2012) Education is an essential and integral part of an individual's life especially in this modern world. For every teenager, education is more important than anything in this competitive environment. Sadly, in current times, young adults are more interested in social media and almost 90% young adults engaged in social interaction on internet which harming their education.
It raises the concerns for their parents as well as teachers because it not only effecting their academic performance but also isolating them from other activities that are good for health, such as sports etc. As social networks have introduced many attractive tasks like online gaming, web advertisements, online competitions, free giveaways etc. so that people can never get out of it and specially young adults who find this attractive and never want to quit it. (Tariq, W., Mehboob, M., Khan, M, A., and FaseeUllah, 2012) According to a research, a social network addict becomes a useless node for family, friends and other people associated with him in his life. The adults who are addicted to SOCIAL NETWORKING SITES (SNS) are likely to have problems in their time management and also they have problems in maintaining their academic performance. Some cases also showed that SOCIAL NETWORKING SITES (SNS) also impact the eating and sleeping routing of young adults which is really dangerous.
Medically it is also harmful to continuously keep yourself in front of computer or Smartphone; it will harm the health of a young adult and also cause diseases such as Blood pressure, anxiety, and eye weakness. Young adults also involved in spying other people through stalking their profiles on social media or using their IDs for fun which is waste of time as well as socially immoral (Tariq, W., Mehboob, M., Khan, M, A., and FaseeUllah, 2012). Altman and Taylor (1973) says that the information available of social media about an individual also help others to understand the attitude and personality of person. It helps other to find likeminded people and also help in creating strong social groups with similar characteristic. Flow of information between individual in groups is fast and it creates strong bond between them but any changes in one's attitude also affects the other. Social media also influence the fashion preference of an individual depending on the outlook of the other people in group.
Strahilivetz2004) explains further about the social media that the participants were concerned with the ways in which friends trusted others but they did not behave in the manner in which the participant expected based on the information he has. For example, a person was "shocked" that his or her partner published the personal information on social media that was considered secret by both. Sometimes, misinterpretation and misjudgments also created troubles between social media friends due to small problems in the meanings or wording of a message circulated on social networking sites. As everyone knows that there is an impact of social networking sites (SNS) on young adults has both sides, positive and negative along the acknowledgement that social networking sites finish distance and all people near to another.
All people meet with relatives and family by Social Networking Sites (SNS) apps like face book, Whatsapp etc. the important is Social Networking Sites (SNS) in economically, Educationally development and success but all thing not perfect and keep negativity, abuses, and disadvantages so Social Networking Sites (SNS) users several place this thing unissued like one such application is the Social Networking Sites (SNS) a virtual community that allow user to communicate with each other so young adult is to establish close relationship with peers a romantic partner but user think most important source of social support more important than their families several users used to Social Networking Sites (SNS) keeping touch with old friends,making new friends, playing games, writing blogs, status reading news, uploading photos and passing times. It is also used to share information and other skills.
They are using Social Networking Sites (SNS) positively all social function and its recreational function. (Wang, J, L., Jackson, L, A., Wang, H., Gaskin, J., 2014) There are many impacts of Social Networking Sites (SNS) on personal and social life. All people like virtual communication that is used to connect and interact with each other. People use various tools of social networking sites, instant messaging video, email, and photo sharing sites, status updates and comment posting to communicate and socialize with each other.All people create profile easily and join social Networking sites any get a lots of opportunities to express their views connected to old friends, family members, making others new friends and also get connect with millions of users across the world.today a most popular social networking is "Face book" Its users increasing day by day. People spend over 700 billion minutes per month on face book.
There is a narrow gap of private and public life,only put personal data, image or video on websites than you can't stop its distribution, and your personal information see over all that time starting grow many problems because social networking sites giving more change easily available to any body registered at face book.Its privacy level so law, an individual person ply to emotion and same time start blackmailing so social networking sites are increasingly becoming a threat to the privacy of an individual specially women and control entry hacking accounts and band entry to other strong security to everyone, and no private data issue to public. Social Networking keeps biological import in our life. It also increases risk to health. Increasing addicted person influence mental performance and upset hormonal lives.Its risk of health problem like cancer, heart diseases. There are so many reasons of this impact in our life.
All users not eating, sleeping and working properly and spend more than an hour's on face book and create disturbing our personal life some times. They break marriage and divorce. Same people killed her/his family members and friends in a little issues of social networking and apply major crimes like cybercrimes. Social networking opportunity to health relationship in the society but some time offering cybercrime a great advantage to target victims and increasing cases of rape, murder in society because teen easily believe in live with the person they meet online and some place but they are falling to a reap of sexual predator. Majority of this crime involve mostly school and college going girls and they are targeted adult in sex by fake and profile identify. This reason they are going to dark future and hell our world, they are not going to dreams and happiness. We are remaining safe in Social Networking Sites (SNS) by change profile privacy.
