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Ibn Mujahid and Canonical Recitations.

Introduction

Recitation (qira'at) refers to authoritative recitation of the Qur'an. Ibn al-Jazari al-Dimashqi(751-833/1350-1429), the master reciter and celebrated authority on recitation, formally defines the science of recitation as: "[qira'at is] the science of [knowing] the ways of pronouncing the words of the Qur'an [along with their] differences by tracing [them] back to a transmitter" (Ibn al-Jazari, Munjid al-muqri'in, al-Bab al-awwal fi-l-qira'at). The Ottoman author Haji Khalifa [also known as Katip Celebi] (1017-1067/1609-1657) echoes al-Jazari and says qira'at is "the science ('ilm) which discovers the forms of the system of the Words of Allah ('an suwar nazm kaldmi-Lldhi) with regard to the differences with an uninterrupted chain (min haythu wujuh al-ikhtilafat al-mutawatira) ... its benefit (fa' idaiuhu) is the preservation of the Word of Allah (sawn kaldmi-Lldhi) from falsification (tahrif) and alteration (taghyir)" (Kashf, sub qira'a). Al-Dimyati (d. 1117/1706) has a more expressive definition: "The science by which one can know the agreement and disagreement of transmitters regarding deletion, insertion, vocalization, vowellessness, separation and connection [for pronouncing the words of the] Book of Allah, the Exalted" (Al-Dimyati, Ithaf Mabadi' 'ilm al-qira'at). A more recent rewording of Ibn al-Jazari's original definition states: "Qira'at is the agreed upon transmission [of recitation] by one of the Seven or Ten Reciters or their transmitters who share their eminence (man fimanzilatihim) from among the Imams of Reciters (min a'immati-l-qurra')" (Dawsari, Mukhtasar, sub No. 285, al-qira'a; attributed to Ibn al-Jazari). 'Abdul-Fattah (d. 1403/1983): "[It is the] science by which the method of pronouncing the Qur'anic words is known either in full agreement or with difference [with a given reciter] and [science of] tracing every variant back to its transmitter" (cAbdu-l-Fattah, al-Budur al-zahira fi-l-qira'at al-'ashr al-mutawatira min tariqay al-Shatibiyya wa-l-Durra, Muqaddima fi mabadi' 'ilm al-qira'at). In all of these definitions, the common element is "authoritative transmission, traced back to the master Reciters, whose own recitation is, in turn, traced back to the Prophet, upon him blessings and peace, through an uninterrupted chain.

Brief Historical Account of Emergence of Canonical Recitations

It was during the period of the Successors and shortly thereafter that exceptional reciters became renowned as teachers of Qur'anic recitation in cities like Makkah, Madina, Kufa, Basra, and greater Syria (al-Sham). They attracted students from all over the expanding Muslim state and their modes of recitations were then attached to their names. It is therefore commonly said that he recites according to the reading of Ibn Kathir or Nafic; this, however, does not mean that these reciters are the originators of these recitations, their names have been attached to the mode of recitation simply because their rendition of the Prophetic manner of recitation was acclaimed for authenticity and accuracy and their names became synonymous with these Qur'anic recitations. In fact, their own recitation goes back to the Prophetic mode of recitation through an unbroken chain. Different recitations take into account dialectal features of Arabic language; some of these are listed below:

i. al-kashkasha: Dialect of Rabi'a, Mudar, Bakr, [Ibn Faris also ascribes it to the tribe of Asad; Sahibi, Bab al-lughat al-madhmuma]: changing of the pronominal suffix, in pausal form, into 'sh', as in darash for daruka, or addition of 'sh' to 'k' suffix, as in 'alaykash for 'alayka (Ibn Jinni, Khasa'is, Bab ikhtilaf al-lughat wa kulluha hujja; Suyuti, Muzhir, Ma'rifatu-l-radfi wal-madhmum min al-lughat; see also: Jundi, Lahajat, al-Tashif); al-Qurtubi, while explaining the Seven Modes as seven dialects of Mudar, gives an example for Q 19:24, "jaiala rabbushi tahtish sariyyan" for the correct ja'ala rabbuki tahtaki sariyyan (Tafsir, Bab ma'na qawli-l-nabiyy salla-Llahu 'alayhi wa sallama unzila hadha-l-Qur'an 'ala sab'ati ahruf);

ii. al-kaskasa: Dialect of RabIca, Mudar, Bakr and Hawazin: changing of the pronominal feminine suffix, in pausal form, 'k' into 's', as in 'alaysh or abus for 'alayki and abuki (Ibn Jinni, Khasa'is, Bab ikhtilaf al-lughat wa kulluha hujja; see also: Jundi, Lahajat, al-Tashif);

iii. al-'an'ana: Dialect of Qays, Tamlm, Asad: changing of 'hamza' into "ayn', they say "annaka' for 'annaka' (Suyuti, Muzhir, Ma'rifatu-l-rad' wal-madhmum min al-lughat; Jundl, Lahajat, al-Tashif)

iv. al-fahfaha: Dialect of Hudhayl: changing of the 'ha'' into "ayn' as in-'atta for hatta (Suyuti, Muzhir, Ma'rifatu-l-radi' wal-madhmum min al-lughat; Jundi, Lahajat, al-Tashif);

v. al-'ajrafiyya: Dialect of Dabba and Qays: It is characterized by phonetic features, such as pronunciation from the deeper part of the throat cavity, to speak gutturally (al-taqa"ur fi-l-kalam), harshness in pronunciation (jafwa), roughness (ghilza), and emphatic pronunciation of letters (tafkhim al-huruf) (Ibn Jinni, Khasa'is, Bab ikhtilaf al-lughat wa kulluha hujja; see also: Jundi, Lahajat, al-Tashif);

vi. al-taltala: Dialect of Bahra': use of the vowel 'i' in the imperfect verbal forms, e.g., 'ti'lamu' instead of ta'lamu' (Ibn Jinni, Khasa'is, Bab ikhtilaf al-lughat wa kulluha hujja; see also: Jundi, Lahajat, al-Tashif);

vii. al-'aj'aja: Dialect of Quda'a: changing of the doubled 'y' into 'j', as in 'tamimijj' for 'tamimi' (Suyuti, Muzhir, Ma'rifatu-l-radi' wal-madhmum min al-lughat; Jundi, Lahajat, al-Tashif);

viii. al-tumtumaniyya: Dialect of Himyar, Tayy and Azd: changing the 'lam' of the definite article into 'mim', as in am-hawa' instead of 'al-hawa'' (Jundi, Lahajat, al-Tashif);

ix. al-ghamghama: dialect of Quda'a: this specific dialectal feature is not characterized by changes, it describes the way of pronunciation. When someone speaks with "ghamghama", the listener can hear his speech but cannot discern syllables or any other parts of the words and even cannot differentiate between words due to the speed of the pronunciation (Jundi, Lahajat, al-Tashif); Ibn Manzur (630-711/1233ca.1312) explains it as unintelligible speech (kalam la yubayyan or kalam ghayr bayyin) (Lisan, sub gh-m-m);

x. al-wahm: appears in the dialect of Kalb: changing the vowel 'u' in pronominal suffixes into 'i'; as in 'minhim' instead of 'minhum' or "anhim' instead of "anhum' (Suyuti, Muzhir, Macrifatu-l-radi' wal-madhmum min al-lughat; Jundi, Lahajat, al-TashIf);

xi. al-wakm: this appears in the dialect of Rabi'a [a tribe from Kalb]; they say "alaykim and bikim' instead of "alaykum and bikum' (Suyuti, Muzhir, Macrifatu-l-radi' wal-madhmum min al-lughat; Jundi, Lahajat, al-Tashif);

xii. al-shanshana: a dialectal variety of Yemen, changing the final 'k' into 'sh', as in 'labbaysh' instead of 'labbayka' (Suyuti, Muzhir, Ma'rifatu-l-radi' wal-madhmum min al-lughat; Jundi, Lahajat, al-Tashif);

xiii. al-istinta": linguists define this as: the vowelless 'ayn is changed to 'nun'; this phenomenon is preserved in irregular recitations; e.g., Q 108:1, "inna a'taynaka" recited as "inna antaynaka" (Jundi, Lahajat, al-TashIf; 'Umar and'Abd al-'Ali, Mu'jam al-Qira'at al-Qur'aniyya, sub Q 108).

These dialectal differences can only be mastered through direct exposure and listening and this explains why the acceptable Qur'anic recitations have always been those which were transmitted through direct transmission (altalaqqi)--from one mouth to another (al-mushafaha), and not what a person can read from written pages (qiraSa min al-suhuf) (Jundl, Lahajat, al-Tashif). A classic example is cited in the sources to illustrate this point. Abu Ahmad al-Hasan b. 'Abdullah b. Sa'id al-'Askari (293-382/ 905-992), the famous linguist, says that Hamza al-Zayyat [d. 156/772; his full name is Hamza b. Habib al-Zayyat] learnt the Qur'an from a mushaf, and he used to recite "la zayta fihi" instead of the correct "la rayba fihi" (Q 2:2); [the consonantal skeleton would allow this recitation, since the lack of diacritical signs over and above the consonants makes it possible]. Hearing this, his father said to him, 'Leave (da') the mushaf and receive and learn it from the mouth of people (wa talaqqan min afwah al-rijal)' (Tashif, Ma ja'a fI-l-tashIf wa basha'atihi wa dhamm al-musahhifIn).

Ibn 'Atiyya (d. 481-541/1088-1147) provides the following historical reasons for the emergence of different dialects in Arabia through intermixing of people and languages:

The reason that [the Arabic language] is free from corruption is that it is [spoken] in the middle of the Arabian Peninsula, in Hijaz, Najd, and Tihama; foreign nations cannot reach it. As far as Yemen is concerned, it is to the south of the Arabian Peninsula, the language of the Arabs there has been corrupted by mixing it with the [language of] Ethiopia (al-Habasha) and those of the Indians (al-hunUd)...'Iraq, the territory of Rabi'a, situated towards the east of the Peninsula, [its language] has been corrupted by its mixing with the languages of the Persians and Nabataeans and with the language of the Christians of al-Hira [an ancient town three miles of al-Kufa; see Yaqut, Buldan, sub HIra]...to the north of the Peninsula [the Arabic language] has been corrupted by the language of the Byzantines ... The central towns (al-hawadiru), Makka, al-MadIna and al-Ta'if, in the lifetime of the Prophet, upon him blessings and peace, were free of such mixing.. .But when the Companions settled in different countries and later generations came (wa ja'a-l-khalaf) and a great number of non-Arab nations started to recite the Qur'an, there emerged disputes between the people of greater Syria (al-Sham) and Iraq--[as] related by Hudhayfa b. al-Yaman [b. Jabir al-'Absi al-Yamanl; see Dhahabi, Siyar, Juz' 2.; No. 76], may Allah be pleased with him; this was during the expedition of Armenia and each group recited what was transmitted to them. The disagreement and dispute overwhelmed them, finally they said to one another 'I do not believe in your recitation' (ana kafirun bima taqracu bihi)' (Muharrar, Muqaddimat, Inna hadha-lQur'an unzila 'ala sab'ati ahruf).

