Printer Friendly

Identification, Quantification, and Antioxidant Activity of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Artemisia campestris from Algeria/Cezayir'de Yetisen Artemisia campestris'in Sulu Alkollu Ekstresinin Tanimlanmasi, Kantitasyonu ve Antioksidan Aktivitesi.


The genus Artemisia is one of the largest and most widely distributed genera of the family Asteraceae in Europe and North Africa, and its species have been characterized for their pronounced biological activities and are considered to produce most medicinally important secondary metabolites. Eleven species of Artemisia can be found in the Algerian flora. (1,2) Artemisia campestris is a perennial faintly aromatic herb widespread in the south of Algeria, commonly known as "dgouft". The aerial parts of the plant have been used in traditional medicine as a febrifuge, vermifuge, and anticancer agent and to treat digestive troubles, gastric ulcer, and menstrual pain. (3-5) A. campestris extract was reported to be a potent free radical scavenger of 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl, 2,2'-azinobis3-ethylbenzthiazoline -6-sulfonic acid ([ABTS.sup.*+]), and superoxide anion radicals ([O.sub.2.sup.*-]) but there is a lack of knowledge regarding the phenolic composition of this plant and its relation with its antioxidant properties, since only a few studies have identified a small number of phenolic compounds. (5-8)

However, the phenolic profile of A. campestris is quite complex. Flavonoids present in this species consist of flavones, flavonols, flavanones, dihydroflavonols, and their methyl ethers, whereas the isolation of coumarins and phloracetophenones is also reported. (9,10) Chlorogenic acid is a natural product occurring in a large number of different plants or parts of the plant; for example, in A. campestris chemically it is the ester of caffeic acid and quinic acid, 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid. Other isomers are derivative chlorogenic acid 4-O-caffeoylquinic acid and 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid. Additionally, there are other isomers, called iso-chlorogenic acids, with two caffeic acid moieties such as 3,4-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, and 1,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid.

The objective of the present work was to contribute to the identification of the major phenolic compounds in the hydroalcoholic extract of A. campestris by high-performance liquid chromatographic/diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) coupled with electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). In addition, HPLC-DAD-electrochemical detector quantification of phenolic and flavonoid contents and hydroxycinnamic acid was carried out. Finally, the antioxidant capacity of the extract was also evaluated by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay.



Chlorogenic acid was purchased from Extrasynthese (Genay, France). Methanol for HPLC-GOLD-Ultra gradient was purchased from Carlo Erba Reagents (Val de Reuil, France). Phosphoric acid (85%) and formic acid (98%) were purchased from Panreac Quimica (Barcelona, Spain) Acetonitrile HPLC gradient grade was purchased from VWR[R] (Leuven, Belgium). Milli-Q[R] water (18.2 M[ohm].cm) was obtained in a Millipore-Direct Q3 ultraviolet (UV) System (Molsheim, France).

Plant material

Aerial parts of A. campestris were collected from the Laghouat region in the northern Algerian Sahara in summer 2015. The identification and authentication of the plant were carried out by Dr. Mohamed Kouidri, botanist (Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Sciences, University of Laghouat, Algeria) and the voucher specimens were deposited at the Laboratory of Process Engineering, University of Laghouat (number LGP Ac/08/15).

Preparation of the hydroalcoholic extract

One gram of dried powder was mixed with ethanol:water (8:2; v/v, 10 mL) and macerated under sonication, (water bath, room temperature, 30 min). The material was filtered and the crude extract obtained was analyzed directly by HPLC. The procedure was performed in triplicate.

