Identification of phthalates in medications and dietary supplement formulations in the United States and Canada.
OBJECTIVE: In this study we aimed to identify and describe the scope of prescription (RX) and nonprescription (over-the-counter; OTC) medicinal products and dietary supplements marketed in the United States and Canada since 1995 that include phthalates as excipients.
METHODS: We used lists of modified-release drug products to identify potential drug products. Inclusion of phthalates was verified using available electronic databases, print references, published package inserts, product packages, and direct communication from manufacturers. Additional products were identified using Internet searches utilizing keywords for phthalates.
RESULTS: Based on labeling information, 6 RX drug products included DBP as an excipient, and 45 specified the use of diethyl phthalate (DEP). Phthalate polymers with no known toxicity-- hypromellose phthalate (HMP), cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP), and polyvinyl acetate phthalate (PVAP)--were included in 75 RX products. Three OTC drug and dietary supplement products listed DBP, 64 listed DEP, and > 90 indicated inclusion of polymers.
CONCLUSIONS: Numerous RX and OTC drug products and supplements from a wide range of therapeutic categories may use DBP or DEP as excipients in oral dosage forms. The potential effects of human exposure to these phthalates through medications are unknown and warrant further investigation.
KEY WORDS: coating, dietary supplements, excipients, medications, phthalates. Environ Health Perspect 120:379-384 (2012). http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1103998 [Online 15 December 2011]
Some ortho-phthalates, including di(2-ethyl-hexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), have been identified as reproductive and developmental toxicants in laboratory animals (Foster 2005; Howdeshell et al. 2008). Similar effects have not been reported in animals exposed to diethyl phthalate (DEP); however, limited human studies have suggested a possible association between DEP exposure and male reproductive health outcomes (Swan 2008). Studies have shown widespread population exposure to background levels of phthalates (Silva et al. 2004). Of concern, particularly high exposure levels may result from orally ingested medicinal products containing phthalates as inactive ingredients. For example, increased urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites were first reported for an individual taking a mesaiamine product (Asacol; Warner Chilcott Pharmaceuticals Inc., Mason, OH) (Hauser et al. 2004) and later confirmed for individuals taking mesaiamine and other drug products (Hernandez-Diaz et al. 2009). High urinary concentrations of" phthalate metabolites have also been identified in patients with cystic fibrosis who used pancreatic enzyme products (Keller et al. 2009). This has led to increased interest in identifying additional drug products that contain phthalates as inactive ingredients.
Inactive ingredients (excipients) are defined as "any component other than the active ingredient in a drug product" (FDA 2011). These various compounds may be used in drug formulations for a number of functions related to the preparation and stability of the physical dosage form or the delivery of active ingredients (Rovve et al. 2009). Excipients used in specialized drug product formulations may permit a) localized availability of active medications in various sections of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, b) controlled release of a medication over time, or c) through the skin. Phthalates, in combination with various polymers, may be used as plasticizers and film coating agents in orally ingested solid pharmaceutical dosage forms and in numerous types of modified-release drug delivery systems such as enteric-coated and delayed-release tablets, pelletized delayed-release capsules, enteric-coated capsules, and controlled-release transdermal films (Allen etal. 2005).
Several different phthalates are currently used as excipients in approved pharmaceutical formulations: diethyl phthalate (DEP), dihutyl phthalate (DBP), dimethyl phthalate (DMP), dioctylphthalate (DOP), hypromellose phthalate (HMP), cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP), polyvinyl acetate phthalate (PVAP), and polyethylene terphthalate (PET) [Food and Drug Administration (FDA) 2010b]. These compounds are not themselves technically "approved" for general use as excipients; rather, they are permitted to he included in their corresponding approved drug products, with maximum levels designated for each type of dosage form and route of administration (Osterhcrg and See 2003; Steinberg and Silverstein 2003). The maximum amount of DBP used in specific FDA-approved drug products ranges from 1.70 mg for a delayed-action, enteric-coated tablet formulation to 11.18 mg for an extended-release capsule product. DEP has been approved at amounts ranging from 0.5 mg for an uncoated, chewable tablet to 16.8 mg for a delayed-action, enteric-coated capsule (FDA 2010b).
Nonprescription pharmaceutical (over-the-counter; OTC) and dietary supplement products may contain excipients found in approved prescription (RX) products; however, their composition is not always reviewed prior to marketing. OTC drug products marketed under monograph guidelines do not require premarket review of their ingredients, but contents are reviewed for products approved under new drug applications (NDAs) and abbreviated NDAs (ANDAs) (FDA 2010a). Dietary supplements are regulated as food products under the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 (DSHEA 1994), and their formulations do not require approval prior to marketing unless they contain a new dietary ingredient (FDA 2009).
Manufacturers are required to disclose a listing of inactive ingredients in drug product labeling, except when they are used in patented delivery mechanisms where the composition is considered to be a confidential trade secret (U.S. Pharmacopeial Convention 2009)- Although the FDA might have information on the type and amount of phthalates used in specific approved drug products, they cannot make the information public because of its proprietary nature.
In this.study we sought to identify and describe the scope of medicinal pharmaceutical products and dietary supplements marketed in the United States and Canada since 1995 thar could he confirmed to contain phthalates as excipients based on available product information supplied by regulators, manufacturers, lahelers, distributors, and marketers of these products.
