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Identification of the wood-borer and the factors affecting its attack on Caryocar brasiliense trees in the Brazilian Savanna/Identificacao do broqueador de tronco e os fatores que afetam o seu ataque em arvores de Caryocar brasiliense no cerrado brasileiro.

Introduction

The savanna occupies about 23% of Brazilian territory with high plant diversity and is the location of the Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (Caryocaraceae) trees (ALMEIDA et al., 1998). The C. brasiliense trees can reach over ten meters in height and six meters in wide, and there is a wide size distribution of trees in the Brazilian savanna (LEITE et al., 2006, 2011).

Its fruit are used as food, cosmetics, lubricants, and within in the pharmaceutical industry (ARAUJO, 1995), making it the main income source of many human communities (LEITE et al., 2006).

The C. brasiliense tree is protected by federal laws and still remains in deforested areas of the Brazilian savanna; however, this increases problems with insects (personal communication of the collectors of C. brasiliense fruits). Insects that damage this plant are poorly known (ARAUJO, 1995; LEITE et al., 2007, 2009), and research is necessary to determine how to protect C. brasiliense trees in natural conditions (LEITE et al., 2006) and in commercial plantations.

Recently, fruit collectors have reported the death of several trees of C. brasiliense in savannas and pastures in northern Minas Gerais State due to the attack of a wood-borer on the trunk. However, we do not know the insect or possible factors that have increased the attack of this pest on the C. brasiliense trunk.

Several factors, such as size of the tree canopy (FAN et al., 2008; ITO; KOBAYASHI, 1993; McCULLOUGH; SIEGERT, 2007), environmental stresses (i.e., soil attributes) (FREDERICKS; JENKINS, 1988; HANKS et al., 1999), and floristic diversity (HEITZMAN, 2003), may affect the attack of the wood-borer in these trees.

The objectives of this work were to identify the wood-borer on the C. brasiliense trunks and to determine the effects of tree size, chemical and physical soil attributes, and floristic diversity on its attack.

Material and methods

This work was developed in the Municipalities of Montes Claros and Ibiracatu, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, in October 2006. The following areas were studied: one area of savanna vegetation stricto sensu and three areas with pastures (prior savanna) in Montes Claros and one savanna vegetation stricto sensu and one pasture (prior savanna) in Ibiracatu. Both municipalities have a tropical climate (Aw) according to the classification of Koppen, with dry winters and rainy summers. These areas show different characteristics of soil and floristic diversity. The geographical coordinates, altitude, soil type, physiochemical characteristics of the soil, floristic density, and height and width of the crown were obtained in the areas studied (Tables 1 and 3).

The study used six sample areas (two savannas and four pastures). The experimental design was randomized with 32 repetitions (32 trees per area) and a total of 192 C. brasilienses trees evaluated. We walked (~1600 m) in the middle of each area in a straight line, and every 50 m, we randomly evaluated a C. brasiliense tree. We calculated the percentage of hollow trunks caused by the wood-borer, counted the number of pupae and the amount of sawdust produced by this insect, and measured the height and width of the canopy as well as the trunk diameters at breast height (DBH) using a tape measure. Every 300 m, we evaluated the floristic diversity in an area of 1000 [m.sup.2], counting the number of trees [groves.sup.-1] and shrubs. The number of herbs and the percentage of soil cover were determined within a 60 x 60 cm square at six points in each of the six 1000 [m.sup.2] areas. Larvae were collected for identification.

A total of 36 soil samples (0-20 cm deep) were collected, six samples per area, and their physical and chemical characteristics were evaluated at the Laboratory of Soil Analysis of the ICA/UFMG according to the methodology of Embrapa (1997). The samples were collected under the canopy projection of the C. brasiliense trees.

A regression analysis (p < 0.05) was applied for the wood-borer based on soil attributes and floristic diversity. Data were transformed to [square root of (x + 0.5)] and submitted to an analysis of variance and to the Scott-Knott test (p < 0.05).

