Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: low frequency of mutations in the [beta]-myosin heavy chain (MYH7) and cardiac troponin T (TNNT2) genes among Spanish patients.
The genes involved in HC encode proteins of the sarcomere (5). The first HC locus was mapped to the long arm of chromosome 14 (14q1) (7). The gene encodes the [beta]myosin heavy chain (MYH7) gene, and >50 different mutations have been identified worldwide (8-11). Overall, MYH7 would be mutated in 10-30% of families, whereas the genes encoding cardiac troponin T (TNNT2) on chromosome 1q3, [beta]tropomyosin (TPMA) on chromosome 15q2, and myosin-binding protein C (MYBPC) on chromosome 11p11.2 are responsible for another 15-30% (12-16). Recently, mutations in other genes, such those that encode for the myosin essential and regulatory light chains, cardiac troponin I (TNNI3), and titin, have been identified in some HC patients (17-19).
MYH7 is a large gene, expanding for ~25 kb of the genome, and contains 40 exons. The complete sequencing of MYH7 in HC patients suggests that most mutations are located in exons 8-24, which encode the globular head of the protein. Some of these mutations would be of prognostic significance. Thus, mutations Arg403Gln, Arg719Trp, and Arg453Cys are commonly associated with an unfavorable prognosis, and carriers have a high risk of sudden death with a reduced average lifespan. Carriers of other MYH7 mutations would have a normal (Gly256Glu, Val606Met, Leu908Val) or an intermediate (Arg249Gln, Glu930Lys) risk of premature sudden death (10, 20-22).
The cardiac troponin T protein links the troponin complex to tropomyosin in the sarcomere (23). The TNNT2 gene expands for ~25 kb of the genome and contains 15 exons. The complete sequencing of TNNT2 in HC patients suggests that most mutations are located in exons 8, 9, 11, and 14-16 (11), although the molecular mechanisms by which most of these mutations produce the HC phenotype remain to be elucidated. Some of the TNNT2 mutations were associated with an adverse prognosis, and this raised the possibility that the identification of mutations in this gene may identify individuals at high risk of SCD, who would benefit from the implantation of a cardioverter defibrillator. Because some of the TNNT2 mutations have been associated with a high incidence of SCD in spite of minimal hypertrophy, the analysis of this gene could be of special interest in asymptomatic individuals with a family history of SCD (22, 24-26).
To establish the incidence of MYH7 and TNNT2 mutations in our population, we analyzed the most frequently mutated exons in 30 patients who had an essential form of myocardial hypertrophy.
Materials and Methods
Patients and controls
A total of 30 unrelated patients were evaluated (16 males and 14 females; mean age at diagnosis, 44 years; range, 18-60 years). They were identified through the patient register of the Cardiology Department of Hospital Central Asturias, which is the reference center for the region of Asturias (Northern Spain; total population, 1 million). The main clinicopathologic findings of these patients are summarized in Table 1. The diagnosis of HC was based on the presence of a maximal left ventricular wall thickness of at least 13 mm on two-dimensional echocardiography. The absence of other causes for ventricular hypertrophy, such as hypertension, aortic stenosis, physical exercise, or the use of some drugs, was confirmed in each patient. We also performed electrocardiographic and echocardiographic examinations on the available first-degree relatives of each patient. A total of 25 cases (80%) had at least one first-degree relative who was also diagnosed with HC and/or SCD. All individuals gave informed consent to participate in the study, which was approved by the Ethical Committee of Hospital Central Asturias.
To confirm the absence of any new putative mutation in the MYH7 and TNNT2 in healthy individuals, we genotyped a total of 200 controls. These were blood bank donors and staff personnel of Hospital Central Asturias, younger than 60 years [mean (SD) age, 37 (15) years], and did not have a history of cardiovascular disease, including HC. However, they were not evaluated echocardiographically, and we can not discard the presence of asymptomatic HC in some of them.
