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Iberian endemic Apiaceae: a reassessment for conservation purposes in Portugal/ Apiaceae endemicas ibericas: Una reevaluacion de las propuestas de conservacion en Portugal.

INTRODUCTION

The increasing threats to the natural ecosystems and to the plant diversity is partly due to the abusive harvest of plants for medicinal purposes and industrial uses. Moreover, the possible future impacts related with climatic changes will bring on other negative environmental consequences. Attempts to preserve the genetic patrimony, mainly the one of rare species, crops and the crop wild related (CWR) species is of outmost importance (CBD, 2002; MAXTED & DULLOO, 2008; SHARROCK, 2006). In this context, it is important to develop both ex situ programs and in vitro micropropagation techniques which allow genotype conservation and also a rapid multiplication of target-plants (EKIERT, 2000).

Botanic Gardens and associated research units are qualified institutions for plant preservation and germplasm maintenance, such as seed banks, cryobanks or in vitro collections. Plant conservation is particularly pertinent for endangered species and endemic plants, usually living in small populations and often surviving in special and restricted habitats (ALMEIDA et al., 2007; HAWKINS, 2008).

The Botanic Garden of the University of Coimbra, as a Botanic Garden Conservation International (BGCI) member, has been involved in some of these actions and this project goal is the in vitro and ex situ conservation of the Iberian endemic Apiaceae in Portugal and the chemical and biological characterization of their essential oils.

In the context of Plant Biotechnology several micropropagation tecnhiques have been applied to the in vitro conservation of threatened species as well as to the study of secondary metabolites (BACCHETTA, 2008; CANHOTO, 2010; TAVARES et al., 2008b, 2010c).

The Iberian Peninsula is very rich in endemic species, many of them belonging to the Apiaceae family with recognized aromatic and medicinal potential for industrial purposes (medicinal, pharmaceutical, culinary), due to their specific secondary metabolites (EKIERT, 2000; GIMENEZ et al., 2004; TAVARES et al., 2008b, 2010c). Some of these species are also CRWs (MAXTED & DULLOO, 2008), since they are phylogenetically similar to cultivated plants. Thus, CWRs are a source of genetic diversity that has been explored. For this particular purpose the more important Iberian endemic Apiaceae in Portugal is the carrot subspecies Daucus carota subsp. halo philus (TAVARES et al., 2008a, 2010a).

The Iberian endemic Apiaceae from Portugal belong to eleven genera (Angelica, Bunium, Conopodium, Daucus, Distichoselinum, Eryngium, Ferula, Ferulago, Laserpitium, Seseli and Thapsia) and 14 taxa are referred (Table 1; Figs. 1-15), from which one subspecies is exclusively Portuguese (Daucus carota subsp. halophilus). In this work the study, conservation and new uses of these taxa was evaluated. The studies have dealt with the aromatic-medicinal properties of unexploited essential oils of uncommon or rare (endemic) Portuguese Apiaceae (TAVARES et al. , 2008a, 2010b, 2010c; GONCALVES et al., 2012). Through the application of ex situ and in vitro propagation techniques some of the taxa analysed in this work have already been propagated in vitro and preserved in the seed bank of the Botanic Garden of Coimbra (ALMEIDA et al., 2007; TAVARES et al., 2009, 2010a, 2011b).

For any conservation program a first crucial step is unequivocally the identification of the different taxa. Moreover, an easy, clear and concise caracterization of the Iberian endemic Apiaceae occuring in Portugal as well as a revision of their geographical distribution and the characterization of their habitats (TAVARES et al. , 2008b) is also necessary, goal that we intend to achieve with this work.

MATERIAL AND METHODS

1. ABBREVIATIONS

To simplify the text, the following abbreviations are used: BGUC-Botanic Garden of the University of Coimbra.

Herbaria

COA--Jardin Botanico de Cordoba.

COI--Instituto Botanico da Universidade de Coimbra.

LISE--Estacao Agronomica Nacional--Oeiras.

LISI--Instituto Superior de Agronomia de Lisboa.

MA--Real Jardin Botanico de Madrid, CSIC.

MGC--Facultad de Ciencias. Universidad de Malaga.

PO--Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade do Porto.

Iberian provinces (Portugal) (CASTROVIEJO et al., 2003)

AAl--Alto Alentejo.

Ag--Algarve.

BA--Beira Alta.

BAl--Baixo Alentejo.

BB--Beira Baixa.

BL--Beira Litoral.

DL--Douro Litoral.

E--Estremadura.

Mi--Minho.

R--Ribatejo.

TM--Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro.

LPBUC--Laboratory of Plant Biotechnology of the University of Coimbra.

2. IDENTIFICATION, LOCALIZATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF THE TARGET-SPECIES

For the identification, phenology and geographic localization of the taxa, some Floras were used (AMARAL FRANCO, 1974; CASTROVIEJO et al., 2003; PEREIRA COUTINHO, 1939; SAMPAIO, 1988; TUTIN et al., 1968) and several taxonomic publications (AGUIAR, 2001; ALMEIDA, 2005; ALMEIDA, 2006; ALMEIDA, 2009a, 2009b; AMADO, 2007; CONSELHO DA EUROPA, 1977, 1983; GOMEZ-CAMPO et al., 1987; HONRADO, 2003; ICN, 2007; LOPES, 2001; MARIZ, 1896; MATEO & UDIAS, 2000; PINTO-GOMES, 1998; PINTO-GOMES and PAIVA-FERREIRA, 2005; PINTO-GOMES et al., 2008; PUJADAS SALVA, 2003a; PUJADAS SALVA, 2000a, 2000b, 2003b; QUEIROGA et al., 2008; RIBEIRO, 2006; RIVAS-MARTINEZ et al., 2002; SILVEIRA, 2001, 2007; TAULEIGNE GOMES et al. , 2004; electronic documents in web-sites), as well as the study of the voucher material of some Herbaria (COA, COI, LISE, LISI, MA, MGC, PO). Field growing plants were also analysed in situ and voucher materials were made and deposited at the Herbarium of the University of Coimbra (COI). The field trips were also used for collecting seeds and living material for the experiments related with in vitro propagation and essential oil characterization.

3. CRITERIA FOR TARGET-SPECIES HERBORIZATION

For the conservation status of the referred 14 taxa the following documents were consulted: UICN (GOMEZ-CAMPOS et al., 1987); ICNB (Nature and Biodiversity Conservation Institute) Dec.-Lei n.[degrees] 140/99 de 24/04, after Dec.-Lei n49/2005, 24/2; documents of the European Union (ZPE and SIC-Rede Natura, 2000; http://portal. icnb.pt/ICNPortal/vPT2007-<<Directiva Habitats>>; AMADO et al., 2007; QUEIROGA et al. , 2008). Based on these documents it could be concluded that only Angelica pachycarpa can be considered a rare species (QUEIROGA et al. , 2008).

