Printer Friendly

INSTRUMENTAL AND INTEGRATIVE MOTIVATION IN TEACHING ENGLISH FOR MEDICAL PURPOSES/INSTRUMENTALNA I INTEGRATIVNA MOTIVACIJA U NASTAVI ENGLESKOG KAO JEZIKA MEDICINSKE STRUKE.

Introduction

Today, more than ever before, due to globalization, the Internet, politics and new trends in the world economy, as well as the need to keep up with the latest scientific achievements of utmost importance for all human activities, knowledge of English has become an imperative. That is why, apart from general English language courses, English for specific purposes (ESP) courses have gained in popularity and have become mandatory courses at most of the colleges and universities around the world. English, as a language of profession, encompasses almost all fields of science and humanities, such as business, law, economics, electrical and mechanical engineering, technology, mathematics, physics, medicine, and others. In each of these areas, emphasis is placed on professional terminology, its understanding and use. It should be noted that, in addition to this aspect, English language has to be taught and studied in everyday, social, cultural and historical contexts, as it contributes to a better understanding and contacts with people from these areas. One of the most important factors influencing success in foreign language acquisition is motivation, which, in addition to the attitudes that students have towards learning a foreign language, both general as well as the language of the profession, has been a dynamic field of research in the last decades. Most of the studies were focused on the concept of motivation and attitude, obviously under the influence of the Gardner model, within the framework of which the attitude was considered a subcategory of the broader concept of motivation [1-3]. According to Dornyei [4], motivation affects the basic dimensions of human behavior, its direction and magnitude (intensity). In addition to the attitudes, the concept of motivation is inextricably linked with the analysis of the needs of foreign language learners in the sense that if the program is more suited to the students, no matter whether it was a general or a language of the profession, the motivation and the final success in its accomplishment will be greater [5, 6].
Abbreviations

ESP  - English for Specific Purposes
ESL  - English as a second language


The motivation of medical students to learn English as a language for specific purposes of medical profession has not been studied in our country. English as a language for medical purposes is largely different from other fields, primarily from humanities, but also natural sciences, since, on the vocabulary level, it has a much higher percentage of the words of Latin and Greek origin. Additionally, a large number of modern medical terms in Serbian are usually borrowed from English, often in a form that is not regular or systematized. This may at first glance lead to the conclusion that a greater percentage of the words of English origin are known or recognizable to the student of English for medical purposes, but may often result in the acquisition of incorrect forms and structures. At the same time, a large percentage of professional publications that are required for specialization are often available only in English, which further motivates students to improve both the general and medical English. The aim of this paper is to examine the degree of instrumental and integrative motivation of the first year medical students at Novi Sad University in learning English for medical purposes.

Motivation

Motivation is in the focus of a great deal of studies and research since it largely affects the acquisition of any foreign language. It is often mentioned by language teachers when they talk of success and failure to learn a foreign language [4]. Even though there are a lot of definitions of motivation, which is "not a simple construct" [7]. Dornyei tried to define it as the "dynamically changing cumulative arousal in a person that initiates, directs, coordinates, amplifies, terminates, and evaluates the cognitive and motor processes whereby initial wishes and desires are selected, prioritized, operationalized and successfully or unsuccessfully acted out" [8].

Development of motivation research

Research on motivation in foreign language learning has been developing rapidly since the 1960s. The first significant results in this field were published by Gardner and Lambert in Canada in 1959. Within the Socio-psychological research period (1959 - 1990), the work of Gardner et al. had a decisive influence on the understanding of the role of motivation in learning a foreign language. They standardized techniques for measuring the broad range of motivation components based on sociopsychological approach and studied motivation as a complex system of different factors and attitudes. Probably the most important contribution they made is the identification of integrative and instrumental motivation [1]. The student is instrumentally motivated when learning the language to pass the exam, get a job, advance in his/her career, and use it when traveling abroad. Integrative motivation, on the other hand, encompasses his/her desire and motivation to identify or integrate into the community of the language he/she studies [9]. The main reasons for learning a foreign language are assimilation with the community and culture of the target language, with the possible powerful emotional interest in the speaker of that language. This dichotomy of motivation (instrumental and integrative) has also been expanded with the term orientation, taking into account whether the context of language learning is oriented towards academic learning and careers, or to the social and cultural model [10]. Gardner [7] also claimed that, when considering the roots of motivation for learning a foreign language in a school context, motivation must be considered not only at the educational level (as any other subject), but also in a cultural context, which is generally not relevant to the majority of other subjects of study. Most language teachers believe that motivation is a key factor in language acquisition. The importance of motivation in learning English cannot be disputed [10, 11]. The importance of motivation in the process of learning a foreign language is explained by Gardner [12] in the following way: "If a student is motivated, he or she has a reason (motive) to participate in relevant activities, to invest effort, to be persistent, dedicated to tasks, show the desire to achieve his/her goal, enjoying the activities, etc." In the analysis of 75 studies dealing with motivation, Masgoret and Gardner [13] concluded that "motivation is more associated with success in learning a different language than any other factor."