Equipment and conditions of analysis

Liquid chromatography with diode array and electrochemical detection

The HPLC system used was a Thermo Finnigan (Surveyor, San Jose, CA, USA), equipped with an autosampler, pump, photodiode-array detector (PDA), and electrochemical detector (ED). Chromatographic separation of compounds was carried out on a Lichrocart RP-18 column (250x4 mm, particle size 5 [micro]m, Merck). The Dionex[R] ED performed signal measurements by integrated voltammetry at potentials between -1.0 V and 1.0 V with a scan time of 1.00 s. The obtained results were acquired at a frequency of 50 Hz using an analogue/digital converter. The photodiode array detector was programmed for scanning between 192 and 798 nm at a speed of 1 Hz with a bandwidth of 5 nm. The detection was monitored using three individual channels, 280, 320, and 360 nm, at a speed of 10 Hz with a bandwidth of 11 nm. The injection volume was 20.00 [micro]L and total time of analysis was 120 min. A binary gradient elution (Table 1) was used. The mobile phase was as follows: 0.5% formic acid in Milli-Q[R] Water 95% (eluent A) and 0.5% phosphoric acid in acetonitrile 90% and 9.5% Milli-Q[R] Water (eluent B). The flow rate was systematically controlled and set at 0.3 mL/min.

Liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry

The identification of compounds in the extracts was carried out by HPLC-MS/MS using Waters[R] Alliance 2695 HPLC equipment fitted with a DAD, Waters 2996 (PDA), and a triple quadrupole spectrometer (TQ) (Micromass[R] Quattro micro[TM], Waters) with an ESI source operating in negative mode. The capillary in the ESI source was placed at 3.0 kV and the cone at 30 V. The chromatographic separation was performed on a LiChroCART RP-18 column (250x4 mm, particularly from size 5 [micro]m, Merck) at 35[degrees]C. The eluents used were A: formic acid (0.5% v/v) and B: acetonitrile (LC-MS grade). A gradient elution program was applied for chromatographic analysis (Table 1). Flow rate was maintained at 0.3 mL/min and the injection volume was 10 [micro]L. Ultrapure nitrogen ([N.sub.2]) was used as nebulizer and drying gas and gas. Ultrapure argon was used as the collision gas at a pressure of [10.sup.-4] mbar. For data acquisition and treatment of data MassLynx[R] software version 4.1 was used.

Determination of phenolic chromatographic profile

Total phenolic content was determined using the 280 nm total peak area above 40 min. Calibration curves with gallic acid (0-25 ppm) were created and the final results were expressed in terms of gallic acid equivalents (GAE) per gram of dry weight (DW) (mg/g GAE DW).

Total flavonoids content was determined using the 360 nm total peak area above 40 min. Calibration curves with rutin (0-50 ppm) were created and the final results were expressed in terms of rutin equivalents (RE) per gram of DW (mg/g RE DW).

Total hydroxycinnamic acids content was determined using the 320 nm total peak area between 20 and 40 min. Calibration curves with caffeic acid (0-25 ppm) were created and the final results were expressed in terms of caffeic acid (CA) equivalents per gram of DW (mg/g CA DW). Additionally, the content of total phenols was determined colorimetrically with Folin's reagent according to the method reported by Stamatakis et al. (11) The phenolic contents were expressed as mg of GAE per gram of DW (mg/g GAE DW).


Peroxyl radical scavenging capacity was determined by the ORAC method. The assay was carried out by following the method reported by Huang et al. (12) modified for the FL800 microplate reader (BioTek Instruments, Winooski, VT, USA) as described by Feliciano et al. (13) All data were expressed as micromoles of Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) per gram DW ([micro]mol TEAC/g DW).


The HPLC method employed for the separation of phenolic components in the hydroalcoholic extract of A. campestris revealed a good separation of the majority of the compounds. Chromatograms at 280 nm are widely used to study phenolic compounds because absorption at this wavelength is suitable to detect a large number of such compounds. The maximum absorption wavelengths ([[lambda].sub.max]), and parent, aglycone, and fragment ion masses of the components detected in the aqueous extract of A. campestris are shown in Table 2, where the compounds are numbered according to their retention times ([R.sub.t]) in the obtained chromatograms.