MYH7 and TNNT2 SEQUENCING
Genomic DNA was prepared from peripheral blood leukocytes with use of a salting-out method (27). Exons 8, 9, 13-16, 19, 20, 22-24, and 30 of the MYH7 gene, as well as the corresponding intron-exon boundaries (numbered according to the GenBank sequence no. AJ238393), and exons 8, 9, 11, and 14-16 of the TNNT2 gene, as well as the corresponding exon-intron boundaries (GenBank sequence AY044273), were sequenced in the 30 patients. Genomic DNA was PCR-amplified with the primer pairs summarized in Tables 2 and 3. Each amplification was performed in a total volume of 30 [micro]L and consisted of 32 cycles of 30 s at 95 [degrees]C, 1 min at the annealing temperature (Tables 2 and 3), and 1 min at 72 [degrees]C. PCR products were electrophoresed on a 2% low-melting agarose gel, and the fragments were excised from the gel, purified with spin columns (DNA gel extraction Kit; Millipore), and subjected to direct sequencing on an ABI Prism 310 Genetic Analyzer. Both strands were sequenced using the PCR primers and ddRhodamine-Terminator Cycle Sequencing (PE Biosystems).
MYH7 and TNNT2 GENOTYPING
Single-strand conformation analysis (SSCA) was used to genotype the putative mutations in all available relatives of each patient carrying the change, as well as in 200 healthy controls. In addition, the SSCA electrophoretic patterns corresponding to the 12 MYH7 exons and the 6 TNNT2 exons were analyzed in the 30 patients and in 30 healthy controls. Each genomic DNA was amplified in a final volume of 15 [micro]L with the appropriate primer pairs (Tables 2 and 3). After 32 PCR cycles, each reaction was mixed with 30 [micro]L of formamide and denatured at 95 [degrees]C; 5 [micro]L of this mixture was then electrophoresed on 6% polyacrylamide gels (5.8% acrylamide-0.2% bisacrylamide; 50 cm in length) containing 100 mL/L glycerol. Electrophoresis was for 18 h at 20 W and room temperature. The gel was silver-stained, and the electrophoretic patterns were visualized to define each genotype.
We found a previously described MYH7 mutation in a 44-year-old woman with a mild form of HC, mother of a son who had died from sudden death at age 17 years. This mutation (9090 C>T; Arg453Cys) has previously been linked to HC in several families and was identified as an abnormal SSCA pattern in the patient, whereas the 200 healthy controls showed a wild-type electrophoretic pattern.
We found a previously reported TNNT2 mutation in a 60-year-old woman (patient 25) with a severe form of HC (concentric; with a septum of 22 mm). This mutation (19159 C>T; Arg278Cys) has previously been linked to HC. This patient was the only symptomatic patient in the family. However, the mutation was also present in a sister (55 years) and in the patient's daughter (35 years), and the two did not have cardiac hypertrophy. Patient 25 had an abnormal SSCA electrophoretic pattern compared with the 200 healthy controls.
One patient had a mutation in the MYH7 gene not described previously. Patient 23 (a 28-year-old female) had severe cardiac hypertrophy and required a heart transplant. She had an A-to-G change at nucleotide 13103, a missense change at codon 822 (Val>Met) in exon 22 (Fig. 1). This patient was negative for mutations in the TNNT2 gene and did not have a family history of HC or SCD. The two parents and two brothers, the only available relatives, were healthy, and direct sequencing showed that they did not carry the mutation (paternity was confirmed through the analysis of 10 microsatellite markers; data not shown). SSCA showed an abnormal electrophoretic pattern in patient 23 and a wild-type pattern in the 200 healthy controls (Fig. 2). In this way, 822Met would be a de novo mutation linked to a severe form of HC.
[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]
We also found patient with a new putative mutation in the TNNT2 gene: a 60-year-old woman with severe HC (23 mm septum) who had an A-to-G change at nucleotide 17085, a missense mutation at codon 247 (Lys>Arg) in exon 14 (Fig. 1). SSCA identified this mutation as an abnormal electrophoretic pattern in the patient, whereas a wild-type pattern was observed in the 200 healthy controls (Fig. 2). This patient was negative for mutations in the MYH7 gene, was the only available individual in the family, and did not have a recognized family history of cardiac hypertrophy or SCD.
SSCA of the 12 MYH7 exons in the 30 patients and in 30 controls revealed three common polymorphisms: in exon 8 (6511 T/C; a silent change for Phe), exon 24 (14410 T/C; a silent change for Ile), and intron 19 (12215 T/A). Analysis of the six TNNT2 exons showed a common polymorphism in exon 9 (13150 T/C; a silent change for 106 Ile).
[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]
We sequenced 12 exons encoding the head and hinge regions of the MYH7 gene, as well as 6 exons in the TNNT2 gene, in 30 unrelated HC patients. According to previous reports, these exons would contain most of the MYH7 and TNNT2 mutations found in HC patients (4-6, 11). Exon 30 of MYH7 encodes amino acids in the rod-like domain and was included in the study because a previous report described a mutation in several patients with a mild form of HC (28). Because the 30 cases had an essential form of HC, not secondary to any other clinico-pathologic condition, they would represent individuals predisposed to develop HC, likely carriers of mutations in any of the genes linked to this disease. A total of 25 cases had at least one affected relative, including 9 patients with a family history of sudden death, and only 5 cases did not have a recognized family history of HC or SCD.
Our work also illustrates the main difficulties in the genetic analysis of this disease. The mutations can be located in one of several very large genes, and most of the affected families do not have sufficient members to allow statistically significant chromosome linkage analysis. It is not currently possible to establish a correlation between the presence of a mutation in one of the sarcomeric genes and a particular phenotype (2, 5). Moreover, the same mutation can be found in individuals with different clinical manifestations (26). However, it is widely accepted that mutations in the MYH7 gene predispose to the development of severe HC, whereas mutations in the TNNT2 are frequently linked to a high risk of SCD in individuals with or without hypertrophy (2, 4).
One patient, a 28-year-old woman with severe HC, had a nonsilent change (Val822Met) in exon 22 of MYH7. This was the only individual affected in the family, and the two parents were healthy and did not have the mutation. This patient did not have TNNT2 mutations, and the MYH7 mutation was absent in 200 healthy controls. In addition, 822Val is conserved among the vertebrates, and a Val>Met mutation in codon 606 of MYH7 has been linked to the disease in several families (10, 29). These data suggest that this is a de novo mutation linked to a severe form of HC. De novo mutations in the MYH7 gene have previously been described in at least two patients (30, 31). In addition to this de novo mutation, we found a previously described mutation in a 44-year-old woman with a mild form of HC and a family history of sudden death. This mutation (Arg453Cys) has been linked to an unfavorable HC outcome (10). We also identified two TNNT2 mutations (Lys247Arg and Arg278Cys). One (K247R), a new putative mutation not previously described, was present in one patient and absent in the 200 healthy controls. The R278C mutation was found in a 60-year-old woman with severe hypertrophy, whereas her sister and her daughter were carriers and showed normal echocardiographic values. Functional analysis showed that this mutation increased the [Ca.sup.2+] sensitivity of the myofibrillar ATPase activity (32). Watkins et al. (13) found the same mutation in a girl who was resuscitated after cardiac arrest at age 17, in spite of having normal ventricular wall measurements. These findings illustrate the dissociation between TNNT2 mutations and the severity of clinically demonstrable HC.
According to previous reports, mutations in the MYH7 exons analyzed in our study would be found in up to 40% of patients, whereas TNNT2 mutations would be responsible for another 10-15% of occurrences (5, 6). However, a very low rate of MYH7 mutations has also been found in other populations, such as a Finnish population (33). Most of the authors of these reports used SSCA to search for mutations in these genes. Approximately 20% of the nucleotide changes are not detected by this technique, and these studies could have underestimated the true incidence of MYH7 and TNNT2 mutations. Because our patients were analyzed through direct sequencing, we can conclude that mutations in the 12 MYH7 exons and in the 6 TNNT2 exons analyzed would be very rare in our patients and would explain <15% of the HC cases in our population. However, we analyzed individuals with a demonstrated hypertrophy, and TNNT2 mutations have been linked to a high risk of SCD without hypertrophy. It is thus possible that we underestimated the true incidence of TNNT2 mutations, which should be revealed through the analysis of genomic DNA from cases who have suffered SCD, even if they do not have a family history of hypertrophy or SCD.
Finally, we sequenced 12 MYH7 exons, representing ~3000 coding nucleotides, and 6 TNNT2 exons, representing ~1500 coding nucleotides. In addition to the patients, we also analyzed the 18 exons in 30 controls through SSCA. Thus, our data would indicate the degree of genetic variability in these regions of MYH7 and TNNT2 in our population. Interestingly, only three silent polymorphisms were identified, in exons 8 and 24 of the MYH7 gene and in exon 9 of the TNNT2 gene. This low variability suggests a strong selective pressure against nucleotide changes that could predispose to the development of HC and is in agreement with a previous report that described a very low incidence of sequence variation in MYH7 (34).
In conclusion, we describe two TNNT2 and two MYH7 mutations among 30 HC patients. Two of these were known mutations, and two were new (not previously described). One of them (MYH7; Val822Met) was a de novo mutation (not present in the parents of the affected patient). In addition, our study illustrates the extreme phenotypic heterogeneity in carriers of MYH7 or TNNT2 mutations and the difficulty in translating to the clinical practice data derived from the genetic analysis of sarcomeric genes.
This work was supported in part by a grant from FICYT-Principado de Asturias (to E.C.) and the Spanish Fondo de Investigaciones Sanitarias-Red Tematica de Centros (Gene tica). M.G.C. was the recipient of a fellowship from Sociedad Asturiana de Cardiologia.
Received January 2, 2003; accepted May 19, 2003.
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Monica Garcia-Castro,  Julian R. Reguero,  Alberto Batalla,  Beatriz Diaz-Molina,  Pelayo Gonzalez,  Victoria Alvarez,  Arturo Cortina,  Gustavo I. Cubero,  and Eliecer Coto [1 *]
 Genetica Molecular-Instituto de Investigacion Nefrologica (IRSINFRIAT) and  Servicio de Cardiologia, Hospital Central de Asturias, 33006 Oviedo, Spain.  Servicio de Cardiologia, Hospital de Cabuenes, 33394 Gijon, Spain.
* Address correspondence to this author at: Genetica Molecular, Hospital Central de Asturias (Maternidad), 33006 Oviedo, Spain. Fax 34-985-27-36-57; e-mail email@example.com.
 Nonstandard abbreviations: HC, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; SCD, sudden cardiac death; and SSCA, single-strand conformation analysis.
Table 1. Main characteristics of the 30 patients with cardiac hypertrophy. M/F, n 16/14 Mean (range) age at diagnosis, years 46 (18-60) Left ventricular wall thickness, n 13-16 mm 5 (16%) 17-19 mm 7 (23%) >19 mm 18 (61%) Concentric hypertrophy, n 11 Asymmetric septal hypertrophy, n 19 HC with gradient (range, 16-130 mmHg), n 16 Family history of HC, n 16 (54%) Mean (range) age, years 44 (24-60) No family history of HC, n 14 (46%) Mean (range) age, years 37 (20-56) No family history of HC and/or SCD, n 5 (13%) Table 2. Primers and PCR conditions for analysis of the MYH7 gene. Annealing temperature, Exon Primer sequence, 5'-3' [degrees]C 8 + 9 Forward CTCTCACCTGCCTCCTTCTTGG Reverse GCTGAGCCTAGCAGATTCATGG 60 13 Forward CAGGCATGAACCACACACCTG Reverse TCTCATCCCACCATGCCAGT 66 14 Forward TCACTCTTCCCAACAACCCTG Reverse AGAAATAGCTGTTGAATGTGGG 62 15 Forward GCACAGCCCCAATGGCCA Reverse ATGTGTTCTTGTTGGTGTCG 62 16 Forward GCAGAATCCATGTCACCTGTGTGA Reverse AATTGACCTGGCTCAGAACCTTG 64 19 + 20 Forward ATCAGAACCCAGAACTTCAGTCCAGT Reverse AGCATCAGAGGAGTCAATGGAA 60 22 Forward GGTTTCAGGACCTCAGGTAGGAA Reverse CTTCTCTAGCGCCTCTTTGAGG 62 23 Forward CAAGAATGGAGGACCTTACCCC Reverse CTGAGAGTCCTGATGACCCG 60 24 Forward GCACCAAGCTGGTGACCTTTGA Reverse CTGGGCACAGATAGACATGGCATA 63 Forward GACCAACAGTTCTCCAAGAA 30 Reverse TGGGATCTGCTGAGGCT 65 Length of the amplified Exon Primer sequence, 5'-3' product, bp 8 + 9 Forward CTCTCACCTGCCTCCTTCTTGG Reverse GCTGAGCCTAGCAGATTCATGG 318 13 Forward CAGGCATGAACCACACACCTG Reverse TCTCATCCCACCATGCCAGT 250 14 Forward TCACTCTTCCCAACAACCCTG Reverse AGAAATAGCTGTTGAATGTGGG 270 15 Forward GCACAGCCCCAATGGCCA Reverse ATGTGTTCTTGTTGGTGTCG 290 16 Forward GCAGAATCCATGTCACCTGTGTGA Reverse AATTGACCTGGCTCAGAACCTTG 380 19 + 20 Forward ATCAGAACCCAGAACTTCAGTCCAGT Reverse AGCATCAGAGGAGTCAATGGAA 560 22 Forward GGTTTCAGGACCTCAGGTAGGAA Reverse CTTCTCTAGCGCCTCTTTGAGG 380 23 Forward CAAGAATGGAGGACCTTACCCC Reverse CTGAGAGTCCTGATGACCCG 350 24 Forward GCACCAAGCTGGTGACCTTTGA Reverse CTGGGCACAGATAGACATGGCATA 284 Forward GACCAACAGTTCTCCAAGAA 30 Reverse TGGGATCTGCTGAGGCT 350 Table 3. Primers and PCR conditions used for analysis of the TNNT2 exons. Annealing PCR primer sequences, temperature, Fragment Exon 5'-3' [degrees]C size, bp 8 Forward GCCCTGCCTGTCCTGGACAC Reverse CCCACCTATGCTCTACCCCAG 68 263 9 Forward GTCTAGCCCACCCATCTCTCCT Reverse GAGGTGGGGCCTCACAAAAG 65 265 11 Forward TAAAGACCACAAGCTTCAGC Reverse TGCTGCAGTGGACACCTCAT 62 265 14 Forward GGCCGGGACCAGGACGGAG Reverse CAGGGACCTGCAGCAGTATTACC 65 252 15 Forward CCTGGACCTGAGCCAGT Reverse AAGGTAGGGAAGGAGGGGG 57 161 16 Forward CATGGTGACCTACTACCCTGC Reverse GTGTGGGGGCAGGCAGGA 66 263
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|Title Annotation:||Molecular Diagnostics and Genetics|
|Author:||Garcia-Castro, Monica; Reguero, Julian R.; Batalla, Alberto; Diaz-Molina, Beatriz; Gonzalez, Pelayo;|
|Date:||Aug 1, 2003|
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