INTEGRATION OR DISINTEGRATION OF THE ECOLOGICAL AND URBAN FUNCTIONS OF THE RIVER IN THE CITY? A POLISH PERSPECTIVE.
Access to water was one of the primary environmental factors that were decisive in the location and development of cities. First cities on Earth were located precisely near large rivers that served as the main axes of development, with key examples in the form of the most ancient civilizations of Mesopotamia, Egypt and ancient China (Novaresio, 2006; Yassin, Bond and McDonagh, 2012; Cengiz, 2013). At first, rivers were a symbol of life, the main source of drinking water, but also had defensive functions. In the Middle Ages, most fortified settlements were built at riverbanks.
The transport function of rivers was also important, as it was the spread of river transport that vastly contributed to the development of cities which became ports servicing inland navigation. Consequently, cities located at riversides became important trade centers (May, 2006), and river valleys were among the first fragments of nature to be used and transformed by people (Steiner, 2011). Growing river traffic and vessel size required waterways to have sufficient depth. This was manageable only through regulation of rivers consisting in straightening the river bed, narrowing and deepening it and strengthening the riverbanks. Such actions led to changes in water relations, both within the river bed and the whole river valley, which were not always beneficial.
Intensive industrialization and urbanization, started at the turn of the 20th century, led to further degradation of rivers and river valleys, and as a consequence to the loss of rivers' priority in the development of cities. During the economic transformations of the late 19th and early 20th century, rivers supplied industrial plants with water and served as a place of discharge of industrial and municipal waste. Thus, riversides became the technical base for the industrial zone. They had technical facilities in the form of roads, railway sidings, railways and docks. The situation changed radically when other means of transportation gained prominence, as along with the intensive development of the railway, road, and aviation infrastructure the role of the river diminished or even became marginal, as in the case of Poland (Kubiak-Wojcicka, 2014). Neglect over further years led to the degradation of riverside areas both in the technical and infrastructural dimension and in terms of quality and mentality of residents and visitors. The role of rivers in the city was deprecated and it even became visible that most cities in the world, including European cities, turned away from rivers.
We are currently observing changes in the perception of rivers and river valleys in urbanized areas (Everard and Moggridge, 2012). In line with the global trends in planning and management of riverside areas, cities and their residents come back to the river or its proximity (Timur, 2013). The whole world experiences the modernization of riverside areas (Marshall, 2001). However, in terms of leadership, the most prominent examples are the cities in North America (Bryant, 2006; Hagerman, 2007; Cook and Ward, 2012; Airas, Hall and Stern, 2015) and Europe (Gospodini, 2001; Wood and Handley, 1999; Galland and Hansen, 2012; Debrie and Raimbalut, 2016). Although with less intensity, riverside areas are reorganized also in other parts of the globe, e.g. in Asian cities (Marshall, 2001; Gunay and Dokmeci, 2012; Chang and Huang, 2011). Sairinen and Kumpulainen (2006) indicate that we may even speak about the phenomenon of revival of riverside areas. The revitalization of waterfront areas consists in a partial reconstruction of the river ecosystem, facilitating residents' access to water and creating new attractive public spaces (Hagerman, 2007). These are important actions because the river is capable of creating characteristic places which stand out due to the originality of form, function and content, unusual places which make the city recognizable both by its residents and by its tourists (Bernat, 2010).
In light of the above, this study aims to find whether we are currently experiencing an integration or disintegration of the ecological and urban functions performed by the river in the city. The study concerns the Polish perspective and was carried out on the basis of a case study of the city of Torun (a typical post-communist medium-sized city) and a section of the River Vistula within it. It will be helpful to answer the following questions:
 Which ecological functions are performed by the river in the city?
 Which urban functions are performed by the river in the city?
 Are ecological and urban functions performed by the river in the city mutually exclusive or complementary?