Ibn al-Jazari adds: "As the reciters ... dispersed in all directions, generation after generation followed them ... some of them were masters in recitation (mutqan lil-tilawa) and renowned for transmission and knowledge of the content (al-mashhur bil-riwaya wal-diraya), others cannot be described by these attributes. For this reason, disagreements appeared among them and textual accuracy (al-dabt) decreased ... falsehood almost got mixed up with truth (kada-ltabasa-l-batilu bil-haqq). Brilliant scholars of the Umma (jahabidhatu 'ulama'ul-Umma) and prominent imams (sanadidu-l-aHmma) emerged shoulder to shoulder and did their utmost by explaining the intended truth (al-haqq almurad) and they collected the modes and recitations (wa jama'u-l-huruf walqiraddt), attributed their aspects and the transmissions (wa cazaw al-wujuh walriwayat), distinguished between the well-known and the irregular (wa mayyazu bayna-l-mashhur wal-shadhdh), and between the authentic and the false (walsahih walfadhdh)" (Nashr, Arkan al-qira'ati-l-sahlha).

Early Authors on Qira'at

Many of the following early works on recitation have not survived, but their existence is known through later works:

i. Abu 'Ubayd al-Qasim b. Sallam b. 'Abdullah (d. 224/ 838): he was the first renowned imam in the science of recitations (awwal imam muHabar), describing twenty-five reciters in his book (Ibn al-Jazarl, Nashr, asma' man ushtuhira bil-ikthar fl jam' al-Qur'an). Shams al-Din Muhammad b. Ahmad b. 'Uthman al-Dhahabl (d. 748/1374) mentions that Abu 'Ubayd had a book in the field of recitations (lahu musannaf fi-l-qira'at); but this work did not survive (Siyar, Juz' 10, No. 164);

ii. Yahya b. Ya'mar Abu Sulayman al-'Adwan! al-Basrl (d. 90/ 708): according to some authorities, was the first to add diacritics to the mushaf (awwal man naqata-l-masahif), (Dhahabi, Siyar, Juz' 4, No. 170);

iii. Abu Sa'd Aban b. Taghlib al-Kufl (d. 141/ 758): Muhammad b. Ishaq b. al-Nadlm (d. 384/ 995), the famous bibliographer, mentions that he wrote a book on recitations (Fihrist, sub al-Fann al-Khamis min al-maqalat al-sadisa);

iv. Ahmad b. Jubayr b. Muhammad al-Kufi (d. 258/ 871), a resident of Antakiyya (Ibn al-Jazarl, Nashr, asma' man ushtuhira bil-ikthar fl jam' al-Qur'an; see also: Ibn al-Jazarl, Ghayat al-Nihaya, Juz' 1., No. 176);

v. Isma'il b. Ishaq al-Maliki (d. 282/ 895), the teacher of Qalun, (Ibn al-Jazarl, Nashr, asma' man ushtuhira bil-ikthar fi jam' al-Qur'an);

vi. Abu Ja'far Muhammad b. Jarir al-Tabari (d. 310/922), (Ibn al-Jazarl, Nashr, asma' man ushtuhira bil-ikthar fi jam' al-Qur'an);

vii. Abu Bakr Muhammad b. Ahmad b. 'Umar al-Dajuni (d. 334/ 945). He was from Dajun, a small town near al-Ramla in al-Sham, see Yaqut, Buldan) al-Ramli (Ibn al-Jazari, Ghayat al-Nihaya, Juz' 2., No. 2765), known as al-Dajuni al-kabir al-darir (Dhahabi, Mdrifa al-Qurra', Juz' 2., No. 267), (Ibn al-Jazari, Nashr, asma' man ushtuhira bil-ikthar fi jam' al-Qur'an);

viii. Harun b. Musa Abu 'Abdullah al-'Awar al-Basri al-Azdi (d. ca. 170/786); he was the first to study the different aspects of recitations (samda wujuh al-qira'at) in Basra and composed books on them (wa allafaha) (Ibn al-Jazari, Ghayat al-Nihaya, Juz' 2., No. 3763);

ix. Ahmad b. Yazid Tha'lab Abu-l-'Abbas (d. 291/903) Ibn al-Nadim mentions a book by him entitled Kitab al-qira'at (Fihrist, Al-Fann althani min al-maqalat al-thaniya, Akhbar Tha'lab);

Sahl b. Muhammad b. 'Uthman b. Yazid Abu Hatim al-Sijistani (d. 255/868). Ibn al-Jazari states that "I think he was the first who composed a book on recitations (awwal man sannafa fi-l-qira'at)" (Ghayat al-Nihaya, Juz' 1., No. 1403).

Ibn Mujahid (d. 324/936) and his Fundamental Work

Writing a century after Ibn Mujahid's death, Makki b. Abi Talib explains the raison d'etre for his work: "During the second and third centuries (fil-'asral-thani wal-thalith), the transmitters (al-ruwat) from the imams of the Reciters increased in number, and their differences too; so in the fourth century, scholars wanted to limit the existing number of recitations to those which agreed with the codex and which facilitate memorization, and [they wanted] to set the recitations in accordance with the rules (wa tandabitu al-qir'atu bihi). Scholars searched for imams, known for their trustworthiness (mashhur bil-thiqa) and reliability (alamana) and purity of religion (husn al-din) and perfection in knowledge (kamal al-'ilm) ... who [were known in their] locales for fairness regarding transmission and trustworthiness in recitation (wa thiqatihi fma qara'a); consequently these [scholars] chose an imam from every region to which 'Uthman had sent a mushaf ... The first scholar to limit the number of reciters was Ibn Mujahid" (Ibana, Al-Sabab fl ishtihar al-sab'ati-l-qurra').

Several reasons might have motivated Ibn Mujahid in the process of selecting the seven specific reciters; one of them may have been the following: One of his old opponents, Ibn Shannabudh [Abu-l-Hasan Muhammad b. Ahmad b. Ayyubb b. al-Salt; DhahabI, Siyar, Juz' 15., No. 113; DhahabI, Ma'rifa, No. 276; Ibn al-Jazarl, Ghaya, 2., No. 2707] wanted to defend the correct status of his shawadhdh (Rare recitations; see below for more details), preserved from Ibn Mascud and Ubayy b. Kacb, without respecting the rasm al-Mushaf al-Uthani, and used them in the ritual prayer (fil-mihrab) while he was imam. Ibn Mujahid brought him to court presided by Ibn Muqla and several other Reciters. The outcome for Ibn Shannabudh was public repentance and corporeal punishment; and for Ibn Mujahid the composition of his Kitab al-Sab'a (Ibn Mujahid, al-Sab'a, Muqaddima, Ibn Mujahid shaykh al-Qurra').

Ibn Mujahid's categories

At the very beginning of his work, Ibn Mujahid defines the basic features of the reciters and sets forth four categories:

i. From among those who carry the Qur'an (fa-min hamalati-l-Qur'an), there is [the one] who expresses himself in an accurate way (al-mu'ribu), is acquainted with the different aspects of i'rab ('alimun bi-wujuh aldrab) and modes of recitation, is familiar with the different dialects as well as with the meanings of the words--such a reciter is also aware of the flaws of recitations (al-basiru bi-'aybi-l-qira'at) and is able to review the existing sources (al-muntaqidu lil-athar); such a person is the Imam with whom the scholars of the Qur'an (huffazul-Qudan) can seek a scholarly asylum, in every region of the Muslim world.

ii. From among them, there is the one who expresses himself in an accurate way and does not speak ungrammatical Arabic (wa la yalhanu), but does not have any other kind of knowledge; this man is like a Bedouin (ka-l-a'rabi), who can recite in his own language, but cannot transfer his tongue (la yaqdiru 'ala tahwil lisanahu) and he is attached only to his speech (matbu'un 'ala kalamihi).

iii. From among them, there is the one who can fulfill and convey what he hears, but he is only capable of transmission; he does not know the correct and grammatical Arabic language ... and thus this type of reciter cannot rely on firm knowledge of the Arabic language (la ya'tamidu 'ala 'ilm al-'arabiyya), or on a sound knowledge of the meanings; his reliance depends on his memory and on things heard (i'timaduhu 'ala hifzihi wa sama'ihi)... This kind [of reciter] cannot be followed in recitation (la yuqalladu al-qira'a) nor can he be a decisive proof in transmission (wa la yuhtajju bi-naqlihi).

iv. From among them, there is the one who can expresses his recitation

in a correct and grammatical way and is aware of the meaning and knows the dialects, but he is not familiar with the differences in recitations (wa la 'ilma lahu bi-l-qira'at) among people or sources; it may happen that his knowledge of i'rab leads him to recite in a mode (bi-harf) permitted by the rules of the Arabic language, but he can never recite by [the mode of the] predecessors (lam yaqra' bihi ahad min al-mddin); consequently he is an innovator (fa-yakunu bi-dhdlika mubtadican); reports prove this; it is transmitted from 'Abdullah b. Mas'ud, may Allah be well-pleased with him, who said: "Follow [that which is transmitted], but do not commit innovation, that is sufficient for you" (Ittabdu wa Id tabtaddu fa-qad kufitum); or the saying of Hudhayfa (d. 36/656), "Fear Allah, O group of Reciters, and follow the way of those who lived before you ... " (Ittaqu-Lldha yd ma'sharal-qurra' wa khudhu tariqa man kdna qablakum ... ) (Ibn Mujahid, Sab'a, pp. 45-46).

Ibn Mujahid's Seven Reciters and their Transmitters (ruwat)

Ibn Mujahid chose the following Seven Reciters as authoritative--that is, their recitations should be exclusively considered as accepted ways of recitation of the Qur'an. Those who narrate the recitations of these master-reciters are called their transmitters, ruwat.(sing. rawi). Two students of each of Seven Reciters have been traditionally chosen as their authorized transmitters, although each had numerous other transmitters. Those who narrate from the transmitters are known as turuq (ways). The various ways are divided into turuq ra'isiyya/asliyya (Primary Ways) and turuq far'iyya (Secondary Ways). According to the selection of Ibn al-Jazarl, each transmitter has four primary ways and numerous secondary ways.

