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Identifying brand new technologies to accomplish sustainable agriculture in Iran.

Introduction

Today, in order to meet the needs of food for the increasing population, the use of chemical pesticides for increasing crops is very common. And since the soil and water resources are limited, it is impossible to increase the cultivation spaces. On the other hand, in agricultural procedure, controlling pests and diseases and combating the weeds is inevitable due to the damage they may cause to the crops [23]. In case Pests are not controlled, around 35% of the crops may fail during different stages of development of the crops [19]. So far, about 600 types of disease have been identified for plants which can destroy at least 25% of the crops [17]. Weeds can decrease the production of crops up to 40% in case they're not controlled during different stages of development of the corps [16]. For combating these damaging factors, diverse methods can be applied including mechanical, biological, chemical and integrated methods one of which (chemical) is the most common and effective way of combating pests, diseases and weeds. As the population and the need for food increase, the chance of using mechanical and biological methods decreases and in most of the world even in developed countries, despite the knowledge of danger of chemical toxins, these substances are still used in large scales and this method is one of the most popular controlling ways. Although, the effects of using chemical pesticides in increasing the production and food is undeniable and according to information released by international organization of FAO, between 30 to 50 % of this increase has been due to the use of these chemical pesticides. It worth noting that the extreme and incautious usage of these toxins and pesticides contradicts ecological principals and can cause a variety of problems including: 1) production of resistant varieties against toxins 2) negative effects on non-target creatures Like parasitoides and predators 3) prevalence of second rate pests 4) remainders of chemicals in agricultural products 5) direct poisoning of producer and consumer [9]. Acknowledging the importance of controlling pests, diseases and weeds and also the need of great deal of attention to production of vegetation food, the current research by the title of Identifying brand new technologies to accomplish sustainable agriculture, aims at suggesting new techniques for applying in order to accomplish the production of healthy and chemical-free and eco-friendly products.

Material and methods

In this study, by focusing on valid agricultural websites, it is intended to review some of the most prominent studies in the literature of Iranian agricultural engineers and to introduce the methods and techniques for substituting or eliminating the use of chemical methods. This study will be presented in four sections which are all innovative and new ways of substitution of: 1) pesticide toxins 2) disease controlling toxins 3) herbicides and 4) chemical fertilizers.

Results and discussion

1) Pests:

According to various studies, the amount of pesticides in agricultural products has been reported several times more than the standard level. For instance, in exported products of nuts, in Cities of Rafsanjan and Kerman, 35 % of peanut samples, were reported to contain diazinone2/5 times as much as the standard level. And 24% of the samples contained endosulfan 1.5 times more, and finally 21% of them were contaminated with Ethion even 15 times more than the standard amount.

In another shared research carried out by Research Institution of plant protection and environmental protection agency, it was discovered that the river Sefidroud and Karoon in Northern and southern Iran, respectively, contained non-standard amounts of pesticides such as Diazinone, Fenthion and Ethion [9]. Integrated Pest Management is a method composed of farming, biologic and chemical techniques of combat against pests without effecting the environment and health of products negatively [2].

2) Diseases:

Many researches have been done around controlling plant diseases without application of chemical toxins, several of which are mentioned below.

Heidary Faroughi et al. [14], proved that Trichoderma isolates can control the disease Phytophthora drechsleri. Nasr isfahany [21], in his research showed that greenhouse soil contaminated by Phytophthora drechsleri disease, nematodes, and weeds, can be disinfected by Soil-solarization in cucumber product in City Isfahan and the results showed that cucumber Phytophthora drechsleri was controlled up to 90% and population of Pythium, phytophthora and fusarium fungi was reduced significantly. Further Investigation of Meloidogyne javanica nematodes also showed that plastic covers alone can controle these nematodes. Maleki Ziarati [20] investigated the biologic control of Meloidogyne javanica (Trube) Chitwood by Trichoderma harzianum rifai fungi in greenhouse, and concluded that T. harzianum fungus can activate the immune system of plant against nematodes. Hosseini et al. [10] discovered that Aloe Vera extract, can destroy Pythium and fusarium fungi, which are the cause of many plant diseases. Foruzan et al. [6], succeeded in controlling Bacilos thuringiensis bacterium in grape farms.

3) Weeds:

Nasr Isfahany [21] in his research found out that soil contaminated by weeds can be disinfected by soil-solarization and the results further showed that eventually, all weeds were almost destroyed in plant treatment with plastic cover. This control was the half only in Yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus) and Field milk-thistle, was around 50 %.

Siyami [24], worked on trap plants for controlling Orobanche aegyptiaca in greenhouse tomatoes. Trifolium alexandrium was identified as strong stimulus and sunflower and chili were identified as week stimuli. Flax and broom Sorghum were known as strong trap plants and Phaseolus vulgaris, Chickpea, Lens culinaris and Vicia faba were recognized as week trap plants. Other products like wheat, oat, corn, sugar beet (Beta vulgaris), sesame, and soybean were not considered as host or stimulus or trap plants.