According to Flora Iberica (CASTROVIEJO et al. , 2003) priority criteria for collecting material were established. Thus, a three type conservation priority criteria was established: RED-priority species, present only in one Portuguese province or exclusively in Portugal (5 taxa); YELLOW-present in 2-4 Portuguese provinces (5 taxa); GREEN-present in 5 or more Portuguese provinces: (4 taxa). The distribution of the different taxa based on these criteria is displayed in Table 1.

RESULTS

1. FIELD TRIPS

Following the defined priority criteria it has been possible to identify, localize and harvest plants and/or seeds of 13 endemic Iberian Apiaceae in Portugal (Figs. 1-15; annexe I). Plant gathering was made according to very restrict criteria in order to avoid population damage.

In this study (2005-2010) 152 field trips to 49 different locations were made, from North to the South of continental Portugal, resulting in more than 150 voucher specimens (see annexe 1). It must be emphasized that for the study of Daucus carota subsp. halophilus and the other 4 subspecies (Daucus carota subsp carota, Daucus carota subsp sativus, Daucus carota subsp maximus, Daucus carota subsp. gummifer) 71 field trips were made to 19 different locations. These were not indicated in Table 1, that refers only to the endemic taxa collected in 36 different sites in 121 field trips, according to the defined conservation priority criteria.

The species Bunium macuca subsp. macuca previously referred as present in Portugal (CASTROVIEJO et al., 2003) could not be found. After consulting several Portuguese botanists and collectors it can be assumed that this endemic Iberian subspecies might be extinct in Portugal.

2. DESCRIPTIONS, HABITATS AND DISTRIBUTIONS

Following the information in Table 1, the target-plants are described in the following sections and the provinces where they were collected are indicated in bold (voucher specimens are referred in annexe I):

1. Eryngium galioides Lam.

Annual, rarely biennial herb. Stems 3-15(-30) cm tall, procumbent to erect. Basal leaves 2-8 x 0.2-1 cm, oblanceolate to linear-lanceolate, dentate to incise- serrate. Capitula sessile, 0.5-1 cm in diam., subglobose. Fruit ellipsoid.

Boggy or seasonally wet places, usually sandy; 250-470 m. VI-IX. AAl, Ag, BA, BAl, BB (TM).

[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]

2. Eryngium duriaei J. Gay ex Boiss.

Perennial herb. Stems (20-)30-150 cm tall, erect. Basal leaves 8-25(-45) x 2-5(- 7) cm, narrow linear-oblanceolate, oblong-obovate to spathulate, denticulate. Capitula pedunculate (peduncle 3-5 cm long), the terminal one 4-8(-10) x 1.5-3 cm, cylindric-ellipsoid, the lateral ones shorter and ellipsoid. Fruit 3-4 x 2.5-3 mm.

The species present some morphological variation, mainly in the basal leaves. Thus, two subspecies are considered which can be distinguished with the help of the following key:

--Herb up to 100 cm tall; capitula up to 3(-3.5) cm long, cylindric-ellipsoid to ellipsoid; bracts up to 3.5 cm long, strongly cuspidate; basal leaves petiolate, narrow linear-oblanceolate to oblong-obovate, pinnatifid-dentate, undulate; cauline ones shortly petiolate to sessile ........................ subsp. duriaei

--Herb up to 180 cm tall; capitula up to 8 cm long, oblong-cylindric to cylindric-ellipsoid; bracts up to 2.5 cm long, softly cuspidate; basal leaves almost sessile, spathulate and flat, denticulate to incise-dentate, cauline ones stem-clasping .......................................................... subsp. juresianum

[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]

Eryngium duriaei J. Gay ex Boiss. subsp. duriaei

Granitic rock fissures and slopes. 1700 m. VII-IX. BA.

Eryngium duriaei J. Gay ex Boiss. subsp. juresianum (M. Lainz) M. Lainz

Edges of oak forests, and humid slopes, mainly on schist. 700-1000 m. VII-X. BL, DL, Mi, TM.

[FIGURE 3 OMITTED]

3. Daucus carota L.

Biennial to perennial herb. Stems (3-)10-170 (-200) cm tall, procumbent to erect, glabrous to hispid. Basal leaves (1-)2-4(-5)-pinnatisect, rarely less divided. Umbels concave, flat or convex, with a variable number of rays, pedunculate, rarely subsessile. Fruit (1.5-)2-4 mm long, ellipsoid to subglobose, with the spines on the secondary ridges shorter than the width of the mericarps.

Meadows, open woodlands, rocky and coast crags, sandy beaches and ruderal; 0-1800 m. III-IX.

All provinces.

Species extremely polymorphic divided into several subspecies, of which the following 5 appear to deserve recognition in Portugal: subsp. carota; subsp. gummifer; subsp. halophilus; subsp. maximus and subsp. sativus, this one cultivated.

They can be identified by the following key:

1. Last segments of the bracts sublinear to thread-like, rays of the flowering umbels arched-convergent; secondary ridges of the mericarp with slender spines, scarcely dilated at the base ................................................................. 2

1. Last segments of the bracts ovate, lanceolate to linear-lanceolate; rays of the flowering umbels [+ or -] straight to rather arched-convergent; secondary ridges of the mericarp with thick spines dilated and joined at the base ..................... 4

2. Cultivated plants, with a turnip-shaped taproot, fleshy, usually orange or yellowish to purplish, rarely whitish ........................................ subsp. sativus

2. Wild plants, with a cylindrical taproot, fibrous, whitish ................................ 3

3. Flowering umbels (1.5-)3-7(-11) cm in diam.; bracts 7-9, as long as or almost as long as the ray ........................................................................ subsp. carota

3. Flowering umbels 12-23 cm in diam.; bracts 10-13, shorter than the rays ................................................................................ ................ subsp. maximus

4. Segments of the bracts linear-lanceolate to linear, slightly mucronate; secondary ridges of the mericarp with thick, antrorse or patent spines ................................................................................ ..... subsp. gummifer

4. Segments of the bracts ovate to ovate-elliptic, shortly mucronate; secondary ridges of the mericarp with slender, patent spines ........... subsp. halophilus

Daucus carota L. subsp. carota

Meadows, open woodlands. 0-1800 m. IV-X. All provinces.