2. Theoretical background
Issues related to ecological and urban functions of rivers were reflected in the literature on the subject in the end of the 1960s. During that time, papers were issued containing a comprehensive description of the landscape of river valleys. They covered both the economic functions of river valleys and selected elements of the natural environment in urbanized areas. It was noticed that due to their unique natural wealth, large water supplies and the role of main natural ecological corridors, rivers play a key role in the functioning of the whole ecological system of the country, region and city. As ecological corridors, rivers are invaluable in maintaining biodiversity (Gacka-Grzesikiewicz, 1995; Bryant, 2006).
The next research stage dates back to the turn of the 21st century. Papers of that time not only identified the high natural value of rivers and river valleys, but also acknowledged their high 'urban' or 'urbogenic' value. Literature regarding that subject contained numerous publications regarding exclusively the urban function of the river. As pointed out by Francis (2012), urban rivers perform crucial ecological and social roles within broader urban systems. Therefore, in order to understand the functions of rivers in urban systems we need to analyze explicit interactions and endogenous and exogenous relations between the society, i.e. residents of cities and the natural environment (Rogatka and Ramos Ribeiro, 2015). Education and participation of the society are an inextricable element here, and it consists in building public awareness regarding riverside areas, for instance (Polajnar, 2008), and in determining the role of riverside areas as important elements of the urban landscape or even ecosystem (Guntenspergen and Dunn, 1998).
The latest trends applied to the studies of river functions in urbanized areas are shown in an interdisciplinary research approach based on the cooperation of specialists in different fields, especially in the scope of urbanization processes and environmental issues (Bunce and Desfor, 2007; Yue, 2012; Francis, 2012; Fumagalli et al., 2013; Dyson and Yokom, 2015). The observable effects of the conducted studies and research and development projects take the form of a renewal of waterfronts and their recreational use in connection with preserving the ecological function of the river (Beatley and Newman 2013; de Groot, Wilson and Boumans, 2002; Francis and Lorimer 2011). It is a consequence of the concept of 'opening the city to the river' which is currently gaining prominence, and is implemented through the processes of revitalization and restoration of rivers and river valleys. During the first stage, these actions are technical and they eliminate obstacles which hamper the natural fluvial process, and in the second phase the restoration process is driven by the forces of nature (Andersson, 2006). Going even further, Carmon and Shamir (2010) propose to create open spaces available to the society along rivers in cities. Such approach to the management of waterside areas helps preserve the role of rivers in flood protection while strengthening social and ecological functions (Kenwick, Shammin and Sullivan, 2009; Kostopoulou, 2013; Baker, Eckerberg and Zachrisson, 2014; Hall and Stern, 2014). In light of the above, the role of local authorities seems important as they are responsible for implementing the development policy, including spatial policy, which is of key significance to the organization of space in cities, including in riverside areas (Rogatka et al., 2015).
3. Study area
The issue of coexistence of ecological and urban functions of the river in urbanized areas was considered in the case of Torun, a city located in central Poland on the banks of the largest river in Poland - the River Vistula. Torun is an example of the problem of coexistence between the river and the city, i.e. the urbanized and non-urbanized riverside areas in the city, and therefore is a representative case for Poland.
The study area was selected on the basis of the following premises:
 In the perception of the Polish society, the River Vistula is one of the most important symbols of the country, it has an intangible value which impacts its position in the minds of the people (Angiel and Angiel, 2015). According to Bernat (2010), the river is the symbol of national identity.
 Torun is located on the River Vistula in its lower section, on both banks. The length of the river within the administrative limits of the city is around 20 km, and the river bed inside the city is 355 to 440 m wide.
 The River Vistula valley is an ecological corridor of international significance. According to Gacka-Grzesikiwicz (1995), from the viewpoint of valorization of ecological corridors, the lower Vistula valley was defined as an area with very high natural value. Waterside areas function as ecological corridors and provide shelter for many animal and plant species.
 There are legally protected areas within the city and the river. Legally protected forms include the special protection area for birds--Lower Vistula Valley (PLB040003) within the framework of the Natura 2000 network (Katalog obszarow Natura 2000) and the natural reserve--'Kepa Bazarowa' covering the riparian poplar and willow forest on the left bank of the River Vistula.
 Torun is a city which has served different functions since as early as the 13th century. Its current functions are: administrative (it is the seat of the marshal's office of the Kujawsko-Pomorskie Voivodship), scientific (it hosts one of the largest universities in Poland--the Nicolaus Copernicus University), cultural (Torun boasts a rich cultural and architectonic heritage--in 1997 the Torun medieval conurbation, the Old Town, was included in the UNESCO World Heritage List), tourist (thriving urban tourism) and others.
When analyzing the administrative role of Torun, we should note that the city is one of the two capitals of the Kujawsko-Pomorskie Voivodship (NUTS 2-- Nomenclature of territorial units for statistics, European basic regions for the application of regional policies) located in central Poland. Torun is a city with poviat rights (LAU 1--European Local Administrative Units of the 1st order). The city area is 115.7 sq km which represents 14% of the total area of urban areas in the Kujawsko- Pomorskie Voivodship. It has 203,158 residents, which makes 1,756 persons/sq km. After Bydgoszcz, Torun is the second most inhabited city in the Kujawsko-Pomorskie Voivodship. It is home to 9.7% of the residents of the voivodship and 16.2% of the total number of residents of all cities in the Kujawsko-Pomorskie Voivodship (Gtowny Urzad Statystyczny, 2014). Like other large cities in Poland, Torun is experiencing a decrease in population resulting from the developing suburbanization processes (Szymanska, Chodkowska-Miszczuk and Bieganska, 2013). It should be noted that in terms of transportation, Torun is located at the crossing of important international and national communication routes, including: A1 motorway (meridional direction) and express road S-10 (latitudinal direction).
Other advantages of the city include natural values, such as woodlands and the natural reserve. 'Kepa Bazarowa' is a unique area of special natural and historical importance. It is a River Vistula island located in the center of Torun, near the left bank of the Vistula. The island covers an area of 70 ha and is 2.5 km long, with a maximum width of 400 m. Half of the island's area is taken up by the 'Kepa Bazarowa' natural reserve which serves to protect a fragment of the riparian forest with preserved natural features. The Natura 2000 area, Lower Vistula Valley (PLB040003), is among other forms of protected landscape present within the city of Torun (Kubiak-Wojcicka and Adamska, 2013).
Therefore, the study area, i.e., the city of Torun, in particular in its central part determined by the location of the Old Town, is a combination, unique for Poland and Europe, of urban and ecological ecosystems which function within a relatively small area. The dual nature of the area covers the developed, urbanized Bulwar Filadelfijski on the right bank of the river, and the 'Kepa Bazarowa' natural reserve exactly opposite the boulevard on the left bank. In this respect, the River Vistula is a characteristic link between the developed and undeveloped riverside zone (Figure 1; Table 1) (Kubiak-Wojcicka and Adamska, 2013). The analyzed section is a fragment of the Vistula valley with a length of 1.4 km, located between the railway bridge to the East and the road bridge to the West. In this section, the width of the Vistula varies from 355 m (Brama Mostowa) to 440 m near the railway bridge.
Moreover, Bulwar Filadelfijski, which comprises the urbanized part of the research area, due to its central location and functions that it performs, is one of the top priority areas for the city authorities. The local authorities have undertaken extensive projects aiming at implementing a coherent concept of urban-architectural management of Bulwar Filadelfijski. The first stage, intended to select a contractor, has finished in 2015. The on-site construction work conducted as a part of the multi-stage revitalization of the waterfronts in Torun has started in 2017.
Furthermore, the city authorities, being aware that the medieval city center together with the river embankment comprise one of the advantages, which determine (among others) the city's image, have started activities with a goal to create a local town planning scheme for the Old Town district together with its surroundings (City Council of Torun Resolution no. 321/12 from June 28, 2012). Currently, there is a planning work underway, which eventually will create a document that will define urban- architectural and legal frames for all the activities, initiatives and investments in the above mentioned area.
4. Research methods
Due to the multifaceted nature of the issue, the authors have decided to apply a multistage research procedure. This study uses the following research methods: desk research, comparative studies, case study of integration/ disintegration of ecological and urban functions of the River Vistula in Torun, SWOT analysis.
On the basis of general trends in riverside space development and the functions performed by that space in the global approach, the authors studied local conditions of the city of Torun. The documents analyzed in this stage included various cartographic materials, e.g. historical and current topographic maps, aerial and satellite photographs and planning documents such as, for instance: Development Strategy for the City of Torun until 2020, Study of Conditions and Directions of Spatial Development of the City of Torun, The Local Revitalization Plan for the City of Torun, and Master Plans for the City of Torun prepared by the City Urban Planning Office. The next step covered comparative studies which consisted in identifying and determining the most representative elements distinctive for the two waterfronts--the urbanized area of the right Vistula riverbank (Bulwar Filadelfijski) and the non-urbanized left riverbank (Kepa Bazarowa).
In order to fully understand the mutual relations of ecological and urban functions of the river on the example of Torun, the authors performed a SWOT analysis which helped show the:
--S (Strengths), i.e. the integration of ecological and urban function of the river;
--W (Weaknesses), i.e. the disintegration of ecological and urban function of the river;
--O (Opportunities) for the integration of ecological and urban function of the river;
--T (Threats) consisting in the disintegration of ecological and urban function of the river.
The choice of the SWOT analysis was motivated by the fact that it is a complex method of strategical analysis which allows identifying the key advantages and disadvantages related to the coexistence of ecological and urban functions of the river in urbanized areas and current and future opportunities and threats related thereto.
5. Analysis and results
In an attempt to answer the questions presented in the introduction to this paper, the authors began with determining the functions served by the river in urbanized areas. On the basis of theoretical considerations backed by an in-depth review of literature and on-site inquiry, it was determined that the river performs various functions, primarily for cities and their residents. Focusing on the main ecosystem elements of the river and the city, the authors made a general division into ecological and urban functions of the river. It was followed by a detailed classification of individual functions taking into account the relation between the city and the river and their recipients. The most important ecological functions of the river include (based on results of literature review and field studies):
a) the hydrological function:
--it gathers water in the Vistula valley and river bed, which has a positive effect on water retention and leads to the increase of water resources;
--it is the recipient of the surface runoff and drainage from the city area;
--it is an element of the sewerage system;
--it regulates the water level in the river bed depending on the supply; and
--it impacts the level of groundwater;
b) the biological function:
--it is the natural habitat for numerous plant and animal species; and
--it serves as an ecological corridor and facilitates the passage of different plant and animal species between isolated habitats and a free exchange of genes between populations. Moreover, the corridors provide conditions for the formation of local vegetation;
c) the meteorological function:
--it improves the microclimate of the city of Torun by decreasing the amplitude of fluctuations in temperature and increasing air humidity; and
--it impacts wind direction - ventilation of the city.
The river defines the character of the city, determines its topography, impacts urban planning and architecture, life quality and social relations. Thus, it performs many important urban functions which may be grouped as follows (based on results of literature review and field studies):
a) socio-educational function:
--it is a meeting place, and primarily a place integrating the local community; and
--the banks of River Vistula serve as places for nature trails and 'green science rooms';
b) urban planning and aesthetic function:
--it creates new public spaces;
--it makes the urban landscape more attractive;
--it is the exposure frontline in the panorama of the city of Torun;
--it is the dominant element in the urban landscape; and
--it forms the main compositional axis;
c) reservoir or investment areas (e.g., the so-called floating houses, parks on floating platforms);
d) recreational function:
--it is a place where sporting and recreational activities may be performed;
e) culture-forming function:
--it is a cultural heritage (former port buildings, water infrastructure elements);
--it creates the genius loci of Torun and forms the identity of the place;
--it impacts the city's image--it is an element of Torun's branding, marketing; and
--it serves a representative role--boulevards, riverside areas are the lounges of the city;
f) utilitarian function:
--it is a reservoir of drinking water (supply for the population and animals, surface water intakes), water for commercial purposes;
--it is used for fire protection purposes; and
--it serves for communication and transportation (freight and passenger inland navigation).
As follows from the above, rivers are a litmus test for all ecological, social and economic changes because they form a system of intertwined environmental, social, economic and cultural relations. The most important role in the integration of ecological and urban functions of the river is played by the waterfront, i.e. the sphere of contact between water and land. There are significant differences between the left bank (Kepa Bazarowa in the analyzed case) and the right bank (Bulwar Filadelfijski) of the River Vistula, arising from the different nature of development and the resulting purpose of the Vistula waterfront in the center of Torun (Figure 1; Figure 2). With the use of the comparative method, Table 1 recognizes and defines the most representative elements of the waterfront development and physiognomy covering the urbanized area of the right bank of the Vistula represented by Bulwar Filadelfijski and the non-urbanized left bank of the Vistula--Kepa Bazarowa.
The presented examples prove on the one hand that the River Vistula in the section passing through the central part of Torun performs both ecological and urban functions, and on the other hand that to a large extent their execution is partially separated. Ecological functions (including: natural habitat for numerous plant and animal species, ecological corridor, microclimate improvement) are characteristic of the non- urbanized left Vistula waterfront with the natural reserve. In turn, urban functions (primarily integration of local communities, protection of cultural heritage, city image) pertain mostly to the right waterfront related to the urbanized, historical part of Torun.
The identification of ecological and urban functions of the River Vistula in Torun in connection with the development and purpose of the waterfront gives rise to the question of their coexistence. When analyzing the issue, the authors applied the SWOT analysis. Based on previous results, they analyzed endogenous (strengths and weaknesses) (Table 2) and exogenous factors (opportunities and threats) (Table 3) of the (dis)integration of ecological and urban functions of the river. During the research procedure, the authors determined the strengths and weaknesses in the performance of ecological and urban functions of the River Vistula in Torun and assigned weights to them. Strengths include six elements, and from the viewpoint of residents and tourists the most important of them are: a meeting place and place integrating the local community. Among the five weaknesses established, the bad state of the water engineering structures was named as the most burdensome.
The functioning of the river in the urbanized area may (and does) undergo changes as a result of anthropogenic activities performed within its valley and drainage basin and as a result of natural changes in the climate, i.e. in an area exceeding city limits. Moreover, changes introduced in the urban area of the river impact hydrological conditions not only locally, but also at the regional or national level. According to the suggestion of Baschak and Brown (1995) and Silva et al. (2012), complete integration of the river-city system should be considered not only in the local scale, but also in the scales of the region and country. Therefore, beside endogenous premises, a good recognition of exogenous factors helps properly answer the question of performance of the ecological and urban functions of the River Vistula in Torun. While considering the endogenous factors of (dis)integration of ecological and urban functions of the Vistula River in Torun, the authors determined the most important opportunities and threats. The most important among the three established opportunities is the existence of boulevards which are the showpiece of the city and determine the development of recreation and tourism. Material threats to the integration of ecological and urban functions include the destruction of the river ecosystem caused by strong anthropopressure.
Both the endogenous and exogenous factors included in the SWOT analysis are mutually correlated. For instance, the bad state of the water engineering structures (W3) determines the development of inland navigation (O3). What is more, the lack of adequate infrastructure in the form of marinas, wharves, harbor master's offices, parking spaces, etc. (W5) translates into scarce interest in transportation (passenger and freight) using inland navigation. From the viewpoint of the residents of Torun and tourists, the River Vistula is a barrier in the free movement between the right and left riverbank. The interest of tourists and residents focuses exclusively on the right bank of the river due to the relatively easy access to the waterfront. When considering tourist and recreational undertakings as an opportunity for the integration of ecological and urban functions of the river Vistula (O2), we should note that Torun, similar to other Polish cities, is only starting to implement changes to that end. Municipal authorities recognize the potential, which is reflected e.g. in the promotion of the Vistula waterfront as a meeting place and place integrating local communities (S6). On the other hand, there is a problem in the lack of sporting and recreational infrastructure (W2) or the still neglected public space (W1).
The most important threats include the destruction of the river ecosystem through anthropopressure, in particular municipal and industrial pollution, and pollution resulting from transport (T2). Increased pollution of the river ecosystem will lead to the decrease in biodiversity of species (T3). Pollution of the River Vistula in the analyzed section may result from local pollutants coming from within the city and pollutants released into the river in its upper reaches, as water quality in the river depends not only on local, but also on regional conditions.
Results of the SWOT analysis (Table 4) regarding the (dis)integration of ecological and urban functions indicate that the sum of interactions is largest in the relation between weaknesses and opportunities (24.0), which means that Torun has a large potential for development. The materiality of weaknesses of the study area and the related opportunities clearly point to the competitive strategy. This strategy is implemented on the basis of elimination of weaknesses and the simultaneous use of existing opportunities. In the analyzed example, the largest problems are generated through the lack of adequate recreational and tourist infrastructure in the area (W2); this is a barrier to development of all tourist and recreational activities (O2), the biggest opportunity for the development of riverside areas in Torun, a city opening to the River Vistula in line with European and global trends. However, it should be noted that the role and development of the discussed area, including the abovementioned opening to the River Vistula, is a priority in the urban policy--municipal urban planners began works to create a Master Plan (the primary tool for implementing spatial policy) for the area of the Old Town together with Bulwar Filadelfijski. A dual approach was proposed here. The Study of Conditions and Directions of Spatial Development of the City of Torun prepared according to the spatial policy is protective, sanctioning the existing condition (Kepa Bazarowa), and pro-development, providing for a supplement to land development and allowing certain investments boosting the attractiveness of riverside areas (Bulwar Filadelfijski).
In response to the fundamental question included in the title of the paper it should be stated that we are dealing with integration, or even synergy, of ecological and urban functions of the River Vistula within the city of Torun. Despite different development of both banks of the River Vistula, the integration of urban and ecological functions is particularly visible in the riverside area of the city. The level of integration is not full because outdated technical infrastructure and/or the lack thereof hamper access to the waterfronts, and as a consequence suppress the development of urban functions for recreational, tourist and socio-economic activities.
The conducted analysis shows that full integration requires eliminating weaknesses and making use of existing opportunities. The most important among elements which would significantly improve the integration of both banks and facilitate the performance of ecological and urban functions of the river is the investment in modern and functional marinas and wharves. They will help revive passenger transport on inland waterways, both within city limits and at a larger scale (local, regional, national, international) and will expand the tourist offer of the city by qualified water tourism and water sports. They will also cause tourists and residents to stay in the waterfront area longer than before. What is more, the improvement of the city's riverside area will undoubtedly impact Torun's image as a city open to water.
In order that the riverside area may serve urban and ecological functions to the same extent, local communities should be included in the works on the development of the riverside space. Moreover, a properly implemented urban policy with an integral element of social participation will help include the river into the urban tissue anew. Success in the revitalization of riverside areas depends on the coordination and integration of works at the stages of planning, designing and managing. It may be achieved only through establishing teams of experts with relevant experience and commonly accepted principles in order to facilitate the performance of works. Such works are performed by the municipal authorities of Torun, what foreshadows a rapid improvement in the quality of the riverside area and leads to the conclusion that the area located on the river is again becoming an important matter in the management of the city and impacts its development. Such state may be achieved also by honest and comprehensive familiarization of the public with issues related to the functions performed by the river (ecological and urban) and the resulting challenges (investments).
Due to the fact that this research has focused on the plane of contact between ecological and urban functions of a river in the city, the analysis has a large utilitarian potential. It is because it may comprise a starting point for further analyses and work on waterfronts revitalization in many towns in Poland and other post-communist countries. As indicated by research results, the topics related to return of cities to rivers are an important part of urban policies in many post-communist countries because local authorities noticed opportunities for development through popularizing the new functions, including the touristic one, creating city brands or building a social climate.
When observing global trends related to the development of cities, e.g. the urban sprawl, suburbanization, shrinking cities, we should note that the management of the city consisting in creating new, interesting spaces in the city, also covering waterside areas, which improve life quality, should be a priority. Only a well-managed city with interestingly designed public spaces integrating ecological and urban elements is attractive for residents, tourists and investors. The example of the River Vistula in Torun shows that the river should not be treated as a barrier in the settlement and socio-economic development of the city, but as an integral element of the urban space.
Ecological and urban functions performed by the river in the city are complementary because of spatial separation of location of those functions: ecological function of the river--natural area of the city, and urban function of the river--urbanized area.
Published First Online: 2017/10/31
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* Acknowledgement. The paper was partially funded by the grant for young researchers from Faculty of Earth Sciences, Nicolaus Copernicus University, no. 2642-G (manager of the grant: Krzysztof Rogatka).
Katarzyna KUBIAK-WOJCICKA (corresponding author)
Assistant professor, Ph.D., Department of Hydrology and Water Management, Faculty of Earth Sciences, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Torun, Poland Tel.: 0048-56-6112.586 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Assistant professor, Ph.D., Department of Urban Studies and Regional Development, Faculty of Earth Sciences, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Torun, Poland E-mail: email@example.com
Assistant professor, Ph.D. Eng., Department of Urban Studies and Regional Development, Faculty of Earth Sciences, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Torun, Poland E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Caption: Figure 1: Study area - urbanized area (Bulwar Filadelfijski) and non-urbanized area (Kcpa Bazarowa) located on the River Vistula Source: Authors, based on resources of the Urban Planning Office in Torun
Caption: Figure 2: Cross-section of the Vistula valley in Torun Source: Authors
Table 1: Differences between the urbanized riverside area (Bulwar Filadelfijski)and the non-urbanized area (Kepa Bazarowa) Urbanised area Non-urbanised area (Bulwar Filadelfijski) (Kepa Bazarowa) Panoramic view Entrance, the so-called 'gate' to the place Characteristic greenery present in the area Dominating road surface type Small architectural elements Liaison zone: land-water (buffer zone) Source: Authors, 2016 Table 2: Endogenous factors of (dis)integration of ecological and urban functions of the river on the example of Torun on the basis of the SWOT method Weight Endogenous factors 1,0 S Strengths 0,2 S1 a distinct element of the urban structure of the city 0,1 S2 convenient location in terms of urban planning and transportation 0,1 S3 microclimate improvement 0,1 S4 reservoir of investment, sporting and recreational areas 0,2 S5 ecological corridor (biodiversity) 0,3 S6 meeting place and place integrating local communities 1,0 W Weaknesses 0,2 W1 neglected public space 0,2 W2 lack of sporting and recreational infrastructure 0,3 W3 bad state of the water engineering structures 0,1 W4 traffic noise near bridges (road and railway) bad communication between the right and left bank of the river (no 0,1 W5 ports and river docks, lack of modern naval fleet servicing passenger traffic, including: water trams, houseboats, floating hotels) 0,1 W5 bad physical and chemical state of the water Source: Authors Table 3: Exogenous factors of (dis)integration of ecological and urban functions of the river on the example of Torun on the basis of the SWOT method Weight Exogenous factors 1,0 O Opportunities 0,4 O1 boulevards as the showpiece of the city creating city branding 0,4 O2 development of tourism and recreation 0,2 O3 development of inland navigation 1,0 T Threats 0,2 T1 risk of overinvesting in riverside areas (over-revitalization) 0,6 T2 destruction of the river ecosystem through anthropopressure, municipal and industrial pollution, and pollution resulting from transport 0,2 T3 reduction of biodiversity and fragmentation of biologically active areas Source: Authors. Table 4: Results of the SWOT analysis regarding the (dis)integration of ecological and urban functions of the river on the example of Torun Results Results of the SWOT analysis Sum of interactions Sum of products Strengths/ opportunities 18.0 4.7 Strengths/ threats 14.0 3.2 Weaknesses/ opportunities 24.0 6.5 Weaknesses/ threats 4.0 2.2 Source: Authors.
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|Author:||Kubiak-Wojcicka, Katarzyna; Chodkowska-Miszczuk, Justyna; Rogatka, Krzysztof|
|Publication:||Transylvanian Review of Administrative Sciences|
|Date:||Oct 1, 2017|
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