Don't post very personal information and photos, address and your current location and negative thing about your life these thing avoid and safe your private life. Social Networking Sites (SNS) dangers to children for time spend online but the opportunity of mobilization and need of mobile easy to SMS in children hand this facility use all new generation and want to connect use communicate with people be friend offline and they also try that anybody don't investigate the phone. They are using password specially. According to the research onetime Facebook has more than 360 million active users half of which use this social platform daily and more than 3 billion photos uploaded and similar amount of content updated on this social platform on daily basis. This content includes status updates; news feed stories, data sharing and other similar activities. The activity on Face book during office timing is also very high. Few cases were reported where employees dismissed due to this activity.
One case also causes the termination of employee where He shared a bad status about his job. (Houghton, D, J., Joinson, A, N., 2010) Majority of studies find that social networking is used primarily for gathering social information and it is also used by people to gather information about a specific person. Further, a research focusing the students from Mainland China, find that students used social media for both, social information seeking and practical information gathering. This research also identifies the changes in culture prevailing in online social networking groups of Mainland China and Hong Kong. It further identified the differences between the online social networking in China and Hong-Kong and the importance of culture's role in shaping student's attitude. According to most case studies, Face book was mainly used for seeking social information.
However, the research suggests that Chinese Mainland students obtain support from Renren in order to attain social and practical information. The cultural differences between China and Hong Kong may be a reason why Renren and Face book may have faced the differences in the online habits between the two (Ellison et al., 2011), A research researching, how the difference in appearance and outlook of social platform can impact the social activities of a person. Research compared the Renren and Face book and found that Renren shared many technological and usage similarities with Facebook, the news feed and photo sharing function is used more often on Renren than on it is used on Facebook. The authors attributed that the technology and options that are used in social platform can impact the online culture and ultimately the information that people have about each other. Although local students do share information on Face book as well but the frequency and amount of information is larger in Renren.
The difference can be attributed to the multiple networks in which users are located physically such as a workplace. The closer the proximity to the problem being solved the greater the popularity. This even proves the point that even though online platforms offer an opportunity for cross border interactions, people still prefer locally bounded social circles. (Jiang and de Bruijn, (2014), Although the research is limited, this paper discusses the complicated relationship between online activities and offline network structures along with the impact of online activities on the behavior of users. Online activities are continuous though it involves lesser level of privacy compare to offline activity. People are more reserve on online networking and share controlled information on social platform whether during offline activities, the amount of information is large but it is secure due to control over information publication (Tian, X, 2015)
The data collected for the research is conducted through primary source. This can be illustrated through the questionnaire. The primary data was collected by using questionnaire method. The questionnaire has 30 questions and 5 LIKERT scale was used. And the question is close ended question. The scale has been grouped as follows:
- Strongly disagree
- Don't know
- Strongly agree
Sampling techniques is used to collect the data required based on experimental techniques. 120 samples of data we have collected from upper and middle level managers, employees of NETSAT Private Limited, Ciganet Private Limited, KandNs Company, TEXTRENDS PVT Ltd, FOLIO3, PandC Company, various software houses and also from various Tuition centers situated within and around Korangi, Karachi.
Survey questionnaires used to collect data from 120 respondents from concerns area although only 100 questionnaires were completed and valid for sampling purpose.
Test conducted on the basis of regression analysis to check the stability and authentication of the variables. In this research, the authors create a model after conducting a data collection through questioner and sampling also. The conceptual frame work is based on three things: social networking, personality and attitude. This model is used to check how reliable the data is. The questionnaire consists of multiple questions including dependent and independent variables.
H1: Social Networking Sites (SNSs) have impact on the personality of young adults.
H2: Social Networking Sites (SNSs) have impact on the attitude of young adults.
Interpretation of Results andHypothesis
Validity and the Reliability Test
With the use of SPSS, the reliability test is applied. This test is used to check how reliable the data is. The questionnaire consists of multiple questions including dependent and independent variables. To check the Reliability of the data the value of Cronbach's alpha should be greater than 50% or 0.5.The value of Cronbach's alpha is shown in table 1.
Table 1 The reliability of first variable SNS is 0.869 which is considered good, while the reliability of personality and attitude is 0.812 and 0.891 respectively, which is deemed acceptable.
Social Networking Sites###9###0.869###Good
The reliability of model and integrity of model is checked through ANOVA and through the value of Adjusted R square which is shown in Table 2.
Table 2 Model Summary, ANOVA and Coefficient Test Result (Personality)
Model###R###R Square###Adjusted R Square
The 'R' value shows the Coefficients of the Correlation which is the numerical measurement of strength of the linear relationship between the two variables. The 'R' value (.853a) showing that there is a positive correlation between the Independent Variable, Social Networking Site and the Dependent Variable personality.