Daucus carota L. subsp. gummifer (Syme) Hook.f. & G. Martens Rocky and coast crags, sandy soil. 0-50 m. IV-IX. (BAl) BL DL E.

Daucus carota subsp. halophilus (Brot.) A. Pujadas Rocky and coast crags, sandy beaches and fossil dunes. 10-50 m. IV-VI. Ag, Bal, E.

Daucus carota L. subsp. maximus (Desf.) Ball Open woodlands. 0-1400 m. IV-VIII. AAl; Ag; (BAl).

Daucus carota L. subsp. sativus (Hoffm.) Schubl. & G. Martens Cultivated. 0-1500 m. IV-VI.

4. Bunium macuca Boiss. subsp. macuca

Perennial herb. Stems 5-35 cm tall, slender, branched, with the branches in acute angle. Basal leaves long-petiolate, deltoid, 2-3-pinnatisect, segments linear to spathulate, mucronate. Umbels (1-)2-6 cm in diam., with 5-8(-10) rays, 15-35(-45) mm long; peduncles 2-8 cm long. Fruit 2-3 mm long.

Forest fringes and rocky or stony rugged grounds; 250-470 m. IV-VIII. E.

G. Mateo and S. Lopez Udias (CASTROVIEJO, Flora Iberica X: 66. 2003) placed the occurrence of this taxon in Alto Alentejo (AAl) province. The only Herbaria specimen (COI; see Fig. 4) that we have consulted in COI was collected near Setubal, which is in the Estremadura province (E) and not in AAl as previously indicated. However, attempts to find this taxon both in Setubal and in other places in Estremadura or in the Alto Alentejo province were unsuccessful.

5. Conopodium subcarneum (Boiss. & Reut.) Boiss.

Perennial herb. Stems (10-)20-60(-75) cm tall. Basal leaves long-petiolate, 3- pinnatisect, segments pinnate, mucronate, glabrous. Sepal-teeth almost inconspicuous. Petals 1-1,5 mm, usually emarginated or no, white to pinkish. Fruit 2.8-4 mm long.

Bushwoods, pasturelands, rocky and sandy places; 200-1900 m. V-IX. BA, (BB), BL, (E), TM.

6. Conopodium majus (Gouan) Loret subsp. marizianum (Samp.) Lopez-Udias & Mateo

Perennial herb, with a subglobose tuber, 1.3-2.5 cm in diam. Stems 15-60 cm tall. Basal leaves long-petiolate, 2(-3)-pinnatisect, segments 3-6 lobate, ovate to suborbicular-kidney-shaped, hairy, at least in the rachis. Umbels 4-7 cm in diam., with 6-14 rays, 2-4.5 cm long; peduncles 1,5-6 cm long, glabrous. Fruit 3-5 mm long.

Bushwoods, rocky and sandy places, usually granitic; 200-1900 m. IV-VIII. AAl, Ag, BA, BAl, BB, BL, E, Mi, (R), TM.

[FIGURE 4 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 5 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 6 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 7 OMITTED]

7. Seseli montanum L. subsp. peixotoanum (Samp.) M. Lainz

Perennial herb, with a [+ or -] vertical stock. Stems (10-)35-70(-80) cm tall, erect. Basal leaves petiolate, 1.8-12 x 0.8-3 cm, 2-pinnatisect, segments linear, glabrous or pappilose. Umbels terminal with 5-9 rays, 3-10 mm long; rays of the secondary umbels 0.5-1(-1.5) mm long. Fruit 2-3.5(-4.5) x 1-1.5 mm.

Bushwoods, ultrabasic soils; 750 m. VIII-X. TM.

8. Angelica major Lag.

Biennial, rarely perennial herb. Stems 40-120 cm tall. Basal leaves 3- pinnatisect, lateral lobes ovate, sessile, dentate or crenate-mucronate. Petals white to yellowish. Fruit 4-9 x 5.5-6.5 mm. Rocky-heathlands open bushlands; siliceous soils; 650- 1900 m. VI-IX. BA, BB, Mi, TM.

9. Angelica pachycarpa Lange

Robust perennial herb, fleshy. Stems 100 cm tall. Umbels on short, stout peduncles, with 15-25 robust rays, usually pubescent. Fruit 4.5-11 x 3.5-9 mm. Maritime rocky places; 0-50 m. V-VI. E.

10. Ferula communis L. subsp. catalaunica (Pau ex Vicioso) Sanchez-Cuxart & Bernal

Robust, perennial herb. Stems (100-)160-250(-330) cm tall. Leaves with conspicuous sheathing. Terminal umbels sessile or with a short peduncle, 5-35 mm long, with (6-)12-26(-50) rays, (13-)22-45(-120) mm long. Fruit strongly compressed dorsally, obovate to elliptical.

Bushwoods, grasslands, along the roads, sometimes cultivated; 0-1600 m. V-VII. AAl, Ag, BA, BAl, BB, BL, E, R, TM.

11. Ferulago capillaris (Link ex Spreng.) Cout.

Perennial herb. Stems 60-160 cm tall, erect. Basal leaves up to 60 x 35 cm, 4-6-pinnatisect, segments linear or linear-lanceolate, mucronulate. Terminal umbels hermaphrodite, lateral ones, when present, unessexuad; main umbel pedunculate. Fruit 10-19 x 5-9,5 mm.

Disturbed bushwoods.

12. Distichoselinum tenuifolium (Lag.) Garcia-Martin & Silvestre

Perennial herb, glabrous. Stems up to 130 cm tall, striate, branched above. Basal leaves distichous, up 55 cm long, (4-)5-pinnatisect, ovate, thick, divisions often whorled, lobes linear to linear-lanceolate, mucronulate. Sepal-teeth 0.5-0.8 x 0.3-0.7 mm. Petals ovate, yellow. Fruit 8-18 x 2-4 mm (without wings).

Disturbed bushwoods, slopes and rocky places, in limestone; 0-1300 m. V-VIII. Ag.

[FIGURE 8 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 9 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 10 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 11 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 12 OMITTED]

13. Laserpitium eliasii Sennen & Pau subsp. thalictrifolium (Samp.) P. Monts. Robust, perennial herb. Basal leaves 3(-4)-pinnatisect, segments 3-lobed. Main umbel with 12-20(-30) rays, (3-)4-6(-9) cm long. Fruit (6-)7-8(-11) mm long. Edges of oak forests, siliceous soils; (400-)600-1100(-1500) m. VI-IX. (BA), Mi, TM.