4) Chemical fertilizers:

Eydizadeh et al. [5], in their study investigated the effect of biologic or organic fertilizers on corn (zea mays). The result confirmed that the most efficacy of corn was achieved in treatment with chemical and biological (nitroxine and microbial phosphate) fertilizers which was about 50%. Kiany Rad [18], reported that Phosphate solubilizing microorganisms can increase the production of agricultural products like wheat and soybean. Jasemi et al. [15], stated that green fertilizers can increase soil fertility, control the soil erosion, and increase the efficacy of products. Didehban et al. [4] and Burburi et al. [3] emphasized on positive effects of organic fertilizers and Phosphate solubilizing bacteria fertilizers on Canola plant. Sharifi [23], stated that organic modifiers (Manure fertilizer, Sugarcane bagasse) can increase absorption and decrease leaching of soil and specially can remove toxins like Endosulfane from soil.

Results and Recommendations:

A large extends of researches and studies have been done towards accomplishing a healthy production and protection of the environment by Iranian Scholars. Currently there are different ways for controlling major pests such as white flies, ticks, aphid, leaf and fruit borer larva, fungi diseases, nematodes and weeds without using chemical pesticides, furthermore, by applying other new techniques the use of chemical fertilizers can be reduced or even eliminated. Even though, by generalizing the findings of these researches to real settings and by transferring this information to farmers, and also by facilitating farmers' access to necessary equipment, we can hope that no more over-toxicated agricultural products will be produced which can lead both to a better exportation of products and having healthier producers and consumers and eventually a sustainable, environmentally friendly agriculture can be achieved.

References

[1.] Arbabi, M., 2006. The study of performance of Phytoseiuluspersimilis A.H. predatory mites in controlling Tetranychusurticae Koch in cucumber in greenhouses with metal and wood skeletal in the region of Varamin. Research Institution of Pests and plant Diseases of Jihad Organization. Avaiable online at Iranian scientific information website.

[2.] Azimi, A., 2007. Sustainable integrated management in agriculture. First international seminar of management and development of sustainable agriculture in Iran. Collection of articles, pp: 843.

[3.] Burburi, M., M. Hemmati, D. Eradatmand Asli, 2010. Protective farming of Canola using phosphorussolubilizing bacteria. The first international seminar on approaches for achieving a sustainable agriculture. Payamnoor University of Khuzestan Province.

[4.] Didehban, B., A. Abedipour, M. Honarmandian and D. Beigiboni, 2010. Effect of mixture of Azospirillum and ethobacterber organic fertilizers on Minerals in three types of Canola leaves in Khuzestan. The first international seminar on approaches for achieving a sustainable agriculture. Payamnoor University of Khuzestan Province.

[5.] Eydizadeh, Kh., F. Ibrahimpour, M. Rezvany, M. Ibrahimi, 2010. Effects of application of biological fertilizers on performance of Corn in Dezfoul City. The first international seminar on approaches for achieving a sustainable agriculture. Payamnoor University of Khuzestan Province.

[6.] Foruzan, M., H. Nouri, M. Rezayi, M. Hasanzadeh, 2010. The effect of BacilosThuringiensis on Planococcus Citri grown insect. First International Congress of Science and new Technologies of University of Zanjan.

[7.] Ghadiri, H., C.W. Rose, 2011. Degration of endosulfan in clay soil from cotton farms of western Qeenland. Journal of Environmental management, 62: 155-169.

[8.] Heidary, A. Moharami, Pourmirza Ali, A. Talebi, 2005. The effects of Pyriroxyphen, Buprophizine, and phenpropatrine, insecticides on population growth index of greenhouse .Trialeurodesvaporariorum Westwood. Journal of Agricultural Science, pp: 353-361.

[9.] Heidary, A., 2010. Necessities for production of healthy and organic food. Agriculture world Magezine, 16: 12.

[10.] Hosseini, H., S. Malayi, H. Alayi, N. PanjeKale and M. Salari, 2010. Investigaionof anti-fungi advantage of Aloe Vera against fungi diseases of plants. First International Congress of Science and new Technologies of University of Zanjan.

[11.] Hosseini, H., S. Malayi, H. Alayi, N. PanjeKale and M. Salari, 2010. Investigaionof anti-fungi advantage of Aloe Vera against fungi diseases of plants. First International Congress of Science and new Technologies of University of Zanjan.

[12.] Hosseini, H., S. Malayi, H. Alayi, N. PanjeKale and M. Salari, 2010. Investigaionof anti-fungi advantage of Aloe Vera against fungi diseases of plants. First International Congress of Science and new Technologies of University of Zanjan.