Before introducing his Seven Reciters, Ibn Mujahid presents his reasons for selecting these reciters: "These seven scholars are from the people of al-Hijaz, al-'Iraq and al-Sham; they faithfully succeeded in the recitation (khalafu fil-qira'a) of the Followers, and the vast majority (al-'awamm) [of reciters] agreed on their recitation from all the regions that I named above and in other regions around the aforementioned regions ... Man characterized by great knowledge should not (ld yanbaghi li-dhi lubb) transgress the rules and methods followed by the imams and predecessors (al-salaf) in any way, even if he would consider it permissible by the Arabic language, or [even if there is a recitation] that a reciter might happen to recite, even though it is not agreed upon (mimma qara'a bihi qari' ghayr mwjma' 'alayhi)" (Ibn Mujahid, Sab'a, p. 87).

i. Nafi' (70-169/689-785): His full name is: Nafi' b. 'Abdu-l-Rahman b. Abl Nu'aym [also known as Abu Ruwaym, or Abu Muhammad (Dhahabi, Siyar, Juz' 7., No. 121)] mawla Ja'wana b. Sha'ub al-Shij'i (ally of Hamza b. 'Abdi-l-Muttalib; or al-'Abbas b. 'Abdi-l-Muttalib, or Banu Hashim) al-Laythl. His origin is from Isbahan (DhahabI, Ma'rifa, No. 47); the people of Madina accepted his recitation (saru ila qira'atihi). The Imam of the people Madina [that is, Imam Malik (93-179/712-795] said: "I studied recitation with Nafi' (see Ibn Khalaf, Iqna', Bab asma' al-qurra'). He is one of the two men from the Masjid al-Haram in Makka and the Masjid al-Nabawi in Madina.

a. His first rawi is Warsh (ca. 110- 197/ 728-812). His full name is: 'Uthman b. Sa'id b. 'Adiyy b. Ghazwan b. Dawud b. Sabiq al-Misri, mawla Al al-Zubayr b. al-'Awwam, Abu Sa'id, or Abu 'Amr or Abu-l-Qasim; Warsh is his cognomen (laqab) (Ibn Khalaf, Iqnac, Bab asma' al-qurra'). He said, "my master [Nafi'] called me by [this cognomen] (ustadhi Nafi' sammani bihi) DhahabI, Ma'rifa, No. 80]. He was the shaykh of recitation in the Egyptian territories (shaykh al-iqra' bil-diyar almisriyya). It is related that he had performed four complete recitations of the Qur'an (khatamat) with Nafi' in one single month (Dhahabi, Siyar, Juz' 9., No. 82).

b. His second rawi is Qalun (120-205/ 737-820). Qalun is a cognomen. His full name is Abu Musa 'Isa b. MIna [MIna' in Mdrifa, No. 81] b. Wardan b. 'Isa b. 'Abd al-Samad b. 'Amr b. 'Abdullah al-MadanI. His grandfather, a Byzantine prisoner in the days of 'Umar b. al-Khattab, was sold in Madina, but one of the Ansar bought him and set him free (Ibn Khalaf, Iqna', Bab asma' al-qurra'). Nafi' gave him his cognomen [Qalun] due to the excellence of his recitation (li-judati qira'atihi), and it is a Greek word [from: [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]] that means good [beautiful, handsome, something good to hear] (Dhahabi, Ma'rifa, No. 81).

ii. Ibn Katliir: He is the Imam of the people of Makkah, the second reciter of two Sanctuaries (Haramiyyan). His full name is 'Abdullah b. KathIr al-MakkI al-DarI, [Abu Ma'bad, and his nisba-name al-Dari means that he is Qurayshite from Banu 'Abd al-Dar, DhahabI, Mdrifa, No. 37]. He belongs to the second category of the Followers (min al-tabaqati al-thaniya min al-tabi'in); he was born in Makka (45ca.120/665-737) (Ibn Khalaf, Iqna', Bab asma' al-qurra'). He is also known as 'Abddullah b. KathIr b. 'Amr b. 'Abdullah b. Zadan b. Fayruzan al-KinanI al-Makki, muqri' Makka--the Reciter of Makka--the mawla of 'Amr b. 'Alqama al-KinanI. He learnt the science of recitation from 'Abdullah b. al-Sa'ib al-MakhzumI, Mujahid, Dirbas, mawla of Ibn 'Abbas (Dhahabi, Siyar, Juz' 5., No. 155).

a. His first rawi is Qunbul (d. 270 or 291/883 or 903). His full name is Muhammad b. 'Abdu-l-Rahman b. Muhammad b. Khalid b. Sa'id b. Jurja al-Makki al-Makhzumi (Ibn Khalaf, Iqna', Bab asma' al-qurra'). The supervision of the science of recitation in al-Hijaz (ri'asa al-iqra' fi-l-Hijaz) relied exclusively on him. He recited the Qur'an (tala) to Abu-l-Hasan al-Qawwas (Dhahabi, Siyar, Juz' 14., No. 44). Among his students are Ibn Mujahid, Abu-l-Hasan b. Shanabudh and Muhammad b. 'Isa al-Jassas (Dhahabi, Ma'rifa, No. 177).

b. His second rawi is al-Bazzi (d. ca. 270/883). His full name is Abu al-Hasan Ahmad b. Muhammad b. 'Abdullah b. al-Qasim b. Nafi' b. Abi Bazza (Ibn Khalaf, Iqna', Bab asma' alqurra'). He was the reciter of the people of Makka and muezzin of the Sacred Mosque "muqri' ahl Makka wa mu'adhdhin al-Masjid al-Haram" (Dhahabi, Ma'rifa, No. 108).

iii. Abu 'Amr (68-154/687-770). His full name is Abu 'Amr b. al-'Ala' b. 'Ammar b. al-'Uryan [Dhahabi gives Zabban; Ma'rifa, N. 44] b. 'Abdullah b. al-Husayn b. al-Harith b. Julhum [Jalham; Ma'rifa, No. 44] b. Khuza'i b. Mazin b. Malik b. 'Amr b. Tamim. He belongs to the third category after the Companions (min al-tabaqati-l-thalitha ba'da-l-Sahaba). He was an outstanding expert in gharib (strange rare words) of the Arabic language, in the sciences of the Qur'an and different recitations (Ibn Khalaf, Iqna', Bab asma' al-qurra'). He recited the Qur'an in Makka under the guidance of Sa'id b. Jubayr, Mujahid, 'Ikrima, and Ibn Kathir, and in Basra with Yahya b. Ya'mar and Nasr b. 'Asim [Malrifa]. (Dhahabi, Siyar, Juz' 6., No. 167). Al-Dhahabi calls him al-Mazini, and the shaykh of the Reciters in Basra (Dhahabi, Ma'rifa, No. 44).

a. His first rawi is al-Duri (d. 246/ 860). His full name is Abu 'Umar, Hafs b. 'Umar b. 'Abd al-'Aziz b. Sahban al-Azdi, his nisba-name refers to al-Dur, that is a part of Baghdad (Ibn Khalaf, Iqna', Bab asma' al-qurra'). He recited the Qur'an to Isma'il b. Ja'far, al-Kisa'i in his mode of recitation (biharfihi), to Yahya al-Yazidi, following the mode of Abu 'Amr (Dhahabi, Siyar, Juz' 11., No. 159).

b. His second rawi is al-Susi (d.261/874). His full name is Abu Shu'ayb Salih b. Ziyad b. 'Abdullah b. Isma'il b. Ibrahim b. al-Jarud al-Rustabi (Ibn Khalaf, Iqna', Bab asma' al-qurra').

iv. Ibn 'Amir al-Dimashqi (8-118/629-736). His full name is Abu 'Imran 'Abdullah b. 'Amir [b. Yazid b. Tamim b. Rabi'a] al-Yahsabi. He was the judge (qadi) of Damascus and the Imam of the Damascus Mosque (Ibn Khalaf, Iqnac, Bab asma' al-qurra') and Imam of the science of recitation among the Syrians (imam al-Shamiyyin fi-l-qira'a) (Dhahabi, Ma'rifa, No. 36).

a. His first rawi is Ibn Dhakwan (d. 242/856). His full name is Abu 'Amr 'Abdullah b. Ahmad b. Bashir al-QurashI al-Fihri al-Dimashqi (Ibn Khalaf, Iqna', Bab asma' al-qurra'). He was the Reciter of Damascus and the imam of their mosque (muqri', Dimashq wa imam jamdiha) (Dhahabi, Ma'rifa, No. 128).

b. His second rawi is Hisham (d. 245/859), his full name: Ibn 'Ammar b. Nusayr b. Aban b. Maysara al-Sulami al-Qimashqi, Abu-l-Walid (Ibn Khalaf, Iqna', Bab asma' alqurra'). The shaykh of Damascus, mufti and their reciter (wa muqri'uhum) (DhahabI, Ma'rifa, No. 127).

v. 'Asim, al-Kufi (d. 127/ 744). His full name is Abu Bakr 'Asim b. Abi-l-Najud al-Darir al-Kufi al-Asadi (Ibn Khalaf, Iqna', Bab asma' al-qurra'). He was the Imam of the people of Kufa. He learnt the recitation of the Qur'an from Abu 'Abdu-l-Rahman al-Sulami and Zirr b. Hubaysh al-Asadi. He was the leading Reciter (intahat ilayhi al-imamafi-l-qira'a) in Kufa (Dhahabi, Ma'rifa, No. 38).

a. His first rawi is Abu Bakr (d. 194/ 809). His full name is Abu Bakr b. 'Ayyash b. Salim al-Hannat al-Kufi al-Asadi al-Kahili [Kahil is Ibn Asad b. Khuzayma] (Ibn Khalaf, Iqna', Bab asma' al-qurra'). He recited the Qur'an three times to 'Asim (Dhahabi, MA'rifa, No. 63).

b. His second rawi is Hafs (d. 170/786). His full name is Abu 'Umar Hafs b. Abi Dawud Sulayman b. al-Mughira al-Asadi al-Ghadiri al-Kufi. He was an authoritative scholar in recitation (thiqatun fi-l-qira'a) and reliable in transmitting it (thabt fi naqliha) (Ibn Khalaf, Iqna', Bab asma' al-qurra').

vi. Hamza, al-Kufi (80-156/699-772). His full name is Abu 'Umara Hamza b. Habib b. 'Umara b. Isma'il al-Kufi al-Zayyat al-Faradi al-Taymi. He belongs to the third generation following the Companions. (Ibn Khalaf, Iqna', Bab asma' al-qurra'). He was the client (mawla) of Al 'Ikrima b. Rib'i al-Taymi al-Zayyat. He recited the Qur'an to al-A'mash and Ibn Abi Layla (Dhahabi, Mdrifa, No. 51; see also Siyar, Juz' 7, No. 37).

a. His first rawi is Khalaf (d. 229/843). His full name is Abu Muhammad Khalaf b. Hisham b. Talib b. Ghurab b. Tha'lab al-Bazzar al-Silhi [from the people of Fam al-Silh, a river in 'Iraq] (Ibn Khalaf, Iqna', Bab asma' al-qurra'; see also: Dhahabi, Ma'rifa, No. 142).

b. His second rawi is Khallad (d. 220/835). His full name is Abu 'Isa Khallad b. Khalid; he is also mentioned as Khallad b. Khulayd al-Shaybani al-Sayrafi al-Kufi (Ibn Khalaf, Iqna', Bab asma' al-qurra'). Also mentioned as Khallad b. 'Isa (Dhahabi, Ma'rifa, No. 143).

vii. Al-Kisa'i al-Kufi (119-189/737-804). His full name is Abu-l-Hasan 'Ali b. Hamza b. 'Abdullah b. Bahman b. Fayruz al-Kufi al-Nahwi, mawla of Banu Asad. He was well-versed (muttasi'u-l-'ilm) in the [sciences of] Qur'an and the Arabic language (Ibn Khalaf, Iqna', Bab asma' al-qurra'). He learnt the recitation from Hamza al-Zayyat and 'Isa b. 'Umar al-Hamadani; it is also transmitted that he travelled to al-Basra to study Arabic language with al-Khalil b. Ahmad (Dhahabi, Ma'rifa, No. 68).

a. His first rawi is al-Duri (see above);

b. His second rawi is Abu-l-Harith (d. 240/854). His full name is Al-Layth b. Khalid al-Marwazi or al-Baghdadi (Ibn Khalaf, Iqna', Bab asma' al-qurra'). He studied the methods (al-huruf) from Hamza b. Qasim al-Ahwal and Abu Muhammad al-Yazidi (Dhahabi, Ma'rifa, No. 145).