A search of the published literature on the use of phthalates in orally ingested medications suggested that phthalates are frequently included as inactive ingredients in modified-release drug formulations (i.e., controlled-release, delayed-release, or targeted-release systems), as well as in formulations for film coatings. Drug products using these formulations rely on the integrity of their coating systems for proper delivery of their active ingredients and therefore should not be crushed or chewed. Lists of drug products that are not recommended to be crushed or chewed have been published for reference by health care professionals to ensure their proper administration (Mitchell 2011; Thomson PDR 2006). We used these lists, which included approximately 450 product names, to complete an initial screen of drug product labeling for the inclusion of phthalates as excipients.
All inactive ingredients for RX medications on the "do not crush list" were first reviewed using a combination of print and electronic resources including the Physicians' Desk Refereme (Thomson Healthcare 1995-2010a), FDA Approved Drug Products database (Drugs@FDA; FDA 20llb), DailyMed [National Library of Medicine (NLM) 2011a], and LabelDataPlus (Reed Technology and Information Services Inc. 2011). Canadian products with comparable active ingredients and formulations were researched by using any available monographs from the Health Canada Drug Product Database (Health Canada 2011a) and the CPS: Compendium of Pharmaceuticals and Specialties (Canadian Pharmaceutical Association 1 995-2006). Names of brand and generic drug products marketed since 1995 appearing on the lists were searched within each available electronic or print reference, and all potential modified-release formulations were selected from the results. Once a label was located, we searched the document for all inactive ingredients. If multiple labels were available within a database, we investigated all potential inactive ingredient formulation changes by reviewing the older labels. If an older formulation of the product contained phthalates but the newer formulations did not, we searched all available labels by revision date to determine when the formulation changed. If none of the available compendia provided sufficient label information for a product, we searched the manufacturer or distributor website. If no label was found, we contacted the manufacturer and requested a copy of the package insert.
We performed further Internet searches using terms containing "phthalate" and "medication," or suspected medication names and drug classes (e.g., bisacodyl, enzyme), to locate additional products and product categories. Patents for proprietary drug delivery systems were reviewed for the use of phthalate plasticizers in specific drug products or groups of products.
Several OTC medications and dietary supplement products were listed on the "do not crush" list; however, most available references including the Physicians' Desk Reference for Nonprescription Drugsy Dietary Supplements, and Herbs (Thomson Healthcare 1995-2010b), Drugs@FDA, LabelDataPlus, DailyMed, and Dietary Supplements Labels Database (NLiM 2011b) either did not include these products or did not provide complete, searchable label information on their inactive ingredients. For these products, we obtained detailed information on inactive ingredients from manufacturer and distributor web sites, or if possible, directly from product package labeling retrieved from store shelves. Canadian dietary supplement products were searched using the Health Canada Licensed Natural Health Products Database (LNHPD; Health Canada 2011b), which currently contains information on approximately 16,000 licensed dietary supplements available in solid oral dosage forms.
Use in prescription drugs. Various phthalates were identified in RX medications available in the United States and Canada across a wide variety of therapeutic classes, including analgesic, antibiotic, CI, cardiovascular, and anti-epileptic drug products. As expected, we found that phthalates were most commonly used in modified-release RX drug formulations that provided timed-release and targeted-release of active ingredients. Of the RX products that were identified, 75 contained the phthalate polymers HMP, CAP, and PVAP (data not shown), and 50 contained the ortho-phthalates DEP and/or DBP (6 contained DBP, and 1 contained both DEP and DBP) (Table 1).
Table 1. Prescription drug products marketed in the United States and Canada listing orf/70-phthalates as inactive ingredients in product labeling, 1995-2011. Generic name Trade name (a) Labeler/manufacturer Acebutolol Rhotral 400 mg Rhodiapharm (Canada) tablets (Canada) (discontinued 2006) Carbamazepine Carbamazepine 200 Teva Pharmaceuticals USA mg tablet Inc. Taro-Carbamazepine Taro Pharmaceuticals Inc. CR (Canada) (Canada) Cyclobenzaprine Amrix Cephalon Inc. Cyclobenzaprine HCI CIMALabslnc./Eurand Extended Release Capsules Didanosine Didanosine, Enteric Aurobindo Pharma Ltd. Coated Didanosine, Enteric Mylan Pharmaceuticals Coated Inc. Videx EC (United Bristol Myers Squibb States and Canada) Co./Bristol Myers Squibb Canada Diltiazem Cardizem CD 360 mg BTA Pharmaceuticals Inc. Capsule