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Ilza Veith (1912-2013) and Genevieve Miller (1914-2013): long lives dedicated to the history of medicine/Ilza Veith (1912-2013) e Genevieve Miller (1914-2013): longas vidas dedicadas a historia da medicina.

My first contact with Ilza Veith and Genevieve Miller was when I was researching biographical data about Henry Ernest Sigerist (1891-1957). The first information I found was that both had been students of Sigerst, a man who was considered to be the most important historian of medicine during the first half of the twentieth century, and that both women were part of the first group that was dedicated to a field that was then in the process of being institutionalized at Johns Hopkins University--the history of medicine.

I knew that Ilza was the first female PhD in the area of the history of medicine, and that she had been the only student to be supervised by Sigerist. I also knew that she had been a research assistant and secretary to Sigerist and that she had organized his complete bibliography.

I subsequently widened my knowledge about these female historians, principally from reading their autobiographies and some other studies (1,2).

Before speaking more about these two women it is important to highlight the importance of Sigerist, a figure who accompanied their lives for many years. He was born on April 7, 1891 in Paris, the son of Swiss parents (Ernest Heinrich Sigerist and Emma Sigerist). At the age of 10 he moved to Zurich, where he subsequently graduated in 1910, and in the following two years he studied oriental languages in Zurich and London. From 1911 to 1917 he turned to medicine and attended the universities of Zurich and Munich, obtaining the title of Doctor of Medicine from the University of Zurich. He started his academic career as a Privatdozent (Assistant Professor) of the History of Medicine in Zurich in 1921, and he was Professor of the History of Medicine and Director of the Institute of the History of Medicine at the University of Leipzig from 1925 to 1932. In 1932 he transferred to the Johns Hopkins University where, in the previous year, he had been a visiting professor. He remained at Johns Hopkins University until he returned to Switzerland in 1947, where he lived the last ten years of his life in the city of Pura, near Lugano. He died on March 17, 1957. From his extensive work, which became a mandatory source of consultation in the history of medicine, and in areas of social and human sciences, some examples can be mentioned: The Great Doctors: a Biographical History of Medicine, 1933; Civilization and Disease, 1944 (translated into Portuguese, publisher Hucitec/Sobravime, 2011), Primitive and Archaic Medicine, 1951; Early Greek, Hindu and Persian Medicine, 1961 and hundreds of articles, for example, The Special Position of the Sick, 1929 (3).

Ilza and Genevieve had long and successful academic careers, although when Ilza decided to carry out postgraduate studies Sigerist warned her of the precarious future for a historian with these words: "Well, you can always teach German or something else" (1). This was in 1943: years later she would face not the problem of a career, but a serious disease.

The two women came from different countries and academic backgrounds: Ilza was born in Germany in the city of Ludwigshafen on May 13, 1912 and studied medicine in Geneva and Vienna. Moss3 reports that If she completed her medical studies, as seems likely, before leaving Europe with her husband in 1937, she never practiced medicine or used the initials MD after her name in the US.

Genevieve was studying for her bachelor's degree in chemistry at Goucher College in Baltimore and was dazzled when she heard Sigerist speak for the first time. This occurred in 1934 when she was twenty years old; she was born on October 15, 1914, in Butler. In 1935 she was accepted at the Institute of the History of Medicine at Johns Hopkins University, where she completed her master's degree in 1939 (2).

Ilza and Genevieve followed different paths in the field of the history of medicine but both their careers were influenced by their training and experience of working with Sigerist, which began in the 1940s and 1930s, respectively.

Ilza was awarded her doctorate in 1947 and she worked in various universities. She was Associate Professor in the History of Medicine at the University of Chicago (1949-1963), Professor of the History of Medicine at the University of California, San Francisco (1964-1979) and also Professor Emeritus at the same university. She became an expert in the history of Chinese medicine, which was her main point of contact with Sigerist since her first meeting with the historian. When Sigerist learned of her translation of a Chinese text, he suggested that her thesis should be the translation and analysis of the Yellow Emperor's Classic of Internal Medicine (4) which would become a reference work. She also dedicated himself to the history of psychiatry (she wrote a book about the history of hysteria (5)) as well as numerous articles, including one about acupunture (6) and another that drew parallels between AIDS, leprosy and syphilis (7).