The "R Square" is showing the Coefficient of the Determination which defines the square of the Coefficient of Correlation. The 'R Square' value indicates that the total of (.728) which means dependent variable Personality is 72.8% dependent on SNS.
Table 3 shows the result of ANOVA test and the significance is less than 0.05 i.e. 0.000 which shows it is significant. The ANOVA result indicates the model is fit for the regression analysis.
Table 3: ANOVA
Model###Sum of Squares###Diff###Mean Square###F###Sig.
The 'F' statistics (261.701) shows the combination of the variable, and the overall significance of the model. It means that the this model with independent variable, Social networking sites on
Dependent variable personality is overall significant and fit.
Table 4 Coefficients
The coefficients are important because they shows the effects of independent variable on dependent variable and in B we can see (0.823) which is the significantly positive impact on personality which is our dependent variable, it shows that if usage of social networking sites increases by 1 unit then there will have an impact of 0.823 unit on Personality.
Table 5 Model Summary, ANOVA and Coefficientsa Test Result (Attitude)
Model###R###R Square###Adjusted R Square
The 'R' value (.827a) showing that there is a positive correlation between the Independent Variable, Social Networking Site and the Dependent Variable Attitude.
The 'R Square' value indicates that the total of (.684) which means 68.4% dependability of Attitude on SNS.
Table 6 ANOVA
Model###Sum of Squares###Diff###Mean Square###F###Sig.
The 'F' statistics result is 211.8. It means that the independent variable, Social networking sites on Dependent variable attitude overall significant and fit for analysis.
Table 7 Coefficients
The coefficients explains the relationship between dependent and independent variable in detailed manner as looking at the value of "B" (0.769) we can see which is the significantly positive impact on attitude which is our dependent variable, it displays that if usage of social networking sites increases by 1 unit then there will be an impact in Attitude for about 0.769 units.
Result and Discussion
Social networking sites impacts the personality and attitude of young adults
As per the data collected in this research and processing of results gathered through statistical analysis, the Social Networking Sites do have a strong impact on Attitude and Personality of young adults. As the results shows there is a strong relationship between SNS, Personality and Attitude. It also shows that the increased use of SNS affects both personality and attitude of young adults. The author also analyzed that impact of independent variable SNS is almost equal on dependent variables Attitude and Personality it may be due to the fact that both, Personality and Attitude are linked to each other. The author tested both hypotheses, Social Networking Sites (SNSs) have impact on the Personality of young adults and Social Networking Sites (SNSs) have impact on Attitude of young adult. According to the result, both hypotheses are true and accepted.
The author selected this research topic because of increasing importance and usage of social media in shaping the behaviors of youth and also our business trends, Author has found that very few Pakistani researchers conducted their researches on this topic so studies on this topic in Pakistani environment are limited. This is explored literature written and prepared outside Pakistan and most of them confirming the fact that SNS have huge impact on young adults. Researchers primarily focused on the habits and personalities of people who use SNS. Those researches suggested that SNS play effective role in shaping habits, attitude, personality, and behaviors of the people. After the review of previous researches, the author decided to check the impact of SNS on Attitude and Personality of young adults specifically youth residing in and around Korangi, Karachi. The Author chooses these two variables because these two are primary attributes of an individual especially young adult.
After analyzing the data of 100 different people, I explained each variable separately for the clarity of statements. Results showed that SNS have huge impact on Attitude and Personality of Young adult. Both, Attitude and Personality have positive relation with the usage of SNS by young adults. Young adults try to improvise their look and appearances because of ongoing trends on social media. However Attitude of students also differs as few respondents think people waste time on SNS instead of focusing on education. My hypotheses about impact of SNS on Attitude and Personality resulted to be true.
After going through with the finding, the author has few recommendations which can mention in this research work and surely helpful for the researchers who are looking forward to research in this area. According to author finding, SNS playing an important role in lives of young adult who use social media and also in lives of other people as well. SNS not only limited to young adult but it is also a good platform for business entities specially those who want to target young adults so it is also a good area for marketing research as we can get first hand data and consumer feedback directly through SNS. From a government and education perspective, it is a good platform to raise awareness about society betterment. It can also use for educational and e-learning platform. Government can also use social media to reach young adults and address their concerns and problem regarding their education and employment.
From a business perspective, already many organizations involved in promoting online b usiness on SNS but it can also be used for home based job such as free lancing etc.
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Kindly fill the following questionnaire by responding to each statement as per your perspective. Your personal information will remain strictly confidential. Thank you so much for your valuable time.
Age Group###18-21###22-25###26-29###30 and Above
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|Author:||Saeed, Soobia; Shaikh, Asaduallah; Memon, Muhammad Ali|
|Publication:||International Journal of Arts and Humanities|
|Date:||Dec 31, 2018|
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