Examples of Major Principles of Recitation and their Applications

Different reciters apply principles of recitation in different ways. Principles of recitation are divided into two categories: al-Usul and Al-Farsh/al-Furush. Usul is the plural of asl (also called: al-qa'ida or al-madhhab), that is continuously applied. It contains the universal principles (al-qawalid al-kulliyya), like assimilation (alidgham), al-imala etc, which are applied to the minor principles (al-juz'iyyat) in the subcategories" (Dawsari, Mukhtasar, sub, Usul, No. 49). Furush is the plural of farsh [also called as farsh al-huruf orfarsh al-suwar; or al-furuc, see Abu Shama, Ibraz, Bab farsh al-huruf], and it refers to what has a restricted effect and is applied only in special cases (maqsur lala masa'il mu'ayyana), not used in a general way (lam yattarid 'ala sanan wahid) (DawsarI, Mukhtasar, sub, al-farsh, No. 244).

i. al-idgham, assimilation: The encounter of a vowelless consonant with a vocalized consonant (bi-harfayni sakinin fa-mutaharrikin) of the same place of articulation (min makhrajin wahidin), the first consonant is assimilated by the second (Qastallani, Lata'if Idgham); this can be either consecutive, within the same word (muttasilatun fi kalimatin wahida) or separated between two words (munfasilatun fi kalimatayn) (Daani, Taysir, al-idgham al-kablr). Assimilation can be total assimilation (al-idhgam al-kabir) as in Q 4:78 ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]) [the first kaf in the Arabic script has no vowel and no other diacritical sign, while the second has a shadda with a damma]; this is called 'idgham al-mutamathilayn' (Ibn Mujahid, Sab'a, Idgham) [this can also be called idgham al-mithlayni] assimilation of two similar consonants; or smaller assimilation (alidgham al-saghir) in the case of words like 'qad', 'idh', 'hal and 'bal' (Ibn Khalaf, Iqna', al-Idgham).

The method of Nafi': Nafi': used assimilation only in rare cases, especially when the full pronunciation would violate the rules of the Arabic language; it is agreed that he assimilated the consonant 'dhal' to following 't' within the same word, as in "ittakhattum" for ittakhadhtum Q 2:51 (Ibn Mujahid, Sab'a, Idgham; 'Umar-Abd al-'Ali, Mu'jam) Regarding the consonant 'dhal' in "udhtu' Q 40:27, there is no consensus; Ibn Jammaz and Isma'il b. Ja'far said 'the consonant dhal is assimilated (mudghama/ 'uttu)'; al-Musayyibi, Abu Bakr b. Abl Uways, Warsh and Qalun transmitted from him ''udhtu' i.e. the consonant 'dhal' is not assimilated. Similar disagreement is reported concerning the consonant 'dal' in 'qad' with the consonant 'dad'; Ahmad b. Salih transmitted from Warsh and Qalun, e.g. in Q 6:56 "qad dalalta" that he assimilated "qaddalalta". But in the version of Ibn 'Abdus, Ibn Mujahid preserved the pronunciation with izhar. It is agreed on that he used to assimilate the 'l' of "qul" with the V of the following word, e.g. Q 23:93 "qul Rabbi"--'qur-Rabbi'.

The method of Ibn Katliir: Ibn Kathlr, in most cases, used izhar (complete pronunciation of every consonant, 'fa-kanat qird'atuhu-l-izhar'), except in those words whose full pronunciation would violate the rules of the Arabic language; he used assimilation, e.g., in Q 4:158 'bal rafa'ahu' [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]] with a shadda on the initial 'r' or Q 83:14 'bal rana' [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]] (Ibn Mujahid, Sab'a, Idgham).

The method of Abu 'Amr: In most cases, Abu 'Amr assimilated the consonants; if two similar vocalized (mutaharrikayn) consonants met in two separate words, he assimilated the first into the second. Regarding the letter 't', usually he did not assimilate it, e.g. 'anta' in Q 10:43 'a-fa-anta tahdi'; or Q 28:86 'wa kunta tarju'; he assimilated the 'nun' if vocalized (idha taharraka), as in Q 2:55 'lan-nnu'mind, if it was not vocalized he did not assimilate as in "wa takuna lakuma" [according to the Arabic orthography the 'w' in takuna has a sukun, the sign of vowellessness]. (Ibn Mujahid, Sab'a, Idgham).

The method of Ibn 'Amir: Ibn 'Amir used to assimilate the 'd' to 'd' as in "fa-qad-dalla" [fa-qa-ddalla] Q 2:108 (Ibn Mujahid, Sab'a, Idgham; 'Umar-'Abd al-'Ali, Mu'jam); the 'd' of 'qad' was assimilated to 'd' and 'z' (Ibn Mujahid, Sab'a, Idgham).

The method of 'Asim: He used assimilation only in cases where izhar was not acceptable (la yudghimu wa la yara al-idgham illa fima la yajuzu izharuhu). Sometimes he made a short pause (waqfa khafifa) on the lam of the last consonant then continued '--bal--pause--rana'; although in the transmission (riwaya) of Abu Bakr, 'Asim assimilated the 'l' [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] and the 'n' [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] in Q 75:27 (Ibn Mujahid, Sab'a, Idgham). The method of Hamza: Hamza's method is very similar to that of Abu 'Amr: the 'l' of "bal" and "hal" were assimilated into the following 't', 'th', 's' and 'r' (Ibn Mujahid, Sab'a, Idgham).

The method of al-Kisa'i: Kisa'i followed the method of Hamza in the case of "bal" and "hal" but he added the consonant 't' as in Q 4:155 bal-taba'a--ba-ttaba'a, and 'z' as in Q 48:12 "bal zanantum" and 'd' and 'n' and 'z' (Ibn Mujahid, Sab'a, Idgham; 'Umar-'Abd al-'Ali, Mu'jam)

ii al-madd wa-l-qasr, lengthening and shortening: The Science of Recitation distinguishes between two types of lengthening: (a) al-maddu-l-muttafaqu 'alayhi, i.e. the lengthening that is agreed upon; and (b) al-maddu al-mukhtalafu fihi, the disputed lengthening. Scholars specify three letters of lengthening and weakness (huruf al-madd wa-l-lin) i. alif; ii. ya', preceded by kasra (short i; al-ya' al-maksur ma qablaha); and iii. waw, preceded by damma (al-waw al-madmum ma qablaha), (Ibn Khalaf, Iqna', Bab al-madd).

The lengthening that is agreed on is permitted in the case of letters of lengthening and weakness, if followed by a hamza (idha ata hamza fi kalimatin) in the same word with whatever vowel, or even with sukun, like in 'ja'a', or 'sha'a', or 'al-mala'ika', or 'ula'ika'. It is transmitted from Hamza that he said: 'the longest lengthening (atwalu-l-maddi) is in the case of hamza with a short 'a' sound, as in Q 7:47: tilqa'a ashabi' (Ibn Khalaf, Iqna', Bab al-madd, Sharh al-awwal). Reciters specify further subdivision of lengthening: (a) al-maddu-l-lafzi, lengthening concerning pronunciation; (b) al-maddu-l-ma'nawi, lengthening concerning the content (Ibn Khalaf, Iqna', Bab al-madd; Banna, Ithaf, al-madd wa-l-qasr, sababuhu; Qastallani, Lata'if, al-madd).

The disputed lengthening has a very complex system in the recitation of each of the Seven Reciters and their transmitters; as in the case of the lengthening of separate words (fi-l-munfasil) when the letter of lengthening is at the end of the word and the hamza is at the very beginning of the next word, as in Q 2:4 "bima unzila ilayka wa ma unzila min qablika" (Ibn Khalaf, Iqna', Bab al-madd, Sharh al-thani;). Warsh had two special methods used only by him: (a) Letters of lengthening and weakness, preceded by a hamza either at the beginning of the word or in the middle, like Q 42:14 'urithu [the written form is: alif with a hamza with the short damma followed the weak letter waw]' or in Q 106:1 'li-ilaf', giving and extra-lengthening in pronunciation (bi-ziyadati-l-madd); and (b) In the case of ya' and waw if preceded by the short vowel 'a' as in 'shay'un and shay'an and ka-hay'ati etc.' (Ibn Khalaf, Iqna', Bab al-madd; Wa hadha madhhab li-Warsh fi-l-madd infarada bihi).

Regarding the opening words of the suras (fawatihu-l-suwar), lengthening is needed in the case of two letters with sukun (li-iltiqa' al-sakinayn), if this contains three letters, the second of them is a consonant of lengthening and weakness, like 'kaf, mim, qaf, sin and 'ayn etc.'; if this contains only two consonants there is no lengthening (Makki, Tabsira, Bab tartib al-madd fi fawatih al-suwar; Ibn Khalaf, Iqna', Fawah al-suwar).