14. Thapsia minor Hoffmanns. & Link

Perennial herb, glabrous. Basal leaves 2-3-pinnatisect, Umbels with 4-10(-12) rays, 4-9 cm long, subequal or unequal. Sepal-teeth 5, too small. Petals obovate, yellow. Fruit 9-12 x 6-10 mm.

Pinewood, holm oakwood, cork oakwood, usually in acid soils; 190-1300 m. IV-VII. AAl, Ag, BA, BAl, BB, BL, DL, E, Mi, TM.

[FIGURE 13 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 14 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 15 OMITTED]

3. CONSERVATION

The location and ex situ conservation of the Iberian endemic Apiaceae in Portugal was achieved and it was possible to maintain eleven taxa at the Coimbra Botanic Garden seed bank. The respective Index Seminum code number is presented in Table 2 and the seeds are available on-line (http//www.uc.pt/jardimbotanico/ indexseminum).

The seed bank collection of BGUC was enriched with the integration of six Iberian endemic Apiaceae, for the first time in almost 150 years of activity, namely:

Angelica pachycarpa, Daucus carota subsp. halophilus, Distichoselinum tenuifolium, Seseli montanum subsp. peixotoanum, Laserpitium eliasii subsp. thalictrifolium and Thapsia minor. To enhanced the ex situ conservation possibilities, samples of every taxa have been sent annually to the Millenium Seed Bank (London, UK) and to the Portuguese Germplasm Bank (Braga, Portugal).

The ex situ conservation was also achieved by the cultivation of the plants in the BGUC living collections, with voucher species integrated in the Herbarium of Coimbra (see annexe I), being the four more vulnerable taxa propagated and kept in vitro (TAVARES et al., 2009, 2009-2010, 2010a, 2011b, 2011c), as shown in Table 2.

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS

The consultation of Herbarium material and the study of published literature are obligatory tasks for the identification, recognition of the geographical localization, as well as the phenologic and the habitat characterisation of plants specimens. This first step was even obligatory to certify all the subsequent research work. When working with endemic rare species this issue is even more relevant, since plants are restricted to very specific and usually limited geographical locations.

The more recent revision concerning the Iberian Apiaceae is that of the Flora Iberica (CASTROVIEJO et al., 2003, vol. 10), which makes this work a reference for those interested in this subject. After six years of work (2005 to 2010), excluding Bunium macuca subsp. macuca, it was possible to localize all the other 13 Iberian endemic Apiaceae, in 152 field trips to 49 different localities, from North to South of Portugal, which produced more tan 150 voucher specimens.

The information obtained indicated that the Iberian endemic Apiaceae is a group of plants displaying a wide edafo-climatic range, comprising species with broad habitats variability, from the ultrabasic soils of Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro (Seseli montanum subsp. peixotoanum) (AGUIAR, 2001) to the calcareous soils of Algarve (<<barrocal algarvio>>-Distichoselinum tenuifolium) (PINTO-GOMES, 2005).

After an accurated analysis of specimens from Spain and Portugal Herbaria material, the only localization indicated for Bunium macuca subsp. macuca refers to Setubal, 1901--Herbario COI (Fig. 5), which is located in the province of Estremadura instead of Alto Alentejo, as misinterpreted in Flora Iberica. Even so, the plant could not be found neither in Setubal area nor in Alto Alentejo. Moreover, it was not possible to find any references to this species in specialized publications, namely the works of several Portuguese taxonomists (ALMEIDA, 2009a; AGUIAR, 2001; HONRADO, 2003; LOPES, 2001; PINTO-GOMES, 2008; RIBEIRO, 2006; SILVEIRA, 2001). Based on these data it might be appropriate to consider that this species is actually extinct in Portugal.

Both Conopodium subcarneum and Eryngium galioides have been considered as quite rare taxa in Portugal (AGUIAR, 2001; PINTO-GOMES, 2008). Our studies confirm this idea since we could localized the two species only in the provinces of Beira Alta and Algarve, respectivelly. Eryngium galioides, in particular, is considered a very rare endemism by Portuguese specialists, and the results of this work confirm this information, since the taxon was found in one very specific habitat: Nave do Barao, Algarve.

On the contrary, and in spite of the descriptions included in Flora Iberica, Eryngium duriaei could be observed in the region of Douro Litoral (Frecha das Misarela, Serra da Freita). The two subspecies referred in Flora Iberica could be collected based on their different morphological characteristics already described. Phytochemical studies and DNA molecular markers for these two subspecies are being carried out to clarify their genetic and quimiotaxonomic background (TAVARES et al., 2011a).

Also, for Daucus carota subspecies these studies will be crucial since there is a great morphological variability between the 4 native subspecies, which makes very difficult to identify them beyond doubt.

Based in our field work and on a better identification of the differences between these taxa, two taxonomic keys were developed: one for the distintion of the 4 native subspecies of Daucus carota and the other for the 2 subspecies of Eryngium duriaei.

The more vulnerable species is Angelica pachycarpa since it only occurs in the Berlenga Islands (QUEIROGA et al., 2008). Some results concerning the micropropagation of this species have already been published (TAVARES et al., 2009-2010). The excessive sea-gull population of the island has difficulted the monitorization work for the in situ instalation experiments of micropropagated plants.

All the studied taxa have testimony voucher specimens at the Herbarium of Coimbra, which support the research work in micropropagation and also the results obtained in the characterization and bioactivity of their essential oils (GONCALVES et al., 2012, 2010b, 2010c, 2008a).

The obtained results are a contribute for the conservation and sustainable use of these target species, according with the following statement:

"Conservation of natural vegetation is compatible with human presence if some needed measures to the restoration of negative passed phenomena, the mitigation of present phenomena and the preservation of future phenomena were undertake>> (TAULEIGNE-GOMES et al., 2004).

ANNEXE I--COLLECTED MATERIAL (2005-2010)

1. Eryngium galioides Lam.-Fig 1.

Locations: Algarve, Loule, Lagoa da Nave, Nave do Barao, 28.05.2008, A. C. Tavares 85 (COI).

2. Eryngium duriaei J. Gay ex Boiss.-Figs. 2 and 3. Eryngium duriaei J. Gay ex Boiss. subsp. duriaei

Locations: Beira Alta, Serra da Estrela, Cantaro Raso, 1700 m, 16.09.2008, A. C. Tavares, 112 (COI). Beira Alta, Serra da Estrela, Cantaro Raso, 1700 m, 11.07.2010.