[13.] Hosseini, H., S. Malayi, H. Alayi, N. PanjeKale and M. Salari, 2010. Investigaionof anti-fungi advantage of Aloe Vera against fungi diseases of plants. First International Congress of Science and new Technologies of University of Zanjan.

[14.] Heidary Farouqi, SH., H. Zamanizadeh, H. Etebarian, 2009. Evaluation of Trichoderma isolates for biologic control of Phytophthoradrechsleri disease in greenhouse. Available online at Iranian scientific information website.

[15.] Jasemi, Kh., M. Behdani, S. Kheradmand, 2010. The necessity of using Green fertilizer to obtain a sustainable agriculture. The first international seminar on approaches for achieving a sustainable agriculture. Payamnoor University of Khuzestan Province.

[16.] Johnson, B., G. Nice, 2007. Purdue extension weeds science.

[17.] Khodavirdy, R., 2010. Biologic control, a guideline to obtain sustainable agriculture and organic products. The first international seminar on approaches for achieving a sustainable agriculture. Payamnoor University of Khuzestan Province.

[18.] Kianyrad, M., 1994. Investigation of phosphate solubilizing Microorganisms and its effect on reduction of consumption of phosphorus fertilizers in soybean. Master dissertation, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tehran.

[19.] Mazahery, D., N. Majnun Hoseini, 2001. General Principals of Agriculture, pp: 263.

[20.] Maleki Ziaraty, H., A. Roustayi, N. Sahebani, 2008. Investigating possibility of controlling tomato nematodes of Meloidogynejavanica (Trube) Chitwood using Trichodermaharzianum Rifai fungi in greenhouse and quantity fluctuationsof Phenolic compounds in plants. Available online at Iranian scientific information website.

[21.] Nasir Isafahani, M., 2007. Greenhouse Soil Disinfection from drechsleri disease and other negative factors and weeds by soil solarization of cucumber in Isfahan. Institution of agricultural research of Isfahan publication.

[22.] Sadat Shejami, Sh., M. Moezzipour and M. Seyedi, 2007. Biological combat against pests using Brokon bees. Journal of Agriculture and Food, 650: 62.

[23.] Sharififar, SH., 2010. Sustainable management of toxins and controlling contamination of water and soil in Agriculture sector using Mineral modifiers. The first international seminar on approaches for achieving a sustainable agriculture. Payamnoor University of Khuzestan Province.

[24.] Siami, K., S. Vazan, S. Jamshidy, A. Mohamad Rahim, 2006. Application of farm products as trap plants for controlling Orobancheaegyptiaca in greenhouse tomato.

[25.] Zibayi, K., B. Hatami, 1999. Separate and simultaneous use of Hippodamiavariegata Goeze and ChrysoperlacarneaSteph in biologic combat against Aphis gossypii Glover in greenhouses. Journal of agricultural science and natural resources.

(1) Hassan Rahmany, (2) Fateme Nuraky

(1) Department of Agriculture Payam Noor University, P.O.B. 19395-3697, Tehran, Iran.

(2) Shoushtar Branch, Islamic Azad university, Shoushtar, Iran.

Corresponding Author

Hassan Rahmany, Department of Agriculture Payam Noor University, P.O.B. 19395-3697, Tehran, Iran.

E-mail: rahmany2003@yahoo.com
Table 1: Shows some of the researches done in the domain of
integrated pest management. Researches done in the domain
of integrated pest management

Research results                           Research features

Integrated control of greenhouse white     Heidary et al.
flies using buprofizine, priproxifen       (2008)
(regulators of growth of insects) and
pirthroide, fenpropatrine

Integrated control of greenhouse white     Ahmadzadeh et al.
flies(Trialeurodes vaporariorum West).     (2008)
And Chrysoperla carnea (Steph.) using
green baltory and confidore insecticide

Controlling Minoz leafminer flies using    Rajabi et al. (2006)
yellow cards and biological factors

Separate and simultaneous use of           Zibayi et al. (1999)
Hippodamia variegate Goeze and
Chrysoperla carnea Steph in biologic
combat against Aphis gossypii Glover
in greenhouses

Efficient application of Phytoseiulus      Arbabi (2005)
persimilis A.H in controlling
Tetranychusurticae Koch in cucumber in
greenhouses

Controlling fruit and leaf larva using     Sadat Shejami et
trichogramma brassicae (parazitoides),     al. (2007)
Habrobracon hebator, chilosuppressalis
purchase Iceryain disease Pseudococcidae
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Title Annotation:Original Article
Author:Rahmany, Hassan; Nuraky, Fateme
Publication:Advances in Environmental Biology
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:7IRAN
Date:May 1, 2012
Words:2176
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