Dilt-CD Apotex Corp. Diltiazem Extended Mylan Pharmaceuticals Release Inc. (Twice-A-day) Divalproex Divalproex sodium Aurobindo Pharma Limited tablet, delayed release Divalproex sodium Greenstone LLC/Aurobindo tablet, delayed Pharma release Erythromycin ERYC (Canada) Pfizer Canada Inc. Ethopropazine Parsitan (Canada) Rhone-Poulenc Rorer/Erfa Canada Inc. Galantamine Razadyne ER Ortho-McNeil Neurologies Galantamine HBr Global Extended Release Pharmaceuticals/lmpax Laboratories Inc. Capsules ReminylER (Canada) Janssen-Ortho Inc. Isosorbide Isosorbide Torrent Pharmaceuticals Mononitrate, Ltd. tablet extended release Ketoprofen Nu-Ketoprofen E Nu-Pharm (Canada) (Canada) Orudis SR (Canada) Aventis Pharma (Canada) (discontinued 2005) Mesalamine Asacol (United Warner Chilcott US States and Canada) LLC/Warner Chilcott Canada Co. Asacol HD Warner Chilcott US LLC. Asacol 800 Warner Chilcott Canada (Canada) Co. Salofalk 500 mg Axacan Pharma Inc. Enteric Coated (Canada) Morphine sulfate Kadian Actavis Kadian; Alpharma Branded Products Morphine Sulfate Actavis Elizabeth LLC Extended Release Capsules Morphine Embeda King sulfate/naltrexone Pharmaceuticals/Actavis Pancrelipase Cotazym ECS (OTC in Organon Canada Canada) Ltd./Schering-Plough Canada Inc. Creon Solvay Pharmaceuticals Minimicrospheres Inc. Lipram Eurand America Pancrease McNeil Pancrecarb Digestive Care Inc. Potassium chloride Potassium Chloride American Health Extended Release Packaging/Watson/Eurand Tablets, USP Riva-K 20 SR Laboratories Riva Inc. (Canada) (Canada) Prochlorperazine Stemetil tablets Rhone-Poulenc (Canada) Rorer/Aventis Pharma (discontinued 2005) Propranolol InnoPran XL GlaxoSmithKline Ranitidine Ranitidine Tablets, Wockhardt USA, LLC USP 150 mg Ranitidine Tablets, Wockhardt USA, LLC USP 300 mg Sulfasalazine Sulfasalazine Vintage Pharmaceuticals Delayed Release Tablets, USP Sulfazine EC Qualitest/Vintage Pharmaceuticals-Charlotte Theophylline Theo-Dur Extended Key Pharmaceuticals Release Tablets Uni-Dur Extended Key Pharmaceuticals Release Tablets Thioproperazine Majeptil (Canada) Rhone-Poulenc Rorer/Erfa mesylate Canada Inc. Trimipramine Rhotrimine Tablets Rhodiapharm (Canada) (Canada) (discontinued 2006) Typhoid vaccine, Vivotif (Canada) Crucell Switzerland Ltd. oral Valproic acid ratio-Valproic 500 ratiopharm (Canada) mg Capsules (Canada) phl-Valproic Acid Pharmel Inc. 500 mg Capsules (Canada) Verapamil Verapamil HCL Mylan Pharmaceuticals Extended Release Inc. Capsules Verapamil HCL PM Mylan Pharmaceuticals Extended Release Inc. Capsules Generic name Phthalate Drug class Acebutolol DEP Cardiovascular/beta blocker Carbamazepine DEP Antiepileptic DEP Cyclobenzaprine DEP Muscle relaxant DEP Didanosine DEP Antiretroviral DEP DEP Diltiazem DEP Cardiovascular/CCB DBP DEP Divalproex DEP Antiepileptic DEP Erythromycin CAP, DEP Antibiotic Ethopropazine DEP Antiparkinsons Galantamine DEP Antiparkinsons DEP DEP Isosorbide DEP Cardiovascular/vasodilator Ketoprofen CAP, DEP NSAID CAP, DEP Mesalamine DBP Gl/anti-inflammatory DBP DBP DEP Morphine sulfate DEP Analgesic DEP Morphine DEP Analgesic sulfate/naltrexone Pancrelipase CAP, DEP Gl/enzyme DBP, HMP DEP, HMP CAP, DEP CAP, DEP Potassium chloride DEP DEP Potassium supplement Prochlorperazine DEP Antiemetic Propranolol DEP, HMP Cardiovascular/beta blocker Ranitidine DEP GI/antiulcer-H2 Blocker DEP Sulfasalazine CAP, DEP Gl/anti-inflammatory CAP, DEP Theophylline CAP, DEP Respiratory/bronchodilator CAP, DEP Thioproperazine DEP Antipsychotic mesylate Trimipramine DEP Antidepressant Typhoid vaccine, oral DBP, DEP, HMP Vaccine Valproic acid CAP, DEP Antiepileptic CAP, DEP Verapamil DEP Cardiovascular/CCB DEP Abbreviations: CCB, calcium channel blocker; NSAID, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. (a) pplies to all strengths and dosage forms unless otherwise noted.
Use in OTC drugs and dietary supplemerits. Enteric coatings, film coatings, and specialized capsule formulations utilizing phthalates were noted for a number of different product categories and purposes in OTC drugs and supplements. These functions included prevention of premature degradation of substances such as enzymes, acid reducers, and probiotics by stomach acid; reduce stomach upset from iron and laxatives; minimize the aftertaste from fish oil and garlic; and produce soft gelatin capsules (i.e., "softgeis") that may be easier to swallow or contain solubilized drugs and oils (e.g., ibuprofen, fish oil).
Thirty-eight of the OTC drug products (Table 2) and 24 of the dietary supplement products (Table 3) located listed DEP, and 93 included phthalate polymers (data not shown). Although there were only 3 ANDAs for OTC ranitidine detailing the use of DEP, they were linked to label information for an additional 31 private label antacid products. Only 1 OTC drug available both in the United States and Canada [Dulcolax Laxative Tablets (Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals. Ridgefield, CT, USA; and Boehringer Ingelheim (Canada) Ltd./Ltee, Burlington, Ontario, Canada] and 2 older formulations of dietary supplement products listed DBP [Venastat Leg Vein Health (Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals) and Wobenzym N (Mucos Pharma, Pruhonice, Czech Republic)].