Eryngium duriaei J. Gay ex Boiss. subsp. juresianum (M. Lainz) M. Lainz

Locations: Douro Litoral, Serra da Freita (Arouca), Frecha da Mizarela, 11.04.2005. Beira Litoral, Serra do Afor, between Colcurrinho and Senhora das Necessidades, 30.06.2005. A. C. Tavares, 8 (COI). Beira Litoral, Serra do Afor, between Colcurrinho and Senhora das Necessidades, 17.07.2006, A. C. Tavares, 54 (COI). Minho, Serra do Geres, Mata da Albergaria, 26.07.2007, A. C. Tavares, 74 (COI). Beira Litoral, Serra do Afor, between Colcurrinho and Senhora das Necessidades, 20.09.2008, A. C. Tavares, 113 (COI). Beira Litoral, Serra do Afor, Colcurrinho, 19.06.2010, A. C. Tavares, 136 (COI); Beira Litoral, Serra do Afor, Colcurrinho, 21.09.2010. Minho, Serra do Geres, Mata da Albergaria, edges of Homem river, 04.10.2010. Beira litoral, Arganil, Mata da Margarafa, 08.10.2010, A. C. Tavares, 143 (COI).

3. Daucus carota L.

Daucus carota L. subsp. carota

Locations: Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Serra da Nogueira, Rebordaes, 13.07.2005, A. C. Tavares, s/n (COI). Beira Litoral, Serra do Afor, Piodao, 17.07.2006, A. C. Tavares, 53 (COI). Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Serra da Nogueira, Rebordaes, 25.07.2006, A. C. Tavares, 60 (COI). Beira Litoral, Cantanhede, Povoa da Lomba, 13.07.2007, A. C. Tavares, 72 (COI). Beira Litoral, Cantanhede, Povoa da Lomba, 29.07.2007, A. C. Tavares, 76 (COI). Beira Litoral, Cantanhede, Povoa da Lomba, 22.06.2008, A. C. Tavares, 99 (COI). Beira Litoral, Coimbra, 16.10.2009, A. C. Tavares, 122 (COI); A. C. Tavares, 123 (COI). Cantanhede, Povoa da Lomba, 30.05.2010. A. C. Tavares, 135 (COI). Beira Litoral, Coimbra, Tentugal, Meas-do-Campo, 20.06.2010, A. C. Tavares, 137 (COI). Beira Litoral, Coimbra, Tentugal, Meas-do-Campo, 20.07.2010, A. C. Tavares, 139 (COI).

Daucus carota L. subsp. gummifer (Syme) Hook. fil. & G. Martens Locations: Estremadura, Farol da Nazare, 25.05.2005, A. C. Tavares, 2 (COI). Estremadura, Farol da Nazare, 26.06.2005, A. C. Tavares, 6 (COI). Estremadura, Farol da Nazare, 24.07.2005, A. C. Tavares, 12 (COI). Estremadura, Nazare, Praia do Norte, 26.06.2005, A. C. Tavares, 5 (COI). Estremadura, Nazare, Praia do Norte, 24.07.2005, A. C. Tavares, 13 (COI). Estremadura, Nazare, Praia do Norte, 30.07.2005, A. C. Tavares, 15 (COI). Beira Litoral, Figueira da Foz, Cabo Mondego, 30.07.2005, A. C. Tavares, 14 (COI). Beira Litoral, Figueira da Foz, Vale das Pombas-Cabo Mondego, 10.08.2005, A. C. Tavares, 16 (COI). Estremadura, Farol da Nazare, 21.05.2006, A. C. Tavares, 38 (COI). Estremadura, Farol da Nazare, 25.06.2006, A. C. Tavares, 44 (COI). Estremadura, Farol da Nazare, 22.07.2006, A. C. Tavares, 57 (COI). Estremadura, Nazare, Praia do Norte, 25.06.2006, A. C. Tavares, 45 (COI). Estremadura, Nazare, Praia do Norte, 22.07.2006, A. C. Tavares, 56 (COI). Estremadura, S. Pedro de Moel, 21.05.2006, A. C. Tavares, 39 (COI). Estremadura, S. Pedro de Moel, 25.06.20056, A. C. Tavares, 40 (COI). Estremadura, S. Pedro de Moel, 22.07.2006, A. C. Tavares, 55 (COI). Estremadura, Farol da Nazare, 29.05.2010, A. C. Tavares, 132 (COI). Estremadura, Nazare, Praia do Norte, 29.05.2010, A. C. Tavares, 133 (COI). Estremadura, S. Pedro de Moel, 29.05.2010, A. C. Tavares, 134 (COI). Beira Litoral, Figueira da Foz, Cabo Mondego, 25.07.2010, A. C. Tavares, 140 (COI).

Daucus carota subsp. halophilus (Brot.) A. Pujadas-Fig. 4. Locations: Algarve, Cabo S. Vicente, 24.04.2005, A. C. Tavares, 1 (COI). Algarve, Cabo de S. Vicente, 30.12.2005, A. C. Tavares, 17 (COI). Algarve, Cabo S. Vicente, 24.04.2006, A. C. Tavares, 19 (COI). Algarve, Cabo S. Vicente, 18.06.2006, A. C. Tavares, 43 (COI). Algarve, Cabo S. Vicente, 01.07.2006, A. C. Tavares, 48 (COI). Algarve, Arrifana, 25.04.2006, A. C. Tavares, 20 (COI). Algarve, Arrifana, 17.06.2006, A. C. Tavares, 42 (COI). Baixo Alentejo, Zambujeira-do-Mar, 25.04.2006, A. C. Tavares, 21 (COI). Baixo Alentejo, Cabo Sardao, 27.04.2006, A. C. Tavares, 35 (COI). Baixo Alentejo, Cabo Sardao, 17.06.2006, A. C. Tavares, 41 (COI). Estremadura, Cabo Carvoeiro, 20.05.2006, A. C. Tavares, 36 (COI). Baixo Alentejo, Cabo Sardao, 07.06.2007, A. C. Tavares, 62 (COI). Algarve, Arrifana, 7.06.2007, A. C. Tavares, 63 (COI). Algarve, Cabo S. Vicente, 07.06.2007, A. C. Tavares, 64 (COI). Estremadura, Cabo Carvoeiro, 10.06.2007, A. C. Tavares, 65 (COI), Estremadura, Cabo Carvoeiro, 23.06.2007, A. C. Tavares, 67 (COI). Estremadura, Cabo da Roca, 07.06.2007, A. C. Tavares, 62 (COI). Estremadura, Cabo da Roca, 23.06.2007, A. C. Tavares, 68 (COI). Estremadura, Cabo Espichel, 23.06.2007, A. C. Tavares, 69 (COI). Baixo Alentejo, Cabo Sardao, 27.05.2008, A. C. Tavares, 80 (COI). Algarve, Arrifana, 27.05.2008, A. C. Tavares, 82 (COI). Estremadura, Cabo Carvoeiro, 01.06.2008, A. C. Tavares, 88 (COI). Algarve, Cabo de S. Vicente, 27.05.2008, A. C. Tavares, 83 (COI). Estremadura, Cabo Espichel, 10.06.2008, A. C. Tavares, 97 (COI). Estremadura, Cabo da Roca, 10.06.2008, A. C. Tavares, 98 (COI). Algarve, Cabo S. Vicente, 14.05.2010, A. C. Tavares, 124 (COI). Algarve, Arrifana, 14.05.2010, A. C. Tavares, 125 (COI). Baixo Alentejo, Cabo Sardao, 14.05.2010, A. C. Tavares, 126 (COI). Estremadura, Cabo Espichel, 16.05.2010, A. C. Tavares, 129 (COI). Estremadura, Cabo da Roca, 16.05.2010, A. C. Tavares, 130 (COI). Estremadura, Cabo Carvoeiro, 16.05.2010. A. C. Tavares, 131 (COI). Algarve, Cabo S. Vicente, in vitro propagated plants, 09.06.2008, A. C. Tavares, 90 (COI); 09.6.2008, A. C. Tavares, 91 (COI); 10.6.2009, A. C. Tavares, 116 (COI); A. C. Tavares, 117 (COI).