iii. al-hamza (only for excerpts): There are special subsections for the discussion of the rules of hamza; from among them, e.g.: when 'two hamzas meet in one word or in two consecutive words (fi-l-hamzatayn fi kalimatin wa kalimatayn)', there are seven sub-classes:

a. both hamzas have short 'a' (maftuhatayn) within the same word, Q 2:6 'a-andhartahum' Nafi' and Ibn Kathir recite by preserving the first and softening the second (bi-tahqiq al-ula wa tashil al-thaniya);

b. the first has a short 'a' and the second a short 'u', e.g. Q 3:15 (a-unabbi'ukum), Nafi' and Ibn Kathir recite by preserving the first and softening the second;

c. the first has a short'a' and the second a short 'i', Nafi' and Ibn Kathir recite by preserving the first and softening the second;

d. both of them have a short 'a' in two separate words, as in Q 23:99 (ja'a ahadahumu), Warsh and Qunbul recite it by preserving the first and changing the second into an alif; Qalun and al-Bazzi by deleting the first (bi-hadhf al-ula) and preserving the second, the rest of the Reciters preserved both (wa-l-baqun yuhaqqiqunahuma);

e. with short 'i' in two separate words, e.g. Q 2:31 (ha'ula'i in), Warsh and Qunbul recite by preserving the first and changing the second into ya'; Qalun and al-Bazz! by softening the first; Abu 'mr by deleting the first and preserving the second;

f. both have a short 'u' in two separate words, Q 46:32 (awliya'u-ula'ika) Warsh and Qunbul preserve the first and transform the second into waw; Qalun and al-Bazzi made the first between hamza and waw and preserved the second; Abu 'Amr deletes the first and preserves the second;

g. with different vowels in two separate words, Ibn 'Amir and the Reciters of al-Kufa recite by preserving both hamzas (Ru'ini, Kafi, Ikhtilafuhum fi-l-hamzatayn). Another section is the case of the vowelless hamza; most of the Reciters preserve the vowelless hamza, except Warsh, Abu 'Amr, Hisham and Hamza; these latter Reciters have their own methods; e.g. Q 2:3 (yu'minuna) (Ru'ini, Kafi, al-Hamza al-sakina; Ibn Khalaf, Iqna', al-Hamza al-sakina) [also known as softening of the hamza (tashilu-l-hamzati), Makki, Tabsira, Bab hukm tashil al-hamza]. Another sub-class is the al-hamzu-l-mufrad (the solitary hamza) when no similar follows or precedes it (huwa-lladhi lam yulasiq mithluhu); from among them when hamza is preceded by a short 'u' as in Q 2:3 (yu'minuna), recite by Nafi', Abu 'Amr and 'Asim as yuminun (Banna, Ithaf, al-hamz al-mufrad; 'Umar-'Abd al-'Ali, Mu'jam). Warsh was the only reciter to change hamza into a waw in (yu'akhidh, yu'akhkhir; yu'addihi (Q 3:75); yu'ayyid (Q 3:13), yu'allifu (Q 24:43); mu'ajjalan (Q 3:145); mu'adhdhin (Q 7:44 and 12:70) and wa-l-mu'allafati Q ); e.g. Q 2:225, 'yu'akhidhukumu' became 'yuwakhidhukumu' (Ru'ini, Kafi, fasl; 'Umar-'Abd al-'Ali, Mu'jam).

iv. al-imala: It is the slight inclination of fatha (a) toward kasra 'i' (an tantahi bi-l-fathati nahwa-l-kasrati intiha'an khafifan) (Ibn Khalaf, Iqna', Bab al-imala). The reason why imala is used is to facilitate the pronunciation (suhulatu-l-lafz) for the tongue is rising upward with the short 'a' and it is moving downward when pronouncing it with imala (wa yanhadiru bi-l-imala); moving downward for the tongue is easier than rising upward ... [imala] with regard to the nature of the language of the Arabs is allowable (ja'iza) not obligatory (Qastallani, Lata'if, Fi hukmi-l-fathi wa-l-imala). It is transmitted by Zirr b. Hubaysh that "A man recited Taha to 'Abdullah b. Mas'ud, but he did not provided it with short 'i' (wa lam yaksir). 'Abdullah said: Tihi [or actually it should have sounded as something Tehe] and he added 'i' to the letters 't' and 'h'. The man repeated as he did for the first time without adding 'i'. [This happened three times]. Then ['Abdullah] said: 'By Allah! It was taught to me in this way by the Messenger of Allah, upon him blessings and peace.' (Qastallani, Lata'if, Fi hukmi-l-fathi wa-l-imala)

v. al-waqf: "The pause or stop in the process of recitation": This section of qira'a studies those places in the Qur'an where the Reciter can make a short stop. In technical terms waqf means "to stop the pronunciation at the end of the word" ("huwa qat'u-l-nutq 'inda akhiri-l-lafz) [its opposite is al-ibtida'--the continuation of pronunciation]" (Qastallani, Lata'if, Wa huwa al-waqf wa-l-ibtida'). Al-Qasim b. Fiyyura b. Khalaf b. Ahmad Shatibi (d. 590/1193) defines it in his famous poem as "wa-l-iskanu aslu-l-waqfi wa huwa ishtiqaquhu // mina-l-waqfi 'an tahriki harfin ta'azzala" that means "and pausing is the origin of stop and its etymology is from ceasing pronouncing a letter" (Shatibiyya, Bab al-waqf 'ala awakhir al-kalim). Ibn al-Jazari's definition and classification is as follows: "al-waqf means cessation of voice (qat'u-l-sawt) on a word for a short interval of time (zamanan) in which [the Reciter] can take a breath (yatanaffasu), usually with the intention of recommencing the recitation (bi-niyyati isti'nafi-l-qira'ati). Sub-classes include: i. al-waqf al-tam (a complete stop), this occurs at the beginning of verses (fi ru'usi-l-ayi) or at the end of a section (inqida' al-qasas), e.g. a paus after 'bi-smi-Llahi-r-Rahmani-r-Rahim' then recommencement with 'al-hamdu li-Llahi Rabbi-l-'alamin (Q 1:1-2)'; or a stop at 'wa annahum ilayhi raji'un' and recommencement with 'Ya bani Isra'ila-dhkuru ni'mati' (Q 2:46-47); ii. al-waqf al-kafi (sufficient stop), e.g. a stop at the end of: 'yukhadi'una-Llaha wa-lladhina amanu' Q 2:9) for the part following this is independent in wording even if it is closely related to it in content (wa-lladhi ba'dahu kalam mustaghnin 'amma qablahu lafzan wa-in ittasala ma'nan); iii. al-waqf al-hasan (good or acceptable stop) as in 'hudan li-l-muttaqin' (Q 2:2); iv: al-waqf al-qabih (the unacceptable stop); e.g. 'bi-smi' (Q: Basmala), or 'al-hamdu' (Q 1:2)" (Ibn al-Jazari, Nashr, Waqf).

Expounding the excellence of this science, 'Ali b. Abi Talib (13bh-40/609-660) said, "Recitation consists of correct pronunciation of the letters and the knowledge of pauses" (al-tartilu tajwidu-l-hurufi wa ma'rifatu-l-wuquf) (Suyuti, Itqan, Ma'rifatu-l-waqf wa-l-ibtida'). Modern printed editions of the Qur'an, like the Mushaf al-Madinah al-Munawwara, uses five special signs to indicate different types of stops: i. a small mim for the al-waqfu-l-lazim (obligatory stop); ii. a jim for al-waqfu-l-ja'iz (permitted stop) as in 'nahnu naqussu 'alayka naba'ahum bi-l-haqqi innahum fityatun amanu bi-Rabbihim' Q 18:13; iii. a ligature of sad-lam and an elongated ya' to indicate al-waqfu-l-ja'iz (permitted stop), but in this case connecting the two parts is recommended, as in 'wa in yamsaska-Llahu bi-durrin fa-la kashifa lahu illa Huwa wa in yamsaska bi-khayrin fa-Huwa 'ala kulli shay'in qadir' Q 6:17, this means that the reciter can stop after the word Huwa, but the continuous recitation, without stop is preferable; iv. a ligature of qaf-lam and an elongated ya' to indicate al-waqfu-l-ja'iz (permitted stop), in this case stop is preferable, as in 'qul Rabbi a'lamu bi-'iddatihim ma ya'lamuhum illa qalilun fa-la tumari fihim', this means, the reciter can recite the verse in a continuous way, but to stop after the word qalilun is preferable Q 18:22; v. two consecutive formation of three dots shaped like a pyramid, to indicate ta'anuqu-l-waqf that means if one stops at one of them it is prohibited to stop at the other sign, as in 'dhalika-l-kitabu la rayba fihi hudan li-l-muttaqin' Q 2:2; i.e. one can recite either "dhalika-l-kitabu la rayba--stop" or "dhalika-l-kitabu la rayba fihi".

Tafarrudat

There is a minor category, usually referred to as "taffarudat" or "tafarrada bihi ..." that is when a specific variant of qira'at is exclusively transmitted from one single Reciter, the other six Reciters did not mention that form. For instance, only Nafi' recited "naghfir" as "yughfar" Q 2:58; or "khati'atuhu" (Q 2:81), which Nafi' recited in the plural form, "khati'atuhu" (Makki, Tabsira, Al-ikhtilafat allati tafarrada biha-l-qurra'u-l-sab'a; 'Umar-'Abd al-'Ali, Mu'jam). Likewise, Ibn Kathir was the only one of the Seven Reciters to recite "fa-talaqqa Adamu min Rabbihi kalimatin" (Q 2:37) as "fa-talaqqa Adama min Rabbihi kalimatun" (Makki, Tabsira, Al-ikhtilafat allati tafarrada biha-l-qurra'u-l-sab'a; 'Umar-'Abd al-'Ali, Mu'jam). These minor differences can be found passim in the classic works on Recitation, such as those of Makki's Tabsira or al-Dani's Taysir.

Samples of Different Recitations

Samples from Surat al-Fatiha

Q 1:4 "maliki yawmi-l-din"; there was a disagreement among the Reciters regarding preserving (fi ithbat al-alif) or deleting the 'alif' (wa isqatiha) in

"m-l-k'; 'Asim and al-Kisa'i recited by preserving the alif, i.e. "maliki", based on the analogy of "maliki-l-mulki" (Q 3:26); the form malik is more laudatory (amdah) for it collects noun and verb. Those who recite it without alif, based their choice on "maliki-l-nas" (Q 114:2) (Ibn Mujahid, Sab'a, Furush al-Fatiha). Nafi', Ibn Kathir, Abu 'Amr, Ibn 'Amir, Hamza, Abu-l-Darda', Ibn 'Abbas, Ibn 'Umar and Mujahid recite 'maliki' ('Umar-'Abd al-'Ali, Mu'jam). Two other versions are transmitted from Abu 'Amr 'malki' and 'milki' (Ibn Mujahid, Sab'a, Furush al-Fatiha).

Q 1:6 "al-sirat"; between two variants, either with "sad" or with "sin"; Ibn Kathir [al-Kisa'i, Abu 'Amr, Qunbul, Ibn Mujahid ('Umar-'Abd al-'Ali, Mu'jam)] recite "al-sirat" with "sin"; although, there exists a transmission from al-Bazzi that states that Ibn Kathir used "sad" in the whole Qur'an for this word (Ibn Mujahid, Sab'a, Furush). There exists a report that says that Abu 'Amr recited it with 'z' i.e. "al-zirata" (Ibn Mujahid, Sab'a, Furush); and Hamza with ishmam of sad to za' (Ibn Mujahid, Sab'a, Furush; 'Umar-'Abd al-'Ali, Mu'jam); al-Farra' (d. 207/822) reported about Hamza that he also recite as "az-zirat" (Ibn Mujahid, Sab'a, Furush).

Samples from Surat al-Baqara

Q 2:9 "yukhadi'una"; the al-Haramiyyan and Abu 'Amr recited "yakhda'una", that is without alif (Ibn Khalaf, Iqna', Furush al-Baqara; 'Umar-'Abd al-'Ali, Mu'jam)

Q 2:9 "wa ma yakhda'una"; Nafi', Ibn Kathir and Abu 'Amr recited "wa ma yukhadi'una" ('Umar-'Abd al-'Ali, Mu'jam).

Q 2:10 "yakdhibuna"; Nafi', Ibn Kathir, Abu 'Amr and Ibn 'Amir recited "yukadhdhibuna" ('Umar-'Abd al-'Ali, Mu'jam).

