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INFORMATION LITREACY SKILLS ON THE USE OF ELECTRONIC RESOURCES BY UNDERGRADUATES STUDENTS OF UNIVERSITY OF ILORIN AND KWARA STATE UNIVERSITY MALETE, KWARA STATE, NIGERIA.

INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study

In this 21st century, acquisition of knowledge is necessary for greater understanding and participation in community affairs and to prepare one for future contribution to the world. Therefore, one of the institutions to acquire this knowledge is a university which is known as a custodian of knowledge where students from different disciplines acquire knowledge and skills for self-development. It means a preparatory ground for creativity, critical and independent thinking. In support of this statement, Oketunji (2005) postulated that university contributes towards the solution to problems and the gathering, analysis, and interpretation of facts. Therefore, the university environment is a place where the transfer of knowledge and information takes place.

In higher institutions of learning, the library is one of the factors that support learning, teaching, and research with different types of information resources both print and non-print materials. Most importantly, in this technological era where library acquires majorly acquire electronic information resources. Alberto Sharma (2009) confirmed that electronic resources are increasingly available in Nigerian universities thereby making it possible for students and school staff to access and use current and relevant materials for studies, research, learning, and job. Over the last decade, a significant improvement noticed in acquisition policies and practices of the library. Increasingly, the monograph is giving way to the electronic form of materials (Sharma, 2009). With the explosion of electronic information resources, Lukasiewicz (2007) observed that undergraduates are looking for a convenient, time saving and fast response as they move from using physical collections to the digital library on the various university campuses.

The term electronic information resources are used interchangeably in this work with "electronic resources. "Therefore, electronic information resources are information materials in the library that can only be accessed electronically, with the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) facilities. Examples of the electronic information resources often consulted by students include the Internet, CD-ROM databases, online databases, Online Public Access Catalogues (OPAC), electronic journals, electronic books and digitized materials. In contemporary library practice, information needs of learners and knowledge seeker through a plethora of information sources especially with electronic information resources (EIRs) dominating as a result of their ability to be accessed even remotely. University libraries specifically provide these resources to cater for the academic needs of the community. Undergraduate Students, as part of the community, are allowed unrestricted access to these resources. Because these resources serve as motivating factor to students as they provide them the opportunity to transmit, acquire or download process and disseminate information on any subject of interest (Sharma, 2009). These resources can be used by any user through online access via networks or authentication methods at any time by comfortably sitting at home or office (Sharma, 2009). Popoola (2008) affirmed that the information resources and services available in institutional information systems must be capable of supporting research among the students and faculty members.

Consequently, the awareness of electronic information resources (EIRs) is necessary for students. It mainly provides better, easier access to electronic sources which depend on computer self-efficacy and information literacy skills of each student to locate knowledge element (Negahban & Talawar, 2009). Furthermore, use of electronic resources aid in keeping the students abreast with current developments in their respective subject fields, in contrast with print media which are not regularly updated. Ugah (2008) quoted Osundina (1974), who noted that the problem of Nigerian students is not the question of wanting to use the library recourses, whether or not the university library can provide for their needs, and whether there is online access. It is inlight of this that this, the study was designed to examine the influence of computer self-efficacy and information literacy skills on the use of information literacy skills of undergraduate students in University of Ilorin and Kwara State University, Malete. One of the important factors that this study considered would influence the use of electronic information resources by undergraduate students in University of Ilorin and Kwara State University, Malete, Kwara State is their computer self-efficacy. The utilization of self-efficacy in a variety of fields since its introduction in 1997 by Bandura According to Bandura (1997), self-efficacy is an exercise of influence over one's motivation and through one's process, emotional states, and behavioral patterns. Therefore, self-efficacy is used to determine the kind of goals that people set for themselves and how hard they will try to reach the goals (Bandura, 1997). It means that high self-efficacy leads to higher aspirations and future success. Therefore, for effective use of electronic information one need to hold positive self-competence about his/her self on the use of a computer, that is to say, that, the degree of computer self-efficacy appears to influence the use of the electronic resources in the library.