Table 2. Nonprescription drugs products marketed in the United States and Canada listing ortho-phthalates as inactive ingredients in product labeling, 1995-2011. Generic name Trade name (a) Labeler/manufacturer Brompheniramine Dimetane Allergy Whitehall-Robins Extentabs Aspirin-delayed Entrophen ECT 975 mg Pendopharm, Division release (Canada) of/de Pharmascience Inc (Canada) Enteric Coated A.SA Pendopharm, (Canada) Pharmascience (Canada) Bisacodyl Dulcolax Bisacodyl Boehringer Ingelheim Laxative Tablets Dulcoiax ECT 5 mg Boehringer Ingelheim (Canada) Canada Ltd. Omeprazole Omesec Delayed Release Corporation Infarrnasa Capsules Ranitidine Ranitidine 75 mg Wockhardt USA LLC (Wockhardt) (b) Ranitidine 150 mg Wockhardt USA LLC (Wockhardt) (c) Ranitidine 75 mg Wockhardt USA LLC (Wockhardt) (d) Berkley & Jensen Acid BJWC Reducer 150 mg (c) Care One Acid Reducer 75 American Sales Company mg (b) CVS Maximum Strength CVS Pharmacy Acid Reducer (c) DG Health Acid Reducer Dolgencorp Inc. 75 mg (b) DG Health Acid Reducer Dolgencorp Inc. 150 mg (c) Equaline Acid Reducer Supervalu Inc. Ranitidine 150 mg (c) Equaline Heartburn Supervalu Inc. Relief 75 mg (b) Forrtiucare Ranitidine Access Business Group 75 (b) International LLC Good Neighbor Acid Amerisource Bergen Reducer 150 mg (c) Good Neighbor Acid Amerisource Bergen Reducer 75 mg (b) Goodsense Acid Reducer L Perrigo Company 150 mg (c) Goodsense Acid Reducer L Perrigo Company 75 mg (b) Kirkland Signature Acid Costco Wholesale Reducer (c) Corporation/Perrigo Kroger Heartburn Relief Kroger Company 75 mg (b) Leader Acid Control 75 Cardinal Health mg (b) Leader Acid Control Cardinal Health 150mg (c) Major Ranitidine 150 Major Pharmaceuticals Maximum Strength (c) Major Ranitidine 75 (b) Major Pharmaceuticals Medicine Shoppe Acid Medicine Shoppe Reducer 75 mg (b) International Meijer Acid Reducer 75 Meijer Distribution Co mg (b) Publix Acid Reducer 75 Publix Super Markets mg (b) Inc. Safeway Acid Reducer 150 Safeway mg (c) Safeway Acid Reducer 75 Safeway mg (b) Sunmark Acid Reducer 150 McKesson mg (b) Sunmark Acid Reducer 75 McKesson mg (b) TopCare Heartburn Relief Topco Associates LLC 75 mg (b) TopCare Heartburn Relief Topco Associates LLC 150 (c) UP & UP Acid reducer 75 Target mg (b) Wal-Zan75AcidReducer Walgreens/Perrigo (b) Wal-Zan 150 Acid Reducer Walgreens/Perrigo (b) Western Family Foods Western Family Foods Acid Relief 75 mg (b) Inc. Generic name Phthalate Drug class Brompheniramine CAP, DEP Antihistamine Aspirin-delayed release CAP, DEP Analgesic/antipyretic CAP, DEP, PVAP Bisacodyl DBP Gl/laxative DBP Omeprazole DEP, HMP Gl/antiulcer-PP! Ranitidine DEP GI/antiulcer-H2 blocker DEP DEP DEP DEP DEP DEP DEP DEP DEP DEP DEP DEP DEP DEP DEP DEP DEP DEP DEP DEP DEP DEP DEP DEP DEP DEP DEP DEP DEP DEP DEP DEP DEP Abbreviations: NSAID, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug; PPl, proton pump inhibitor. (a) Applies to all strengths and dosage forms unless otherwise noted. (b) ANDA 076760; manufacturer, Wockhardt, Mumbai, India. (c) ANDA 078653; manufacturer, Wockhardt, Mumbai, India. (d) ANDA 078884; manufacturer, Wockhardt, Mumbai, India. Table 3. Dietary supplements marketed in the United States and Canada listing ortho-phthalates as inactive ingredients in product labeling, 1995-2011. Generic name Trade name Fish oil Omega 3+ Enteric Coated Fish Oil Phyto-Therapy Omega 3 MLC Fish Oil, Enteric coated Garlic Walgreens Finest Natural Garlic, tablets Wholehealth GarlicHealth, Odorless Garlic Nikken Garlic (Bio-Directed Nutri-Technology) Planetary Herbais GarliChol Top Care Garlic Tablet Ail Garlic (Canada) Magnesium Slow-Mag Magnesium Chloride with Calcium Vitamin B Tri-Phos-B Vitamin C Viva Vitamin C 500 mg tablets (Canada) Viva Vitamin C 1,000 mg tablets (Canada) Probiotics Advanced Naturals Ultimate FloraMAX (Canada) Acidophilus Complex with FOS (Canada) Dophilus Select Plus (Canada) Swiss Natural 5 Strain Dophilus Capsules (Canada) Primadophilus Reuteri (Canada) Bifidus(Canada) Probioflor (Canada) Lacto-B (Canada) Probiolomgum (Canada) Protec (Canada) Enzymes Wobenzym N Mrsc combinations Venastat Leg Vein Health (until 2005) Bio ATP Shenyang Hongyao Film Coated tablet (Canada) Generic name Manufacturer/distributor Phthalate Supplement type Fish oil Health Thru DEP, HMP Nutritional Nutrition/Bpic4Health Phytotherapy USA DEP, HMP Garlic Walgreens DEP Herbal Wholehealth CAP, DEP Nikken CAP, DEP Planetary Herbais CAPr DEP Perrigo DEP Lyo-San Inc. (Lachute, CAP, DEP Quebec, Canada) Magnesium Purdue Products LP DEP Mineral Vitamin B Montiff Inc. CAP, DEP Vitamin Vitamin C Viva Pharmaceutical Inc. DEP Vitamin (Canada) Viva Pharmaceutical Inc. DEP (Canada) Probiotics Renew Life Canada Inc. CAP, DEP Probiotic WN Pharmaceuticals Ltd. CAP, DEP (Canada) Les Importations Biochala CAP, DEP Inc. (Canada) Swiss Herbal Remedies CAP, DEP Ltd/TheraPro (Canada) Nature's Way of Canada CAP, DEP Ltd. Lyo-San Inc. (Canada) CAP, DEP Lyo-San Inc. (Canada) CAP, DEP Lyo-San Inc. (Canada) CAP, DEP Lyo-San Inc. (Canada) CAP, DEP Natural Factors CAP, DEP Nutritional Products Limited (Canada) Enzymes Mucos Pharma DBP Enzyme Mrsc Pharmaton/Boehrinqer DBP Natural combinations logelheim product Bio Active Nutritional CAP, DEP Vitamin/Herbal Wing Quon Enterprises DEP. HMP Herbal Ltd. Misc. miscellaneous.
Canada. Several RX and OTC medications approved for use in both the United States and Canada contained the same inactive ingredients in the product labeling (e.g., Asacol, Dulcolax) (Tables 1 and 2); however there were some differences. Of particular note, the U.S. product labeling for Vivotif (Typhoid Vaccine Live Oral Ty21a) (Berna Biotech Ltd. 2006) did not detail the use of any phthalates, whereas the monograph for the Canadian product (Crucell Switzerland LTD 2010) specified use of "3-8 mg" of DBP and DEP and "27-33 mg" of HMP in the lacquer coating of each capsule. Several U.S. products were not available in Canada (e.g., Cardizem CD 360 mg, Dilt-CD), and some Canadian products were not distributed in the United States (e.g., Rhotral, Parsitan). In the LNHPD (Health Canada 2011b), 49 licensed supplement products were linked to phthalates as nonmedicinai ingredients, including 14 noted as containing DEP (Table 3).
Changes over time. A handful of products changed the use of specific excipients over time either by removing specific phthalates or adding phthalates to newly approved formulations. Solvay Pharmaceuticals removed DBP from its new FDA-approved formulations of pancrelipase capsules in April 2009. The older formulation, Creon Minimicrospheres, (Solvay Pharmaceuticals Inc. 2006), which contained DBP and HMP, was replaced with Creon Delayed Release Capsules (Abbott Laboratories 2011). New formulations for two strengths of OTC and RX ranitidine tablets from one manufacturer (Wockhardt USA LLC, Parsippany, NJ) that were approved in 2007, 2008, and 2009 (Wockhardt USA LLC 2007, 2008, 2009) used DEP as a film coating agent, whereas labels for > 30 earlier approved ranitidine products did not list any phthalates.
In May 2010, Warner Chilcotc modified the labeling for Asacol and Asacol HD under the sections ''Precautions" and "Use in Specific Populations." The new labels provided cautions on use during pregnancy based on animal studies of DBP exposure and also added the estimated human daily intake of DBP from the maximum recommended daily dose of each product, "about 21 mg" and "about 48 mg" for Asacol and Asacol HI), respectively (Warner Chilcott Pharmaceuticals Inc. 2010a', 2010b)
Use in specific formulations. Inclusion of phthakres--as well as the specific type of phthalate--in formulations for a particular drug was manufacturer specific, and on occasion dosage-form and strength specific. For example, the calcium channel blockers verapamil and diltiazem were available from 18 manufacturers in a number of strengths and rime-release tablet and capsule formulations that contained different excipients. Although we found that DEP was included in two verapamil extended-release capsule products, both from one manufacturer (Mylan Pharmaceuticals Inc. 2010a, 2010b), other tablet and capsule formulations did not contain DEP. Among diltiazem products, only one of five strengths of Cardizem CD capsules (LVTA Pharmaceuticals Inc. 2010) listed DEP, whereas manufacturers of other specific diltiazem capsule products utilized phthalates across all strengths: DBP in Dilt-CD (Apotex Inc. 2011), DEP in Diltiazem Extended-Release, Twice-A-Day (Mylan Pharmaceuticals Inc. 2006), and HMP in Diltia XT (Watson Pharma Inc. 2008).