Daucus carota L. subsp. maximus (Desf.) Ball

Locations: Alto Alentejo, Evora, S. Bento de Castris, Convento de Cartuxa, 14.07.2006, A. C. Tavares, 52 (COI). Alto Alentejo, between Evora and Arraiolos, 14.07.2007, A. C. Tavares, 73 (COI). Alto Alentejo, between Evora and Arraiolos, Cartuxa, 14.05.2010, A. C. Tavares, 127 (COI). Alto Alentejo, Montemo-o-Novo. 16.05.2010, A. C. Tavares, 128 (COI); 18.7.2010, A. C. Tavares, 138 (COI).

Daucus carota L. subsp. sativus (Hoffm.) Schubl. & G. Martens

Locations: Beira Litoral, Coimbra, Botanical Garden, nursery, 17.07.2008, A. C. Tavares, 102 (COI).

4. Bunium macuca Boiss. subsp. macuca-Fig. 5.

G. Mateo & S. Lopez Udias (CASTROVIEJO, Flora Iberica X: 66. 2003) point out this taxon to Alto Alentejo (AAl) province. The only specimen (COI; see Fig. 4) we have seen was collected near Setubal, which is in Estremadura (E) and not in AAl. We did not find this taxon near Setubal or in any other sites in Estremadura and Alto Alentejo yet.

5. Conopodium subcarneum (Boiss. & Reut.) Boiss.-Fig. 6.

Locations: Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Tarouca, 01.07.2008, A. C. Tavares, 100 (COI). Beira Alta, S. Pedro do Sul, Serra da Arada, near Aldeia da Pena, 29.07.2008, A. C. Tavares, 103 (COI). Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Serra da Nogueira, Bra ganfa, Castelo, road to Rebordaes, 09.09.2008, A. C. Tavares, 107 (COI).

6. Conopodium majus (Gouan) Loret subsp. marizianum (Samp.) Lopez-Udias & Mateo-Fig. 7.

Locations: Beira Litoral, Serra de Montemuro, 27.06.2006, A. C. Tavares, 46 (COI). Beira litoral, Serra da Lousa, 27.06.2007, A. C. Tavares, 70 (COI). Beira Alta, Penedono, 03.07.2007, A. C. Tavares, 71 (COI). Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Tabuafo, Serra de Chavaes, 17.05.2009, A. C. Tavares, 114 (COI). Beira Litoral, Serra da Lousa, near Trevim, 18.05.2009, A. C. Tavares, 115 (COI).

7. Seseli montanum L. subsp. peixotoanum (Samp.) M. Lainz-Fig. 8.

Locations: Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Braganfa, Samil, Braganfa, 17.06.2005, A. C. Tavares 4 (COI). Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Braganfa, between Carrazede and Alimonde, 13.07.2005, A. C. Tavares, 10 (COI). Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Braganfa, Izeda, 13.07.2006, A. C. Tavares, 51 (COI). Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Braganfa, Samil, 25.07.2006, A. C. Tavares, 58 (COI). Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Braganfa, Alimonde, 25.7.2006, A. C. Tavares, 59 (COI). Tras- osMontes e Alto Douro, Braganfa, Samil, 22.06.2007, A. C. Tavares, 66 (COI). Trasos- Montes e Alto Douro, Braganfa, Alimonde, 11.09.2007, A. C. Tavares, 78 (COI). Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Braganfa, Alimonde, 09.09.2008, A. C. Tavares, 108 (COI). Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Braganfa, Samil, 09.09.2008, A. C. Tavares, 109 (COI). Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Braganfa, Alimonde, 10.09.2009. Braganfa, Samil, 11.9.2008.

8. Angelica major Lag.-Fig. 9.

Locations: Beira Alta, Serra da Estrela, near Fonte de Jonjoba, 1100 m, 20.07.2005, A. C. Tavares, 11 (COI). Beira Alta, Serra da Estrela, between Fonte Paulo Martins and Covao da Vaca, 1700 m, 01.08.2006. Beira Alta, Serra da Estrela, near Sen hora da Pedra tunnel, 16.09.2010; 01.8.2009, A. C. Tavares, 118 (COI). Beira Alta, Guarda, Porto da Carne, 28.07.2010.

9. Angelica pachycarpa Lange-Fig. 10.

Locations: Estremadura, Ilha Berlenga, 28.06.2005, A. C. Tavares, 7 (COI). Estremadura, Ilha Berlenga, 20.05.2006, A. C. Tavares, 37 (COI). Estremadura, Ilha Ber lenga, 01.06.2008, A. C. Tavares, 87 (COI). Estremadura, Ilha Berlenga, 23.05.2008. Estremadura, Ilha Berlenga, 29.5.2008.

10. Ferula communis L. subsp. catalaunica (Pau ex Vicioso) Sanchez-Cuxart & Bernal-Fig. 11.

Locations: Beira Alta, Guarda, Porto da Carne, road to Guarda, 01.08.2006, A. C. Tavares, 61 (COI). Algarve, Espargal Loule, Espargal, near Boliqueime, Alte, 28.05.2008, A. C. Tavares, 84 (COI). Estremadura, Obidos, near the castle, 01.06.2008, A. C. Tavares, 89 (COI); 29.6.2008.