Another important variable that appears to influence the use of electronic information resources in the library is information literacy skills. Information literacy skill is the ability to search, locate, assess and critically evaluate information found on the web (Eshet-Alkalai, 2012). In the same vein, Lau (2006) defined information literacy as information competencies that involve the capacity to identify when information is needed, and the competence and skill to locate, evaluate and use Information effectively. Lau (2006) further stated that information literacy skills are key factors in lifelong learning. It points that Information literacy skill is a relevant skill which enables one to easily navigate the vast information available as a result of information explosion presently being experienced (Wesleyan University, 2016). However, research had shown that low usage of e-resources is mainly contributed by the limited information literacy skills among scientists or researchers in Africa (Pejowa, 2002). It is inlight of this that, Pejowa (2002) concluded that without adequate information literacy skills, users of information resources in developing countries (Nigeria) might continue to underutilize technology related resources that are provided for their use due to low information literacy skills, thus resulting in a waste of resources.

Based on the above submission, without a high level of self-efficacy coupled with information literacy skills, it could be difficult for the users to access and use electronic information resources effectively. It is in light of this that this study intends to investigate the influence of computer self-efficacy and information literacy skills on the use of electronic resources by undergraduate students in University of Ilorin and Kwara State University, Malete

Statement of the Problem

Nigerian university education system is developing and proliferating in number and adoption of technologies into its teaching, learning and research processes is increasing. Therefore, undergraduate students need to be motivated to see the real worth of different electronic resources to enhance their studies. Previous researchers had examined the influence of computer self-efficacy and information literacy skills on the use of electronic resources by undergraduates in Nigeria Universities. Studies had revealed that undergraduates underutilize most electronic resources in Nigeria Universities. For instance, (Okello and Ikoja 2010; Obuh, 2009; Micheal, 2003 and Kenneth 2012) reported that electronic information resources are grossly underutilized by undergraduates in Nigeria Universities despite the potentials they hold for effective learning and research. However, The researcher want to examined the influence of computer self-efficacy and information literacy skills on the use of electronic information resources by undergraduate students in the University of Ilorin and Kwara State University, Malate. The present study intends to fill the gaps identified in the previous works. It is against this background that this study was set out to investigate the influence of computer self-efficacy and information literacy skills on the use of electronic information resources by undergraduate students in the University of Ilorin and Kwara State University.

Objectives of the Study

The specific objectives of the study are to:

i. Determine the influence of computer self-efficacy on the use of Electronic Resources by undergraduates at University of Ilorin and Kwara University, Malete, Kwara state Nigeria.

ii. Find whether information literacy influence use of electronic resources by undergraduates at the University of Ilorin and Kwara State University, Malete, Kwara State Nigeria.

Research Questions

The following research questions are expected to guide this study:

i. What influence does computer self-efficacy has on the use of the electronic resource by undergraduates at University of Ilorin and Kwara State University, Malete, Kwara State Nigeria?

ii. What is the influence of information literacy skills on the use of electronic resources by undergraduates at University of Ilorin and Kwara State University, Malete, Kwara State Nigeria?

LITERATURE REVIEW

Computer Self-Efficacy and Use of Electronic Resources

The degree of self-efficacy is another variable that appears to influence the use of electronic resources. The applauded study of Alberto Bandurain 1977 is for the use of self-efficacy in a variety of fields since its introduction. According to Bandura, self-efficacy is part of an individual's "beliefs in one's capability to organize and execute the courses of action required to manage prospective situations." (Bandura, 1997). Individuals get their self-efficacy beliefs in several ways. The first and most significant way is by interpreting what they did; self-efficacy is not a static concept, it is actualized continually in an individual's mind, through what Bandura called "mastery experiences": "Outcomes interpreted as successful raise self-efficacy; those interpreted as failures lower it." Therefore, students with high self-efficacy as stated by Tella, Tella, Ayeni and Omoba (2007) will be more likely to take advantage of what is around them. For example, electronic information facilities and resources like the Internet, electronic journals and CD-ROM database. If they are familiar and feel comfortable with them, they will use them, and if they feel that learning through these electronic information resources will enhance their academic performance, they will learn about them. Justifiably, in their study of self-efficacy and use of electronic information as predictors of academic performance, Tella et al. (2007) found that, self-efficacy and use of electronic information jointly predict and contribute significantly to the academic performance of students. Through a survey administered to a class of freshmen by Waldman (2003) on their use of library electronic resources and self-efficacy was found that age and gender were not related to use of electronic resources. However, the study found that self-efficacy influenced the use electronic resources.

