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Identification of effective technical factors on delay; case study; civil projects of Bushehr province's department of sports and youth.

INTRODUCTION

Generally, one of the basic indexes in evaluation of projects' success is their implementation at the duo time and or an implementation without delay. If exploiting the projects is delayed, in addition to loss of capital, it will also lose its economic and technical justification. In this perspective, development of construction and sports projects of Bushehr province is also crucially important and it is obvious that lack of successful and on time implementation of these projects in terms of time and optimal cost, in addition to negative consequences including: undesirable perspective of the organization, improper quality and so on, will also deprive people's trust of authorities. Technical factors are among the causes that affect delay and they have been identified and prioritized in this research.

Statement Of The Issue:

In construction industry, delay means going further than the time which is determined in the contract or going further than the date that all of units involved in the project agree on. In most cases, delay for the contractor means increasing the cost of the superior and being influenced by the current inflation [7].

Delay in the implementation of civil projects, in addition to loss of national capital, also comes with regional imbalance. In other words, regions in which the status of closed projects is desirable and they have had proper economic efficiency are opposed to regions in which several projects haven't had tangible economic impacts because they haven't been closed yet [1].

Delays are divided into two groups of authorized and unauthorized. These delays in developed countries are mostly of the authorized group which can hardly ever be predicted, but in developing countries they are unauthorized delays [2].

If more than one delay happens over a period in a project, so called simultaneous delay has occurred. Occurrence of simultaneous delays can lead to the complexity of reviews; therefore, their identification and analysis is especially significant [4].

Problems caused by technical factors are among those problems that lead to the occurrence of delay in civil --sports projects of Bushehr province. In this research, it has been attempted to identify these problems as much as possible and to specify the degree of impact of each of them on delay.

Research Hypothesis:

Hypothesis: technical factors largely affect delay in project's implementation.

Research Methods And Used Statistical Tests:

Since the results of the research can be used, thus the purposes of the research are applicable. Research is done with a case-descriptive method in terms of data gathering. Statistical methods that have been used are Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, t-test with a single sample, structural equation approach, and confirmatory factor analysis and the inputs have been analyzed by using SPSS and LISREL software.

Method And Tools Of Information Gathering:

The method of information gathering includes library method, observation and interview. In this research, the main tools of information gathering are standard questionnaire that have been used. The questionnaire of technical factors of this research includes 12 questions and it has been filled out by 35 of the project's operational staff.

Output Results Of Questionnaire's Questions:

The results obtained from the analysis of questionnaire's information has been shown in the following graph based on the mean of the rate of impact that each item has on delay in implementation of civil and sports projects of Bushehr province.

Graph, from left to right:

1. Improper design that increases the amount of the payment of the contract

2. Incomplete plans

3. Technical weakness of the employer in controlling and reviewing the record

4. Change in the design by the consulter during operation

5. Change in specification and type of materials in construction

6. Weakness in contractor's engineering technical section

7. Insufficient skills and experience of the contractor

8. Delay in preparation and announcement of the plans

9. Selecting improper technology of construction and increasing the costs

10. Not studying accurately the obstacles in the way of project

11. Change in the implementation method during operation

12. Designing error by the designer due to his unfamiliarity with the local and environmental position

By considering the obtained means, it becomes specified that in technical variables, improper design that increases the amount of the payment of the contract has the most effect and designing error by the designer due to his unfamiliarity with the local and environmental position has the least impact on delay in implementation of civil--sports projects of Bushehr province.

Analysis Of The Model And Its Results:

In order to analyze the data of the research, several analyses have been sed. In order to analyze the data, first we review the hypothesis of the data's normality in each group with the help of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Then, in order to test the hypothesis of the research, we use the t-test with a single sample.

Review of normality status of research's variable:

The results of the above table show that the rate of significance of the variable of the research is more than the rate of the considered alpha, thus, it is concluded that technical index follows the normality hypothesis.

Review of the coefficients of factor loadings of the hidden technical variable:

Table no. 4 shows the results of the confirmatory factor analysis of technical questions. As it can been seen, all of the questions have a acceptable factor loading

According to table no. 2 which shows the results of the confirmatory factor analysis of technical questions, among the reviewed questions, Q8 with 0.92 factor loading has the most effect and Q4 with 0.23 factor loading has the less effect.

By considering the reported factor loading, it is specifies that insufficient skill and experience of the contractor has the most effect and change in specifications and type of materials in construction has the least effect on explanation of hidden technical variables.

fitting indexes of confirmatory factor analysis of the technical index:

Table 3: indexes of fitting evaluation of the technical index.

model               Index

                    GFI    AGFI   CFI    RMSEA     Chi-        X2
                                                 Square/df

Single-factor       0.88   0.85   0.94   0.05      2.69      145.26
  model of
  technical index

GFI = goodness of fitting index (> 0.8 to 0.9), AGFI = adjusted
goodness of fitting index (> 0.8), CFI = comparative fitting index
(> 0.90 to 0.95), RMSEA = root mean square error of approximation
(< 0.06 to 0.08), Chi-Square/df = degree of freedom chi-section
(> 3), X2 = Chi-Square


The results of the above table show that all indexes have acceptable and goof fitting. Therefore, we can say that a technical single-factor model has a good factor structure.

Fitting Of The Research's Model:

In this section, in the respect of reviewing the fitting of the model and prioritizing, the LISREL software has been used, the designed model in the software is like the following graph.

As it is seen, the hidden technical variable has been observed, explained and measured with 12 variables. The numbers on the arrow specify the rate of factor loading of the items. This graph shows the factor loading of each of the questions of the questionnaire. By factor loading we mean correlation coefficient between the question and the required dimension. The more the factor loading is, the more the rate of connection of that question to the dime associated with it, which is the technical index, will be.

Review Of Research Hypothesis:

The research hypothesis has been expressed as follows:

<<Technical factors largely affect delay in project's implementations

[H.sub.0]: Technical factors are not that effective on delay in project's implementation

[H.sub.1]: Technical factors are effective on delay in project's implementation

The single-sampled t-test was used in order to test the research hypothesis. If the rate of obtained significance (P) was larger than the required significance level of the research (a= 0.05), we conclude the H0 and if the rate of obtained significance (P) was smaller than the required significance level of the research (a= 0.05), we conclude the [H.sub.1].

The results obtained from the independent t-test for reviewing the opinions of the experts about the impact of effective technical factors on delays is equal to (t=0.71) (P>0.05); therefore, it is concluded that << Technical factors are effective on delay in project's implementations

Discussion and conclusion:

The results obtained from this research confirm this claim that technical factors are effective on delay in implementation of projects to an average extent. It means that since the error rate is more than the significance level considered by the research and the obtained mean is more than the considered means, therefore the second hypothesis is rejected. In other words, << technical factors don't largely affect delay in project's implementation and they are effective to an average extents

Change in the conditions of site and shortage of materials are one of the most important factors that lead to delay of tie and increase costs in the project [5].

Technical inabilities is considered as one of the effective factors on increasing time (delay) and cost [6].

In reviewing the causes of delay of civil projects of the network of country's airport, the defect of designing and lack of familiarity of the designers with operational affairs and also lack of one time providing of sources and facilities that would be in the hands the operation unit, after financial factors, was identified as an effective technical factor [3]. In this research, financial factors were introduced as effective factors on delay and technical factors were introduced in the next rank.

The results of all of the above researches are in compliance with the results of this research.

Recommended Actions:

1. Proper operational methods and usage of new methods

2. Delivering the land immediately after concluding the contract

3. Providing materials, facilities and equipments to which the employer commits.

REFERENCE

[1] Rezayi, S., 2012. Effects of delay in implementation of projects of irrigation and drainage networks with a financial evaluation approach (case study: irrigation network of Golabar, Zanjan), Fifth Conference on Water Resources Management, Tehran, Iran Water Resources Association, Shahid Beheshti University.

[2] Eskandari Malayeri, M., 2012. Review of the role of consulting engineers in delays of large projects and presenting improvement strategies, Second International Conference on Project Management.

[3] Ghotbi, Z., 1999. Review of causes of delay of civil projects of the networks of country's airports, master theses of project and construction management, Tarbiyat Modarres University.

[4] Arditi, D. and T. Pattanakitchamroom, 2006. Selecting a Delay Analysis Method in Resolving Construction Claims. International Journal of Project Management.

[5] Mansfield, N., O. Ugwu, 1994. Doran, T Case of Deelay and Cost Overruns Nigerian Construction Projects. International Journal of Project Management.

[6] Frimpong, Y. and J. Oluwoyeb, l. Crawfordc, 2003. Causes of Delay and Cost Overruns in Construction of Groundwater Projects in a Developing Countries:The case of Ghana. International Journal of Project Management.

[7] Assaf, S.A. and S. Al-Hejji, 2007. Causes of Delay in Large Construction Project. International Journal of Project Management.

(1) Mansoor Keshavarzi and (2) Tohid Pourrostam

(1) Graduate Student, Islamic Azad University, Branch of Shoushtar, Department of Civil Engineering, Shoushtar, Iran

(2) Assistant Professor, Islamic Azad University, Branch of Shoushtar, Department of Civil Engineering, Shoushtar, Iran

Corresponding Author: Mansoor Keshavarzi, Graduate Student, Islamic Azad University, Branch of Shoushtar, Department of Civil Engineering, Shoushtar, Iran

E-mail: keshavarzi.mansoor@yahoo.com

ARTICLE INFO

Article history:

Received 12 October 2014

Received in revised form 26 December 2014

Accepted 1 January 2015

Available online 18 February 2015

Table 1: Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, in order to
review the normality of the research's variable.

Variable    Volume of    Kolmogorov-    Significance
            the sample   Smirnov test

Technical       35           1.07           0.20

Table 2: the results of the confirmatory factor analysis
of technical questions.

Variable    Questions   Significance   T value   Standard   Factor
                           level                  error     loading

Technical      Q1          P</01        8.33       0.06      0.50
               Q2          P</01        6.31       0.05      0.33
               Q3          P</01        6.48       0.04      0.28
               Q4          P</01        4.56       0.05      0.23
               Q5          P</01        5.97       0.06      0.38
               Q6          P</01        3.91       0.07      0.28
               Q7          P</01        12.50      0.06      0.77
               Q8          P</01        14.48      0.06      0.92
               Q9          P</01        7.71       0.06      0.47
               Q10         P</01        13.87      0.06      0.87
               Q11         P</01        15.15      0.06      0.90
               Q12         P</01        8.73       0.06      0.53

Table 4: testing research hypothesis.

Variables title     Mean   Standard       Mean      t-test
                           deviation   difference

Technical factors   3.07     0.55         0.07       0.71

Variables title     Freedom    Error      Stastical       Research
                    degree    rate (P)    conclusion     conclusion

Technical factors     34        0.48      The error      Hypothesis
                                         rate is more   is rejected
                                          than 0.05.
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Article Details
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Author:Keshavarzi, Mansoor; Pourrostam, Tohid
Publication:Advances in Environmental Biology
Article Type:Case study
Geographic Code:7IRAN
Date:Jan 15, 2015
Words:2109
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