Q 2:36 "fa-azallahuma"; Hamza recited it "fa-azala-huma" by inserting an alif (Ibn Khalaf, Iqna', Furush al-baqara; 'Umar-'Abd al-'Ali, Mu'jam);

Q 2:48 "la yuqbalu"; Ibn Kathir and Abu 'Amr recited it with 't' i.e. "la tuqbalu" (Ibn Khalaf, Iqna', Furush al-Baqara; 'Umar-'Abd al-'Ali, Mu'jam).

Samples from Surat Al 'Imran

Q 3:12 "sa-tughlabuna wa tuhsharuna"; Hamza and al-Kisa'i recited with ya', i.e. "sa-yughlabuna wa yuhsharuna" (Ibn Khalaf, Iqna', Furush Al 'Imran; 'Umar-'Abd al-'Ali, Mu'jam; Ibn Mujahid, Sab'a, Furush Al 'Imran).

Q 3:21 "wa yaqtuluna-lladhina"; Hamza (and al-Kisa'i) recited it by adding an alif i.e. "wa yaqatiluna-lladhina" (Ibn Khalaf, Iqna', Furush Al 'Imran; 'Umar-'Abd al-'Ali, Mu'jam);

Q 3:37 "wa kaffalaha", Nafi', Ibn Kathir, Abu 'Amr and Ibn 'Amir recited it without shadda "wa kafalaha" ('Umar-'Abd al-'Ali, Mu'jam)

Q 3:39 "anna-Llaha" Ibn 'Amir, Hamza and al-Kisa'i recited "inna-Llaha" ('Umar-'Abd al-'Ali, Mu'jam; Ibn Khalaf, Iqna', Furush Al 'Imran)

Q 3:48 "wa yu'allimuhu"; Ibn Kathir, Abu 'Amr, Ibn 'Amir, Hamza and al-Kisa'i recited with 'nun' i.e. "wa nu'allimuhu" (Ibn Khalaf, Iqna', Furush Al 'Imran; 'Umar-'Abd al-'Ali, Mu'jam)

Samples from Surat al-Isra'

Q 17:2 "tattakhidhu", only Abu 'Amr of the Seven Reciters recited it with ya' "yattakhidhu" (Ibn Mujahid, Sab'a, Furush al-Isra'; Ibn Khalaf, Iqna', Furush al-Isra'; 'Umar-'Abd al-'Ali, Mu'jam)

Q 17:13 "yalqahu", Ibn 'Amir recited it as "yulaqqahu" (Ibn Mujahid, Sab'a, Furush al-Isra'; Ibn Khalaf, Iqna', Furush al-Isra'; 'Umar-'Abd al-'Ali, Mu'jam)

Q 17:16 "amarna", 'Asim and Abu 'Amr recited it as a verb of the second stem "ammarna" (Ibn Mujahid, Sab'a, Furush al-Isra'; Ibn Khalaf, Iqna', Furush al-Isra'; 'Umar-'Abd al-'Ali, Mu'jam).

Q 17: 31 "khit'an"; Ibn Kathir recited it as "khita'an" ('Umar-'Abd al-'Ali, Mu'jam); Ibn 'Amir as "khata'an" (Ibn Mujahid, Sab'a, Furush al-Isra'; Ibn Khalaf, Iqna', Furush al-Isra'; 'Umar-'Abd al-'Ali, Mu'jam), in another version from Ibn 'Amir "khat'an" ('Umar-'Abd al-'Ali, Mu'jam).

Q 17:44 "tusabbihu"; Nafi', Ibn Kathir, 'Asim and Ibn 'Amir recited as "yusabbihu" (Ibn Mujahid, Sab'a, Furush al-Isra'; Ibn Khalaf, Iqna', Furush al-Isra'; 'Umar-'Abd al-'Ali, Mu'jam).

Sample from Surat al-Ikhlas

Q 112:4 "kufuwan" Abu 'Amr, Ibn 'Amir, Ibn Kathir, Nafi', al-Kisa'i and 'Asim recited it with a hamza as "kufu'an" (Ibn Mujahid, Sab'a, Furush al-Isra'; Ibn Khalaf, Iqna', Furush al-Isra'; 'Umar-'Abd al-'Ali, Mu'jam). Hamza, in a version, Nafi' as "kuf'an" and Hafs as "kufwan" ('Umar-'Abd al-'Ali, Mu'jam)

Samples of Ibn Mujahid's Isnad

The author of the Kitab al-Sab'a enumerates all the existing isnad (chains of authorities on which the transmission is based) by which he obtained the different recitations from the Reciters chosen by him; each Reciter's version is transmitted by several chains. For formal knowledge, here follow two samples:

i. From Nafi': "Regarding the recitation of Nafi' [b. Abi Nu'aym]: Indeed, I recited with 'Ali b. 'Abdu-l-Rahman b. 'Abdus, from the beginning of the Qur'an to the end, approximately twenty times; and he informed me (wa akhbarani) that he had recited with (qara'a 'ala) Abu 'Umar Hafs b. 'Umar b. 'Abdu-l-'Aziz al-Duri al-Azdi; and Isma'il [b. Ja'far b. Abi Kathir al-Ansari al-Madani; see: Ibn al-Jazari, Ghaya, 1/ 758]. who informed him that he had recited it for Nafi'" [In this group Ibn Mujahid gave more than twenty different chains of tranmission] (Ibn Mujahid, Sab'a, Dhikr al-asanid).

ii. From Ibn Katliir: "Regarding the recitation of Ibn KathIr, verily, I recited it to Abu 'Umar Muhammad b. 'Abdu-l-Rahman b. Muhammad b. Khalid b. Sa'id b. Jurja al-Makhzumi al-Makki, called Qunbul, in the year of 278. And he informed me that he had recited it to Ahmad b. Muhammad b. 'Awn al-Nabbal al-Qawwas, and he informed him that he had recited it to Abu-l-Ikhrit Wahb b. Wadih, who said: "Wahb informed me that he had recited it to Isma'il b. 'Abdullah b. al-Qust, and Isma'il informed him that he had recited it to Shibl b. 'Abbad and Ma'ruf b. Mushkan, and these two informed him that they had recite it to Ibn Kathir" (Ibn Mujahid, Sab'a, Dhikr al-asanid).

Opposition to Ibn Mujahid's List of Seven Reciters

Although, the vast majority of scholars unconditionally accepted the tasbi' of Ibn Mujahid. As per the opinion of Abu 'Amr al-Dani quoted in later sources, "Ibn Mujahid was superior in his era to all of his contemporaries (faqa Ibn Mujahid fi 'asrihi sa'ira nuzara'ihi) in the field of this branch of science, with his wide-ranged knowledge (ma'a ittisa' 'ilmihi) and with his proficiency in understanding (bara'a fahmihi) and trustworthiness of his language (wa sidq lahjatihi)" (Dhahabi, Ma'rifa, Ibn Mujahid, No. 266); yet, a number of scholars opposed his classification, mostly out of fear of losing other recitations. Ibn al-Jazari mentions works [unfortunately, most of them are not yet printed] which have preserved opposing views. These include the saying of Abu-l-'Abbas Ahmad b. 'Ammar al-Mahdawi [for biography, see: Dhahabi, Ma'rifa, No. 485 and Ibn al-Jazari, Ghaya, 1/ No. 417], who said: "Regarding the restriction to Nafi', Ibn Kathir, Abu 'Amr, Ibn 'Amir, 'Asim, Hamza and al-Kisa'i, the later generations accepted it as a set of limited number of reciters (ikhtisaran) or an individual choice (ikhtiyaran) and most people [from among the Reciters] made this [number] an unavoidable governing principle (ka-l-fard al-mahtum), to such an extent that if someone opposed it, he was accused of committing mistake (khatta'a) or of disbelief (kaffara); in spite of the fact that other recitations might have been more eloquent and more wide sprecite (azharu wa ashharu)". Another, more critical, opinion is that of al-Ja'bari [Ibrahim b. 'Umar b. Ibrahim, shaykh al-qurra', Burhanu-l-Din, d. 732/ 1331; see: Dhahabi, Ma'rifa, Al-Burhan al-Ja'bari, No., 1174; and Ibn al-Jazari, Ghaya, 1/ No. 84], who said in a qasida entitled, Nahj al-Dimatha: "wa a'dala dhu-l-tasbi'i mubhama qasdihi // fa-zalla bihi al-jammu al-ghafiru fa-jahila" i.e. The author of tasbi' made enigmatic his obscure aspiration // and a great number stumbled by this and became ignorant. (Ibn al-Jazari, Munjid, al-Bab al-sabi' fi dhikr man kariha min al-'ulama' al-iqtisar 'ala al-qira'at al-sab').

Ten Reciters

Three more reciters were added to the original list of Ibn Mujahid; this was widely accepted and thus emerged the famous Ten Reciters (al-Qurra' al-ashara). The three additional reciters and their transmitters are:

i. Abu Ja'far Yazid al-Makhzumi al-Madani Ibn al-Qa'qa' (d. 130/747 or 132/747): He recited the Qur'an to his mawla 'Abdullah b. 'Ayyash b. Abi Rabi'a al-Makhzumi [who recited to Ubayy b. Ka'b, who had taken his recitation from the Prophet, upon him blessings and peace (Ibn Mujahid, Sab'a, Asatidha Nafi')]. It is said that he also recite it to Abu Hurayra and Ibn 'Abbas, based on their recitation taken from Ubayy. Among his pupils are: Nafi' b. Abi Nu'aym, Sulayman b. Muslim b. Jammaz, 'Isa b. Wardan and 'Abdu-l-Rahman b. Zayd b. Aslam. Abu 'Ubayd relates in his Kitab al-Qira'at that Abu Ja'far began recitation of the Qur'an to the people (kana yuqri'u-l-nas) before the event of al-Harra (Waq'atu-l-Harra, in 63/683) (Dhahabi, Ma'rifa, No. 31). He is a Successor and he was the imam of the People of Madina in recitation (imam fi-l-qira'a) (Ibn al-Jazari, Ghaya, No. 3882; see also Nashr, Qira'a Abi Ja'far).

a. His first rawi: Abu-l-Harith 'Isa b. Wardan al-Hadha' al-Madani al-qari' (d. 160/776) (Dhahabi, Ma'rifa, No. 247). He also presented his recitation ('arada 'ala) to Nafi' and was one of his students (Ibn al-Jazari, Ghaya, No. 2510).

b. His second rawi: Abu-l-Rabi' Sulayman b. Muslim Ibn Jammaz al-Madani al-qari' (d. 170/786). He also studied the method of Nafi' (Dhahabi, Ma'rifa, No. 66; Ibn al-Jazari, Ghaya, No. 1387).

ii. Ya'qub al-Basri (d. 205/820). His full name is Ya'qub b. Ishaq b. Zayd b. 'Abdullah b. Abi Ishaq al-Hadrami, Abu Muhammad. He was the principal Reciter in Basra in his era; he studied the recitation of the Qur'an with Abu-l-Mundhir b. Salam b. Sulayman, Abu-l-Ashhab al-'Utaridi and Mahdi b. Maymun al-Mughuli. He also attended the lectures of Hamza al-Zayyat. His students we find: Rawh, Ruways, al-Walid b. Hisan al-Tawwazi and Abu Hatim al-Sijistani; this latter said about Ya'qub: "He is the most erudite whom I ever saw in the science of methods of [recitation], in the differences in [recitations of] the Qur'an, in deficiencies and branches of [recitations] and in schools of linguistics" (Dhahabi, Ma'rifa, No. 82). Abu-l-Hasan al-Munadi said about him: "Ya'qub was the most learned in recitation among his contemporaries" (Ibn al-Jazari, Ghaya, No. 3891).

a. His first rawi: Ruways (d. 238/852). He is Abu 'Abdullah Muhammad b. al-Mutawakkil al-Lu'lu'i al-Basri al-Zubayri al-Shafi'i. He studied he science of recitation with him (Dhahabi, Ma'rifa, No. 150). Ruways used to preserve the two consecutive hamzas as in, e.g., ja'a ajaluhum Q 7:34 (Ibn al-Jazari, Ghaya, No. 3389).

b. His second rawi: Rawh (d. 235/849). His full name is: Abu-l-Hasan Rawh b. 'Abdu-l-Mu'min al-Hudhali al-Basri. His students include Ahmad b. Yazid al-Hulwani, Abu-l-Tayyib b. Hamdan, Abu bakr Muhammad b. Wuhayb al-Thaqafi and Ahmad b. Yahya al-Wakil (Dhahabi, Ma'rifa, No. 149). According to al-Ahwazi, his name is Ibn 'Abd al-Mu'min b. Qurra b, Khalid (Ibn al-Jazari, Ghaya, No. 1273).

iii. Khalaf (see above, as the first rawi of Hamza).

a. His first rawi: Ishaq (d. 256/869). His full name is Abu Ya'qub Ishaq b. Ibrahim b. 'Uthman b. 'Abdullah al-Marwazi al-Baghdadi. He is also known as Warraq Khalaf (Ibn al-Jazari, Ghaya, No. 723).

b. His second rawi: Idris (d. 292/904). His full name is Abu-Hasan Idris b. 'Abdu-l-Karim al-Haddad al-Baghdadi. He studied with Khalaf, he has transmissions (wa rawa 'an) from Asim b. 'Ali, Ahmad b. Hanbal, Yahya b. Ma'in and Mus'ab b. 'Abdullah b. al-Zubayri. Among his students are: Ibn Shanabudh and Ahmad b. 'Abdullah b. Hamdan (Dhahabi, Ma'rifa, No. 234). Ibn al-Jazari describes hims as "imam, dabit, thiqa" (Ibn al-Jazari, Ghaya, No. 717).

Samples of their Recitations

Abu Ja'far: "maliki" Q 1:4, without prolongation and with alif; "'alayhumu" Q 1:7 [by an additional long u, written as waw]; "yughfar" making the verbal form passive, third person masculine singular Q 2:58; "'ashirata" instead of the accepted "'ashrata" Q 2:60; "Israyil" by softening the hamza "bi-tashili-l-hamza" Q 17:2;

Ya'qub: "al-rahim-mmaliki" Q 1:34 bi-idgham al-kabir - with complete assimilation; "al-sirata" Q 1:6 [Ruways also]; "'alayhum" Q 1:7; "wa la tuqbalu" [changing the pronominal suffix 'yu' to 'tu'] Q 2:48; "wa'adna" stem I instead of stem 3, Q 2:51.

Khalaf: "malikun yawma" Q 1:4; (all samples were taken from: 'Umar-'Abd al-'Ali, Mu'jam).

Fourteen Reciters

In time, four additional Reciters were added to the list; they are listed below along with their most important transmitters:

i. Ibn Muhaysin: Abu 'Abdullah Muhammad b. 'Abdu-l-Rahman al-Makki al-Sahmi (d. 123/740): He studied with Sa'id b. Jubayr, Mujahid and Dirbas, the mawla of Ibn 'Abbas (Dhahabi, Ma'rifa, No. 43).

a. His first rawi: Al-Bazzi [see above].

b. His second rawi: Abu-l-Hasan Muhammad b. Ahmad b. Ayyub b. al-Salt al-Baghdadi, commonly known as Ibn Shanabudh (d. 328/939). He studied with several scholars, including Harun b. Musa al-Akhfash Qunbul , and Ibn Mujahid. He was the Shaykh of Recitation (shaykh al-iqra') in Iraq (Dhahabi, Ma'rifa, No.).

ii. Al-Yazidi: Abu Muhammad Yahya b. al-Mubarak al-'Adawi al-Basri (d. 202/817). His nisba-name "al-Yazidi" originates from Yazid b. Mansur, the maternal uncle of the Caliph al-Mahdi (Dhahabi, Ma'rifa, No. 79).

a. His first rawi: Abu Ayyub al-Khayyat Sulayman b. Ayyub b. al-Hakam al-Baghdadi, commonly known as Sahib al-Basri and usually referred to as Abu Ayyub al-Khayyat (Dhahabi, Ma'rifa, No. 120).

b. His second rawi: Ahmad b. Farah.

iii. Al-Hasan: Abu Sa'id al-Hasan b. Abi-l-Hasan al-Basri (d.110/728): He was one of the most important scholar of his era both in knowledge and deeds ('ilman wa 'amalan) (Dhahabi, Ma'rifa, No. 28).

a. His first rawi: Abu Nu'aym Shuja' b. Abi Nasr al-Balkhi (d. 190/805). He recited the Qur'an to Abu 'Amr. Abu 'Ubayd al-Qasim b. Sallam learnt the art of recitation from him (Dhahabi, Ma'rifa).

b. His second rawi: Al-DurI, Abu 'Umar [see above].

iv. Al-A'mash: Abu Muhammad Sulayman b. Mihran al-Asadi al-Kahili al-Kufi (d. 148/765): His family came from the region of al-Rayy (Dhahabi, Ma'rifa, No. 41).

a. His first rawi: Abu-l-'Abbas al-Hasan b. Sa'id al-Muttawwi'i (d. 371/981). Ibn Ja'far al-'Abbadani, resident of Istakhr (Dhahabi, Ma'rifa, No. 333).

b. His second rawi: Abu-l-Faraj Muhammad b. Ahmad b. Ibrahim al-Shanabudhi al-Shatawi (d. 388/998). He is also known as Ghulam Ibn Shanabudh. He studied with Ibn Mujahid, Ibrahim Niftawayh and Ibn Shanabudh (Dhahabi, Ma'rifa, No. 360).

Samples of their Recitations

Ibn Muhaysin: "wa la tuqbalu" [changing the pronominal suffix 'yu' to 'tu'] Q 2:48; "yadhbahuna"; reciting it as the simple stem I, Q 2:49; "as-sa'qatu", by ommitting the long 'a', i.e. the alif Q 2:55; "rujzan" changing the vocalization Q 2:59; "wa yakhruju" instead of the accepted "wa-nukhriju" Q 17:13.

Al-Yazidi: "wa la tuqbalu" [changing the pronominal suffix 'yu' to 'tu'] Q 2:48; "wa'adna" stem I instead of stem 3, Q 2:51; "bari'kum" by adding a sukun (vowellessness) to the hamza Q 2:54; "yattakhidhu" instaed of the accepted "tattakhidhu" Q 17:2

Al-Hasan: "wa'adna" stem I instead of stem 3, Q 2:51; "yaghfir" chaning the pronominal suffix, Q 2:58; "khati'atukum" instead of the accepted "khatayakum" Q 2:58; in another riwaya: "khati'atikum" instead of the accepted "khatayakum" Q 2:58; "li-yuriyahu" instead of the accepted "li-nuriyahu" Q 17:1; "'abidan" using a different plural form Q 17:5; "khalala" instead of the accepted "khilala" Q 17:5; "ahadu -Llahu" Q 112:1-2;

Al-A'mash: "yaghfir" chaning the pronominal suffix, Q 2:58; "khati'atukum" instead of the accepted "khatayakum" Q 2:58; in another riwaya: "khati'atikum" instead of the accepted "khatayakum" Q 2:58; "yafsiquna" by changing the vocalization Q 2:59; "'ashirata [this is the language of Tamim, Ibn 'Adil, Lubab]" instead of the accepted "'ashrata" Q 2:60; in another riwaya: "'asharata" instead of the accepted "'ashrata" Q 2:60; "wa la ti'thaw" instead of the accepted "wa la ta'thaw" Q 2:60; "al-wahidu" instead of the accepted "ahadun" Q 112:1; (all samples were taken from: Ibn 'Adil, Lubab; Ibn 'Atiyya, Muharrar, Qurtubi, Tafsir and 'Umar-'Abd al-'Ali, Mu'jam).

Irregular and Rare Recitations (al-qira'at al-shadhdha)

In technical terms, an irregular or rare recitation is a recitation that violates one or more principles of accepted and authentic recitation. Scholars are unanimous on the definition of an authentic and accepted recitation: "Every recitation that is supported by the written system of the Mushaf [wafaqat ahada-l-masahif al-'uthmaniyya, that is, it agrees, at least, with one of the 'Uthmanic Mushafs; Ibn al-Jazari, Nashr, Arkan al-qira'ati-l-sahiha], is transmitted in an authoritative way (ma'a sihhati-l-naql) [sahha sanaduhu, with an authentic chain of transmission; Ibn al-Jazari, Nashr, Arkan al-qira'ati-l-sahiha] and its appearance is in correct Arabic language (wa maji'iha 'ala-l-fasihi min lughati-l-'arab) [wafaqat al-'arabiyya, it agrees with the pure Arabic language; Ibn al-Jazari, Nashr, Arkan al-qira'ati-l-sahiha] is considered an accepted and authentic recitation (fa-hiya qira'a sahiha mu'tabara). If [any of] these three principles are violated, this recitation is called irregular (shadhdha) and weak (da'if)" (Abu Shama, Murshid, Fasl bayna-l-qira'ati-l-sahihati-l-qawiyya wa-l-shadhdha al-da'ifa al-marwiyya); Ibn al-Jazari's conclusion is: "when one of these principles is violated it is called either weak or irregular or false" (Ibn al-Jazari, Nashr, Arkan al-qira'ati-l-sahiha).

Muslim scholarship usually says that Reciters beyond the Ten Reciters are counted among the transmitters of the irregular and rare recitations and here follows a short list of the most important reciters in this category:

In Madina: Shayba b. Nisah b. Sarjis b. Ya'qub al-Madani (d. 130/747), the mawla of Umm Salama. He recited the Qur'an to 'Abdullah b. 'Ayyash al-Makhzumi, the Reciter of Madina; Nafi', Isma'il b. Ja'far and Sulayman b. Jammaz, all of whom studied under his supervision. (Dhahabi, Ma'rifa, No. 34; Ibn al-Jazari, Ghaya, No. 1439).

In Makka: Ibn Muhaysin (see above); Dirbas al-Makki, the mawla of 'Abdullah b. 'Abbas, who was his first master in recitation (Ibn Jabbara, Kamil, Fi dhikr Qurra' Makka). Ibn Kathir and Ibn Muhaysin took their recitation from him (Ibn al-Jazari, Ghaya, No. 1259); Abu Safwan Hamid b. Qays al-A'raj. He recited the Qur'an three times to Mujahid, 'Ata' and al-Zuhri (Dhahabi, Ma'rifa, No. 42).