Results and discussion

The wood-boring caterpillar of the trunck of the C. brasiliense belongs to the family Cossidae (Lepidoptera) (Figure 1A). The galleries created by the caterpillar Cossidae (Photo 1A, October 2006) are ascending and descending, in other words, longitudinal (Figure 1B); the sawdust produced by the attack is loosened (without a web) and has a clear color when new (Figure 1C) and a dark color when old. The galleries were found to range from one meter above or below the region of the collector. However, the majority of the sawdust was located in the area close to the collector and was where we observed most of the empty pupae (between January and April 2007). These empty pupae were principally observed from 0.5 to 2.0 cm above the soil but were occasionaly 6, 8, or 10 cm above the soil. In one tree, we observed 6 pupae and 25 empty holes that reached approximately 1.20 m from the collector region. We observed four C. brasiliense trees with very damaged trunks, three in the savanna and one tree in the pasture of Ibiracatu, that displayed between 30 and 80% hollowing of the trunk and had clearly visible internal and external galleries (Figure 1D). Ong'amo et al. (2006) reported that in Kenya, wild host plants of the family Cossidae migrate to crops of maize and sorghum, causing economic losses. The species Holcocerus hippophaecolus Hua, Paropta paradoxa H.-Schaeff, Cossus Cossus L. and Coryphodema tristis Drury bore the trunk of Hippophae rhamnoides L. in China (FANG et al., 2005), fig trees in Egypt (SHEHATA et al., 1999), apples and pears in Italy (FACCIOLI et al., 1993), and eucalyptus in South Africa (GEBEYEHU et al., 2005).

We observed the following percentage of plants attacked by Cossidae: in the savanna (0.0%), and in pasture 1 (40.9%), pasture 2 (15.5%), and pasture 3 (13.6%) of Montes Claros and in savanna (25.0%) and pasture (35.0%) in Ibiracatu. The percentage of trees with less than 30 cm of DBH in these 6 areas was 83.3, 44.2, 56.3, 81.8, 70.0, and 55.0%, respectively. These results may reflect a dependence of the DBHs of the C. brasiliense trees in these areas because 15.0% of the plants with less than 30 cm of DBH were attacked by Cossidae, compared to 38.5% of the plants with more than 30 cm DBH.

The number of pupae and the amount of sawdust created by the wood-borer per C. Brasiliense tree was higher in the pasture (1) of Montes Claros and Ibiracatu than in other areas, showing that the trees in the savanna of Montes Claros were not attacked (Table 1).

[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]

On the other hand, a higher occurrence of trees with damage trunk (% of hollow trunk) was observed in the savanna of Ibiracatu (Table 1). We did not detect a significant effect of height and width of the C. brasiliense canopy on the number of pupae and the amount of sawdust produced by the wood-borer in the areas studied (Table 2). However, the number of pupae and the amount of sawdust was higher in the trunks of trees with DBH more than 30 cm. The trees with the largest height and width of canopy and DBH, as well as a higher frequency of large size plants were located in pasture 1 of Montes Claros and the savanna and pasture in Ibiracatu. Moreover, trees with smaller sizes and higher frequencies of small plants were found in the savanna of Montes Claros (Tables 1 and 2).

One of the primary factors for the success of colonization of the wood-borer on C. brasiliense trunk is a DBH greater than 30 cm. The majority of the C. brasiliense trees are old, with large DBH, and a few are in a vegetative stage (LEITE et al., 2006). The preference of Cossidae larvae for trees with large-diameter trunks may be due to increased food resources and the greater time of exposure to attack (number of generations), as observed for other trunk wood-borers (FAN et al., 2008; ITO; KOBAYASHI, 1993; McCULLOUGH; SIEGERT, 2007; ZANUNCIO et al., 2002). In addition, older trees may have fewer secondary compounds that confer resistance to wood-borer attack, and the loss of this compound may attract this insect (FAN et al., 2008; FREDERICKS; JENKINS, 1988).

The soil properties positively associated with higher amount of pupae and sawdust in C. brasiliense trees were potassium, calcium, magnesium, sum of bases, capacity of cationic exchange, and organic matter, while fine sand was negatively associated with pupae and sawdust (Figures 2 and 3).