Other sources of information. Derailed Internet searches led to the identification of two phthalate-containing products in patented release mechanisms, despite the tact that phthalates were not listed in the corresponding product labels. In a lawsuit brought against several manufacturers attempting to introduce new generic omeprazole products into the market in 2001, the manufacturer of Prilosec Delayed Release Capsules (AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals LP, Wilmington, DE) argued that the new formulations infringed on certain sections of their patent involving the use of phthalates, including DEP and HMP, as coating agents (Astra Aktiebolag et al. v. Andrx Pharmaceuticals Inc., et al., 2002). Communication with the manufacturer (AstraZeneca, personal communication) confirmed the use of HMP in the enteric coating layer of the pelletized drug found within the capsules. A similar patent infringement case (Shire LLC v. Nostrum Pharmaceuticals Inc. 2008) detailed the use of HMP in patents for carbamazepine extended release capsules (Carbatrol; Shire US Inc., Wayne, PA).
In this study, we identified a number of different phthalates as excipients in a variety of pharmaceutical products and dietary supplements sold in the United States and Canada. Although most of these products included phthalate polymers that are considered to be of low or no known toxicity, label information for several product formulations contained the phthalate dicster DBP, which has been shown to cause adverse effects in experimental animal studies.
Although we attempted to review as many product listings as possible, this list cannot be considered comprehensive. Information on a number of products was unavailable due to product discontinuation and changes in manufacturers. Products may have changed their formulation over time, and the information available at the time of this review may not reflect the most recent version of the product formulation. In addition, some product information was incomplete (all inactive ingredients were not listed), which required that we seek information directly from the manufacturer. Although the FDA might have a more complete listing of products, including the type and amount of phthalate in specific drug products, this information is considered proprietary and cannot be accessed. Given the thousands of orally ingested products on the market (RX, OTC, and dietary supplements), it is difficult to quantify the prevalence of phthalate-containing products. However, it is informative to identify specific drug products that have included phthalates in their formulations.
It is also important to note the limitations and difficulties that were associated with some of the references used to compile the information for this study. Information on die specific excipients used in these products was generally available; however, it was not centrally located, comprehensive, or easily queried.
The FDA Approved Drug Products Database (Drugs@FDA) did not contain labels for all products, especially generics, and only some entries contained copies of approval history documents that detail product formulations. Several additional labels were available on LabelDataPlus, DailyMed, or manufacturer web sites, demonstrating that electronic versions of the labels were available but were not linked to the FDA database. For example, detailed label information for prescription and OTC ranitidine tablets from Wockhardt was available on DailyMed and LabelDataPlus but not on Drugs@FDA. The available OTC labels linked these approved products to labeling for several private label distributors (e.g., mass merchandise, grocery and drug store chains); however, these labelers and distributors often change the source for their private-label products over time. Neither Drugs@FDA nor Health Canada's Drug Product Database permitted a systematic search of excipients in RX and OTC drug products. LabelDataPlus permitted queries for inactive ingredients; however, it was not comprehensive.
The Physicians' Desk Reference (Thomson Healthcare 1995-2010a) contained some additional product labels, especially older versions of labels and discontinued products (e.g., Theo-Dur; Key Pharmaceuticals Inc., Kcnilworth, NJ); however, available information was limited to manufacturers who elected to include their products in the reference.
We found several NDAs and ANDAs containing information on excipients using Drugs[congruent to]FDA. However, because of the proprietary nature of the formulations, in most instances information concerning the type and amount of inactive ingredients used were redacted from the available documents. In LabelDataPlus, the strength of each inactive ingredient was provided for one omeprazole product--Omesec Delayed Release Capsules--listed as containing 0.144 mg DEP (Corporacion Informasa 2010); however, this was the only drug product for which we found this level of information to be available.
For a number of dietary supplement products, the available information on inactive ingredients was incomplete or unclear. Available label information sometimes described products as having an "enteric coating" without a specific fisting of the components, making it impossible to determine whether any phthalates were present. Some fish oil capsules labels stated that they "may also contain" a varietv of excipients, including HMP. Canada's LNHPD (Health Canada 2011b) and the NLM Dietaiy Supplements Labels Database permitted searches by inactive ingredients for licensed health products and supplements, but these databases are not comprehensive directories of marketed products.
In order to create a comprehensive listing of phthalate-containing products, individual manufacturers would have to provide information on their use of phthalates in specific product formulations. Such a list (similar to those available for other excipients such as gelatin or gluten) would not only facilitate critical research on the risks and safety of phthalate-containing medications but also would allow prescribers and consumers to select alternative products that are phthalate free. Estimates of exposure from these products can vary according to manufacturer-specific formulation characteristics, including the dosage form, dose, date of use, and country of manufacture. Researchers, consumers, and health care providers may need to contact manufacturers directly to confirm the presence of phthalates and the amounts used in a particular drug product.
Using a combination of resources, we were able to identify > 100 drug and dietary supplement products that indicated the use of ortho-phthalates as excipients, including labels of 50 RX, 40 OTC and 26 dietary supplement product formulations that listed DEP and/ or DBP (9 contained DBP> and 1 contained both DEP and DBP). The potential effects of human exposure to these phthalates through medications are unknown and warrant further investigation. The present findings should assist researchers in conducting the necessary studies of risk and safety of phthalates in human populations, but such efforts are limited by the lack of centralized, comprehensive, and publically available information on the presence of phthalates in the full range of RX, OTC, and dietary supplement products. Future research should pay particular attention to the amount of phthalate, specifically DBP, used in each dosage form so that estimates of exposure from medications and supplements can be quantified.
Address correspondence to K.E. Kelley, Slone Epidemiology Center, 1010 Commonwealth Ave., Boston, MA 02215 USA. Telephone: (617) 734-6006. Fax: (617) 738-5119. E-mail: email@example.com
This work was supported by grant R01 HD059861 from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, and ES000002 from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health.