Individuals also develop self-efficacy beliefs through "vicarious experiences," by observing how peers have dealt with certain experiences, and from there inferring how they would handle a similar experience. However, this is a less significant way of establishing self-efficacy. A still weaker way self-efficacy beliefs develop is through "verbal persuasions, "when someone gives verbal encouragement or communicates their confidence that someone else will be able to succeed. Interestingly, "it is usually easier to weaken self-efficacy beliefs through negative appraisals than to strengthen such beliefs through positive encouragement" (Pajares and Valiante 1997). Individuals form their self-efficacy beliefs by incorporating and weighing these factors.

Technology is challenging the boundaries of the educational structures that have traditionally facilitated learning. Recent advances in computer technology, the use of EIRs, and the diffusion of personal computers, productivity software, and multimedia and network resources over the last decade heralded the development and implementation of new and innovative teaching strategies. Educators who advocate technology integration in the learning process believe it will improve learning and better prepare students to participate in the 21st Century workplace. Okello and Ikoja-Odongo (2010) classified computer skills as a prerequisite for the usage of online information resources into various categories. Such categories include basic micro computing skills understanding of computer and its components, using command-oriented windows base, and LAN operating environments to accomplish basic tasks. Also, formatting floppy disks, to create and to navigate through the directory and sub-directing structures, to create and to delete files, to copy and rename files using available help screens when needed. Basic micro- computing spreadsheet skills this involve the ability to create, organize and navigate through spreadsheets or a specific block of cells entering and editing formulas, values and text copying, moving and protecting cells; inserting and deleting columns and rows, saving and retrieving files, and printing relevant materials.

Students' Use of Electronic Information Resources

The use of e-resources though, highly embraced by users generally but for some infrastructural skills challenges. For example, a study by Issa, Amusan and Daura (2009) show that most students are aware of the e-library resources but are not utilizing itdue to lack of computer skills. Oluwaseye and Abraham (2013) reported low patronage of e-resources in institutions in Oyo state due to the challenges observed by Issa et al. (2009). Ojo and Akande (2005) in a survey of 350 respondents examined undergraduate's access, usage and awareness of online information resources at the University College Hospital (UCH) Ibadan, Nigeria, also revealed that the level of usage of the electronic information resources by undergraduates is not high. The low level of usage was attributed to lack of information retrieval skills for exploiting electronic resources, thus making the level of usage of resources by medical students very low. Students especially, those in the universities in Nigeria use the electronic information resources for various academic reasons. These reasons range from; doing class assignments, writing term papers, class works, retrieving current literature for studies, following blog discussions in the subject area of interest, searching for scholarship opportunities, searching for internship placement and research purposes. Similarly, electronic resources are increasingly available in Nigerian universities thereby making it possible for students to access and use current and relevant literature for studies and research. Over the last decade, a significant transformation noticed in collection development policies and practices. The print medium is increasingly giving way to the electronic form of materials (Sharma, 2009). Electronic resources were found to be very valuable for research and scholarly communication. They are more up-to-date, can be accessed anywhere across all geographical boundaries and add values to research and development activities (Haridasan and Khan 2009). Mwirigi (2012) studied the use of resources in Kenya school of law and found that the patrons are not adequately using the resources because the awareness levels of the resources available are not adequate. Awareness of existing eresources and their ease of use are factors that could influence the adoption and use of these resources.

Many countries have made significant investments in equipping universities with ICT, but so far little is known about the effectiveness and use of these technologies. In some countries, students are required to use ICT in learning, and there is a common assumption that students are familiar with using ICT, which is not necessarily true. The International Computer and Information Literacy Study (ICILS) 2013 sheds some light on students' knowledge and abilities in the key areas of information and technology literacy. The study was carried out by the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA), an independent, international cooperative of national research agencies. For over 50 years, IEA has conducted large-scale comparative studies of educational achievement and reported on specific aspects of education systems and processes in some curriculum areas, including literacy, mathematics, and science, and also civic and citizenship education. The research and various academic activities that are carried out in the universities comprise collating and processing of data. A sound research depends greatly on a student's information skill competence in retrieving up-to-date and relevant information.