The floristic diversity also affects the attack of this insect on C. Brasiliense trunks. We observed a positive correlation between the percentage soil cover by plants with the number of pupae and the amount of sawdust. There were negative correlations between shrubs and sawdust as well as trees [groves.sup.-1] and pupae (Figures 2 and 3). The highest values of potassium, sum of bases, capacity of cationic exchange, and organic matter in the soil were observed in pasture 1 of Montes Claros; the highest values of calcium were found in the pastures (Tables 1 and 2) of Montes Claros and in the pasture of Ibiracatu; the lowest value of magnesium were found in the savanna and pasture 3 of Montes Claros; and the lowest quantity of fine sandy was found in pasture 1 of Montes Claros and the pasture of Ibiracatu (Table 3).

The lowest density of C. Brasiliense trees [ha.sup.-1] was observed in the savanna in Montes Claros (Table 1). Moreover, a higher number of trees [groves.sup.-1] of other species and shrubs were noted in the savanna in Ibiracatu, and a higher percentage of cover of soil by plants (less bare soil) was observed in pasture 1 in Montes Claros and the pasture in Ibiracatu (Table 1).

[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 3 OMITTED]

Another factor that may favour the attack of wood-borer on C. brasiliense trees is the properties of the soil. We noted higher wood-borer attacks in plants growing in soils richer in bases (potassium, calcium and magnesium) and with a greater capacity of cationic exchange, higher levels of organic matter, and lower amounts of fine sand. Caryocar brasiliense is a tree typical of the Brazilian savanna where soils are poor (LEITE et al., 2006, 2011; SOUSA; LOBATO, 2004) and, in natural conditions, this plant is expected to produce larger amount of secondary compounds that confer greater resistance against pests. On the other hand, environmental stresses, such as richer soil, predispose trees to attack by the wood-borer (FREDERICKS; JENKINS, 1988; HANKS et al., 1999).

Another key factor for the attack of the woodborer on C. brasiliense plants is the floristic diversity of the environment. The two pasture areas, pasture 1 in Montes Claros and the pasture in Ibiracatu, had the lowest floristic diversity, which can reduce the tree's natural biological control and increase the food source for some species, conditions that can make a herbivore become a pest (COYLE et al., 2005; GONCALVES-ALVIM; FERNANDES, 2001; GRATTON; DENNO, 2003; LANDIS et al., 2000). These two areas are representative of the events happening in Brazil, mainly in the North of Minas Gerais State, where deforesting of the savanna leaves few plants of the forest in the pasture and, in the case of Montes Claros and Ibiracatu municipalities, these are mainly trees of C. brasiliense maintained predominantly for the extraction of its fruits (LEITE et al., 2006). Because there are a few other host plants with greater trunk diameters available to the caterpillars of Cossidae, the attack of this insect focuses on plants of C. brasiliense, and together with the possible reduction of the natural biological control mechanism, may explain the ecological imbalance observed in this work.

This insect occurs naturally in C. brasiliense, and has not migrated from the eucalyptus plantations as the collectors of its fruit believed. According to Gebeyehu et al. (2005), a new pest of eucalyptus in South Africa, the wood-borer C. tristis, migrated from native plants and fruit crops, causing serious problems in eucalyptus plantations. The main control methods reported in the literature for the boring caterpillars (Cossidae) are the utilization of Bacillus thuringiensis, reducing 75.8% of the attack in orchards (SHEHATA et al., 1999; JOHNSON; WILLIAMSON, 2007) and the use of parasitic wasps of the family Ichneumonidae, such as Eriborus applicitus Foster (SHENG; SUN, 2006).

Conclusion

The wood-borers show higher attack rates on C. brasiliense trunks above 30 cm DBH and in areas of richer soils and lower floristic diversity. Therefore, it is necessary to increase the floristic diversity of the areas studied in order to reduce the incidence of insect attack in the trunk of C. brasiliense as well as to control the chemical and/or microbiological (i.e., fungi) conditions of these plants.

DOI: 10.4025/actasciagron.v33i4.8629

Acknowledgements

To the Brazilian agencies "Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico (CNPq)" "Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Minas Gerais (Fapemig)", "Prefeitura de Ibiracatu e a Emater de Ibiracatu", the "Coordenacao da Promotoria Publica de Justica do Rio Sao Franciso (Sub-Bacia do Rio Grande Verde) and the "Instituto Grande Sertao".

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Received on October 30, 2009.

Accepted on September 21, 2010.

Germano Leao Demolin Leite *, Sergio Monteze Alves, Aline Fonseca Nascimento, Paulo Sergio do Nascimento Lopes, Paulo Sergio Fiuza Ferreira and Jose Cola Zanuncio

Instituto de Ciencias Agrarias, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Universitaria, 1000, Montes Claros, Minas Gerais, Brazil. * Author for correspondence. E-mail: gldleite@ig.com.br
Table 1. Coordinates and altitude of the areas examined, percentage
of hollow trunks, number of pupae and amount of sawdust per tree,
data for density [ha.sup.-1], height (m) and width (m) of the crown,
and diameter at breast height (DBH) (cm) of trees [ha.sup.-1], soil
covered per plant (%), number of herbs (< 0.50 m high), shrubs (0.50
-2.0 m high) and trees [groves.sup.-1] (> 2.0 m high) [ha.sup.-1] in
six areas of the Municipalities of Montes Claros and Ibiracatu, Minas
Gerais State, Brazil.

 Montes Claros

Parameters evaluated Savanna Pasture 1
Longitude 43[degrees]55'7.3"W 43[degrees]57'31.4"W
Latitude 16[degrees]44'55.6"S 16[degrees]46'16.1"S
Altitude 943 m 940 m
Hollow trunks (%) 0.00 B 0.00 B
Number of pupae 0.00 B 0.26 A
 [tree.sup.-1]
Number of sawdust 0.00 B 0.84 A
 [tree.sup.-1]
Density of C. brasiliense 17.00 B 42.30 A
 [ha.sup.-1]
Height of the crown of C. 4.07 B 6.89 A
 brasiliense
Width of the crown of C. 2.87 C 6.87 A
 brasiliense
DBH of C. brasiliense 17.53 B 28.45 A
Soil covering (%) 44.87 C 84.19 A
Herbs 5.78 C 0.19 E
Shrups 23.51 C 4.76 D
Trees [groves.sup.-1] 8.76 B 2.76 C

 Montes Claros

Parameters evaluated Pasture 2 Pasture 3
Longitude 43[degrees]53'21.6"W 43[degrees]53'27.W
Latitude 16[degrees]53'45.2"S 16[degrees]53'42.S
Altitude 999 m 1009 m
Hollow trunks (%) 0.00 B 0.68 B
Number of pupae 0.03 B 0.14 B
 [tree.sup.-1]
Number of sawdust 0.19 B 0.30 B
 [tree.sup.-1]
Density of C. brasiliense 36.50 A 45.80 A
 [ha.sup.-1]
Height of the crown of C. 4.04 B 5.06 B
 brasiliense
Width of the crown of C. 4.73 B 5.89 B
 brasiliense
DBH of C. brasiliense 21.95 B 18.57 B
Soil covering (%) 30.83 C 53.33 B
Herbs 11.67 B 10.33 B
Shrups 38.00 C 79.00 B
Trees [groves.sup.-1] 6.50 B 14.00 B

 Ibiracatu

Parameters evaluated Savanna Pasture
Longitude 44[degrees]09'38.2"W 44[degrees]10'25.8"W
Latitude 15[degrees]42'29.5"S 15[degrees]41'35.5"S
Altitude 817 m 806 m
Hollow trunks (%) 8.50 A 0.00 B
Number of pupae 0.00 B 0.30 A
 [tree.sup.-1]
Number of sawdust 0.10 B 0.55 A
 [tree.sup.-1]
Density of C. brasiliense 53.16 A 33.00 A
 [ha.sup.-1]
Height of the crown of C. 6.31 A 6.86 A
 brasiliense
Width of the crown of C. 6.08 A 7.11 A
 brasiliense
DBH of C. brasiliense 27.26 A 26.63 A
Soil covering (%) 11.67 D 99.33 A
Herbs 3.33 D 30.00 A
Shrups 121.33 A 1.33 D
Trees [groves.sup.-1] 40.33 A 1.00 C

* Means followed by the same letter per line do not differ between
them by the Scott-Knott test at 5% probability.

Table 2. Hollow trunk (%), number of pupae and amount of sawdust
produced by the wood-borer/total tree or damaged tree (brackets), and
frequency (%) of these trees per category in six areas of the
Municipalities of Montes Claros and Ibiracatu, Minas Gerais State,
Brazil.

 Category per height of the crown
 of Caryocar brasiliense (m)

 0.50 - 1.99 2.00 - 2.99
Hollow trunks (%) * 0.00 0.00
Number of pupae [tree.sup.-1] * 0.00(0.00) 0.05(0.50)
Number of sawdust [tree.sup.-1] * 0.00(0.00) 0.20(1.33)

 Frequency of C. brasiliense trees

Savanna (Montes Claros) 0.00 25.00
Pasture 1 (Montes Claros) 2.33 2.33
Pasture 2 (Montes Claros) 6.25 6.25
Pasture 3 (Montes Claros) 7.58 13.64
Savanna (Ibiracatu) 0.00 10.00
Pasture (Ibiracatu) 5.00 15.00

 Category per width of the crown
 of Caryocar brasiliense (m)

 0.80 - 1.99 2.00 - 4.99
Hollow trunk (%) * 0.00 0.00
Number of pupae [tree.sup.-1] * 0.08(1.00) 0.06(1.00)
Number of sawdust [tree.sup.-1] * 0.25(1.15) 0.16(1.6)

 Frequency of C. brasiliense trees

Savanna (Montes Claros) 0.00 66.67
Pasture 1 (Montes Claros) 6.98 13.95
Pasture 2 (Montes Claros) 3.13 28.13
Pasture 3 (Montes Claros) 6.06 28.79
Savanna (Ibiracatu) 5.00 35.00
Pasture (Ibiracatu) 15.00 10.00

 Category per diameter of the trunk at
 breast height of C. brasiliense (cm)

 1.00 - 9.9 10.0 - 19.9
Hollow trunk (%) * 0.00 1.18
Number of pupae [tree.sup.-1] * 0.00B(0.00) 0.06B(1.00)
Number of sawdust [tree.sup.-1] * 0.03B(1.00) 0.20B(1.25)

 Frequency of C. brasiliense trees

Savanna (Montes Claros) 33.33 50.00
Pasture 1 (Montes Claros) 2.33 13.95
Pasture 2 (Montes Claros) 15.63 34.38
Pasture 3 (Montes Claros) 19.70 31.82
Savanna (Ibiracatu) 10.00 30.00
Pasture (Ibiracatu) 25.00 5.00

 Category per height of the crown
 of Caryocar brasiliense (m)

 3.00 - 4.99 5.00 - 6.99
Hollow trunks (%) * 0.00 1.36
Number of pupae [tree.sup.-1] * 0.09(1.00) 0.34(1.67)
Number of sawdust [tree.sup.-1] * 0.24(1.44) 0.73(2.29)

 Frequency of C. brasiliense trees

Savanna (Montes Claros) 58.33 8.33
Pasture 1 (Montes Claros) 13.95 44.19
Pasture 2 (Montes Claros) 53.13 18.75
Pasture 3 (Montes Claros) 22.73 18.18
Savanna (Ibiracatu) 30.00 20.00
Pasture (Ibiracatu) 15.00 10.00

 Category per width of the crown
 of Caryocar brasiliense (m)

 5.00 - 6.99 7.00 - 8.99
Hollow trunk (%) * 1.43 0.00
Number of pupae [tree.sup.-1] * 0.17(1.00) 0.25(2.25)
Number of sawdust [tree.sup.-1] * 0.43(1.6) 0.64(1.92)

 Frequency of C. brasiliense trees

Savanna (Montes Claros) 25.00 8.33
Pasture 1 (Montes Claros) 27.91 25.58
Pasture 2 (Montes Claros) 25.00 15.63
Pasture 3 (Montes Claros) 16.67 16.67
Savanna (Ibiracatu) 25.00 10.00
Pasture (Ibiracatu) 15.00 30.00

 Category per diameter of the trunk at
 breast height of C. brasiliense (cm)

 20.0 - 29.9 30.0 - 39.9
Hollow trunk (%) * 0.00 1.29
Number of pupae [tree.sup.-1] * 0.07B(1.00) 0.23A(1.14)
Number of sawdust [tree.sup.-1] * 0.31B(1.78) 0.60A(2.10)

 Frequency of C. brasiliense trees

Savanna (Montes Claros) 0.00 0.00
Pasture 1 (Montes Claros) 27.91 27.91
Pasture 2 (Montes Claros) 6.25 15.63
Pasture 3 (Montes Claros) 30.30 13.64
Savanna (Ibiracatu) 30.00 10.00
Pasture (Ibiracatu) 25.00 35.00

 Category per height of the crown
 of Caryocar brasiliense (m)

 7.00 - 8.99 > 9.00
Hollow trunks (%) * 4.31 0.81
Number of pupae [tree.sup.-1] * 0.04(1.00) 0.14(1.00)
Number of sawdust [tree.sup.-1] * 0.21(1.50) 0.54(1.82)

 Frequency of C. brasiliense trees

Savanna (Montes Claros) 8.33 0.00
Pasture 1 (Montes Claros) 11.63 25.58
Pasture 2 (Montes Claros) 9.38 6.25
Pasture 3 (Montes Claros) 21.21 16.67
Savanna (Ibiracatu) 15.00 25.00
Pasture (Ibiracatu) 15.00 40.00

 Category per width of the crown
 of Caryocar brasiliense (m)

 9.0 - 10.99 > 11.00
Hollow trunk (%) * 4.70 0.00
Number of pupae [tree.sup.-1] * 0.15(1.25) 0.11(1.00)
Number of sawdust [tree.sup.-1] * 0.42(2.33) 0.47(2.33)

 Frequency of C. brasiliense trees

Savanna (Montes Claros) 0.00 0.00
Pasture 1 (Montes Claros) 16.28 9.30
Pasture 2 (Montes Claros) 18.75 9.38
Pasture 3 (Montes Claros) 24.24 7.58
Savanna (Ibiracatu) 15.00 10.00
Pasture (Ibiracatu) 5.00 25.00

 Category per diameter of the trunk at
 breast height of C. brasiliense (cm)

 40.0 - 59.9 > 60.0
Hollow trunk (%) * 4.78 0.00
Number of pupae [tree.sup.-1] * 0.44A(2.00) 0.29A(1.00)
Number of sawdust [tree.sup.-1] * 0.91A(2.33) 0.86A(2.00)

 Frequency of C. brasiliense trees

Savanna (Montes Claros) 8.33 8.33
Pasture 1 (Montes Claros) 23.26 2.33
Pasture 2 (Montes Claros) 18.75 9.38
Pasture 3 (Montes Claros) 19.70 0.00
Savanna (Ibiracatu) 10.00 10.00
Pasture (Ibiracatu) 5.00 5.00

Means followed by the same letter per line do not differ between them
by the Scott-Knott test at 5% probability. * Non significant by ANOVA
(p > 0.05).

Table 3. Data from the physical and chemical analyses of the soil
during the experimental period in the six areas of the Municipality
of Montes Claros and Ibiracatu, Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

 Montes Claros

Parameters of the soil Savanna Pasture 1

pH in water 4.85C 4.87C
Phosphorus-Mehlich 1 (mg * [dm.sup.-3]) 0.80C 0.59C
Phosphorus-remaining (mg * [L.sup.-1]) 40.76A 17.64D
Potassium (mg * [dm.sup.-3]) 28.25B 62.92A
Calcium ([cmol.sub.c] * [dm.sup.-3]) 0.20B 0.71A
Magnesium ([cmol.sub.c] * [dm.sup.-3]) 0.10B 0.37A
Aluminum ([cmol.sub.c] * [dm.sup.-3]) 0.68B 1.06A
H + Al ([cmol.sub.c] * [dm.sup.-3]) 5.19B 10.93A
Summ of bases (cmolc * [dm.sup.-3]) 0.37C 1.23A
t ([cmol.sub.c] * [dm.sup.-3]) ** 1.05B 2.30A
m (%) ** 63.58A 47.75B
T ([cmol.sub.c] * [dm.sup.-3]) ** 5.56B 12.17A
V (%) ** 6.66D 11.08D
Organic matter (dag * [kg.sup.-1]) 1.11B 8.77A
Gross sand (dag * [kg.sup.-1]) *** 20.92D 5.75E
Fine sand (dag * [kg.sup.-1]) 53.92A 30.33C
Silt (dag * [kg.sup.-1]) 10.83B 24.83A
Clay (dag * [kg.sup.-1]) 14.33B 39.00A
Texture Sandy Loamier
Soil classification Dystrophic Red Yellow Latosol

 Montes Claros

Parameters of the soil Pasture 2 Pasture 3

pH in water 5.40A 5.17B
Phosphorus-Mehlich 1 (mg * [dm.sup.-3]) 1.33C 4.30A
Phosphorus-remaining (mg * [L.sup.-1]) 28.30C 30.53C
Potassium (mg * [dm.sup.-3]) 7.33C 24.00B
Calcium ([cmol.sub.c] * [dm.sup.-3]) 0.47A 0.30B
Magnesium ([cmol.sub.c] * [dm.sup.-3]) 0.23A 0.17B
Aluminum ([cmol.sub.c] * [dm.sup.-3]) 0.59B 0.68B
H + Al ([cmol.sub.c] * [dm.sup.-3]) 2.93C 3.19C
Summ of bases (cmolc * [dm.sup.-3]) 0.72C 0.53C
t ([cmol.sub.c] * [dm.sup.-3]) ** 1.31B 1.21B
m (%) ** 52.67B 58.00A
T ([cmol.sub.c] * [dm.sup.-3]) ** 3.65C 3.72C
V (%) ** 17.33C 13.67C
Organic matter (dag * [kg.sup.-1]) 2.33B 2.94B
Gross sand (dag * [kg.sup.-1]) *** 26.27C 36.33B
Fine sand (dag * [kg.sup.-1]) 57.73A 49.67A
Silt (dag * [kg.sup.-1]) 7.33C 6.67C
Clay (dag * [kg.sup.-1]) 8.67C 7.33C
Texture Sandy Sandy
Soil classification Dystrophic Red Yellow Latosol

 Ibiracatu

Parameters of the soil Savanna Pasture

pH in water 5.50A 5.60A
Phosphorus-Mehlich 1 (mg * [dm.sup.-3]) 1.00C 2.63B
Phosphorus-remaining (mg * [L.sup.-1]) 35.17B 40.07A
Potassium (mg * [dm.sup.-3]) 17.00C 26.33B
Calcium ([cmol.sub.c] * [dm.sup.-3]) 0.40B 0.50A
Magnesium ([cmol.sub.c] * [dm.sup.-3]) 0.23A 0.30A
Aluminum ([cmol.sub.c] * [dm.sup.-3]) 0.38C 0.39C
H + Al ([cmol.sub.c] * [dm.sup.-3]) 2.00C 1.96C
Summ of bases (cmolc * [dm.sup.-3]) 0.68C 0.87B
t ([cmol.sub.c] * [dm.sup.-3]) ** 1.06B 1.26B
m (%) ** 36.67C 32.33C
T ([cmol.sub.c] * [dm.sup.-3]) ** 2.68C 2.82C
V (%) ** 25.33B 31.33A
Organic matter (dag * [kg.sup.-1]) 2.20B 2.46B
Gross sand (dag * [kg.sup.-1]) *** 32.67B 48.33A
Fine sand (dag * [kg.sup.-1]) 54.67A 40.33B
Silt (dag * [kg.sup.-1]) 7.33C 7.33C
Clay (dag * [kg.sup.-1]) 5.33D 4.00D
Texture Sandy Sandy
Soil classification Dystrophic Red Yellow Latosol

* Means followed by the same small letter per line do not differ
between them by the Scott-Knott test at 1% probability. ** t=
capacity of cationic exchange, m= aluminium saturation in the
capacity of cationic exchange; T= cation exchange capacity at natural
pH 7.0; V= percentage of soil base saturation of the capacity of
cationic exchange a pH 7.0. *** Gross sand (2 -0.2 mm)
(dag [kg.sup.-1]), Fine sand (0.2 -0.02 mm) (dag [kg.sup.-1]),
Silt (0.02 - 0.002 mm) (dag [kg.sup.-1]), Clay
(< 0.002 mm) (dag [kg.sup.-1]).
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Author:Leite, Germano Leao Demolin; Alves, Sergio Monteze; Nascimento, Aline Fonseca; Lopes, Paulo Sergio d
Publication:Acta Scientiarum. Agronomy (UEM)
Date:Oct 1, 2011
Words:5379
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