Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with systolic anterior motion of the posterior mitral leaflet / Hipertrofik kardiyomiyopatide mitral kapagin arka yaprakciginin sistolik on hareketi.
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Systolic anterior motion selectively of the PML with posterior leaflet-septal contact is not exceptional in generating LV outflow tract obstruction in patients with HCM being identifiable in about 10% of previously studied series of patients (1-3). It is difficult to isolate one causative factor for SAM, given the complex interplay of mechanical and flow factors contributing to it The initial mechanism proposed for the etiology of SAM was the increased flow velocity and decreased pressure above the valve caused by the hypertrophied interventricular septum, (the Venturi effect) (4). The more recently investigated mechanism concerns the decrease in effective posterior restraint (increased leaflet slack) caused by anterior redirection of papillary muscle tension; increased length of the residual leaflet, which is relatively free to move anteriorly, unlike the coapted leaflet bodies; and interposition of the leaflets into the path of outflow with the potential to cause drag forces (pushing forces of flow) (5, 6).
The present case reinforces the notion that SAM is mostly due to the drag flow phenomenon and not to the Venturi effect According to Sherrid et al. (7) Venturi flow in the outflow tract cannot be lifting the posterior leaflet because there is little or no area of this leaflet exposed to outflow tract flow and also the PML is shielded and separated from outflow tract flow by the cowl of the anterior leaflet (7). Finally, it should be emphasized that patients with obstructive HCM often have primary structural abnormalities of the mitral apparatus, including displacement of the papillary muscles anteriorly and toward one another with a concomitant anterior shift of the mitral valve, as well as elongated and slack leaflets with altered coaptation (5,7). These findings suggest that HCM is a disease not only of the muscle, but also of the mitral valve and reinforce the hypothesis that primary changes in the mitral apparatus and, in particular, papillary muscle displacement, can be a primary cause of SAM, independent of septal hypertrophy.
In conclusion, SAM selectively of the posterior mitral leaflet with posterior leaflet-septal contact is not exceptional in generating LV outflow tract obstruction in patients with HCM. Furthermore, it suggests that the drag forces are more important than Venturi effect for causing SAM.
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(3.) Moro E, ten Cate FJ, Leonard JJ, Roeland J. Prevalence of systolic anterior motion of the mural (posterior) leaflet of the mitral valve in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: an echocardiographic study. Int J Cardiol 1987; 17: 197-205.
(4.) Spirito P, Maron BJ. Significance of left ventricular outflow tract cross-sectional area in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: a two-dimensional echocardiographic assessment. Circulation 1983; 67: 1100-8.
(5.) Levine RA, Vlahakes GJ, Lefebvre X, Guerrero L, Cape EG, Yoganathanet AP, et al. Papillary muscle displacement causes systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve. Circulation 1995; 91: 1189-95.
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(7.) Sherrid MV, Gunsburg DZ, Moldenhauer S, Pearle G. Systolic anterior motion begins at low left ventricular outflow tract velocity in obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. J Am Coll Cardiol 2000; 36:1344-54.
Georgios K. Efthimiadis, Haralambos Karvounis,
Georgios Giannakoulas, Despina Parcharidou, Georgios E. Parcharidis
Cardiology Department, AHEPA Hospital,
Aristotle University, Thessaloniki, Greece
Address for Correspondence: Georgios K. Efthimiadis, MD, 30 Agias Sofias Str, 546 23, Thessaloniki, Greece Phone: +302310994830 Fax: +302310994673 E-mail: email@example.com
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|Title Annotation:||Original Images / Orijinal Goruntuler|
|Author:||Efthimiadis, Georgios K.; Karvounis, Haralambos; Giannakoulas, Georgios; Parcharidou, Despina; Parch|
|Publication:||The Anatolian Journal of Cardiology (Anadolu Kardiyoloji Dergisi)|
|Article Type:||Case study|
|Date:||Sep 1, 2007|
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