K.K.K and A.A.M. are employed by and E.L.C. was previously associated with the Slone Epidemiology Center, which receives funding for unrelated research from various pharmaceutical companies. S.H.D. and A.A.M. have received unrestricted research and training grants from pharmaceutical companies, some of which manufacture drugs discussed in this article. The remaining author declares he has no actual or potential competing financial interests.
Received 26 May 2011; accepted 8 December 2011.
Abbott Laboratories. 2011. Creon Deiayed-Release Capsules. North Chicago, ILAbbott Laboratories. Available: http://www.rxabbott.com/pdf/creon_PI.pdf (accessed 23 January 2Q12)
Allen LV, Popovich NG, Ansel HC, eds. 2005. Ansel's Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms and Drug Delivery Systems. 8th ed. Baltimore, MD:Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Apotex Inc. 2011. DILT-CD (diltiazem hydrochloride extended-release capsules, USP). Toronto, Ontario, Canada:Apotex Inc. Available: hltp://www.apotex.com/us/en/products/downloads/pil/dilt_ercp_. ins.pdf (accessed 11 March 20111. Astra Aktiebolag, et al. v. Andrx Pharmaceuticals Inc., et al. 2002. Case no. 222 F.Supp. 423 (S.D.N.Y. 2002). U.S. District Court, Southern District of New York, 11 October.
Berna Biotech Ltd. 2006. Vivotif (Typhoid Vaccine Live Oral Ty21a). Coral Gables, PL Available: http://www.fda.gov/downloads/BiologicsBloodVaccines/Vaccines/Approved Products/UCM142807.pdf [accessed 11 March 2011). BTA Pharmaceuticals Inc. 2010. Cardizem CD (Diltiazem Hydrochloride) Capsule. Available: http://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/druglnfo.cfm?id=34903 [accessed 11 March 20111.
Canadian Pharmaceutical Association. 1995-2006. CPS: Compendium of Pharmaceuticals and Specialties. Ottowa, Ontario, Canada:Canadian Pharmaceutical Association.
Corporacion Informasa. 2010. Omesec--Omeprazole Capsule, Delayed Release. Available: http://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/fda/fdaDrugXsl.cfm?id=18604&type=display [accessed 11 March 2011].
Crucell Switzerland LTD. 2010. Vivotif: Thyphoid Vaccine Live Oral Attenuated TY21A. Available: http://www. crucellvaccinescanada.com/pdf/100316_Product_ Monograph_Vivotif_Canada_def_hc.pdf [accessed 19 January 20121.
DSHEA. 1994. Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994. Public Law 103-417. Available: http://ods.od.nih.gov/ about/dshea_wording.aspx [accessed 19 January 2012].
FDA (Food and Drug Administration). 2009. New Dietary Ingredients. Available: http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/ USCODE-2010-title21/pdf/USCODE-2010-title21-chap9-subchaplV-sec350b.pdf [accessed 19 January 2012].
FDA (Food and Drug Administration!. 2010a. FDA Otu$ Applications for Over-the-Counter Drugs. Available: http://www.fda.gov/drugs/developmentapprovalprocess/howdrugsaredevelopedandapproved/approvalapplications/over-the-counterdrugs/default.htm [accessed 11 March 2011].
FDA (Food and Drug Administration). 2010b. Inactive Ingredient Search for Approved Drug Products: Frequently Asked Questions. Available: http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/lnformationOnDrugs/ucm080123.htm (accessed 11 March 2011).
FDA (Food and Drug Administration). 2011a. Current Good Manufacturing Practice in Manufacturing, Processing, Packing, or Holding of Drugs; General. Definitions. 21CFR210.3. Available: http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?fr=210.3 [accessed 19 January 2012].
FDA (Food and Drug Administration). 2011b. Drugs@FDA: FDA Approved Drug Products. Available: http://www. accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cder/drugsatfda/ [accessed 11 March 2011].
Foster P. 2005. Mode of action: impaired fetal Leydig cell function-effects on male reproductive development produced by certain phthalate esters. Crit Rev Toxicol 35(8-9):713-7l9.
Hauser R, Duty S, Godfrey-Bailey L, Calafat AM. 2004. Medications as a source of human exposure to phthalates. Environ Health Perspect 112:751-753.
Health Canada. 2011a. Drug Product Database. Available: http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/dhp-mps/prodpharma/databasdon/mdex-ertg.php (accessed 11 March 2011).
Health Canada. 2011b. Licensed Natural Health Products Database. Available: http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/dhp-mps/prodnatur/applications/licen-prod/lnhpd-bdpsnh-eng.php [accessed 11 March 2011].
Hernandez-Diaz S, Mitchell AA, Kelley KE, Calafat AM, Hauser R. 2009. Medications as a potential source of exposure to phthalates in the U.S. population. Environ Health Perspect 117:185-189.
Howdeshell K, Rider C, Wilson V, Gray LJ. 2008. Mechanisms of action of phthalate esters, individually and in combination, to induce abnormal reproductive development in male laboratory rats. Environ Res 108(2):168-179.
Keller BO, Davidson AGF, Innis SM. 2009. Phthalate metabolites in urine of CF patients are associated with use of enteric-coated pancreatic enzymes. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 27(3):424-427. Mitchell JF. 2011. Oral dosage forms that should not be crushed. Available: http://www.ismp.org/tools/donotcrush.pdf [accessed 11 March 2011].