With the availability of electronic information resources, research is no longer complicated. The fact remains that most of the documents for research are now available in electronic formats like the Internet, online database, OPACs, electronic journals and electronic books. (Fakolujo 2005). The use of these electronic information resources encourages consortium among students and researchers. Magara (2002) opined that the emergence of the World Wide Web (www) enhance scholarly communication and a rise in computational science. Presently, many university students rely on the internet for their assignments, term papers, research and communication with their teachers. Students through the internet also exchange ideas and information which can be of help to their academic activities. Fakolujo (2005) reported that "Electronic mail (E-mail) over the Internet enables one to overcome many obstacles to communicate due to a geographic distance such as time, costs and language."

Likewise, (Manda, 2005; Smith, Hasifa, Oscar, Paul, Sylvester, Selemani, Masanja, Bright and Paul 2007) list factors affecting the utilization of e-resources to include lack of competence of the e-resources by students, lack of knowledge, negative attitudes, poor practices and in adequate infrastructure. In the study of Alison, and Ruth (2012) found that utilization of e-resources was affected by human and institutional factors including information literacy, low bandwidth and a limited number of resources available to users.2.3 Information Literacy Skills and Use of Electronic Sources

Students with research information needs will most likely use the electronic resource if they have the skills required for its use. Skill is the ability to bring about some result with maximum certainty and minimum outlay of time and energy. Computer literacy which sometimes supposed by some students to mean information literacy only refers to the comfort level someone has with using a computer and other its associated applications. (American Library Association (ALA), 1989). Case (2007) refers to Julien (2001) in defining information literacy as the ability to make efficient and effective use of information sources. Information literacy includes having the skills to not only access information, but also to ascertain its veracity, reliability, bias, timeliness, and context. IL is important in the contemporary environment of rapid technological change and proliferation of information resources. Information and communication technology (ICT) advancements and the use of electronic resources, especially the internet promises to improve the flow of information to research and academic communities (Manda, 2005).

According to Theo Bothman, Cosijin, Fourieand Penzhourin (2014) Information Literacy can be the ability to know when information is needed, to evaluate the information and to use the information found. These include having technological skills that allow users to use and access the information sources. Information literacy has the following core features: specific skills, ability to recognize a need for information, ability to found information and ability to evaluate, awareness of the law of information online. To be successful students in research and studies, they need a high level of information literacy. Back in 1998. Breivik and Senn (1998) in their book information literacy: educating children for the 21st century stated that "an educated graduate student will not refer to as one who has absorbed a certain body of factual information, but as one who knows how to find, evaluated and apply needed information."

Information literacy forms the basis for lifelong learning. Association of College and Research Librarian (2009) opine that it is not possible to learn everything you need to know in your field of study in a few years at University. However, being information literate enable users to have skills to be applied to many other areas of learning and research. According to Lowe and McCauley (2002), computer skills are literacy and abilities that will enable information resource users to meet personal, educational and labour market goods.

The use of computer and online information resources has a growing presence in all levels of education and occupation. Awoleye, Siyanbola and Oladapo (2008), pointed out that for students to be successful in their coursework, they need a certain level of expertise in computer and they stated that students need computer skills such as word processing, programming and data management skills to be able to use online information resources. According to the University of Idaho Information Literacy Portal (2011), information literacy is the ability to identify what information is needed, understand how organized the information, identify the best sources of information for a given need, locate those sources, evaluate the sources critically, and share that information. Because of the ongoing proliferation of information and information sources as well as the numerous methods of access these skills required. It is essential because we are surrounded by a growing ocean of information in all formats.

According to Ojedokun, and Owolabi, (2003) an information literate person must be able to: recognize the need for information, formulate questions based on information needs, recognize that accurate, relevant and complete information. It is the basis for intelligent decision making, identify potential sources of information, develop successful search strategies, access sources of information from all media. It also assists in evaluating information, organizes information for the practical application, integrates new information into an existing body of knowledge, and use information in critical thinking and problem-solving. All listed skills are essential for any user; most especially students in their quest to make a productive impacton academic and research output. Akintola and Olayinwola (2014) observed that online information resources are beneficial for teaching, learning, and research, but the lack of computer skills would probably inhibit its use by students. Bristol (2014) opined that computer skills are needed by students to be able to retrieve information from online resources. Becker (2003) reiterated that students acquire adequate computer skills to be able to use online information resources effectively. Majid and Abazova (2009) asserted that online information resources could not be effectively utilized by students if they cannot operate the computer. Various information literacy standards such as ALA, (1989); SCONUL, (1999); Association of College Research Libraries ACRL, (2000) require that participants who have completed certain levels of education be expected to have a high information literacy skills. In other words, individuals with higher education levels are to have different information literacy skill levels. In support of this view, Brand-Gruwel, Wopereisand Vermetten (2005) classified participants with higher educational levels as experts and those with lower educational levels as novices in examining their experiences in information problem-solving process and they found differences in their skills. Access without skills is not useful; so the acquisition of information literacy skills becomes a basic need of every citizen.

Population of the study

According to Association of College and Research Libraries (2017), research population is a collection of individuals or objects that are the main focus of a scientific query. The population of this study consists of the undergraduate students of the faculties that use electronic resources. Therefore, the target population would consist of students from Agricultural Science, Information and Communication Technology (ICT) or Communication and Information Sciences as the case maybe, Engineering & Technology, and Sciences who constitute a group of individual that have one or more common characteristics which are of interest to this study.

Sample Size and Sampling Technique

This study adopted stratified sampling technique where the whole population grouped into strata, that is, faculty. Therefore, the study purposely selected four faculties that use electronic resources most. From the records obtained from the academic planning unit of the two universities; the University of Ilorin has the following population for the four selected faculties.

Table 3.1 gives the total number of undergraduate students from each of the selected faculty in University of Ilorin and Kwara State University which is 17,336. In determining the sample size, the study uses Israel(2003) model by taken 5% precision from each of the institution.

Therefore, the proportionate sample size of the undergraduate students in University of Ilorin 325 while the sample size of the undergraduate students at Kwara State University is 51. It gives a total of 376 samples.

Data Collection Instrument

A self-designed questionnaire was used to collect data from the respondents. The questionnaire titled as "Questionnaire on Influence of Self-efficacy and Information Literacy Skills on the Use of Electronic Information Resources by Undergraduate Students" with the acronym of "QISILSUEIRUS." The questionnaire has five sections divided into A-E. Section A contains information of the bio-data of the respondents such as age, gender, faculties and level of study while section B-E contains items to capture information for the four research questions of the study.

Procedure for Data Collection

The researcher personally administered the questionnaire with one recruited research assistant in each institution under study. Three hundred and twenty-five copies of the questionnaire were administered in the University of Ilorin while 51 copies administered in Kwara State University. It brings it to a total of 376 copies of the questionnaire. The researcher asked the respondents to fill the questionnaire and return it immediately to the researcher. This help the researcher to retrieve the entire administered questionnaire back which gives 100% response rate.

Data Analysis

This research work used quantitative method for data collection in tackling the research question; the quantitative data collected from the field were analyzed using descriptive statistics of frequency and percentages presented in tables. The statistical tool based on its simplicity and ease of understanding for any level of the researcher that may be willing to use the findings of this study. Furthermore, Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC) was used to test the hypotheses of the study at 0.05 level of significance.

Data Presentation and Analysis

Bio-data of the respondents

The table 1 shows that 210 (55.9%) of the participants are male while the remaining 166 (44.1%) were female. It shows that the majority of the respondents are male. Furthermore, the table above shows that 51 (13.6%) respondent are from Kwara state university while the remaining 325 (86.4%) are from University of Ilorin. Also, the majority of the respondents are from the University of Ilorin. The table also shows that 73 (19.4%), 90 (26.3%), 108 (28.7%), 65 (17.3%), and 31 (8.2%) respondents are in 100 level, 200 level, 300 level, 400 hundred level and 500 level respectively. The result shows that majority of the respondents are in 300 level. The age distribution of the respondents, the table shows that 169 (44.9%) are between the age of 16-20. Next to it were respondents between the age 21-25 representing 143 (38.1%), followed by respondents between the age of 26-30 representing 46 (12.2%) and the least respondents fall between the age of 31 and above representing 18 (4.8%). It shows that majority of the respondents fall between the age of 16-20. Furthermore, the Table also shows that out of 376 respondents, 128 (34.0%) are in the faculty of Science, next to this are the respondents in the faculty of Engineering and Technology representing 111 (29.5%). The result is followed by the respondents in the faculty of Communication and Information Science/Technology 73 (19.4%) while the least respondents are in the faculty of Agricultural Science 64 (17.0%) This shows that majority of the respondents are in the faculty of Sciences.

Research Question 1: Computer self-efficacy of undergraduate students on the use of electronic resources?

The table 2 shows that 119 (31.6%) respondents agree that they find it difficult to use the computer except someone helps them while 257 (68.4%) disagree with this. Furthermore, the table also reveals that 117 (31.1%) agree that they always feel they need someone to assist them when they are using the computer while 259 (68.9%) disagree with the statement. On the other hand, the table also shows that 78 (20.8%) agree that whenever they attempt to use the computer, they rarely succeed while 298 (73.3%) disagree with the statement. In the same vein, the table also shows that 104 (27.7%) agree that they give up when using the computer even before they encounter a problem while 131 (72.4%) disagree with the statement. Similarly, the table also reveals that 88 (23.4%) agree that they avoid using a computer because they do not want to face any difficulty while 288 (76.5%) disagree with this statement. Furthermore, the table also shows that 232 (61.7%) agree that they trust their ability to use computers while 144 (38.2%) disagree with this statement. The result from the table also shows that 335 (89.0%) agree that they effectively operate the computer while 41 (11.0%) disagree with the statement. Lastly, the table also shows that 280 (74.5%) agree that they can become very good in the use of computers by continually using it while 96 (25.5%) disagree with this statement. It shows that majority of the respondents are highly self-efficacy.

Does information literacy skills influence the Use of Electronic Information Resources of Undergraduate Students in University of Ilorin and Kwara State University?

Table 3 shows that out of 376 respondents, 252 (67.0%) claim that information literacy skills influence their use of electronic information resources while 124 (32.9%) claim that information literacy skills do not influence their use of electronic information resource. It shows that information literacy skills influence the use of electronic information resources of undergraduate students in University of Ilorin and Kwara State University.

Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study concluded that a majority of the undergraduates are fully aware of electronic resources as their major sources of information retrieval.

The study reveals that most of the students as the skills to use electronic resources but their major challenges are an improvement in the internet connectivity, adequate power supply, training and orientation more on the utilization of electronic resources. If the university management can improve the listed challenges above more of the students will improve the proficiency and perform better on the use or e-resources.

Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are at this moment Suggested to improve the undergraduate students 'use of electronic resources in the university as well as the libraries: The university management and the library should create awareness about the electronic resources available in the library and its relevance to student's subject background. It is possible to achieved awareness through group training for the library users especially during the library orientation programme for fresh undergraduate students. University management should also make an effort to provide sufficient internet connected to computer terminals and electronic devices that will serve a reasonable number of students at the same time. The number of computers that are presently in use is grossly inadequate for the population in both universities.

More electronic resources should be provided by the university management to the library and also made accessible to the users. Users who lack skills in the use of electronic resources should be given necessary assistance to encourage the use.

To ensure a higher computer literacy level of the undergraduate students at the time of entry into the university, education authorities in Nigeria should ensure adequate provision of computers in schools and well-trained computer teachers to impart practical skills on the students.

Also observed in the two universities was that there is no sufficient staff, especially in the System Unit and so, there is limited time to serve the users. Therefore, more staff should be employed to serve the users. It is also advisable for the libraries to run a shift. They should be running shift from morning to evening so that the undergraduate who is bored with lectures could visit their university libraries at the convenient period to use the resources.

The University management should have alternative power supply system to generate steady power supply for effective use of electronic resources in the university libraries. The management can also harness the electronic resources when there is the steady power supply. Therefore, management of the universities should make adequate arrangement for alternative and more dependable power supply to the library since the public power supply system is very unreliable.

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YAHAYA ALIYU ISMAILA

BLS (Maiduguri), MLIS(Ilorin)

Kwara State University

ismaila.yahaya@kwasu.edu.ng
Table 1 Bio-data of the respondents

Gender                       Frequency    Percent

Male                            210         55.9
Female                          166         44.1
Total                           376        100.0
Institutions
Kwara State University          51          13.6
University of Ilorin            325         86.4
Total                           376        100.0
Level
100 level                       73          19.4
200 level                       99          26.3
300 level                       108         28.7
400 level                       65          17.3
500 level                       31          8.2
Total                           376        100.0

Age                          Frequency   Percentage
16-20                           169         44.9
21-25                           143         38.1
26-30                           46          12.2
31 above                        18          4.8
Total                           376        100.0
Faculty
Communication and               73          19.4
Information
Science/Technology
Agricultural Science            64          17.0
Engineering and Technology      111         29.5
Science                         128         34.0
Total                           376        100.0

Table 2 Computer self-efficacy of undergraduate students on the
use of E-resources

S/N   Item                                         SA f(%)

1     I find it difficult to                       32(8.5)
      use the computers utilize
      electronic information resources
      except someone help me
2     I always feel I need someone to              30(8.0)
      assist me when I am using the
      computer
3     Whenever I attempt using the                 30(8.0)

      computer, I rarely succeed
4     I give up when using computer even           54(14.4)
      before I encounter problem
5     I avoid using computer because I             56(14.9)
      do not want to face any difficulty
6     I trust my ability to use computers          232(61.7)
      I effectively operate the computer system    269(71.1)
7     I can become very good in the use of         280(74.5.)
      computers by continually using it

S/N   Item                                         A f(%)     D f(%)

1     I find it difficult to                       87(23.1)   83(22.1)
      use the computers utilize
      electronic information resources
      except someone help me
2     I always feel I need someone to              87(23.1)   77(20.5)
      assist me when I am using the
      computer
3     Whenever I attempt using the                 48(12.8)   91(24.2)
      computer, I rarely succeed
4     I give up when using computer even           50(13.3)   80(21.3)
      before I encounter problem
5     I avoid using computer because I             32(8.5)    55(14.8)
      do not want to face any difficulty
6     I trust my ability to use computers          --         --
      I effectively operate the computer system    66(17.6)   13(3.5)
7     I can become very good in the use of         --         68(18.1)
      computers by continually using it

S/N   Item                                          SD f(%)

1     I find it difficult to                        174(46.3)
      use the computers utilize
      electronic information resources
      except someone help me
2     I always feel I need someone to               182(48.4)
      assist me when I am using the
      computer
3     Whenever I attempt using the                  207(55.1)
      computer, I rarely succeed
4     I give up when using computer even            51(51.1)
      before I encounter problem
5     I avoid using computer because I              233(61.7)
      do not want to face any difficulty
6     I trust my ability to use computers           144(38.2)
      I effectively operate the computer system     28(7.5)
7     I can become very good in the use of          28(7.4)
      computers by continually using it

Note SA+A=Agree while D+SD=Disagree

Table 3.1 Population Distribution of the Respondents

Faculties                                        Population
Agricultural Science                             3,214
Communication and Information Science (CIS)      1,342
Engineering and Technology                       2,959
Science                                          7,496
Total                                            15,011
Kwara State University
Colleges                                         Population
Agricultural Science                             321
Information and Communication Technology (ICT)   668
Science                                          814
Engineering and Technology                       522
Total                                            2325

Source: Academic Planning Unit, 2017

: Information Literacy Skills and Use of Electronic Information
Resources

S/N   Does information literacy skills     Frequency   Percentage
      influence the use of E-resources

1                    Yes                      252        67.0%
2                     No                      124        32.9%
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