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09:00 RESOLVING THE CONFLICT BETWEEN USER INTERFACE AND SECURE SYSTEMS DESIGN. Paul M. Mullins, Youngstown State University, Department of Computer Science and Information Systems, Youngstown OH 44555.

Computer security is a rarely discussed topic among computer-User Interface (UI) designers who strive to remove barriers from their users, and, while UI design is generally considered antithetical to secure design, designers of secure systems need to account for the users of their systems. It was hypothesized that UI designers need to devote more attention to security issues and that designers of security systems could devote more attention to the user without sacrificing overall security. The latter view has been supported by research at the Computer Emergency Response Team/ Coordination Center (CERT/CC); the former by a recent analysis. The CERT/CC had compiled a list of over 2000 computer vulnerabilities over a ten-year span at the time of the review. The analysis and comparison of results were applied to a random sample of vulnerabilities and to all vulnerabilities cataloged between Jan 1998 and June 1999. CERT/CC uses a taxonomy that is very similar in general structure to the traditional phases of software engineering design. One category, that included problems caused by documentation or installation and configuration, could be interpreted as a user interface or usability area. This area accounted for just 11% of 654 incidents reviewed while "implementation errors" accounted for 68%, lending support to the notion that security designers could make systems more usable without affecting overall security. The review motivated the identification of a set of X characteristics that provide the basis for a new taxonomy more relevant to UI design. In this view, X specific characteristics were used to identify aspects of UI involvement in the vulnerabilities. The user interface characteristics were associated with X% of 300 vulnerabilities that have been re-analyzed, lending support to the hypothesis that is a significant relationship and the two disciplines need to work together. Specific recommendations were obviated by the analysis. UI designers, who have traditionally considered classes of users such as novice, intermediate and expert and errors as benign, need to consider two additional, orthogonal classifications of users: anonymous versus authenticated, and malicious versus benign.

09:15 STOCK EVALUATION OF INDIVIDUAL FIRMS PROVIDING INFRASTRUCTURE FOR THE INTERNET. Richard W. Janson(1),, and Lala B. Krishna(2), (1) The Janson Industries, 1200 Garfield Ave. S.W., Canton OH 44706, (2) University of Akron.

Many observers have commented on the overwhelming significance of the number one firms in the internet pantheon of industries. For example, Cisco's dominance in the router field, Oracle's dominance in the area of data base management, and EMC's dominance in data base storage hardware. The personal computer industry has rewarded Microsoft and Intel with extraordinary profits, and workstation production has done the same for Sun Microsystems. During the evolution of these commanding technologies, the distinction between PCs, workstations, and servers has become blurred because memory components have become so inexpensive. The primary distinction is now one of scale, from desktop computers to mainframe servers capable of handling transactions for millions of web sites. Firms in several related industries (semiconductor, semiconductor capital equipment, telecom equipment, and wireless networks) were subjected to analysis expressed in stock security appreciation. The results were compared to Value Line's latest publication (October 27, 2000). The expectations were quite similar. Both approaches provide company names not so well known as the dominant firms that have shaped the present Internet landscape. More than 100 companies were analyzed.

09:30 DIFFERENTIAL USE OF TECHNOLOGY AMONG GRADUATE STUDENTS AS LEARNING SUPPORT. Dianne A. Brown Wright, Sajit Zachariah, Isadore Newman, The University of Akron, Department of Educational Foundation & Leadership, College of Education, Akron OH 44325-4208.

According to a Department of Commerce report, while the gender gap has closed, a digital gap continues to exist in technology usage (particularly of the internet) among both women and minorities and national usage. The goals of this research were to determine if differential use of technology as learning support exists between women and minority graduate students and non-female and non-minority graduate students, and to what extent this differential versus non-differential is consistent with national averages. The research was conducted during the Fall, 2000 semester among thirty-eight students enrolled in various graduate programs at The University of Akron, including Educational Administration, Higher Education, Geography, Urban Planning, and Biology. It was hypothesized that female and minority graduate students would be found to use technology as learning support significantly less than non-female and non-minority students. It was further hypothesized that female and minority graduate students would perceive themselves as more dependent on university resources for technology learning support than their counterparts, and that given time and resources, there would be a significant gap in the level of sophistication of technology skill development that female and minority graduate students in comparison to non-female and non-minority graduate students would indicate their desire to focus their learning on. Overwhelmingly, however, both male and female graduate students, as well as minority graduate students, indicated interest in becoming more skilled in the use of technology for purposes of conducting both qualitative and quantitative research, in comparison to other potential aspects of computer technology training and development.

09:45 PREDICTABLE REAL-TIME SCHEDULING FOR AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL (ATC). Will Meilander, Johnnie Baker,, Kent State University, Math & Computer Science Dept., Kent OH 44242.

We present a new and distinctive paradigm for real-time control. Current ATC efforts are unable to predict performance of the system using "dynamic" scheduling algorithms, which by their very nature are unpredictable. The current ATC approach is extremely expensive "USA Today", 4-19-99, places the cost at $41 billion, and the system is not meeting today's requirements. This fact is directly in line with many studies of "Real-Time Scheduling Theory". (M. Klein, 1994) avers an efficient real-time multiprocessor scheduling algorithm is not expected. (J. Stankovic, 1995) indicates that a real-time multiprocessor schedule for a C&C problem like ATC is unlikely. Current ATC automation approaches use multiprocessing. We show that a single instruction parallel processing technology called associative processing (AP) can complete the ATC job before a deadline time. This approach has been shown, in a military application, to overcome the limitations of multiprocessing, and at the same time provide lower hardware and much lower software cost. In that military application, the AP throughput was about 275 (212/0.76) times greater than a multiprocessor when performing identical target tracking functions. That 1979 technology could have satisfied the requirements of FAA's AAS program that was cancelled in 1995. A recent study of ATC flight plan to track association shows the ratio of memory access for the current versus the AP approach greater than 90 to 1. The real ATC problem is tractable. It becomes intractable with a multiprocessor scheduling algorithm. The static scheduling algorithm we present is completely predictable and thus can meet some worst-case deadline time.