In 1964 Ilza suffered a hemiplegic stroke which left her with serious after-effects. Later, in 1983, she wrote a moving account of her experience of the illness entitled Can You Hear the Clapping of One Hand? Learning to Live with a Stroke (8). In the opinion of Moss (3). It remains a classic of the genre, permeated by the voice of a historian, the memories of a medical student, and a severely wounded spirit. Ilza possessed a profound knowledge of Eastern culture and her book's title is a reference to a Zen Buddhist koan, You Can Hear the Sound of Two Hands When They Clap Together (which was impossible for Ilza to do after her stroke) But Now Show Me The Sound of One Hands. At the end of her story she confesses that, "although I may have gotten used to my permanent disability I do not believe I have been reconciled to it" and that it good that she had not followed his mother's wishes for her to become a violinist, and certainly not to have followed the medical career that she herself had considered --that of a plastic surgeon. Overcoming great difficulties (the use of orthopaedic aids and a wheelchair, unable to use her left hand and in chronic pain) the disease did not stop a brilliant academic career (3,8).

Genevieve's career was not only marked by her publications in the area of the history of medicine, but also by her bibliographical research, which was also one of the interests of her intellectual mentor Sigerist. This was certainly one of the reasons why, in 1954, two weeks before the first cerebral accident that would lead to his death three years later, Sigerist called Genevieve and told her that the best that could be done, and which would show that his life had been useful, would not be an extensive obituary, but the publication of his complete bibliography. From Sigerist's wish, Genevieve made a splendid tribute, in whose preface she writes: As a disciple, former research secretary and assistant to Henry Sigerist at Johns Hopkins, my obligation to this man, who had true greatness of spirit, will never cease (9). Before that, in 1955, Genevieve defended her doctorate in the history of science, with a thesis entitled The adoption of inoculation for smallpox in England and France, at the University of Cornel. In addition to the bibliography of the works of Sigerist, which was published in 1966 (9) (there is a copy of the first edition in the library of the FCM/ Unicamp), Genevieve organized the bibliography of the history of medicine in the United States and Canada during the period 1939-1960 (10). It should also be noted that Genevieve was the first non-medical director of the Dittrick Museum of Medical History at Case Western Reserve University (CWRU) in 1967, where she was a researcher and Assistant Professor of the History of Medicine in the School of Medicine since 1953 (11).

Both women died in June 2013; Ilza died on the 8th, at the age of 101, and Genevieve on the 23rd, at the age of 99. Both had long careers devoted to the history of medicine, and both were pioneers in the field. They left a respectable body of work and they also helped to train numerous researchers, who have given continuity to their work.

DOI: 10.1590/1413-81232015207.10942015

References

(1.) Veith I, Henry E. Sgerist: orientalist. In: Fee E, Brow TM, editors. Making medical history: the life and times of Henry E. Sigerist. Baltimore, London: The Johns Hopkings University Press; 1997. p. 81-92.

(2.) Miller G. A European outpost in America: the Hopkins Institute, 1932-1947. In: Fee E, Brow TM, editors. Making medical history: the life and times of Henry E. Sigerist. Baltimore, London: The Johns Hopkings University Press; 1997. p. 63-80.

(3.) Moss S. Ilza Veith (1912-2013). Newsletter. American Association for History of Medicine 2014; 104:7-9.

(4.) Veith I. Yellow Emperor's Classic of Internal Medicine. Oakland: University of California Press; 1966.

(5.) Veith I. Hysteria: The History of a Disease. Chicago: University of Chicago Press; 1965.

(6.) Veith I. Acupuncture-Past and Present: Verity or Delusion. JAMA 1962; 180:478-884.

(7.) Veith I. Parallels Between AIDS, Leprosy, and Syphilis. Hawaii Medical Journal 1990; 51(11):300-304.

(8.) Veith I. Can You Hear the Clapping of One Hand? Learning to Live with a Stroke. Oakland: University of California Press; 1988 [acessado 2014 set 10]. Disponivel em: http://books.google.com.br/books?id=7bsFf3abNgC&printsec=frontcover&hl=pt-BR#v=onepage&q&-f=false

(9.) Miller G. A bibliography of the writings of Henry E. Sigerist. Quebec: McGill University Press; 1966.

(10.) Miller G. Bibliography of the history of medicine in the United States and Canada, 1939-1960. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press; 1964.

(11.) Edmonson JM. Genevieve Miller (1914-2013). American Association for History of Medicine 2013; 102:8-10.

Article submitted 10/11/2014

Approved 19/02/2015

Final version submitted 21/02/2015

Everardo Duarte Nunes [1]

[1] Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas. R. Tessalia Vieira de Camargo, Cidade Universitaria Zeferino Vaz. 13083-887 Campinas SP Brasil. evernunes@uol.com.br

O meu primeiro contato com Ilza Veith e com Genevieve Miller foi quando estava pesquisando dados biograficos de Henry Ernest Sigerist (1891-1957). A primeira informacao e que ambas haviam sido alunas daquele que foi considerado o historiador da medicina mais importante da primeira metade do seculo XX e fizeram parte da primeira turma que se dedicou a um campo que estava se institucionalizando na Johns Hopkins University--historia da medicina.

