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The Ontological Status of Categories: Are They Extra-Mental Entities, Concepts, or Words? JORGE J. E. GRACIA

Wittgensteinian Methodology and Religious Belief, EMYR VAUGHAN THOMAS

The overall aim of this paper is to explore the metaphilosophical issue as to whether, and to what extent, a Wittgensteinian descriptivist approach to religious belief should incorporate the believer's self-understanding. Proponents of the view that Wittgensteinian methodology does not need to be consistent with the believer's own explicit views either advocate or imply a clear distinction between: (a) what a believer does and says within the parameters of the practice (or practices) of religion and Co) what a believer believes about those practices themselves. This paper argues (i) that the latter distinction is less than absolute and (ii) that to remain faithful to the ideals of a descriptive approach to philosophy, considerable caution is needed in its application.--Correspondence to:

Darwinism and God, ERROL E. HARRIS

The argument of Daniel Dennett's book, Darwin's Dangerous Idea, is based on the explicit assumption that "the wonderful world we inhabit": has evolved from "chaos or utter undesignedness" simply by chance mutation and natural selection in the time available. Calculations by competent mathematicians have shown this to be impossible as the improbability of favorable mutations is too great. Dennett calls the invocation of teleology, purpose, and God appeals to "sky-hooks," but his own description of the facts impels him to use language which is a tacit appeal to teleology and cannot be purely metaphorical. He thinks and argues persistently within the atomistic presuppositions of Newtonian science, ignoring the holistic implications of the Ensteinian-Heisenbergian revolution of the 20th century. A holistic interpretation of the facts would imply that there is more to natural selection than mere chance, and further, would involve a metaphysical interpretation of the universe (as conceived by contemporary physics) which reinstates the proofs of the existence of God.

The Personal Temperaments of William James and Josiah Royce, FRANK M. OPPENHEIM, SJ

By using six decades of researches unknown to Ralph B. Perry, this article aims to survey carefully the various factors affecting the personal temperaments of William James and Josiah Royce. Such a survey creates a background against which later one can better examine their philosophical interactions. Initially, a comparison-contrast of their temperaments symbolizes James as an "eye" and Royce as an "ear." Then a more detailed study explores their differences in age and health, personal gifts, the "significant others" in their lives, educational opportunities, and their religious upbringing and attitudes. These factors significantly illumine the decades-long philosophical interaction of these two American philosophers.--Correspondence to:

Derrida, Maritain, and Deconstruction, THOMAS GWOZDZ, SDB

Eric Voegelin and the Genealogy of Race, WAYNE ALLEN

Contrary to modern assumptions, the race idea is a new principle of human organization. Because of the conceit of modernists we believe that policies such as Nazism signaled the end of the old epoch rather than reflect the mentality of the new one. Modernity is driven by a progressivist mentality and ahistorical pedagogy that wants to deny the spiritualized body ideas manifest in affirmative action and "identity politics." Eric Voegelin is one of the leading philosophers this century to locate the provenance of race as an idea in history. But his analysis contradicts modern assumptions by demonstrating the development of race into a spiritual movement that is part of the modern project. His work on the race idea is often ignored precisely because it undermines modern arrogance.

William James on Faith and Facts, LUDWIG F. SCHLECHT

In William James on the Courage to Believe, Robert J. O'Connell argues that James is confused in claiming with regard to religious belief that "faith in a fact can help create the fact." This article challenges that assessment. James's claim is central to his thinking--and it is sound if we recognize that the religious faith that James is discussing is not theistic belief but rather the affirmation of a melioristic universe. The kind of trust that is necessary to develop and sustain a meaningful relationship with another person can also contribute to malting the universe one in which a meaningful life can be realized.--Correspondence to:

(*) Abstracts of articles from leading philosophical journals are published as a regular feature of the Review. We wish to thank the editors of the journals represented for their cooperation, and the authors of the articles for their willingness to submit abstracts. Where abstracts have not been submitted, the name and author of the article are listed.
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Article Details
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Publication:The Review of Metaphysics
Article Type:Bibliography
Geographic Code:00WOR
Date:Dec 1, 1999
Previous Article:EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PHILOSOPHY Vol. 7, No. 3, December 1999.
Next Article:INTERNATIONAL PHILOSOPHICAL QUARTERLY Vol. 39, No. 4, December, 1999.

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