In Basra: Abu-l-Mujashshir 'Asim al- al-Jahdari al-Basri (d. 128/745): He studied the Qur'an with Nasr b. 'Asim, Yahya b. Ya'mar and al-Hasan al-Basri (Dhahabi, Ma'rifa, No. 39). 'Isa b. 'Umar al-Thaqafi (d. ca. 150/767), the linguist, author of al-Jami'. He recited the Qur'an to 'Asim al-Jahdari and his students include al-Asma'i and al-Khalil b. Ahmad (Dhahabi, Ma'rifa, No. 56).

In Yemen: Abu 'Abdullah Muhammad b. al-Samayfa' al-Yamani (d. 215/ 830): He acquired his own way of recitation (lahu qira'a ma'rufa) and it is said (qila) that he studied with Nafi' (Dhahabi, Ma'rifa, No. 104).

In Kufa: Abu Muhammad Talha b. Musarrif al-Hamdani al-Kufi al-muqri' (Dhahabi, Ma'rifa, No. 40). 'Isa b. 'Umar al-Hamdani al-qari' (d. 156/772), the mawla of Banu-l-Asad: He studied the Qur'an with 'Asim b. Abi-l-Janud, Talha b. Musarrif, and Sulayman al-A'mash. His students include al-Kisa'i (Dhahabi, Ma'rifa, No. 55).

'Uthman b. Jinni (d.392/1001) in his encyclopedic al-Muhtasab [along with Ibn Jabbara's al-Kamil fil-qira'at] gives many examples of irregular recitations, acompanied by linguistic explanations:

Samples

Muhammad b. al-Samayfa' recited Q 2:258 as "fa-bahata-lladhi kafara" instead of the accepted "fa-buhita..."; Q 10:92: "fa-l-yawma nunahhika" he recited the verse with the letter 'h' instead of the consonant 'j- nunajjika' (Ibn Jinni, Muhtasab).

'Asim al- al-Jahdari recited Q 4:128 as "an yassaliha", instead of the accepted "an yusliha" (Ibn Jinni, Muhtasab).

Talha b. Musarrif recited Q 3:13 as "yurawna-hum mithlayhim" instead of the accepted "yarawna-hum"; Q 7:49 as "bi-rahmatin udkhilu-l-jannata"; the accepted imperative form "udkhulu" is recite in third person passive; Q 7:165 as "bi-'adhabin bisin" i.e. without hamza of the accepted version, "bi-'adhabin ba'isin" (Ibn Jinni, Muhtasab).

Shayba b. Nisah recited Q 4:123 as "wa la amani ahli-l-kitabi" [the final ya' without shadda and with sukun/al-ya'u fihi khafifa sakina], instead of the accepted "amaniyy"; Q 7:20 as "sawwatihima", without hamza of the accepted "saw'atihima" (Ibn Jinni, Muhtasab).

Aban b. 'Uthman b. 'Affan [Dhahabi, Siyar, Juz' 4, No. 133] recited Q 24:35 as "kawkab darri'un", with hamza, instead of the accepted "kawkab durriyy" (Ibn Jinni, Muhtasab).

Principal Works on Recitation

The Science of Recitation, canonical or extra-canonical, being one of the most important subdivisions of the Sciences of the Qur'an ('ulum al-Qur'an), has attracted a lot of attention over the centuries. Here follows a short list of the most significant works on qira'at:

i. Qutrub, Muhammad b. al-Mustanir (d. 206/821), the title of the book of this legendary author did not survive; fragments are quoted from him, e.g., in Suyuti's Itqan.

ii. Al-Hulwani, Ahmad b. Zayd (d. ca. 230/844 [250/864, according to Dhahabi, Ma'rifa, No. 162]) Kitab qira'at Abi 'Amr (Ibn Nadim, Fihrist, al-Fann al-thalith).

iii. Ibn Mujahid (d. 324) and his book Kitab al-sab' [see above].

iv. Al-Naqqash, Abu Bakr Muhammad b. al-Hasan b. Muhammad b. Ziyad b. Harun al-Mawsili, al-Baghdadi (d. 351/962) Kitab ikhtilaf al-qurra' (Dhahabi, Ma'rifa, No. 299).

v. Ibn Mihran, Ahmad b. al-Hasan Abu Bakr al-Isbahani al-Naysaburi (d. 381/991), Kitab al-Ghaya, (Dhahabi, Ma'rifa, No. 387; Ibn al-Jazari, Nashr, Dhikr isnad hadhihi-l-'ashr)

viIbn Ghalbun, Tahir b. Abi-l-Tayyib 'Abd al-Mun'im b. 'Ubaydu-Llah Abu-l-Hasan al-Halabi al-Misri (d. 399/1008), Kitab al-tadhkira fi-l-qira'at (Dhahabi, Ma'rifa, No. 416).

vii. Al-Mahdawi (d. ca. 430/1038), Ahmad b. 'Ammar Abu-l-'Abbas, the author of al-Hidaya (Dhahabi, Ma'rifa, No. 485; Ibn al-Jazari, Nashr, Dhikr isnad hadhihi-l-'ashr).

viii. Makki b. Abi Talib b. Hammush b. Muhammad b. Mukhtar Abu Muhammad al-Qaysi al-Maghribi al-Qayrawani al-Andalusi al-Qurtubi (d. 437/1045), and his al-Ibana 'an ma'ani al-qira'at, and Kitab al-Tabsira fil-qira'at al-sab' (Dhahabi, Ma'rifa, No. 473).

ix. Al-Dani, Abu 'Amr 'Uthman b. Sa'id (d. 444/1053), and his Al-Ahruf al-Sab' li-l-Qur'an, and Jami' al-bayan fi-l-qira'at al-sab' al-mashhura, and Al-Muqni' fi ma'rifati marsum masahif ahli-l-amsar, and al-Muhkam fi naqt al-masahif, and Kitab al-Taysir fi-l-qira'at al-sab' (Dhahabi, Ma'rifa, No. 495).

x. Isma'il b. Khalaf b. Sa'id b. 'Imran Abu Tahir al-Ansari al-Andalusi al-Misri (d. 455/ 1063), the author of the book, entitled al-'Unwan fi-l-qira'at (Dhahabi, Ma'rifa, No. 518; Ibn al-Jazari, Nashr, Dhikr isnad hadhihi-l-'ashr).

xi. Al-Tabari Abu Ma'shar 'Abdu-l-Karim (d. 478/1085), Kitab al-Jami'.

xii. Al-Hudhali, Abu-l-Qasim Yusuf b. 'Ali b. Jabbara b. Muhammad (d. 465/1072), Kitab al-Kamil, (Dhahabi, Ma'rifa, No. 529).

xiii. Ibn al-Fahham, Abu-l-Qasim 'Abdu-l-Rahman b. Abi Bakr 'Atiq b. Khalaf, al-Siqilli (d. 511/1117), Kitab al-Tajrid fi-l-sab' (Dhahabi, Ma'rifa, No. 623).

xiv. Sabt al-Khayyat al-Baghdadi Abu Muhammad 'Abdullah b. 'Ali b. Ahmad b. 'Abdullah, and his Kitab al-Mubhij (in 8 recitations and Ibn Muhaysin and al-A'mash) (Ibn al-Jazari, Nashr, Dhikr isnad hadhihi-l-'ashr).

xv. Al-Shatibi, al-Qasim b. Fiyyura b. Khalaf b. Ahmad al-Ru'ayni al-Andalusi (d. 590/1193), the author of the celebrated al-Shatibiyya, also known as Hirz al-Amani, a poem [qasida lamiyya; Ibn al-Jazari, Nashr, Dhikr isnad hadhihi-l-'ashr] of more than 1000 bayt (lines) (Dhahabi, Ma'rifa, No. 839).

xvi. Abu Shama (d. 665) Shihab al-Din 'Abdu-l-Rahman b. Isma'il b. Ibrahim al-Maqdisi, and his book entitled Ibraz al-Ma'ani min hirz al-amani fi-l-qira'at al-sab'; this work is a commentary on al-Shatibiyya; (Dhahabi, Ma'rifa, No.).

xvii. Al-Ja'bari, Ibrahim b. 'Umar b. Ibrahim Burhan al-Din Abu Ishaq (d. 732/1331), commentator of al-Shatibiyya, (Dhahabi, Ma'rifa, No. 1174).

xviii. Ibn al-Jazari (d. 833/1429) and his Kitab al-nashr and Munjid al-muqri'in wa murshid al-talibin, and Tahbir al-taysir fi-l-qira'at al-'ashr, and Taqrib al-nashr fil-qira'at al-'ashr.

xix. Al-Qastallani, Ahmad b. Muhammad (d. 923/1517), Lata'if al-isharat li-funun al-qira'at,

xx. Al-Banna, Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Ahmad b. 'Abd al-Ghaniyy, Shihab al-Din al-Dimyati (d. 117/1705), Ithaf Fudala' al-Bashar bilqira'at al-arba'at 'ashar, [for a longer list of works on Recitations, see e.g. Ibn al-Jazari, Nashr, Dhikr isnad hadhihi-l-'ashr; Qastallani, Lata'if, Tarikh tadwin al-qira'at; Shukri-Ahmad Muflih-Khalid Mansur, Muqaddimat fi 'ilm al-qira'at, al-Fasl al-khamis al-mu'allifat fi 'ilm al-qira'at wa-l-'ulum al-muttasila bihi].

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Ibn 'Atiyya. Muharrar =

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Ibn Manzur Lisan =

Ibn Manzur, Abu al-Fadl Jamal al-Din Muhammad b. Mukarram. Lisan al-'Arab. 15 vols. Beirut: Dar Sadir, [1968].

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Ibn Sida. Muhkam =

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Muslim. Sahih =

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Tabari. Tafsir =

al-Tabari, Abu Ja'far Muhammad b. Jarir. Tafsir al-Tabari: Jami' al-bayan 'an ta'wil ay al-Qur'an. Ed. 'Abd Allah b. 'Abd al-Muhsin al-Turki et al. 26 vols. Cairo: Dar Hajar, 1422/2001.

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Tirmidhi. Sunan =

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Yaqut. Buldan =

al-Hamawi al-Rumi, Yaqut Ibn 'Abdallah. Mu'jam al-buldan. Ed. Ferdinand Wustenfeld. 6 vols. Leipzig: F.A. Brockhaus, 1866-1873. Ed. Farid 'Abd al-'Aziz al-Jundi. 7 vols. Beirut: Dar al-Kutub al-'Ilmiyya, 1990.

Zabidi. Taj =

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Zarkashi. Burhan =

al-Zarkashi, Badr al-Din Muhammad b. 'Abd Allah. al-Burhan fi 'ulum al-Qur'an. Ed. Muhammad Abu al-Fadl Ibrahim. 4 vols. 3rd ed. Cairo: Dar al-Turath, 1404/1984.
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