De Ilza, sabia que havia sido a primeira doutora em historia da medicina e unica orientanda de Sigerist, e da segunda, que havia sido auxiliar de pesquisa e secretaria do historiador e organizado a sua bibliografia completa.

Posteriormente, ampliei meus conhecimentos sobre as historiadoras, em especial a partir de seus relatos autobiograficos e na leitura de alguns trabalhos (1,2).

Antes de falar das historiadoras e importante que se destaque a figura de Sigerist, que ira acompanhar durante muitos anos as suas vidas. Nasceu em 7 de abril de 1891, em Paris, filho de pais suicos (Ernest Heinrich Sigerist e Emma Sigerist). Com a idade de 10 anos mudou-se para Zurich onde se formou em 1910 e, nos dois anos seguintes, fez cursos de linguas orientais em Zurich e em Londres. No periodo de 1911 a 1917 volta-se para a medicina cursando as universidades de Zurich e Munich, obtendo o titulo de Doutor em Medicina pela Universidade de Zurich. Inicia a carreira universitaria que o levaria de Privatdozent (Professor Assistente) de Historia da Medicina em Zurich, em 1921, a Professor de Historia da Medicina e Diretor do Instituto de Historia da Medicina da Universidade de Leipzig, de 1925 a 1932. Em 1932 transfere-se para a Universidade de Johns Hopkins onde, no ano anterior, havia estado como professor-visitante, la permanecendo ate voltar para a Suica em 1947, onde viveu seus ultimos dez anos na cidade de Pura, proxima a Lugano. Faleceu no dia 17 de marco de 1957. Da sua extensa obra, que se tornou consulta obrigatoria na historia da medicina e em areas das ciencias sociais e humanas, podem ser citados alguns exemplares: The Great Doctors: a Biographical History of Medicine, 1933; Civilization and Disease, 1944 (ha traducao para o portugues, editora Hucitec/Sobravime, 2011), Primitive and Archaic Medicine, 1951; Early Greek, Hindu and Persian Medicine, 1961; e centenas de artigos, como, por exemplo, The Special Position of the Sick, 1929 (3).

Ilza e Genevieve seguiriam uma longa e bem sucedida carreira academica, embora como observasse Sigerist quando llza resolveu fazer a posgraduacao e frente ao futuro de um historiador alertasse: Bem, voce pode sempre ensinar alemao ou alguma outra coisa (1). Isto foi em 1943. Anos mais tarde ela enfrentaria nao o problema de uma carreira, mas um serio problema de doenca.

Vinham de paises e origens universitarias distintas: Ilza, nascida na Alemanha, na cidade de Ludwigshafen, em 13 de maio de 1912, estudou medicina em Genebra e Viena. Moss (3) relata que Se ela completou seus estudos medicos, como parece provavel, antes de deixar a Europa com o marido em 1937, ela nunca praticou a medicina ou usou MD depois de seu nome nos Estados Unidos.

Genevieve estava cursando o bacharelado em quimica, no Goucher College em Baltmore, e ficou deslumbrada ao ouvir Sigerist pela primeira vez. Isto ocorreu em 1934 e Genevieve, tinha vinte anos, havia nascido em 15 de outubro de 1914, em Butler. Um ano depois seria aceita no Institute of the History of Medicine da Johns Hopkins University, onde completou o mestrado em 1939 (2).

Ilza e Genevieve seguiriam distintos caminhos no campo da historia, mas levariam a marca da formacao recebida e da experiencia de trabalho com Sigerist, iniciada nas decadas de 1940 e 1930, respectivamente.

Ilza concluiu seu doutorado em 1947 e trabalhou em diversas universidades: professora associada em Historia da Medicina na Universidade de Chicago (1949-1963), professora de Historia da Medicina na Universidade da California, em San Francisco (1964-1979) e professora emerita dessa universidade. Tornou-se especialista em historia da medicina chinesa, ponto principal de contato com Sigerist desde o seu primeiro encontro, quando o historiador, ao saber da sua traducao de um texto chines, sugeriu para sua tese a traducao e a analise do Yellow Emperor's Classic of Internal Medicine (4), que se tornaria uma obra de referencia. Dedicou-se tambem a historia da psiquiatria, escrevendo um livro sobre a historia da histeria (5) e inumeros artigos, dos quais citamos um sobre acupuntura (6) e outro fazendo um paralelo entre AIDS, lepra e sifilis (7).