Mylan Pharmaceuticals Inc. 2006. Diltiazem hydrochloride extended-release capsule. Canonsburg, PA:Myian Pharmaceuticals Inc. Available: http://dailymed.nlm. nih.gov/dailymed/druglnfo.cfm?id=44562 [accessed 20 January 2012].
Mylan Pharmaceuticals Inc. 2010a. Verapamil Hydrochloride Capsule, Extended Release. Canonsburg, PA:Mylan Pharmaceuticals Inc. Available: http://dailymed.nlm.nih. gov/dai1ymed/drug1n?o.cfm?id=21863 [accessed 11 March 2011].
Mylan Pharmaceuticals Inc. 2010b. Verapamil Hydrochloride Capsule, Extended Release (PM). Available: http://daitymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?id-33906 [accessed 11 March 2011).
NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2011a. DailyMed. Available: http://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov [accessed 11 March 2011].
NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2011 b. Dietary Supplements Labels Database. Available: http://dietarysupplements.nlm.nih.gov (accessed 11 March 2011).
Osterberg RE, See NA. 2003. Toxicity of excipients--a food and drug administration perspective. Int J Toxicol 22(5):377-380.
Reed Technology and Information Services Inc. 2011. LabelDataPlus. Available: http://www.iabeldataplus.com/ [accessed 11 March 2011].
Rowe RC, Sheskey PJ, Quinn ME, eds. 2009. Handbook of Pharmaceutical Excipients. 6th ed. Washington, DC:American Pharmaceutical Association.
Shire LLC v, Nostrum Pharmaceuticals Inc. et at. 200B. Case No. 3:08-cv-03309. District Court of New Jersey, 2 July.
Silva MJ, Barr DB, Reidy JA, Malek NA, Hodge CC, Caudill SP, et al. 2004. Urinary levels of seven phthalate metabolites in the U.S. population from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2000. Environ Health Perspect 112:331-338.
Solvay Pharmaceuticals Inc. 2006. Creon Minimicrospheres. Marietta, GA:Solvay Pharmaceuticals Inc. Available: http://www.creon-us.com/Content/assets/pdf/CREON%205,%2010,%2020%20Prescribing%20Information.pdf [accessed 23 January 2012].
Steinberg M, Silverstein 1.2003. The use of unallowed excipients. Int J Toxicol 22(5):373-375.
Swan SH. 2008. Environmental phthalate exposure in relation to reproductive outcomes and other health endpoints in humans. Environ Res 108(2):177-184.
Thomson Healthcare. 1995-2010a. Physicians' Desk Reference. Montvale, NJ:Thomson Healthcare.
Thomson Healthcare.1995-2010b. Physicians' Desk Reference for Nonprescription Drugs, Dietary Supplements, and Herbs. Montvale, NJ:Thomson Healthcare.
Thomson PDR. 2006. Drugs that should not be crushed. In: 2006 Red Book: Pharmacy's Fundamental Reference. 110th ed. Montvale, NJ:Thomson PDR, 40-44.
U.S. Pharmacopeial Convention. 2009. Labeling of inactive ingredients. In; The United States Pharmacopeia--National Formulary. USP 32/NF 27. Rockville. MD:U.S. Pharmacopeial Convention, 599.
Warner Chilcott Pharmaceuticals Inc. 2010a. Asacol (Mesalamine) Delayed-Release Tablets. Mason, OH:Warner Chilcott Pharmaceuticals Inc.
Warner Chilcott Pharmaceuticals Inc. 2010b. Asacol HD (Mesalamine) Delayed-Release Tablets. Mason, 0H:Warner Chilcott Pharmaceuticals Inc.
Watson Pharma Inc. 2008. Diltia XT (Diltiazem Hydrochloride) Capsule, Extended Release. Available; http://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drug Info. cfm?id=8656 [accessed 11 March 2011].
Wockhardt USA LLC. 2007. Ranitidine Tablet, Coated, 150 mg. Available: http://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/druglnfo.cfm?id=17165 [accessed 11 March 2011].
Wockhardt USA LLC. 2008. Ranitidine Tablet, Coated, 75 mg.Available: http://daifymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/druglnfo.cfm?id=17159 (accessed 11 March 2011].
Wockhardt USA LLC. 2009. Ranitidine (Ranitidine Hydrochloride) Tablet. Parsippany, NJ:Wockhardt USA LLC. Available: http://dailymed.nlm.nih. gov/dailymed/druglnfo.cfm?id=15325 [accessed 11 March 2011].
Katherine E Kelley, (1) Sonia Hernandez-Diaz, (2) Erica L Chaplin,1 Russ Hauser, (2), (3) and Allen A Mitchell1
(1.) Slone Epidemiology Center at Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts, USA; (2.) Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA; (3.) Occupational and Environmental Medicine and Epidemiology Program, Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
|Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback|
|Author:||Kelley, Katherine E.; Hernandez-Diaz, Sonia; Chaplin, Erica L.; Hauser, Russ; Mitchell, Allen A.|
|Publication:||Environmental Health Perspectives|
|Date:||Mar 1, 2012|
|Previous Article:||Fine particulate matter constituents and cardiopulmonary mortality in a heavily polluted chinese city.|
|Next Article:||Mapping climate change vulnerabilities to infectious diseases in europe.|