Four compounds were unequivocally identified based on the analysis of standard compounds and comparing their HPLC retention time, UV spectra, and MS/MS fragmentation pattern. The remaining compounds were characterized and their structures proposed based mainly on the MS/MS fragmentation data conjugated with the UV-DAD spectra. Most of the peaks showed similar UV absorptions maxima with two bands at [[lambda].sub.max] 230-240 nm and 320-330 nm. These types of UV absorption bands are characteristic of hydroxycinnamic acids. Some peaks with characteristic UV absorptions bands for flavonoids were also detected. (14) The chromatogram of the hydroalcoholic extract of the aerial parts from A. campestris is presented in Figure 1. The most relevant components were caffeoylquinic acids. In general, in the MSspectrum the most intense peak corresponds to the deprotonated molecular ion [[M-H].sup.-]. The main fragments observed in the MS/MS experiments are given in Table 2. Chemical structures of some phenolic compounds tentatively identified in hydroalcoholic extract of Artemisia campestris are given in Figure 2.

Quantification of chlorogenic acid derivatives of A. campestris

The content of chlorogenic acid derivatives of A. campestris extract was determined. The amounts of the identified compounds are given in Table 3. 3,4-Dicaffeoylquinic acid was the major caffeoylquinic acid in the hydroalcoholic extract of A. campestris (274.76[+ or -]9.50 mg eq Trolox/L).

The data in Table 3 reveal the highest quantities of the three isomers of the caffeoylquinic acid (3-O-caffeoylquinic acid 191.92[+ or -]5.4 mg eq Trolox/L, 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid 117.61[+ or -]3.52 mg eq Trolox/L, and 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid 6.48[+ or -]0.25 mg eq Trolox/L).

Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content

The antioxidant and total phenolic content of the A. campestris extract were measured by ORAC assay and the results are shown in Table 4.


Characterization of caffeoylquinic acids (M=354) and dicaffeoylquinic acids (M=516)

Two peaks were detected at m/z 353 and assigned using the hierarchical keys previously developed (15-18) as well-known chlorogenic acid (3-O-caffeoylquinic acid) and 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid. Two dicaffeoylquinic acid isomers were identified by their parent ion m/z 515 and were assigned as 3,4-dicaffeoylquinic acid and 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid. (8,18)

Characterization of other nuclei

A peak was detected at [R.sub.t]=27.5 min with [[M-H].sup.-] at m/z 153 with a characteristic [MS.sup.2] fragment at m/z 109 [[M-H-44].sup.-] due to loss of C[O.sub.2] moiety; it was identified as 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (protocatechuic acid). (19) Another peak at [R.sub.t]=31.6 min showed a deprotonated molecule [[M-H].sup.-] at m/z 205 with [MS.sup.2] fragments of 143, 129, and 114; it was assigned to quinic acid methyl ester. (20) A molecular ion was seen at [R.sub.t]=44.9 with a deprotonated ion [[M-H].sup.-] at m/z 179 with daughter ions at m/z 135 [[M-H-44].sup.-] due to the neutral loss of C[O.sub.2] moiety and 107 [[M-H-44-28].sup.-] due to further neutral loss of CO moiety; it was identified as 3,4-dihydroxy-cinnamic acid (caffeic acid) as previously described. (21) A peak at [R.sub.t]=58.6 showed a deprotonated ion [[M-H].sup.-] at m/z 367 and [MS.sup.n] ions at m/z 191 equivalent to quinic acid moiety, and another fragment at m/z 173 due to loss of [H.sub.2]O molecule; it was identified as 4-O-feruloylquinic acid. (22) Moreover, a peak at [R.sub.t]=73.3 showed a deprotonated ion [[M-H].sup.-] at m/z 463 and [MS.sup.n] ions at m/z 301 due to loss of glucose moiety (-m/z 162) and equivalent to quercetin aglycone moiety. In addition, characteristic fragments of aglycone appeared at m/z 179 and 151; it was identified as quercetin-O-glucoside. (23) A peak at [R.sub.t]=76.8 showed a deprotonated ion [[M-H].sup.-] at m/z 609 and a characteristic [MS.sup.n] ion at m/z 301 due to loss of rutinosyl moiety (-m/z 308) and equivalent to quercetin aglycone moiety; it was identified as quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (rutin). (24) Finally, a peak at [R.sub.t]=114.0 showed a deprotonated ion [[M-H].sup.-] at m/z 313 and characteristic [MS.sup.n] ions at m/z 298 due to the loss of methyl moiety [[M-H-C[H.sub.3]].sup.-] and 283 due to further loss of another methyl moiety [[M-H-2C[H.sub.3]].sup.-]; it was identified as 4',7'-dimethoxy luteolin. (25)

Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content

In the current study, the ORAC (Trolox equivalents, TE) value (120.5[+ or -]10.4 [micro]mol TEAC/g DW) was below the results (263.65[+ or -]39.7 [micro]mol TEAC/g DW) found by Bakchiche et al. (7) and higher than the values of different Artemisia species harvested in Korea reported by Lee. (26) This can be due to several reasons such as the method of extraction and the date and place of harvest (seasonal variations).

The reagent Folin--Ciocalteu is used in the quantification of total phenols; it is not only specific for phenols but also has the ability to reacts with sugar, protein, etc. For this reason our result was very high. We found a value greater than the values of the total phenols with the same species reported by Djeridane et al. (27) (20.38 mg/g GAE DW) and Bakchiche et al. (7) (53.84 mg/g GAE DW).

Bakchiche et al. (7) previously stated that the hydroalcoholic extract from aerial parts of A. campestris possessed high antioxidant activity coupled to high phenolic content. Further investigation of known phenolic compounds in this extract, quantified by HPLC-MS/MS, revealed that chlorogenic acid was in high abundance (161.92[+ or -]5.4 mg/g DW) and was most likely responsible for the majority of the observed antioxidant activity. (7) In the current study, A. campestris extract, which demonstrated high antioxidant activity and phenolic content, was further analyzed for the presence of a number of mono (3-O-cafleoylquinic, 5-O-caffeoylquinicacids) and di (3,4-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid) substituted chlorogenic acid derivatives using HPLC-MS/MS. Numerous previous reports revealed the antioxidant activity of medicinal plants based on the presence of certain polyphenolic compounds including phenolic acids, flavonoids, tannins, and their derivatives. (28-30)


The aim of the present study was to contribute to the identification of the major phenolic compounds in the hydroalcoholic extract of A. campestris; quantification of phenolic and flavonoid contents and hydroxycinnamic acid was carried out, and the antioxidant capacity of the extract was evaluated by ORAC assay. According to the data obtained, 11 phenolic compounds in the hydroalcoholic extract were tentatively identified using HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS. The identified compounds contained phenolic acid derivatives and flavonoids. Moreover, the hydroalcoholic extract showed a noticeable antioxidant potential; this high activity may be due to the presence of phenolic compounds. In conclusion, the aerial parts of A. campestris are considered a promising source of naturally occurring antioxidant agents, and its polyphenol profile may be regarded as a model for caffeoylquinic acid distribution in the plant A. campestris and can help to distinguish chlorogenic acid isomers.

Conflict of Interest: No conflict of interest was declared by the authors.


(1.) Quezel P, Santa S. New flora of Algeria and the meridional desert regions (In French). Paris; CNRS;2013:2.

(2.) Abad MJ, Bedoya LM, Apaza L, Bermejo P. The Artemisia L. Genus: a review of bioactive essential oils. Molecules. 2012;17:2542-2566.

(3.) Dob T, Dahmane D, Berramdane T, Chelghoum C. Chemical compostion of the essential oil of Artemisia campestris L. from Algeria. Pharm Biol. 2005;43:512-514.

(4.) Akrout A, Gonzalez LA, El Jani H, Madrid PC. Antioxidant and antitumor activities of Artemisia campestris and Thymelaea hirsuta from southern Tunisia. Food Chem. Toxicol. 2011;49:342-349.

(5.) Djeridane A, Yousfi M, Nadjemi B, Vidal N, Lesgards JF, Stocker P. Screening of some Algerian medicinal plants for the phenolic compounds and their antioxidant activity. Eur Food Res Technol. 2007;224:801-809.

(6.) Karabegovic I, Nikolova M, Velickovic D, Stojicevic S, Veljkovic, V, Lazic M. Comparison of antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of methanolic extracts of the Artemisia sp. recovered by different extraction techniques. Chin J Chem Eng. 2011;19:504-511.

(7.) Bakchiche B, Gherib A, Aazza, S, Gago C, Miguel MG. Antioxidant activities of eight Algerian plant extracts and two essential oils. Ind Crops Prod. 2013;46:85-96.

(8.) Megdiche-Ksouri W, Trabelsi N, Mkadmini K, Bourgoua S, Noumi A. Artemisia campestris phenolic compounds have antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. Ind Crops Prod. 2014;63:104-113.

(9.) Valant-Vetschera K, Fischer R, Wollenweber E. Exudate flavonoids in species of Artemisia (Asteraceae-Anthemideae): new results and chemosystematic interpretation. Biochem Syst Ecol. 2003;31:487-498.

(10.) Ferchichi L, Merza J, Landreau A, Ray AML, Legseir B, Seraphin D, Richomme P. Occurrence of isocoumarinic and phenolic derivatives in Artemisia campestris L. subsp. campestris. Biochem Syst Ecol. 2006;34:829-832.

(11.) Stamatakis G, Tsantila N, Samiotaki M, Panayotou GN, Dimopoulos AC, Halvadakis CP, Demopoulos CA, Detection and isolation of antiatherogenic and antioxidant substances present in olive mill wastes by a novel filtration system. J Agric Food Chem. 2009;57:10554-10564.

(12.) Huang D, Ou B, Hampsch WM, Flanagan JA, Prior RL. High throughput assay of oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) using amultichannel liquid handling system coupled with a microplate fluorescence reader in 96-well format. J Agric Food Chem. 2002;50:4437-4444.

(13.) Feliciano RP, Bravo MN, Pires MM, Serra AT, Duarte CM, Boas LV, Bronze MR. Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Moscatel Dessert Wines from the Setubal Region in Portugal. Food Analy Meth. 2009;2:149-161.

(14.) Mabry TJ, Markham KR, Thomas M. The Systematic Identification of Flavonoids. New York; Springer Verlag Publication; 1970;294:261-266.

(15.) Riedel H, Cai Z, Kutuk O, Smetanska I. Obtaining phenolic acids from cell cultures of various Artemisia species. Afric J Biotech. 2010;9:8805-8809.

(16.) Carvalho M, Silva BM, Silva R, Valentao P, Andrade PB, Bastos ML. First report on Cydonia oblonga Miller anticancer potential: Differential antiproliferative effect against human kidney and colon cancer cells. J Agric Food Chem. 2010;58:3366-3370.

(17.) Dagnon S, Ivanov I, Bojilov D, Docheva M, Statkova S. Evaluation of the Main Polyphenolic Compounds in Aromatic Plants of Asteraceae and Solanaceae Families of Bulgarian Origin. J Pharma and Phytoch. 2013:76-84.

(18.) Sebai H, Jabri MA, Souli A, Hosni K, Selmi S, Tounsi H, Tebourbi O, Boubaker S, El-Benna J, Sakly M. Protective effect of Artemisia campestris extract against aspirin-induced gastric lesions and oxidative stress in rat. RSC Adv. 2014;4:49831-49841.

(19.) Charrouf Z, Hilali M, Jauregui O, Soufiaoui M, Guillaume D. Separation and characterization of phenolic compounds in arganfruit pulp using liquid chromatography-negative electrospray ionization tandem mass spectroscopy. Food Chem. 2007;100:1398-1401.

(20.) Al-Rawahi AS, Edwards G, Al-Sibani M, Al-Thani G, Al-Harrasi AS, Rahman MS. Phenolic constituents of pomegranate peels (Punica granatum L.) cultivated in Oman. Euro J Med Plants. 2014;4:315-331.

(21.) Biesaga M, Pyrzynska K. Liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry studies of the phenolic compounds in honey. J Chrom A. 2009;1216:6620-6626.

(22.) Ghareeb MA, Mohamed T, Saad AM, Refahy LA, Sobeh M, Wink M. HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS analysis of fruits from Firmiana simplex (L.) and evaluation of their antioxidant and antigenotoxic properties. J Pharm Pharm. 2018;70:133-142.

(23.) Sobeh M, Hassan SA, El Raey MA, Khalil WA, Hassan MAE, Wink M. Polyphenolics from Albizia harveyi exhibit antioxidant activities and counteract oxidative damage and ultra-structural changes of cryopreserved bull semen. Mol. 2017;22:1993.

(24.) Abu-Reidah IM, Ali-Shtayeh MS, Jamous RM, David Arraez-Roman D, Segura-Carretero A. HPLC--DAD--ESI-MS/MS screening of bioactive components from Rhus coriaria L. (Sumac) fruits. Food Chem. 2015;166:179-191.

(25.) Simirgiotis MJ, Benites J, Areche C, Sepulveda B. Antioxidant capacities and analysis of phenolic compounds inthree endemic Nolana species by HPLC-PDA-ESI-MS. Mol. 2015;20:11490-11507.

(26.) Lee JH. Evaluation for Antioxidant Activity of Artemisia sp. Plants. Research J Med Plant. 2014;8:258-268.

(27.) Djeridane A, Yousfi M, Nadjemi B, Boutassouna D, Stocker P, Vidal N. Antioxidant activity of some Algerian medicinal plants extracts containing phenolic compounds. Food Chem. 2006;97:654-660.

(28.) Ghareeb M, Saad A, Ahmed W, Refahy L, Nasr S. HPLC DAD ESI MS/MS characterization of bioactive secondary metabolites from Strelitzia nicolai leaf extracts and their antioxidant and anticancer activities in vitro. Pharmacogn Res. 2018;10:368-378.

(29.) Ghareeb MA, Sobeh M, Rezq S, El-Shazly AM, Mahmoud MF, Wink M. HPLC-ESI-MS/MS profiling of polyphenolics of a leaf extract from Alpinia zerumbet (Zingiberaceae) and its anti-Inflammatory, anti-nociceptive, and antipyretic activities in vivo. Molecules. 2018;23:3238.

(30.) Sobeh M, Mahmoud MF, Hasan RA, Abdelfattah MA, Sabry OM, Ghareeb MA, El-Shazly AM, Wink M. Tannin rich extracts from Lannea stuhlmannii and Lannea humilis (Anacardiaceae) exhibit hepatoprotective activities in vivo via enhancement of the anti apoptotic protein bcl 2. Sci Rep. 2018;8:9343.

(iD) Boulanouar BAKCHICHE (1*), (iD) Abdelaziz GHERIB (1) (iD) Maria Rosario BRONZE (2), (iD) Mosad A. GHAREEB (3)

(1) Amar Telidji University, Faculty of Technology, Laboratory of Process Engineering, Laghouat, Algeria

(2) University of Lisbon, Faculty of Pharmacy, Lisboa, Portugal

(3) Medicinal Chemistry Department, Theodor Bilharz Research Institute, Kornaish El-Nile, Warrak El-Hadar, Imbaba, Giza, Egypt

(*) Correspondence: E-mail:, Phone: 00213662174441 ORCID-ID:

Received: 01.02.2018, Accepted: 25.04.2018

DOI: 10.4274/tjps.galenos.2018.99267
Table 1. Gradient eluents used for analysis by HPLC-DAD-ED

Time (min)  Eluent A (%)  Eluent B (%)

0.10        98.90          1.10
15          91.00          9.00
20          87.80         12.20
30          87.80         12.20
55          86.50         13.50
95          73.00         27.00
105         37.00         63.00
110         37.00         63.00
125         98.90          1.10
130         98.90          1.10

HPLC: High performance liquid chromatography, DAD: Diode array
detection, ED: Electrochemical detector

Table 2. Phenolic compounds tentatively identified in hydroalcoholic
extract of Artemisia campestris

Peak no.  [R.sub.t] (min)  Ultraviolet  [M-H]- m/z

1          27.5           259           153
2          29.45          325           353
3          31.6           266           205
4          40.26          224/326       353
5          44.9           325           179
6          58.6           328           367
7          73.3           365           463
8          76.8           256           609
9          83.68          247/326       515
10         89.18          244/326       515
11        114.0                         313

Peak no.  Fragmentations               Compounds proposed

1         141, 109                     Protocatechuic acid
2         191, 179, 173                5-O-Caffeoylquinic acid
3         143, 129, 114                Quinic acid methyl ester
4         191, 173, 85                 3-O-Caffeoylquinic acid
5         135, 107, 89                 Caffeic acid
6         191, 173, 134, 93, 87        4-O-Feruloylquinic acid
7         301, 179, 151                Quercetin-O-glucoside
8         301                          Rutin
9         353, 235,191, 179, 173, 135  3,4-Dicaffeoylquinic acid
10        353, 191, 179, 173, 135      4,5-Dicaffeoylquinic acid
11        298, 283, 255, 163, 117      4',7'-Dimethoxy luteolin

Peak no.  References

1         19
2         28
3         20
4         28
5         21
6         22
7         23
8         24
9         28
10        28
11        25

Table 3. Quantification of chlorogenic acid derivatives by
electrochemical detector

Peak no.  [R.sub.t]  m/z  Compounds proposedmg eq

2         29.45      353  5-O-Caffeoylquinic acid    6.48[+ or -]0.25
4         40.26      353  Chlorogenic acid           191.92[+ or -]5.4
                          (3-O-Caffeoylquinic acid)
9         83.68      515  3,4-Dicaffeoylquinic acid  274.76[+ or -]9.50
10        89.18      515  4,5-Dicaffeoylquinic acid  117.61[+ or -]3.52

Table 4. Phenolic, hydroxycinnamic acid, and flavonoids contents and
value of ORAC assay of Artemisia campestris extract

Sample      TPC (280 nm)       HAC (320 nm)       TFC (360 nm)
            mg/g DW            mg/g CA DW         mg/g RE DW

extract     61.42[+ or -]2.13  37.26[+ or -]0.88  17.94[+ or -]1.26

Sample      TPC (Folin method)  ORAC [micro]mol
            (mg/g EGA DW)       TEAC/ g DW)

extract     102.09[+ or -]1.65  120.5[+ or -]10.4

TPC: Total phenolic content, HAC: Hydroxycinnamic acid content, TFC:
Total flavonoids content, CA: Caffeic acid, DW: Dry weight, RE: Rutin
equivalents, EGA: Equivalents of gallic acid, TEAC: Trolox equivalent
antioxidant capacity, ORAC: Oxygen radical absorbance capacity
COPYRIGHT 2019 Galenos Yayinevi Tic. Ltd.
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2019 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Author:Bakchiche, Boulanouar; Gherib, Abdelaziz; Bronze, Maria Rosario; Ghareeb, Mosad A.
Publication:Turkish Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Article Type:Report
Date:May 17, 2019
Previous Article:Simultaneous Estimation of Saxagliptin and Dapagliflozin in Human Plasma by Validated High Performance Liquid Chromatography - Ultraviolet...
Next Article:Antimicrobial and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Some Lathyrus L (Fabaceae) Species Growing in Turkey/Turkiye'de Yetisen Bazi Lathyrus L. (Fabaceae)...

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2020 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters