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IMPACT OF HEAD TEACHER'S LEADERSHIP STYLE ON TEACHER'S JOB SATISFACTION AND WORK MOTIVATION.

Byline: Sara Sehar and Dr. S. Khurram Khan Alwi

Keywords: Leadership Style; Job Satisfaction; Work Motivation; Head Teacher; Pakistan.

Introduction

Educational institutions have become important places for the younger generations where they are polished. The leaders in the schools endure significant responsibility for their grooming, growth, and satisfaction, thus, their role is similar to other company's leaders as they also have to cope with the challenges of sustaining the objectives of institutions. Leadership in school is a procedure of motivating and supervising teachers to work with a passion for the achievement of educational goals. Leadership styles and job satisfaction appear to be connected once the head teachers perform their roles and responsibilities to get the work done through their staff, head teachers apply different types of leadership styles or they may demonstrate different attitude patterns (Hinic, Grubor, and Brulic, 2017).

Leadership plays an important role in the growth and endurance of any organization or institution, similarly it is important in educational management due to its larger impact on the achievement of educational objectives. Leadership is about the improvement in organization and developing agreed upon and valuable guidelines for the organization and taking the desired step to motivate the individuals to move in the right direction (Louis et al. 2010).

Leithwood, Seashore, Anderson, and Wahlstrong (2004), argued that the significance of leadership styles of schools' heads should not be undervalued as studies have discovered that leadership styles in schools also put a profound impact on students' education specifically in complicated circumstances. Adeyemi (2010), explored that success mainly relies on styles of leadership practiced in schools and these are autocratic, democratic, and laissez-faire. Dickson, Hartog, and Mitchelson (2003), commented that in US, democratic leadership style developed a positive relationship with performance, whereas other style being observed was laissez-faire which allows free participation of thoughts or ideas without being interfered by the leader.

Leadership styles places either a positive or negative impact on job satisfaction which leads to the reaction of an individual toward the job experience, since different elements are involved in job satisfaction. These factors are vital due to the fact that they all affect the way an individual feel for the job. These factors comprise salary, promotion, advantages, colleagues, environment, job security, performance, and job itself. Each factor influences the job satisfaction of a person in different ways and many believe that circumstances are more important than any other factor in job satisfaction and workers are more conscious about the environment in which they are working (Liao, Hu, Chung and Chen, 2017).

According to Judge, Weiss, Kammeyer-Mueller, and Hulin (2017), job satisfaction is considered as a pleasurable and optimistic feeling which results from the evaluation of a person's job experience and that develops from the perception of employees that how they do their jobs which are given to them. It is also expressed as the level to which a person feels optimistic about different components of the given tasks and makes an individual eager to work attentively. Such as, Alonderiene and Majauskaite (2016), assessed the relationship impact on the job satisfaction of teachers and found that most teachers prefer the transformational style of leadership which involves them in decision making as compared to forced or traditional leadership styles exercised by their principals. On the other hand, obvious challenges arise when the teacher speaks greatly of leaders as having a democratic style of leadership.

Tahseen (2010), found that the democratic leadership style being more dominant as compared to the autocratic style while assessing teacher's job satisfaction in Pakistan, and it was also found that a total of 18% of principals in school fall in autocratic style and while 82% were fallen in the democratic style of leadership. It was evident from the study findings that teachers were more satisfied working under the democratic leader in contrast to autocratic leader.

Adeyemi and Bolarinwa (2013), explored that the democratic style of leadership is the major style deployed by principals of Nigerian schools. The results were comparable with the results of Adeyemi (2014), who found that democratic style improves job satisfaction in primary teachers in School. Oriha (2018) found in the research on Tetu District that laissez-faire and democratic leadership styles were frequently used by the head principals, the study discovered that when heads engaged in a democratic style of leadership then teachers seem to be satisfied with their specific jobs. Nthuni (2012), found that teachers in pre-school are de-motivated by head teachers who follow laissez-faire and authoritarian leadership styles and also that teachers get motivated and inspired whenever head principal follows democratic and transformational leadership styles.

Motivation is a force which induces a person to act in order to attain specific goals and the level of motivation of a person varies from one person to another, such as everyone has different perceptions and behaviors (Schunk, Pintrich, and Meece, 2008).

Adelabu (2005), established that the motivation of Nigerian teachers was poor as they and were dissatisfied with the working conditions and pay. The study found that the reason for the dissatisfaction of the teachers was their less salary as compared to other professionals; lack of involvement in decision making; and absence of career growth opportunities.

Leadership in educational institutions is a vigorous procedure where a person is responsible for the teamwork and dynamically seeks the group effort, moreover channelize the dedication of all team members to achieve specific purposes in particular situation (Pazey and Cole, 2013). Leadership in this context pursues better performance in educational institutions due to the fact that it not only identifies the goals to be achieved and the person responsible to implement them but it seeks to incorporate better characteristics of reinforcement such as identification, service atmosphere, confidence building, compulsion and payment (Balunywa, 2000).

In the current competitive environment, firms are developing internationally and coping with several challenges to attain their goals. Hence, leadership plays a significant role in the attainment of these objectives and motivate worker's performance by pleasing them with their occupation. Similarly, in Pakistan, educational institutions experience similar complicatedness in teaching, curriculum, resources, recruitment of teachers, schools, fast technological advancement, the involvement of parents and the pressure of politicians deriving from increasing need for superiority, dispersion of knowledge, competition, varying nature of supporting instruments and internationalization. Exactly, poor management and governance is the vital cause of weak education system of Pakistan.

In this unstable environment to guarantee the accomplishment of the educational institute, it is critical to implement the proper leadership style that can make sure the implementation of needed procedures in teaching (Torlak and Kuzey, 2019). However, McInerney, Korpershoek, Wang, and Morin (2018) examined the components of wellbeing, job satisfaction of teachers and analyzed the reasons for job quitting. The findings indicate a progressive relationship between job attributes (personal and professional), their wellbeing, and job satisfaction while an insignificant relationship was found with intentions to quit.

Problem Statement

Leadership has distinct meanings for different individuals even in a similar organization. The styles of leadership of head teachers observed by the subordinates as asset or liability for the institution, it is an asset as it can help the institution to enhance the performance leading to overall productivity of school and it can be a liability when it puts a negative impact on the performance of teachers in classroom and affects the type of association which exists among the staff and head teacher. It is therefore necessary to explore the type of leadership style being used by the school head teachers to assess its impact on the job satisfaction and work motivation of teachers.

Several researches have indicated teachers have job dissatisfaction (Nthuni, 2012; Ngumi, 2003). A big reason was the less salary as indicated by (Adeyemi, 2011; Kinyua, 2014). Iqbal (2012), found the relationship between the and performance of KCSE, whereas, Muchina (2009), examined the influence of head teachers leadership style on the teacher's motivation in secondary schools of Kirinyaga District and to find the leadership styles followed by head teachers in their schools. Thus, in light of the above discussion, the core objective of this research is to discover the relationship between the head teachers' leadership style and work motivation of teachers. Also the study attempts to assess its impact on the job satisfaction of teachers in schools of Karachi, Pakistan. From the literature review, following hypotheses of the study have been formulated:

H1: There is a significant impact of the Head teacher's leadership style on teachers' job satisfaction.

H2: There is a significant impact of the Head teacher's leadership style on teachers' work motivation.

Research Objectives

Following Objectives Guided The Study:

* To discover the teachers' perception about the leadership style of their head teachers.

* To investigate the effect of different leadership styles on staff motivation and teachers' job satisfaction.

Literature Review

Leadership styles, teacher Job satisfaction and Work Motivation Leadership styles certainly influence job satisfaction. Bass, Avolio, and Goodheim (1987), found that autocratic leadership style and laissez-faire leads to low level of job satisfaction, whereas, the democratic leadership results in comparatively higher job satisfaction. Managers perform a key role in employees' motivation to achieve excellence. Manager's approach makes a lot of difference in which they communicate with others mainly with the subordinates and influence for the betterment of the organization. A leader must produce an open mission and a clear vision of the company and have the same articulated to each staff member. This can work as a mirror to which the performance of each employee is based and this calls for the participation of employees to form the strategy of organization eventually leads to employee's job satisfaction (Asghar and Oino, 2017).

Job satisfaction refers to the optimistic or pessimistic evaluative judgment that people make related to their job (Weiss, 2002). Skaalvik and Skaalvik (2010) explained the definition of teacher's job satisfaction as their emotional response toward teaching role and their job. A teacher can be satisfied with few elements of the job, for example, a higher level of independence, similarly dissatisfaction can be caused with other determinants like a heavy load of work, time pressure, and extended working hours.

Earlier studies have shown that overall satisfaction was significantly associated with the autonomy of teacher, teacher self-efficiency and insignificantly related to teacher exhaustion. Similarly, Chen (2007) found that job satisfaction is related to enthusiasm. Inayatullah and Jehangir (2012), examined the effect of teacher's performance and found that motivation improves the performance level of teachers which also influences the performance of students and their attainment of goals. The study also argued that the motivated teachers are able to develop a strong bond with their students which motivates her students and aspire them to learn more. As a result, it is vital to investigate the elements that hinder the teacher's motivation. In this regard, one of the elements could be leadership style of their head teacher who is leading them and taking work from them.

Guay et al. (2010), define motivation as a purpose causing' different behavior and which forms actions and simultaneously attempt to get the desired results, motivation, is thus the situation which triggers the account for beginning, create determination and sets the path of behavior to achieve particular results.

Job satisfaction and Work Motivation under autocratic leadership style

Autocratic leadership style was described by Bhatti, Maitlo, Shaikh and Hashmi (2012), as when the manager has the most power for himself/ herself and have authority in decision making with the perception of making sure that the subordinates follow it. This type of manager is not concerned regarding the work behavior of staff rather he or she is only worried about the job being done. It is more likely to be a robotic kind of environment. The manager asks the subordinates how and what do to and confirms the subordinates to work accordingly.

Iqbal, Anwar, and Haider (2015), argued that the autocratic leaders meet their desired goal and complete the task in the given time by keeping a close follow-up and monitoring their subordinates. Nsubuga (2008) assessed the performance of secondary school teachers, examining the impact of the leadership style, it was found that autocratic leaders normally focus on the authority to get the job done and the head teachers normally focus on this, since it gives rewards in quick time as subordinates are in a lot of pressure to achieve goals in time.

Job satisfaction and Work Motivation under Democratic leadership style Democratic leaders believe in sharing of power, participation, and mutual interactions. They practice delegation, sharing of power and encourage individual input. Although, manager encourages participation from subordinates before taking any decision, still, the manager has the final authority for taking decisions. In the school's setup, the manager/ head teacher can seek agreement by a discussion with teachers for any kind of problem before reaching to the decisive point, this allows the staff to participate in decision making. Moreover, contrasting to the laissez-faire style, the democratic leaders sustain the final power in decision making. These leaders respect the workers and seek mutual advantage for both the parties by allowing the employees to take decisions and be a part of the group.

Antonio and Gamage (2007), elaborated in their research that effective democratic, as well as participatory leadership, influences an elevated level of trust of stakeholders. Herzberg and Mausner (1959) argued that salary is a vital factor to satisfy the employee. Herzberg (2017), also felt that several organizations did not satisfy this factor which resulted in a dissatisfied working environment.

Job satisfaction and Work Motivation under laissez-faire leadership style

A passive type of leadership in which all the power is handed over to the subordinates is said to be laissez-faire leadership style. The leader has an indirect leading and no control of the power in the company, neither he sets any goals or objectives nor takes any decision. Manager admires other 's decisions and allows the work to be done anyhow. Therefore, this kind of leadership style can be successful with good motivated and experienced staff but sometimes it can lead to failure when employees are not dependable, deceiving, and dishonest. It indicates a non-transactional type of leadership style in which the required decisions are not being taken and actions are postponed, the responsibility of leadership is avoided and power being unused. A leader presenting this kind of non-leadership is observed as not caring about other issues (Wellman and LePine, 2017).

Theoretical Framework

Herzberg's Two Factor Theory

Herzberg's two factor theory supported the current study, which states that job satisfaction and dissatisfaction are caused by various factors; hygiene and motivators. Herzberg (2017), found differences between factors causing job satisfaction and dissatisfaction. Herzberg developed this theory to highlight these outcomes and named satisfiers as motivators and dis-satisfiers as hygiene factors in a way that hygiene factors are important to ignore dissatisfaction. Herzberg examined and categorized the job-related factors or satisfiers as achievement, identification, the job itself, development, and responsibility. Herzberg stated these factors are powerful elements of job satisfaction with the job itself, responsibility along with advancement are the most significant factors related to long-lasting change in the attitude (Alfayad and Arif, 2017). Achievement is more important than the identification and was usually related to the long-range determinants as responsibility and nature of the job itself.

The theory is associated with the current study, job satisfaction of teachers can be assessed by different variables including the leadership style of head teachers. There are distinctive styles of leadership used by head teaches, which can be among the reason of job satisfaction of teachers.

Conceptual Framework

The conceptual framework for this study is presented in figure 1.

Research Methodology

Demographic

The demographic profile of the respondents of this study is illustrated in the table 1.

Table 1. Respondents' Demographic Profile Population, sample and sampling technique

Demographic items###frequency###Percentage

age

Below 30###57###42%

31-40###52###39%

over 40###26###19%

Qualification

Diploma###16###12%

Graduate###72###53%

Masters###33###24%

Other###14###10%

experience

1-5 years###74###55%

5-10 years###26###19%

More than 10 years###35###26%

Percentage

Teacher###122###90%

Head Teacher###13###10%

In this study head teachers and teachers participated from different schools of Karachi city of Pakistan. Data was collected through a primary source that had been taken on a survey questionnaire designed for this research. Total of 135 respondents were the sample size and 13 head teachers and 122 teachers have been surveyed through questionnaires. For this study the researcher used purposive sampling as this study targeted head teachers and teachers of schools in Karachi.

Research Design

This research is a descriptive survey research design. This design was chosen because through it, the researcher was able to collect and analyze data as it exists in the field without manipulating any variables. The researcher was able to collect data in order to answer questions concerning the current status of the subjects of the study and assess attitudes and opinion about events, individuals, or procedures.

Description Of Instruments

The research instrument was a structured questionnaire which is a tool to collect the data for a large sample size. The questionnaire was deployed to collect the data as well as information of respondents from different schools as the questionnaire is the idea for any type of survey study. Questionnaires are used in a broad way in education to collect the data regarding the existing circumstances and practices to ask questions of behaviors and attitude rapidly and inaccurate form. A questionnaire was used for the head teachers as well as teachers.

Each questionnaire had two parts. Part one of the questionnaire included responses related to the demographic details whereas part two covered the items on leadership styles, job satisfaction and work motivation. It was a close ended questionnaire and the responses were measured within a five-point scale rating including Strongly Agree (SA), Agree (A), Disagree (D), Strongly Disagree (SD), and Undecided (UD).

Reliability Test

Table 2. Reliability Statistics

Cronbach's Alpha###N of Items

###.717###40

SPSS analysis was used to check the reliability of the survey. The Cronbach's Alpha value .717 indicates that the data of 135 respondents was reliable (Table.2)

Data Analysis

Testing of Hypotheses

Table 3. Hypotheses Summary

Hypotheses###Mean###Mean###Empirical

###Value###P-value###t-Value###Difference###conclusion

H1:There is a significant influence of the

Head teacher's leadership style on###4.20###.000###4.733###.197###Accepted

teachers' job satisfaction.

H2:There is a significant influence of the

Head teacher's leadership style on###4.02###.000###4.327###.024###Accepted

teachers' work motivation.

One sample t-test was applied to the collected data and the test value was set to 4. A mean value of 4 or higher is a clear indication of approval of the hypotheses. The mean values of Hypothesis-1 and Hypothesis-2 in Table 3 are above 4 and based on these values all hypotheses have been accepted. The mean value shows that all of the respondents have agreed on the questions mentioned in the questionnaire. The significant value less than 0.05 indicates the positive outcome, hence based on the significant mean values, significant p-values, positive t-values, positive mean differences both hypotheses have been accepted, indicating the significance of leadership styles of head teachers on teachers' job satisfaction and work motivation.

The result for the impact on job satisfaction showing mean of 4.20 and standard deviation of 0.484 signified that teachers believed and agreed that head teachers perceived their teachers or subordinates as a human being and their leadership style influenced, satisfied and motivated the teachers to work more for themselves and for the organization. The mean value of 4.02 for the influence of head teacher 's leadership style on teachers' work motivation revealed that teachers experienced their head teacher's leadership styles as motivating, and they observed their head teachers holding high leadership qualities. The results indicate that teachers were found motivated and satisfied with democratic leaders, other factors like working environment, salary and workload also contributed to the level of satisfaction that inspired them to work and achieve success.

Discussion

How does teacher's job satisfaction and work motivation are being effected by the leadership styles of their head teachers in the schools? The results indicate and answer the research questions that teachers were positive about their head teachers and appreciated them for promoting ownership within the school, teachers too participated in the planning procedure, and they were allowed to make decisions in the classroom without any power and permissions of their head teachers. Teachers also agreed that they feel that approaching their head teachers is very easy in the school and management is always ready to follow the required changes in the school. The results also indicated that teachers did participate in the decision-making process and their talent and abilities were valued by their head teachers. Furthermore, they are allowed to make their own judgment in problem-solving.

Same is evident from the result that there is a positive relationship of head teachers with the teachers, moreover the head teachers were open to constructive criticism and teachers were also motivated to attend training sessions and workshops.

The study results also indicated that head teachers do allow the teachers to take decisions, as they certainly value the self-initiation and creativity and involve them in planning. Head teachers were more concerned with the well-being and interest of teachers when taking a decision and always allow freedom of opinion and choices if there is a need. Head teachers also agreed that they allow the staff to make their judgment and are flexible in making a cordial relationship with staff and motivates their staff to form a pleasant relationship and to attend different training session and workshops, as they believed in professional grooming and collaboration.

Conclusion

With the result analysis it is concluded that the head teacher's leadership styles actually influence the work motivation and job satisfaction of teachers in schools. The results imply that head teachers with a democratic style of leadership are generally considered appropriate and are more appreciated. The results also concluded that most teachers were motivated and satisfied with head teacher's leadership styles however some of the teachers experienced autocratic leadership styles which negatively affect their performance, and they were afraid of being blamed in case of a mistake or unforeseen incidents. It is believed that head teachers who have autocratic leadership style create a closed climate and these types of head teachers are considered to be unfriendly and uncongenial who just focus on the requirement of effort but fail to work themselves.

However, the overall result indicates that there was a positive impact of head teacher's leadership styles on teachers' job satisfaction which is a good sign for the individual stability and for the institutional growth. Mostly head teachers had a democratic leadership style as compared to autocratic and Laissez-faire leadership. Schools comprise intelligent individuals with some brilliant ideas which are vital in daily operations of school such as teachers who have the ability to effectively manage educational matters.

Democratic leaders build the environment of faith, respect as well as dedication. Head teachers believe that democracy is the appropriate strategy in schools to make a better environment since different departments are related to each other in the schools. Thus, the success of school lies in the mutual cooperation of all the departments. Few head teachers concluded that the democratic leadership style was not applied by them at all, as due to the lack of major capabilities and competencies in the staff. They felt that teachers could not work as per requirement unless they are strictly supervised. Furthermore, this research concluded that Laissez-faire leadership style is not at all appropriate in schools as schools are the places where next generations are groomed, for this purpose teachers need to be motivated to teach from their heart rather being made to work under strict authority.

Furthermore, delegation without any follow-up results in the problematic issues and weak performance that eventually affects the reputation of schools.

Findings and Recommendations

Leadership style of the school head has an impact on the job satisfaction and work motivation of the staff working under their command. In schools' setting, democratic leadership styles have a positive impact on teachers' job satisfaction and work motivation which is a good sign for the individual growth and for the school performance at large.

The study suggests that element of promotional perspective, more opportunities such as in-service training to develop the teachers, must be enhanced. The study also suggests school management to produce modality to enhance the job performance of teachers and keeping them satisfied. Moreover, head teachers must enhance their support to motivate the teachers and enhance their job satisfaction. The study proposes some elements of the reward system for example fringe benefits, acknowledgement by the school management, and job security should be improved in schools.

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Date:Jun 30, 2019
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