Em 1964, Ilza sofreu um acidente vascular cerebral hemiplegico com serias sequelas. Mais tarde, em 1983, ela escreveu um comovente relato sobre a sua experiencia com a doenca, intitulado: Can You Hear the Clapping of One Hand? Learning to Live with a Stroke (8). Para Moss (3), permanece como um classico do genero, permeado pela voz de uma historiadora, das memorias de uma estudante de medicina e de um espirito gravemente ferido. Profunda conhecedora da cultura oriental, o titulo do livro e tirado de um koan Zenbudista You can hear the sound of two hands when they clap together, impossivel para ela apos o AVC, mas Now show me the sound of one hand (8). No final do seu relato ela confessa que, embora possa ter-me acostumado a minha permanente incapacidade, nao acredito que tenha me reconciliado com ela e que foi bom nao ter seguido os desejos de sua mae de se tornar uma violinista e nem de ter seguido a carreira medica que havia pensando--a de cirurgia plastica. Superando grandes dificuldades (uso de aparelho ortopedico e cadeira de rodas, nao poder usar a mao esquerda e a dor cronica) a doenca nao impediu uma brilhante carreira academica (3,8).

A carreira de Genevieve foi nao somente marcada pela sua producao em historia da medicina, mas na pesquisa bibliografica que tambem era um dos interesses do seu mentor intelectual Sigerist. Isso, certamente, fez com que em 1954, duas semanas antes do primeiro acidente cerebral que o levaria a morte tres anos depois, ele a chamasse e dissesse-lhe que o melhor que podia ser feito e que mostraria que a sua vida tinha sido util, nao seria um extenso obituario, mas a publicacao de sua bibliografia completa. Esse desejo Genevieve realizou num esplendido trabalho, em cujo prefacio escreve: Como discipula, ex-secretaria de pesquisa e assistente de Henry Sigerist na Johns Hopkins, minha obrigacao para este homem que possuia verdadeira grandeza de espirito nunca cessara (9). Este pedido seria realizado, mas antes, em 1955, Genevieve defendeu o doutorado em historia da ciencia, com a tese intitulada The adoption of inoculation for smallpox in England and France, na Universidade de Cornnel. Alem da bibliografia da obra de Sigerist, publicada em 1966 (9) (ha um exemplar dessa 1a edicao na biblioteca da FCM/Unicamp), havia organizado a bibliografia da historia da medicina nos Estados Unidos e Canada, no periodo de 1939-1960 (10). Ressalte-se tambem que Genevieve foi a primeira diretora nao medica do Dittrick Museum of Medical History, na Case Western Reserve University (CWRU), em 1967, onde desde 1953 era pesquisadora e professora assistente de historia da medicina na Escola de Medicina (11).

Ambas faleceram no mes de junho de 2013, Ilza faleceu com 101 anos, no dia 8 e Genevieve, no dia 23, aos 99 anos. Longas carreiras dedicadas a historia da medicina, pioneiras nesse campo deixaram nao somente uma obra respeitavel, mas formaram inumeros pesquisadores que tem dado continuidade aos seus trabalhos.

Referencias

(1.) Veith I, Henry E. Sgerist: orientalist. In: Fee E, Brow TM, editors. Making medical history: the life and times of Henry E. Sigerist. Baltimore, London: The Johns Hopkings University Press; 1997. p. 81-92.

(2.) Miller G. A European outpost in America: the Hopkins Institute, 1932-1947. In: Fee E, Brow TM, editors. Making medical history: the life and times of Henry E. Sigerist. Baltimore, London: The Johns Hopkings University Press; 1997. p. 63-80.

(3.) Moss S. Ilza Veith (1912-2013). Newsletter. American Association for History of Medicine 2014; 104:7-9.

(4.) Veith I. Yellow Emperor's Classic of Internal Medicine. Oakland: University of California Press; 1966.

(5.) Veith I. Hysteria: The History of a Disease. Chicago: University of Chicago Press; 1965.

(6.) Veith I. Acupuncture-Past and Present: Verity or Delusion. JAMA 1962; 180:478-884.

(7.) Veith I. Parallels Between AIDS, Leprosy, and Syphilis. Hawaii Medical Journal 1990; 51(11):300-304.

(8.) Veith I. Can You Hear the Clapping of One Hand? Learning to Live with a Stroke. Oakland: University of California Press; 1988 [acessado 2014 set 10]. Disponivel em: http://books.google.com.br/books?id=7bsFf3abNgC&printsec=frontcover&hl=pt-BR#v=onepage&q&f=false

(9.) Miller G. A bibliography of the writings of Henry E. Sigerist. Quebec: McGill University Press; 1966.

(10.) Miller G. Bibliography of the history of medicine in the United States and Canada, 1939-1960. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press; 1964.

(11.) Edmonson JM. Genevieve Miller (1914-2013). American Association for History of Medicine 2013; 102:8-10.

Artigo apresentado em 10/11/2014

Aprovado em 19/02/2015

Versao final apresentada em 21/02/2015

Everardo Duarte Nunes [1]

[1] Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas. R. Tessalia Vieira de Camargo, Cidade Universitaria Zeferino Vaz. 13083-887 Campinas SP Brasil. evernunes@uol.com.br
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