11. Ferulago capillaris (Link ex Spreng.) Cout.-Fig 12.

Locations: Beira Alta, Porto da Carne, Celorico da Beira, 13.07.2005, A. C. Tavares, 9 (COI). Beira alta, Celorico da Beira, 550 m, 01.08.2006. Minho, Serra do Geres, Homem river, side by side with Laserpitium plants, 30.09.2007. Beira Alta, Guarda, Porto da Carne, road to Guarda, 16.09.2008, A. C. Tavares, 111 (COI). Beira Alta, Guarda, Porto da Carne, road to Guarda, 01.08.2008, A. C. Tavares, 119 (COI). Minho, Geres, Mata da Albergaria, dry-bed of Homem river, 16.09.2009, A. C. Tavares, 121 (COI). Beira Alta, Porto da Carne, Guarda, 28.07.2010.

12. Distichoselinum tenuifolium (Lag.) Garcia-Martin & Silvestre-Fig. 13 Locations: Algarve, Lagos, EN 125, between Bensafrim e Burgau, 01.7.2006, A. C. Tavares, 49 (COI). Algarve, Moncarapacho, Monte de S. Miguel, to Faro, km 2, 02.7.2006, A. C. Tavares, 50 (COI). Moncarapacho, Monte de S. Miguel, 11.8.2007. Moncarapacho, 29.5.2008, A. C. Tavares, 86 (COI); 09.6.2008, A. C. Tava res, 96 (COI). Lagos, Burgau, Alma Verde, EN 125, between Bensafrim and Burgau, 09.6.2008, A. C. Tavares, 94 (COI); 10.8.2008, A. C. Tavares, 106 (COI). Olhao- Faro, Moncarapacho, 09.8.2009. Olhao-Faro, Moncarapacho, 11.8.2010.

13. Laserpitium eliasii Sennen & Pau subsp. thalictrifolium (Samp.) P. Monts. -Fig. 14.

Locations: Minho, Serra do Geres, between Ribeira de Monfao and Portela do Homem, edges of the river, 720-740 m, 26.07.2007, A. C. Tavares, 75 (COI). Minho, Geres, Mata da Albergaria, dry-bed of Homem river, 30.09.2007, A. C. Tavares, 79 (COI). Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Braganfa, Capela de S. Lourenfo, 09.09.2008, A. C. Tavares, 110 (COI). Minho, Geres, Mata da Albergaria, dry-bed of Homem river, 16.09.2009, A. C. Tavares, 120 (COI).

14. Thapsia minor Hoffmanns. & Link-Fig. 15

Locations: Beira Alta, Armamar, Vale de Tarouca, 825 m, 27.06.2006, A. C. Tavares, 47 (COI). Beira litoral, Piodao, 17.07.2006. Tarouca, Pena, Sao Macario, 01.07.2008, A. C. Tavares, 101 (COI). Beira Litoral, Tarouca, Queimada, Capela de S. Lourenfo, 29.07.2008, A. C. Tavares, 104 (COI). Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Armamar, capela de S. Lourenfo, Queimadela, 01.07.2010, A. C. Tavares, 141 (COI). Beira Litoral, Vila Nova-de-Poiares, Mucelao, Carvalhal street, near S. Miguel de Poiares, 335 m, 01.07.2010, A. C. Tavares, 142 (COI).

Ana Cristina TAVARES (1), Ligia SALGUEIRO (2), Jorge CANHOTO (3) & Jorge PAIVA (3)

(1) Centre of Pharmaceutical Studies. Department of Life Sciences. University of Coimbra. Ap. 3046. 3001-401 Coimbra, Portugal. actavar@bot.uc.pt

(2) Centre of Pharmaceutical Studies. Faculty of Pharmacy. AAzinhaga de Santa Comba. University of de Coimbra. 3000-548 Coimbra, Portugal. ligia@ff.uc.pt

(3) Centre for Functional Ecology. Department of Life Sciences. University of Coimbra. Ap. 3046. 3001-401 Coimbra, Portugal. jaropa@bot.uc.pt; jorgecan@bot.uc.pt

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

We are very grateful to Prof. Antonio Pujadas Salva (University of Cordoba) and Prof. Gonzalo Mateo Sanz (University of Valencia) for the taxonomic and field helps; to Dr. Joao Almeida for his help and friendship in many trips, to Mr. Armenio Matos (Botanic Garden of Coimbra) for his extraordinary support as an expert collector; to Mr. Jose Antonio Campos for helping in the localization and harvest of plants; to Prof.3 Fatima Sales and Mrs. Manuela Santos of the Herbarium of the University of Coimbra (COI) for the support and attendance. Finally our thanks to COA, COI, LISE, LISI, MA, MGC, PO to let us analyse their plant material.

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TAVARES, A. C.; LOUREIRO, J.; FIGUEIREDO, E.; LOPES, L.; SALGUEIRO, L. & CANHOTO, J. M. (2011a): Eryngium duriaei J. Gay ex Boiss., a Portuguese endemic Apiaceae: characterization and distinction of two subspecies. In: XXXVI Jornadas Portuguesas de Genetica. Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia da Universidade de Coimbra: 55.

TAVARES, A. C.; SALGUEIRO, L. & CANHOTO, J. M. (2011b): In vitro conservation of Seseli montanum L. subsp. peixotoanum (Samp.) M. Lainz, an Iberian serpentine endemism of Tras-os-Montes (Portugal). In: 7th International Conference on Serpentine Ecology. Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia da Universidade de Coimbra: 135.

TAVARES, A. C.; LOUREIRO, J.; OLIVEIRA, H.; SALGUEIRO, L. & CANHOTO, J. M. (2011c): Somatic embryogenesis quantification and in vitro ploidy stability of Daucus carota subsp. halophilus (Brot.) A. Pujadas, the Portuguese endemic carrot. In: XI Simposio da Associacao Ibero-Macaronesia deJardins Botanicos. Jardim Botanico do Faial. Afores: 20-21.

TUTIN, G. T.; HEYWOOD, V. H.; BURGES, N. A.; MOORE, D. M.; VALENTINE, D. H.; WALTERS, S. M. & WEBB, D. A. (1968): Flora europaeae. Vol. 2. Rosaceae to Umbelliferae. Cambridge University Press.

Electronic web publications:

Atlas y Libro Rojo de la Flora Amenazada de Espana (2008). Web: http://www.biga.org/ Boletin_BIGA/ Boletin_BIGA3/Silva_Pando_endemicas_Galicia_BolBIGA3_2008.pdfAtlas y Libro Rojo de la Flora Amenazada de Espana. Accessed 26 June 2007.

Index Seminum-Botanic Garden of Coimbra: http//www.uc.pt/jardimbotanico/indexsemi num. Accessed 2004-20011.

Nature and Biodiversity Conservation Institute: http://portal.icnb.pt/ICNPortal/vPT2007. Accessed 28 May 2008.

Plant Taxonomic Index: http://ipni.org/index.html. Accessed 2004-2011.
Table 1. Iberian endemic Apiaceae in
Portugal: geographical distribution
conservation priority criteria,
localities and number of field
trips (2005-2010)

Taxa                    Provinces        Conservation
                                         priority
                                         criteria

1. Eryngium galioides   Ag AAl BA        GREEN
                          BAl BB (TM).
2.1. Eryngium duriaei   BA BL Mi TM.     YELLOW
  subsp. duriaei
2.2. Eryngium           Mi BL DL.        YELLOW
  duriaei subsp.
  juresianum
3. Daucus carota        Costa SW, Ag     RED
  subsp. halophilus     BAl E.
4. Bunium macuca        AAl.             RED
  subsp. macuca
5. Conopodium           BA (BB) BL(E)    YELLOW
  subcarneum            TM.
6. Conopodium           AAl Ag BA BAl    GREEN
  majus subsp.          BB BL DL E Mi
  marizianum            (R) TM.
7. Seseli montanum      TM.              RED
  subsp. peixotoanum
8. Angelica major       BA BB Mi TM.     YELLOW
9. Angelica             Berlenga         RED
  pachycarpa            Islands-E.
10. Ferula communis     AAl   Ag BA      GREEN
  subsp. catalaunica    BAl BB BL E
                        R TM.
11. Ferulago            BA Mi TM.        YELOW
  capillaris

12. Distichoselinum     Ag.              RED
  tenuifolium
13. Laserpitium         Mi TM (BA).      YELLOW
  eliasii subsp.
  thalictrifolium
14. Thapsia minor       AAl Ag BA BAl    GREEN
                        BB BL DL E Mi
                        TM.

Taxa                    Locations             No. of
                                              field
                                              trips

1. Eryngium galioides   Nave do Barao         1

2.1. Eryngium duriaei   Serra da Estrela      2
  subsp. duriaei
2.2. Eryngium           Serra da Freita       1
  duriaei subsp.        Afor                  4
  juresianum            Geres                 2
                        Mata da Margarafa     1
3. Daucus carota        Cabo S. Vicente       10
  subsp. halophilus     Arrifana              5
                        Cabo Sardao           5
                        Cabo Carvoeiro        4
                        Cabo da Roca          3
                        Cabo Espichel         3
4. Bunium macuca        Not found             12
  subsp. macuca
5. Conopodium           Serra da Arada        1
  subcarneum            Serra  da Nogueira,   1
                        Braganfa
6. Conopodium           Tabuafo               1
  majus subsp.          Serra da Freita       1
  marizianum            Lousa                 2
                        Montemuro             2
7. Seseli montanum      Alimonde              5
  subsp. peixotoanum    Samil                 5
8. Angelica major       Serra da Estrela      4
9. Angelica             Berlenga              4
  pachycarpa
10. Ferula communis     Guarda                2
  subsp. catalaunica    Evora                 2
                        Loule                 1
                        Obidos                2
11. Ferulago            Celorico da Beira     1
  capillaris            Guarda                3
                        Geres                 2
12. Distichoselinum     Moncarapacho          7
  tenuifolium           Espargal              1
                        Burgau                2
13. Laserpitium         Geres                 3
  eliasii subsp.        Braganfa              1
  thalictrifolium
14. Thapsia minor       Mucelao               1
                        Queimadela            3
                        Piodao, Afor          1

Table 2. Iberian endemic Apiaceae in
Portugal: ex situ (Index seminum-code
number) and in vitro conservation

TAXA                      YEAR OF INCLUSION    SEED CODE
                          IN THE SEED BANK      NUMBER

1. Eryngium galioides       Not included       Seeds not
                                                ripened
2. Eryngium duriae        Before and after    1882 PT0COI
                                2005
3. Daucus carota               2005 *         1754 PT0COI
  subsp. halophilus
4. Bunium macuca          Not localized in     Possible
  subsp. macuca               Portugal         exctinted
5. Conopodium               Not included       Seeds not
  subcarneum                                    ripened
6. Conopodium majus       Before and after    1266 PT0COI
  subsp. marizianum             2005
7. Seseli montanum             2008 *         2100 PT0COI
  subsp. peixotoanum
8. Angelica major         Before and after    1252 PT0COI
                                2005
9. Angelica pachycarpa         2006 *         2059PT0COI
10. Ferula communis       Before and after    1277 PT0COI
  subsp. catalaunica            2005
11. Ferulago capillaris   Before and after    1756 PT0COI
                                2005
12. Distichoselinum            2006 *         2081 PT0COI
  tenuifolium
13. Laserpitium                2010 *         2121 PT0COI
  eliasii subsp.
  thalictrifolium
14. Thapsia minor              2009 *         2104 PT0COI

TAXA                       EX SITU AND    VOUCHER
                            IN VITRO      SPECIMEN
                          CONSERVATION

1. Eryngium galioides          --           COI
2. Eryngium duriae            BGUC          COI
3. Daucus carota          BGUC / LPBUC      COI
  subsp. halophilus
4. Bunium macuca               --            --
  subsp. macuca
5. Conopodium                  --           COI
  subcarneum
6. Conopodium majus           BGUC          COI
  subsp. marizianum
7. Seseli montanum        BGUC / LPBUC      COI
  subsp. peixotoanum
8. Angelica major             BGUC          COI
9. Angelica pachycarpa    BGUC / LPBUC      COI
10. Ferula communis           BGUC          COI
  subsp. catalaunica
11. Ferulago capillaris       BGUC          COI
12. Distichoselinum       BGUC / LPBUC      COI
  tenuifolium
13. Laserpitium               BGUC          COI
  eliasii subsp.
  thalictrifolium
14. Thapsia minor             BGUC          COI
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Author:Tavares, Ana Cristina; Salgueiro, Ligia; Canhoto, Jorge; Paiva, Jorge
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Date:Jan 1, 2010
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