10:00 CHARACTERIZATION OF FLAVONOIDS OF CALAMINTHA ASHEI. Rebecca Ellis,, (Jeffrey D. Weidenhamer,, Ashland University, Department of Chemistry, Geology & Physics, Ashland OH 44805.

Plants produce a wide array of chemical substances for a variety of ecological purposes. Calamintha ashei is a perennial shrub found in the threatened Florida scrub community. The chemistry of this shrub has been extensively investigated, and it has been found to release several menthofuran monoterpenes in aqueous washes of the leaves. These monoterpenes exhibit phytotoxic effects in bioassays. In addition, glandular trichomes on the leaf surface have been found to contain a complex mixture of sesquiterpenes ([C.sub.15][H.sub.24]). Extractions of the leaf surface constituents carried out to isolate these sesquiterpenes also result in the isolation of large quantities of flavonoids. Five flavonoids have previously been identified from Calamintha, but numerous others are present in these extracts. The objective of this study is to characterize the major flavonoid constituents of the leaf surface extracts. Individual flavonoids will be isolated by preparative thin layer or vacuum liquid chromatography, and characterized by NMR and other spectroscopic methods. Once the major compounds have been identified, development of an HPLC method will facilitate the further investigation of the localization of these compounds on and within the leaf, and investigations of their function.

10:15 CHARACTERIZATION OF TRICHOME CONSTITUENTS OF CALAMINTHA ASHEI. Matt Rainsberg,, (Jeffrey D. Weidenhamer,; Dale G. Ray,, Ashland University, Department of Chemistry, Geology & Physics, Ashland OH 44805.

Calamintha ashei is a perennial shrub found in the threatened Florida scrub community. Calamintha is one of several scrub plants believed to produce germination and growth inhibitors which prevent the growth of grasses and herbs in the scrub. Previous work has identified several phytotoxic monoterpenes in aqueous washes of the leaves. Calamintha leaves are dotted with glandular trichomes. GC-MS analyses conducted previously in our laboratory to characterize the trichome constituents, which were believed to contain the monoterpenes, revealed that they contain a complex mixture of sesquiterpenes of the general formula [C.sub.15][H.sub.24]. It proved impossible to separate these compounds by standard chromatographic procedures. The objective of this study is to characterize the structure of these compounds. One and two-dimension high field NMR (750 MHz) spectra have been collected for this mixture of sesquiterpenes, which contains three principal isomers. High resolution COSY, HMQC, and HMBC spectra are being used to determine the structures of these three major compounds, even though it has not been possible to isolate the individual compounds in pure form.

10:30 CHEMISTRY OF WILTED RED MAPLE (ACER RUBRUM). Joshua Ellwitz,, (Jeffrey D. Weidenhamer,, Ashland University, Department of Chemistry, Geology & Physics, Ashland OH 44805.

Wilted leaves of the red maple, Acer rubrum, are toxic to horses. The lethal dose is as little as 3 g leaves per kg body weight. Symptoms of poisoning include a brownish discoloration of blood and urine, and drops in packed cell volume, erythrocyte count and mean glutathione levels. In the red blood cells, the formation of Heinz bodies, which are precipitated hemichromes that bind to membrane protein, is diagnostic for poisoning by wilted red maple leaves. Previous work in our laboratory indicated that wilted red maple leaves contain a compound distinguishable by its bright blue fluorescence using thin layer chromatography. However, attempts to characterize this substance proved unsuccessful. The objective of this study is to isolate, purify and identify this compound. The compound will be isolated by preparative thin layer or vacuum liquid chromatography, and characterized by NMR and other spectroscopic methods.

10:45 LEARNING OUTCOME OF A MICROPROCESSOR-BASED ROBOTIC COMPETITION. Anthony P. Messuri, Youngstown State University, Youngstown OH 44555.

The Northeast Ohio Robotics Competition (NEORC)is a regional program founded in 1998 to allow high school students from northeast Ohio (Ashtabula, Columbiana, Cuyahoga, Lake, Mahoning, Portage, Summit, Stark, Trumbull and Tuscarawas counties) the opportunity to learn outside the classroom. Annually NEORC offers a technical challenge to approximately thirty teams, each composed of five high school students (grades nine through twelve) of varying academic backgrounds to build a small remote controlled robot with the technical assistance of a coach from a college or industry along with the opportunity to demonstrate the results at a competition after eight weeks of this applied learning experience. The all-day robotics competition opens with team registration, vehicle inspection, and submission of technical journals. Competitive scoring, done by university staff and industry volunteers, is based on five areas: technical journal quality, vehicle design originality, timed fifty foot race, obstacle course maze, and an inclined plane hill-climb event, with trophies awarded in each category. Participating high school teacher/coaches attend an all-day kick-off coach-training workshop to get an overview of the competition as well as have an opportunity to ask technical questions regarding the robotic competition and receive hands-on experience in breadboarding, soldering, etc. The NEORC objective for creating this annual event is two-fold: to reinforce math and science concepts through an applied learning experience, and to hopefully increase awareness of engineering and technical careers. The challenging effort and hard work necessary to successfully compete has resulted in creativity, ingenuity, teamwork, enthusiasm, growth, and most of all, fun.
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Publication:The Ohio Journal of Science
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Mar 1, 2001

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