The research of motivation during the 1990s is characterized by work on cognitive theories in the psychology of education. During this period of learning a foreign language, motivation is called the cognitive period, and it brings a different view of the role of motivation, now from the cognitive aspect. The key aspects of motivation are viewed as two-fold, as the interaction of two trends: (a) the individual's estimate of one`s own abilities, potentials and limits, past achievements, as well as various aspects of task execution and maintenance of goals (values, beliefs, difficulties); and (b) the desire to narrow down the perspective of foreign language learning motivation, and to present concrete examples of functioning in language learning [14, 15].

The process-oriented period, which emerges after 2000, is focused on changes in motivation within the globalized world. When we analyze the motivation for foreign language learning today, it certainly cannot be the same as a few decades ago. In this sense, the motivation to learn English is largely different from that of earlier epochs, because English language in the process of globalization has earned a higher status and become more widespread. During this period, research by Dornyei [16], Lamb and others highlights the need for reinterpretation of the classic Gardner term integrativeness. Also, a clear boundary between integrative and instrumental motivation has almost disappeared today. Lamb [17] points out that "integrative and instrumental motivation are difficult to distinguish as distinct concepts: contacts with Westerners, computer usage, understanding of pop poets, studying abroad, travel, career advancement - all of these pursuits are interrelated, and are also associated with English as an integral, central part of the process of globalization which transforms societies and has a crucial impact on the lives of people".

Related research

There are numerous studies aimed at determining the influence of motivation on the acquisition of a foreign language. Al-Tamimi and Shuib [18] published their research on the motivation and attitudes of students of the Petroleum Engineering studies towards learning English at Hadhramout University Of Sciences And Technology, Yemen. The result of their research, which included three motivational constructs (instrumental, integrative and personal), showed the dominant role of instrumental motivation for students in learning English, although personal motivation is also noticeable. On the other hand, Zanghar's research [19], conducted among university students in Libya, showed a somewhat stronger impact of integrative motivation, but did not establish the correlation between motivation and success in learning. Unlike this study, a study conducted in Spain [20] showed a positive correlation between motivation, motivational teacher strategies, and students' success in teaching foreign languages. The research conducted in Iran [21] has shown that motivation is a dynamic category, i.e. changing the nature and level over time. Similar conclusions have also been reached in Daftarifard and associates research [22], which also investigated the impact of motivation among university students in Iran. The research of Khansir and associates [23] shows a strong correlation between the socio-economic status of students and the motivation for learning a foreign language. Numerous studies on the role of motivation in foreign language learning have been conducted in Croatia [24, 25]. These authors studied individual differences regarding the affective characteristics of students, including motivation, attitudes and emotions towards learning English. The research included 2137 students of elementary and high schools, and showed a more positive attitude of high school students towards learning a foreign language. Martinovic and Poljakovic [26] conducted a research study at the University of Zadar among students studying (ESP), and the results showed the strongest impact of instrumental motivation, although integrative motivation was also highly ranked. A recent study by Pavicic, Takac and Berka [27] studied three components of motivation for learning English (pragmatic-communicative, affective and integrative) among students of secondary vocational schools and grammar schools, and the results showed that affective motivation is the strongest factor in their sample.

Earlier studies of motivation in English language teaching in our country [28-30] found that the motivation of students studying general English as a second language (ESL) is different from the motivation of those who study ESP. In teaching ESP, a significantly higher level of instrumental motivation was established compared to the integrative motivation. This difference is especially conspicuous among non-university students, whose language learning is closely related to the future needs of the profession. Similar conclusions have been drawn in recent studies of motivation among students of economics [31] and students of information technologies [32].

Material and Methods

This study was based on an anonymous survey conducted during the summer semester of 2017/18. The instrument of motivation research was a slightly adapted questionnaire, which was already used to test the motivation of students of natural sciences in teaching ESP [28]. The questionnaire contained 20 questions that tested instrumental and integrative motivation. In addition, it also contained questions about the year of studies, the number of years of English language learning before enrolling in the university, and whether the students attended classes regularly, occasionally or rarely. The questions in the survey dealing with different aspects of instrumental and integrative motivation were randomly ordered in the questionnaire. The answers were arranged on a scale of one (I absolutely disagree) to six (I absolutely agree), with three positive and three negative possible answers. The survey offered 12 questions which referred to instrumental and 8 to integrative motivation. The survey was conducted anonymously at the end of summer semester 2017/18 at the amphitheater of the Faculty of Medicine, the University of Novi Sad, in the presence of teachers, the authors of this paper. All 61 students that participated in the survey were in their first year of medical studies at the Faculty of Medicine in Novi Sad, attending English as a compulsory subject. All surveyed students regularly attended English language classes, and their number of years of learning English as a foreign language before the university ranged from 6 to 15. Most of the students had studied English for 8 - 12 years, while a small number of them studied shorter or longer than that: two of them 6, and four of them 14 or 15 years. Due to the fact that students came from different secondary schools, different educational profiles and from different backgrounds, it was expected, given the great inconsistency in the number of years of learning English, and therefore the different level of knowledge, that the results would also show a certain degree of inconsistency in terms of instrumental and integrative motivation.

Results

The results of the research are shown in Table 1. The table lists all the 20 questions from the questionnaire in the order in which students responded to them. Their answers were scored on a scale of 1 to 6, and the results are shown in percentages.

Discussion

The following part of the paper analyzes the results obtained in our research based on the medical students' responses on the existence and degree of instrumental and integrative motivation for learning English.

Instrumental motivation

The research unambiguously showed an extremely high level of instrumental motivation. Namely, as much as 98.2% of the respondents expressed their desire to learn medical terminology in English (57.3% absolutely agreed, and 37.7% agreed with this statement). Very high results were also found in relation to statement No. 2 (students believed that they would benefit from knowing English during their future career) and statement number 17 (students expressed the desire to learn English in order to continue their professional training abroad). A slightly lower but still high percentage of students were motivated to learn English in order to find a well-paid job or a job abroad (statements 11 and 12). Motivation for learning in order to achieve better success in their studies was also high (statements 13 and 7), where it is noticeable that students recognized that their knowledge of English would be useful in their master`s and doctoral studies. It is extremely important to point out that less than 10% of students expressed motivation to learn English only because it was obligatory in the curriculum (statement No. 9), and that a relatively small number of students stated that they found getting a good grade at the exam the most important factor for learning English (statement 15).

Integrative motivation

By analyzing the results of the research on integrative motivation, its expected lower level than the previously analyzed instrumental motivation was confirmed. Most respondents expressed a motivation to learn English in order to communicate with people in English speaking countries (statement 18), and to make it easier for them to travel abroad (statement 19). A large number of students emphasized the feeling of satisfaction after successfully mastering the English language as a sufficient incentive for learning (statement 3), as well as the fact that learning English was a pleasure and not just a commitment (statement 1). A significant number of students were motivated to learn English in order to be able to watch movies (statement 6) and to watch television shows in English without subtitles (statement 16). A smaller number of students pointed out the desire to learn about the way of life and civilization of the people from English speaking countries (statement 14) as a factor of motivation, while most students have responded negatively to the statement that they wanted to learn English in order to read literature in English.

The results of the study confirmed its basic hypothesis, the dominant role of instrumental motivation in learning English as a language for medical purposes. Nevertheless, a very high degree of integrative motivation has been also determined, which is in line with the contemporary research in this field, showing that the boundaries within this classical division are getting thinner. It has been confirmed that the students are mostly motivated by the need to acquire professional terminology and to follow professional content in English in order to further improve in the field of medical science. Due to limited space, it was not possible to make a detailed statistical analysis of the results, including the correlation between factors such as gender and type of motivation, as well as the correlation between years of learning and motivation. All these topics could be the subject of further research and the analysis of the degree and type of motivation of medical students in English language teaching.

Conclusion

In this paper, we have confirmed the presence and degree of instrumental and integrative motivation for learning English among students of the first year of medicine at the Faculty of Medicine Novi Sad. The research showed an extremely high degree of not only instrumental but also integrative motivation, which confirmed our initial hypothesis. Such results should be taken into account when developing curricula for teaching English as a language for medical purposes and in designing materials and methods. Since a great deal of research points out motivation as one of the most important factors for successful foreign language learning, teaching materials and programs should be consistent with the degree and type of motivation of future learners in order to achieve optimal results in language learning.

References

[1.] Gardner RC, Lambert WE. Attitudes and motivation in second-language learning. Stanford: Stanford University Press; 1972.

[2.] Oller JW, Hudson AJ, Liu PF. Attitudes and attained proficiency in ESL. Lang Learn. 1977;27(1):1-23.

[3.] Gardner RC, MacIntyre PD. An instrumental motivation in language study. Stud Second Lang Acquis. 1991;13(1):57-72.

[4.] Dornyei Z. Motivational strategies in the language classroom. Cambridge, New York: Cambridge University Press; 2001.

[5.] Markovic V, Marosan Z. Analiza jezicke kompetencije i potreba studenata medicine, stomatologije i zdravstvene nege u nastavi engleskog kao jezika medicinske struke. Med Pregl. 2011;64(1-2):21-4.

[6.] Liuoliene A, Metiuniene R. Second language learning motivation. Santalka. 2006;14(2):93-8.

[7.] Gardner RC. Motivation and second language acquisition. Porta Linguarum. 2007;8:9-20.

[8.] Dornyei Z. Motivation in second and foreign language learning. Language Teaching. 1998;31(3):117-35.

[9.] Gardner RC. Learning another language: a true social psychological experiment. J Lang Soc Psychol. 1983;2(2-4):219-39.

[10.] Brown HD. Principles of language learning and teaching. 4th ed. Harlow: Longman; 2000.

[11.] Lifrieri V. A sociological perspective on motivation to learn EFL: the case of escuelas plurilingues in Argentina [master thesis]. Buenos Aires: University of Pitsburg; 2005.

[12.] Gardner RC. The socio-educational model of second language acquisition: a research paradigm. In: Foster Cohen SH, Medved Krajnovic M, Mihaljevic Djigunovic J, editors. EUROSLA yearbook. Vol 6. Amsterdam: John Benjamins; 2006. p. 237-60.

[13.] Masgoret AM, Gardner RC. Attitudes, motivation and second language learning: a meta-analysis of studies conducted by Gardner and his associates. Lang Learn. 2003;53(Suppl 1):167-210.

[14.] Crookes G, Schmidt RW. Motivation: reopening the research agenda. Lang Learn. 1991;41(4):469-512.

[15.] Skehan P. Individual differences in second language learning. Stud Second Lang Acquis. 1991;13(2):275-98.

[16.] Dornyei Z. The psychology of the language learner - individual differences in second language acquisition. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates; 2005.

[17.] Lamb M. Integrative motivation in a globalizing world. System. 2004;32(1):3-19.

[18.] Al-Tamimi A, Munir S. Motivation and attitudes towards learning English: a study of petroleum engineering un-dergraduates at Hadhramout University of Sciences and Technology. GEMA Online Journal of Language Studies. 2009;9(2):29-55.

[19.] Zanghar A. Instrumental and integrative motivation among undergraduate Libyan students of English as a foreign language [Thesis]. Colorado: Colorado State University; 2012.

[20.] Bernaus M, Wilson A, Gardner R. Teachers' motivation, classroom strategy use, students' motivation and second language achievement. Porta Linguarum. 2009;(12):25-36.

[21.] Zendehboodi K, Khansir AA, Karampoor F. The study of some motivational factors on English language learning process: evidence from Iranian English learners. International Journal of Innovation Sciences and Research. 2015;4(7):293-8.

[22.] Daftarifard P, Shirkhani S, Lavasani M. Investigating English reading motivation across time. International Journal of Language and Linguistics. 2014;2(5):305-9.

[23.] Khansir AA, Jafarizadegan N, Karampoor F. Relation between socio-economic status and motivation of learners in learning English as a foreign language. Theory and Practice in Language Studies. 2016;6(4):742-50.

[24.] Mihaljevic-Djigunovic J. Afektivni profil, aspiracije i zadovoljstvo nastavom engleskog jezika kod hrvatskih ucenika. Metodika. 2007;8(14):104-14.

[25.] Mihaljevic-Djigunovic J, Bagaric V. A comparative study of attitudes and motivation of Croatian. Studia Romanica et Anglica Zagrabiensia. 2007;52:259-81.

[26.] Martinovic-Ivan A, Poljakovic I. Attitudes towards ESP among university students. Fluminensia. 2010;22(2):145-61.

[27.] Pavicic Takac V, Berka N. Motivation in foreign language learning: a look at type of school environment as a contextual variable. Explorations in English Language and Linguistics. 2014;2(2):77-103.

[28.] Vukovic-Vojnovic D, Knezevic Lj. Ispitivanje motivacije u nastavi engleskog jezika struke. Primenjena lingvistika. 2007;8:337-44.

[29.] Topalov J. Motivation and its role in foreign language learning. Godisnjak Filozofskog fakulteta u Novom Sadu. 2008;33(2):351-62.

[30.] Topalov J. Motivacija u nastavi stranog jezika. Novi Sad: Filozofski fakultet; 2011.

[31.] Durovic T, Silaski N. Motivacija studenata ekonomije u nastavi engleskog jezika struke. In: Radic-Bojanic B, editor. Afektivna dimenzija u nastavi engleskog jezika. Novi Sad: Filozofski fakultet; 2014. p. 162-81.

[32.] Dabic T. Stavovi i motivacija studenata informacionih tehnologija u Srbiji. In: Radic-Bojanic B, editor. Afektivna dimenzija u nastavi engleskog jezika. Novi Sad: Filozofski fakultet; 2014. p. 82-202.

Zoran MAROSAN and Vuk MARKOVIC

University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Medicine Novi Sad Department of General Education Subjects

Corresponding Author: Zoran Marosan, Univerzitet u Novom Sadu, Medicinski fakultet, Katedra opsteobrazovnih predmeta, 21000 Novi Sad, Hajduk Veljkova 3, E-mail: zoran.marosan@mf.uns.ac.rs

Rad je primljen 8. IV 2019.

Recenziran 9. IV 2019.

Prihvacen za stampu 11. IV 2019.

BIBLID.0025-8105:(2019):LXXII:3-4:98-104.

https://doi.org/10.2298/MPNS1904098M
Table 1. Results of a questionnaire on the instrumental and integrative
motivation of the first year students of medicine at the Faculty of
Medicine in Novi Sad
Tabela 1. Rezultati upitnika za istrazivanje instrumentalne i
integrativne motivacije studenata prve godine Medicinskog fakulteta u
Novom Sadu

                                             1.             2.
                                         I absolutely   I disagree
                                          disagree     Ne slazem se
                                         Apsolutno se
                                         ne slazem

    Learning English is a pleasure
    for me, not an obligation.
1.  Ucenje engleskog jezika za             3.2 %           4.9%
    mene predstavlja zadovoljstvo,
    a ne obavezu.
    I feel that knowing English will
    be beneficial for my future
2.  career./Smatram da cu tokom            3.2 %
    svoje buduce karijere imati koristi
    od poznavanja engleskog.
    The feeling of pleasure after
    successfully learning English
    language skills is enough to
3.  motivate me to learn./Osecaj                           4.9%
    zadovoljst va posle uspesno
    savladanog gradiva iz engleskog
    jezika dovoljan mi je podsticaj
    za ucenje.
    I want to learn English well in
    order to achieve better overall
4.  results during my studies.             3.2 %           3.2 %
    Zelim da dobro naucim engleski
    jezik da bih postigao/la sto
    bolji opsti uspeh u toku studija.
    While learning English I like to
    acquire new knowledge connected
5.  with my future profession              3.2 %           8.2%
    Kroz ucenje engleskog jezika
    volim da sticem znanja u vezi sa
    svojom buducom profesijom.
    I want to learn English well in
    order to watch movies without
    subtitles./Zelim da dobro
6.  naucim engleski jezik da bih                           4.9%
    mogao/la da gledam filmove sa
    engleskog govornog podrucja
    bez titlova.
    I want to learn English in order
    to enroll at the master/PhD
7.  studies abroad./Zelim da dobro                         1.6%
    naucim engleski jezik da bih
    upisao/la master/doktorske
    studije u inostranstvu.
    I want to learn English because
    it is important for me to acquire
8.  wide general education./Zelim                          3.2 %
    da dobro naucim engleski jezik
    jer mi je vazno da steknem
    siroko opste obrazovanje.
    I am learning English solely
    because it is a compulsory subject
9.  in the curriculum./Ucim engleski      41%             29.5%
    iskljucivo zato sto mi je to
    obavezan predmet na studijama.
    I want to learn English well in
    order to read literature in the
10  English language./Zelim da
    dobro naucim engleski jezik da
    bih pratio/la knjizevnost
    engleskog govornog podrucja.
    I want to learn English in
    order to find a job abroad.
11  Zelim da dobro naucim engleski                         4.9%
    jezik da bih pronasao/la
    posao u inostranstvu.
    I want to learn English in
    order to find a well paid job.                         3.2 %
12. Zelim da dobro naucim engleski
    jezik da bih pronasao/la
    dobro placen posao.
    I am learning English as it
    will be beneficial during my
13. studies./Ucim engleski jer ce                          6.5%
    mi koristiti tokom studija.
    While learning English I like
    to learn about the way of life
    and the civilization of the
14. English speaking cultures./Kroz        9.8%            4.9%
    ucenje engleskog jezika volim
    da ucim i o nacinu zivota i
    civilizaciji naroda sa engleskog
    govornog podrucja.
    Getting a high grade in the
    exam is my primary motivation
    to learn English.
    Postizanje dobre ocene na
    ispitu najvazniji mi je podsticaj
    za ucenje engleskog.
    I want to learn English in order
    to watch television shows in
    English without subtitles./Zelim                       9.8%
16. da dobro naucim engleski jezik
    da bih mogao/la da pratim
    televizijske emisije na engleskom
    jeziku bez titlova.
    I want to learn English for
    further specialization within my
    profession abroad./Zelim da
    dobro naucim engleski jezik da
    bih se u okvirima posla strucno
    usavrasavao/la u inostranstvu.
    I want to learn English to be
    able to communicate with
    people from the English speaking
18. countries./Zelim da dobro
    naucim engleski jezik kako bih
    mogao/la da razgovaram sa
    ljudima sa engleskog govornog
    podrucja.
    I want to learn English to be
    able to find my way when
    traveling abroad./Zelim da
    dobro naucim engleski jezik da
    bih mogao/la da se snadem kad
    putujem u inostranstvo.                                1.6%
    I want to learn English language
    terminology used in my
20. profession./ Zelim da dobro naucim
    izraze na engleskom jeziku koji
    se koriste u mojoj struci.

                                              3.             4.
                                          I mainly dis-   I mainly
                                             agree          agree
                                          Uglavnom se    Uglavnom se
                                           ne slazem       slazem

    Learning English is a pleasure
    for me, not an obligation.
1.  Ucenje engleskog jezika za                              39.3%
    mene predstavlja zadovoljstvo,
    a ne obavezu.
    I feel that knowing English will
    be beneficial for my future
2.  career./Smatram da cu tokom                              6.5%
    svoje buduce karijere imati koristi
    od poznavanja engleskog.
    The feeling of pleasure after
    successfully learning English
    language skills is enough to
3.  motivate me to learn./Osecaj             3.2 %          39.3%
    zadovoljst va posle uspesno
    savladanog gradiva iz engleskog
    jezika dovoljan mi je podsticaj
    za ucenje.
    I want to learn English well in
    order to achieve better overall
4.  results during my studies.                              11.4%
    Zelim da dobro naucim engleski
    jezik da bih postigao/la sto
    bolji opsti uspeh u toku studija.
    While learning English I like to
    acquire new knowledge connected
5.  with my future profession                6.5%           26.2%
    Kroz ucenje engleskog jezika
    volim da sticem znanja u vezi sa
    svojom buducom profesijom.
    I want to learn English well in
    order to watch movies without
    subtitles./Zelim da dobro
6.  naucim engleski jezik da bih             9.8%           26.2%
    mogao/la da gledam filmove sa
    engleskog govornog podrucja
    bez titlova.
    I want to learn English in order
    to enroll at the master/PhD
7.  studies abroad./Zelim da dobro           9.8%           22.9%
    naucim engleski jezik da bih
    upisao/la master/doktorske
    studije u inostranstvu.
    I want to learn English because
    it is important for me to acquire
8.  wide general education./Zelim            1.6%           19.6%
    da dobro naucim engleski jezik
    jer mi je vazno da steknem
    siroko opste obrazovanje.
    I am learning English solely
    because it is a compulsory subject
9.  in the curriculum./Ucim engleski        19.6%            3.2 %
    iskljucivo zato sto mi je to
    obavezan predmet na studijama.
    I want to learn English well in
    order to read literature in the
10  English language./Zelim da
    dobro naucim engleski jezik da
    bih pratio/la knjizevnost
    engleskog govornog podrucja.
    I want to learn English in
    order to find a job abroad.
11  Zelim da dobro naucim engleski           3.2 %          24.6%
    jezik da bih pronasao/la
    posao u inostranstvu.
    I want to learn English in
    order to find a well paid job.                          41%
12. Zelim da dobro naucim engleski
    jezik da bih pronasao/la
    dobro placen posao.
    I am learning English as it
    will be beneficial during my
13. studies./Ucim engleski jer ce            8.2%           16.4%
    mi koristiti tokom studija.
    While learning English I like
    to learn about the way of life
    and the civilization of the
14. English speaking cultures./Kroz         16.4%           29.5%
    ucenje engleskog jezika volim
    da ucim i o nacinu zivota i
    civilizaciji naroda sa engleskog
    govornog podrucja.
    Getting a high grade in the
    exam is my primary motivation
    to learn English.
    Postizanje dobre ocene na
    ispitu najvazniji mi je podsticaj
    za ucenje engleskog.
    I want to learn English in order
    to watch television shows in
    English without subtitles./Zelim         9.8%           32.7%
16. da dobro naucim engleski jezik
    da bih mogao/la da pratim
    televizijske emisije na engleskom
    jeziku bez titlova.
    I want to learn English for
    further specialization within my
    profession abroad./Zelim da
    dobro naucim engleski jezik da
    bih se u okvirima posla strucno
    usavrasavao/la u inostranstvu.
    I want to learn English to be
    able to communicate with
    people from the English speaking         3.2 %           4.9%
18. countries./Zelim da dobro
    naucim engleski jezik kako bih
    mogao/la da razgovaram sa
    ljudima sa engleskog govornog
    podrucja.
    I want to learn English to be
    able to find my way when
    traveling abroad./Zelim da
    dobro naucim engleski jezik da
    bih mogao/la da se snadem kad
    putujem u inostranstvo.                                  3.2 %
    I want to learn English language
    terminology used in my
20. profession./ Zelim da dobro naucim
    izraze na engleskom jeziku koji
    se koriste u mojoj struci.

                                                5           6.
                                             I agree    I absolutely
                                            Slazem se      agree
                                                        Apsolutno se
                                                         ne slazem

    Learning English is a pleasure
    for me, not an obligation.
1.  Ucenje engleskog jezika za                29.5%        22.9%
    mene predstavlja zadovoljstvo,
    a ne obavezu.
    I feel that knowing English will
    be beneficial for my future
2.  career./Smatram da cu tokom                21.3%       68.8%
    svoje buduce karijere imati koristi
    od poznavanja engleskog.
    The feeling of pleasure after
    successfully learning English
    language skills is enough to
3.  motivate me to learn./Osecaj               36%         16.4%
    zadovoljst va posle uspesno
    savladanog gradiva iz engleskog
    jezika dovoljan mi je podsticaj
    za ucenje.
    I want to learn English well in
    order to achieve better overall
4.  results during my studies.                 42.6%       39.3%
    Zelim da dobro naucim engleski
    jezik da bih postigao/la sto
    bolji opsti uspeh u toku studija.
    While learning English I like to
    acquire new knowledge connected
5.  with my future profession                  22.9%       32.7%
    Kroz ucenje engleskog jezika
    volim da sticem znanja u vezi sa
    svojom buducom profesijom.
    I want to learn English well in
    order to watch movies without
    subtitles./Zelim da dobro
6.  naucim engleski jezik da bih               24.6%       34.4%
    mogao/la da gledam filmove sa
    engleskog govornog podrucja
    bez titlova.
    I want to learn English in order
    to enroll at the master/PhD
7.  studies abroad./Zelim da dobro             29.5%       36%
    naucim engleski jezik da bih
    upisao/la master/doktorske
    studije u inostranstvu.
    I want to learn English because
    it is important for me to acquire
8.  wide general education./Zelim              44.2%       31.1%
    da dobro naucim engleski jezik
    jer mi je vazno da steknem
    siroko opste obrazovanje.
    I am learning English solely
    because it is a compulsory subject
9.  in the curriculum./Ucim engleski            1.6%        4.9%
    iskljucivo zato sto mi je to
    obavezan predmet na studijama.
    I want to learn English well in
    order to read literature in the
10  English language./Zelim da
    dobro naucim engleski jezik da
    bih pratio/la knjizevnost
    engleskog govornog podrucja.
    I want to learn English in
    order to find a job abroad.
11  Zelim da dobro naucim engleski             39.3%       27.8%
    jezik da bih pronasao/la
    posao u inostranstvu.
    I want to learn English in
    order to find a well paid job.             24.6%       31.1%
12. Zelim da dobro naucim engleski
    jezik da bih pronasao/la
    dobro placen posao.
    I am learning English as it
    will be beneficial during my
13. studies./Ucim engleski jer ce              36%         32.7%
    mi koristiti tokom studija.
    While learning English I like
    to learn about the way of life
    and the civilization of the
14. English speaking cultures./Kroz            24.6%       19.6%
    ucenje engleskog jezika volim
    da ucim i o nacinu zivota i
    civilizaciji naroda sa engleskog
    govornog podrucja.
    Getting a high grade in the
    exam is my primary motivation
    to learn English.
    Postizanje dobre ocene na
    ispitu najvazniji mi je podsticaj
    za ucenje engleskog.
    I want to learn English in order
    to watch television shows in
    English without subtitles./Zelim           14.7%       32.7%
16. da dobro naucim engleski jezik
    da bih mogao/la da pratim
    televizijske emisije na engleskom
    jeziku bez titlova.
    I want to learn English for
    further specialization within my
    profession abroad./Zelim da
    dobro naucim engleski jezik da
    bih se u okvirima posla strucno
    usavrasavao/la u inostranstvu.
    I want to learn English to be
    able to communicate with
    people from the English speaking           42.6%       49.1%
18. countries./Zelim da dobro
    naucim engleski jezik kako bih
    mogao/la da razgovaram sa
    ljudima sa engleskog govornog
    podrucja.
    I want to learn English to be
    able to find my way when
    traveling abroad./Zelim da
    dobro naucim engleski jezik da
    bih mogao/la da se snadem kad
    putujem u inostranstvo.                    37.7%       57.3%
    I want to learn English language
    terminology used in my
20. profession./ Zelim da dobro naucim
    izraze na engleskom jeziku koji
    se koriste u mojoj struci.
COPYRIGHT 2019 Drustvo Lekara Vojvodine
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2019 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Author:Marosan, Zoran; Markovic, Vuk
Publication:Medicinski Pregled
Article Type:Survey
Date:Mar 1, 2019
Words:5667
Previous Article:SIGNIFICANCE OF DELAYED SURGICAL TREATMENT OF SYMPTOMATIC NON-RUPTURED ABDOMINAL AORTIC ANEURYSM/ZNACAJ ODLOZENOG HIRURSKOG LECENJA SIMPTOMATSKE...
Next Article:DRY EYE SYNDROME AND CATARACT SURGERY/SINDROM SUVOG OKA I OPERACIJA KATARAKTE.
Topics:

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2019 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters