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Hungarian vocal music, with an introduction to Hungarian lyric diction, Part 1.

HUNGARIAN VOCAL MUSIC has traditionally been something of a terra incognita for musicians outside Hungary itself. Chances are that even the most seasoned singers, voice teachers, and coaches will have encountered Hungarian vocal texts rarely, if at all, and would have difficulty naming more than a very few vocal works set to Hungarian texts. Like Czech, Hungarian is a primary language of central Europe, spoken by millions. Yet in recent decades, the world has embraced Czech vocal music sung in the original language in a way that it has not done for Hungarian. This is due in large part to the popularity of operas and songs by Dvorak, Smetana, Janacek, which the public has come to expect performed in the original tongue. With the exception of Bartok's Duke Bluebeard's Castle, Hungarian opera has not gained a comparable foothold in the repertory, and the most important composers of Hungarian opera before the mid-twentieth century were nationalists like Erkel and Mosonyi, who have not enjoyed comparable fame beyond native borders. Hungary's most renowned composer, Franz Liszt, was a cosmopolitan who wrote vocal music prolifically, albeit not opera--yet rarely are his vocal works in the language of his home country. He penned eighty-six songs for solo voice and piano, only three of which are to Hungarian texts, compared with fourteen French, five Italian, one Russian, one French, and the remainder in German. (1) The late nineteenth century Hungarian composers who gained considerable fame in the world of operetta, such as Kalman, Jacobi, and Lehar, did so on Austrian turf, writing Viennese operetta indistinguishable in style from those of Johann Strauss Jr., Oscar Straus, Benatzky, Heuberger, Mill6cker, and Suppe--and, of course, in German. Sigmund Romberg, in spite of his Germanic-sounding name, was a Hungarian who found his niche in the United States, composing derivative Viennese operettas in English. Many musicians of Hungarian heritage, from the time of Liszt on, have attained fame throughout mainstream Europe, without overt nationalist leanings, or an obvious indebtedness to that heritage--Stephen Heller, Karl (Karoly) Goldmark, Joseph Joachim, Franz Lehar, Leopold Auer, Miklos Rozsa, Georg Szell, Antal Dorati, and Georg Solti, to name a few.

There are a number of reasons why Hungarian vocal music is not as visible in western Europe and North America than Czech, or for that matter Polish, Norwegian, and Finnish. Part of this is inherent in the language itself. As a Finno-Ugric language with no affinity to any other European language apart from Finnish, it is the "odd-fellow," perched geographically in the midst of many Romance, Germanic, and Slavic tongues, yet partaking of none. German, French, or Slavic-language speakers cannot comprehend spoken Hungarian as a "second-cousin" language to their own, as exists, for instance, between Dutch and German, or between Norwegian and Swedish. Like Turkish or Greek, it has a foreignness, so to speak, that discourages acceptance into the mainstream of European culture, at least linguistically.

The nationalists of the nineteenth century lived in an environment that viewed the gypsy folk tradition of Budapest as indigenous Hungarian folk music. Verbunkos and csardas idioms pervade the music of these composers when they sought to evoke nationalist sentiment. Since the field research of Bartok and Kodaly, of course, both the awareness of indigenous Hungarian folk music and the political/cultural landscape of the country has altered enormously. For the past century a vast kaleidoscope of musical activity within Hungary's borders has gone largely unnoticed by the mainstream of Western art music, apart from the international reputation of the Kodaly method of music education, and the few "export" composers who have been, if anything, more active in the international scene than at home. Musicians can no longer afford to ignore the wealth of vocal repertory in Hungarian.

OPERA AND OPERETTA

Operatic performance in Hungary prior to 1800 was nonnative. Visiting Italian troupes toured the main centers, and resident staged performances were limited to aristocratic courts such as that of Prince Esterhazy, without whom Haydn would have had no occasion to compose for the stage. Attempts at a native Hungarian opera in the Singspiel tradition began tentatively in 1793, but the beginning of opera in Hungarian belongs to the Hungarian National Theatre, whose music director, Joszef Ruzitska, conducted his own Bela Kiraly Futdsa (King Bela's Escape) and Kemeny Simon in 1822. The most significant operatic composer in Hungary in the nineteenth century was the principal conductor of the new National Theatre, Ferenc Erkel, whose Bank ban (based on a banned play about a thirteenth century revolt against the queen's court) has survived as the most famous Hungarian opera from that century. (2) The influence of the native verbunkos style is evident in the score, which is also notable as the first instance of the use of the cimbalom in composed music. Of the several other composers active in opera at the time, Gyorgy Csaszar (A kunok [1848]) and Ferenc Doppler (Benyovszky [1847] and Ilka [1849]) could be singled out. Imported opera in Italian, German, and French continued to have a presence, providing a cosmopolitan flame of reference for Hungarian composers and a concomitant impetus for the creation of works uniquely Hungarian. In subsequent generations, and throughout the twentieth century, native Hungarian opera and operetta have enjoyed continuous popularity nationally, albeit with little recognition outside the confines imposed by the geographic limits in which Hungarian is spoken. Most people outside those confines, professional musicians included, are likely to have difficulty naming any composers of Hungarian opera or their titles, beyond the few that have attained international status, such as Bart6k's Duke Bluebeard's Castle, and Kodaly's Hary Janos and Szekely fono (The Transylvanian Spinningroom). Emil Petrovics and Sandor Szokolay are post-mid-century composers who have attained fame for Hungarian opera beyond national borders. A few prominent Hungarian composers of recent generations have written stage works in other languages, for performance outside Hungarian borders, such as Ligeti's only opera, Le grand macabre (1978), and J6zsef Sfiri's Sonnenfinsternis (2000). One of Hungary's most renowned twentieth century composers, Andras Szollosy, has written extensively for the theater and for film, as well as vocal works, but no opera in the traditional sense.

A list of the most significant Hungarian stage works since 1822 is provided as a means of raising awareness of this rich repertory, and as a convenient reference tool for the reader who desires to explore further. Although extensive, it is a representative list, not a comprehensive one (Table 1).

SONG LITERATURE

The paucity of Hungarian songs by Liszt was noted earlier. Indeed, Liszt's most well known song with a Gypsy/ Hungarian flavor is actually in German: "Die drei Zigeuner." Liszt's preoccupation with Roma, style hongrois musical style, as illustrated in this song, his Hungarian Rhapsodies for piano, and many other works, is not to be confused with his works exhibiting Hungarian patriotic sentiment. Liszt became more interested in his homeland heritage in later life, although he never fully mastered the language. His three songs to Hungarian texts--"Isten veled" "Magyar kiraly-dal," and "A magyarok Istene" (all of which have German performing translations as well)--belong to the latter category. Liszt preferred instrumental genres for nationalistic display, such as his Funfungarische Volkslieder, Sieben historische ungarische Bildnisse, and Magyar Dallok for piano, and the Rdkoczy March for orchestra. A curiosity is Liszt's extended melodrama for narrator and piano, A holt kolto szerelme (The Dead Poet's Love), about a Hungarian poet who disappeared during the 1849 War of Independence.

As in other countries, Hungarian composers such as Bartdk, Dohnanyi, and Kodaly have made many arrangements of native folksongs, published with titles such as Magyar nepdalok (Hungarian Folksongs) and Magyar nepzene (Hungarian Folk Music). Few art song settings of Hungarian poets have attained popularity in the West, with the exception of Bartak (the Opp. 15 and 16 Ot dal) and Kodaly (Megkesett melodiak, Op. 6; Ot dal, Op. 9; Harom enek, Op. 14). Not all Hungarian composers of international fame have contributed significantly to the repertory for solo voice, nor are those who have made important contributions necessarily well known outside their national borders. Balassa, Farkas, Kosa, Orban, Rozsa, and Szokolay, for instance, are among the most prolific and significant composers of Hungarian art song in the decades since Bartok and Kodaly. Conversely, Ligeti's fame is not based primarily upon his vocal output. Kurtag is the exception, having attained a strong international reputation in addition to having made an important contribution to song in Hungarian.

Table 2 itemizes contributors to Hungarian song that will guide those who wish to delve further into this repertory. The titles of only a few specific works are given, based upon relative availability of scores rather than any value judgment or individual preference.

CHORAL LITERATURE (WITH OR WITHOUT SOLI)

One result of Hungary's rich tradition in music education has been the proliferation, especially in the twentieth century, of choral works to Hungarian texts, with or without soloists. Although a large number of sacred works by Hungarian composers are naturally set to Latin liturgical texts, a large corpus of secular (and sacred) choral works in the vernacular has been steadily growing since the time of Bart6k and Kodaly. With Kodaly especially, many of these are didactic in nature, based on folk song, and for treble voices. In the wake of Kodaly, the composers Durko, Farkas, Karai, Kocsar, Orban, Sulyok, and Szokolay in particular have contributed greatly to Hungarian choral literature, and recent choral works in Latin by Jozsef Soproni and Zoltan Jeney also have received much attention. Gyorgy Kurtag wrote choral music, but mostly to Russian texts. Ligeti wrote several a cappella choral works early in his career, but after Lux aeterna, his most famous choral work, wrote little in Hungarian. In the interest of space, a very selective list of a few representative works again must suffice (Table 3).

The Budapest Music Center is the source for the most up-to-date information on Hungarian music (online site in English at www.bmc.hu). Information is regularly updated on roughly 150 Hungarian composers, including works lists and recordings. At the time of writing, the BMC listed roughly 1400 choral works by Hungarian composers (over 80% of which are settings of Hungarian texts), and about 1100 scores for solo voice(s) with piano or chamber accompaniment.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Bellman, Jonathan, ed. The Exotic in Western Music. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1998.

Kroo, Gyorgy. "Hungarian Music since 1945," in Bence, Szabolcsi. A Concise History of Hungarian Music, 2nd ed. Budapest: Corvina Press, 1974.

Strimple, Nick. Choral Music in the Twentieth Century. Portland, OR: Amadeus Press, 2002.

Varga, Balint Andras, ed. Contemporary Hungarian Music in the International Press. Budapest: Editio Musica Budapest, 1982.

Wachsmuth, Karen. Bibliography of Twentieth-Century Hungarian Choral Music (American Choral Directors Association monographs 13). Lawton: American Choral Directors Association, 2002.

Willson, Rachel Becldes. Ligeti, Kurtag, and Hungarian Music during the Cold War. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

LINGUISTIC RESOURCES

Banhidi, Zoltan, Jokay Zoltan, and Denes Szabo. Learn Hungarian, 5th ed. Budapest: Tankonyvkiado, 1965.

Benko, L., and S. Imre, eds. The Hungarian Language. The Hague/ Paris: Mouton, 1972.

[International Phonetic Association]. Handbook of the International Phonetic Association. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999.

Magdics, Klara. Studies in the Acoustic Characteristics of Hungarian Speech Sounds (Indiana University Publications, Uralic & Altaic series 97). Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1969.

Olsson, Magnus. Hungarian Morphology and Phonology. Lund: Lund University Press, 1992.

Siptar, Peter, and Milkos Torkenczy. The Phonology of Hungarian (The Phonology of the World's Languages). Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2000.

Stephanides, Eva H., ed. Contrasting English with Hungarian (Studies in Modern Philology 2). Budapest: Akad4miai Kiado, 1986.

Vago, Robert M. The Sound Pattern of Hungarian. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 1980.

LEXICOGRAPHIC RESOURCES

Fekete, Laszlo. Magyar kiejtesi szotar. Budapest: Gondolat, 1992 (dictionary of pronunciation).

Magay, Tamas. Idegen nevek kiejtesi szotara. Budapest: Akademiai Kiado, 1986 (dictionary of pronunciation).

Magay, Tamas, and Laszlo Kiss. NTC's Hungarian and English Dictionary. Lincolnwood, IL: NTC Publishing Group, 1996.

Magay, Tamas, and Laszlo Orszagh. A Concise Hungarian-English Dictionary, 2nd ed. Oxford/Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1990.

NOTES

(1.) Data taken from the works list compiled by Rena Charnin Mueller, as presented in The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, Volume 14, 2nd ed. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001), 852-859.

(2.) The aria "Hazam hazam" from Bank ban is probably the most famous of all Hungarian opera arias. It and several other arias and songs in Hungarian are viewable online, in video clips of varying quality.

Lesie DeAth, Associate Editor

Leslie De'Ath is a Canadian vocal coach, pianist, and conductor. He is Professor in the Faculty of Music at Wilfrid Laurier University in Waterloo, Ontario, where he has taught since 1979. There he is Music Director of the Opera Program, teaches studio piano, and instructs performance literature and diction courses. His research interests, in addition to lyric diction and phonology, focus on unusual vocal and piano repertoire.

He is presently at work on research/recording projects of the complete piano music of Cyril Scott (on the Dutton Epoch label) and Florent Schmitt. Mr. De'Ath is the regular keyboard player with the Canadian Chamber Ensemble and the Kitchener-Waterloo Symphony, and has been a featured soloist with both groups on many occasions--in concert, on tour, and on CD. He has had a wide-ranging career as a vocal accompanist, chamber player, and vocal concert series administrator.

Andrew Rethazi holds an Honours Bachelor of Music in Voice Performance from Wilfrid Laurier University in Waterloo, Ontario, and is currently working on a Masters of Music in Voice Performance and Literature from the University of Western Ontario in London, Ontario. He also holds an ARCT in Piano Performance from the Royal Conservatory of Music in Toronto, Ontario. His anticipated doctoral study will focus on his interest in the intersection of language structure with music and its application to vocal repertoire. Mr. Rethazi has been actively involved in the arts communities of Toronto, Hamilton, and Kitchener-Waterloo, Ontario. He is the founding chairperson of the Waterloo Region chapter of Student NATS and the founding pianist for Ricochet Piano Trio, which has competed and performed nationally in Canada. He is also in the process of beginning a new opera company in Waterloo that will focus on the accessibility and sustainability of chamber opera in a minimalist setting.
TABLE 1. Opera and operetta in Hungarian.

Operettas and other lighter genres are identified with an asterisk.
The list is by composer, and chronological according to the earliest
premiere. It is by no means exhaustive, and itemizes only the most
significant works. Works in other languages by Hungarian com-posers
have not been included, although some listed operas have been
translated and performed outside native borders. In Hungarian, names
are traditionally given with the surname first: Kodaly Zoltan.
Commas between the composer's surname and first name are provided
here for the sake of familiarity for the reader. (a)

Composer       Hungarian title       Usual English title    Premiere

Ruzitska,      Bela Kiraly futasa    King Be1as Escape        1822
  Joszef                               [or ... Flight]
               Kemeny Simon          Simon Kemeny             1822
Bartay,        Csel                  The Ruse [or The         1839
  Andras                               Trick]
Rozsavolgyi,   Visegradi             The Treasure-seekers     1839
  Mark           Kincskeresok          of Visegrad
Erkel,         Batori Maria          Maria Batori             1840
  Ferenc       Hunyadi Laszlo        Lasz1o Hunyadi           1844
               Bank ban              Bank Ban [or Ban         1861
                                       Bank]
               Brankovics Gyorgy     Gyorgy Brankovics        1874
               Istvan Kiraly         King Stephen             1885
Thern,         Gizul                 Gizul                    1841
  Karoly
               Tihany ostroma        The Siege of Tihany      1845
               A kepzelt beteg       The Imaginary
                                       [Would-be] Invalid     1855
                                       [or The
                                       Hypochondriac]
Doppler,       Benyovszky            Benyovszky               1847
Ferenc         Ilka es               Ilka and the
                 a huszartoborzo       Recruiting of the      1849
                                       Hussars
Csaszar,       A kunok               The Cumanians            1848
  Gyorgy
Doppler,       *Granados tabor       The Grenadier Camp       1853
  Karoly
               *Wadou fia            Sons of the Desert       1854
               Erzsebet (b)          Elizabeth                1857
Bognar,        Tudor Maria           Maria Tudor              1856
  Ignac
               A fogadott leany      The Adopted Daughter     1862
Huber,         A Szekely leany       The Szekely Girl         1858
  Karoly
Mosonyi,       Szep Ilonka (c)       Pretty Helen             1861
  Mihaly
               Almos                 Almos                 [1862]/1934
Sztojanovics,  *Peking roszaja       The rose of Peking       1862
  Jeno
Farkas, Odon   A bajader             The Bayadere             1876
               A vezeklok            The Penitents            1893
               Tunderforras          Fairy Fountain           1893
               Balassa Balint        Balint Balassa           1896
               Tetemrehivas          Ordeal of the Bier       1900
Orczy, Bodog   A renegat (Il         The Renegade             1880
                 rinnegato) (d)
Sarosi,        Atala                 Atala                    1881
  Ferenc
Zichy, Geza    A var tortenete       Castle Story             1888
               A1ar                  Alar                     1896
               Roland mester         Master Roland            1899
               Nemo                  Nemo (pt. 2 of           1905
                                       trilogy)
               II Rakoczi Ferenz     Ferenc Rakoczi II
                                       (pt. 1 of trilogy)     1909
               Rodosto               Rodosto (pt. 3 of        1912
                                       trilogy)
Szabados,      *A negy kiraly        The Four Kings           1890
  Bela           (12 more
                  operettas)
               Maria                 Maria                    1905
               Bolond Istok          Foolish Steve            1922
               Fanni                 Fanni                    1927
Mihalovich,    Toldi szerelme        Toldi's Love             1893
  Odon
               Eliana                Eliana                   1908
Hubay, Jeno    A cremonai hegedas    The Violinist of         1894
                                       Cremona
               A falu rossza         The Village Vagabond     1896
               Lavotta szerelme      Lavotta's Love           1906
               Anna Karenina         Anna Karenina            1923
               Az alarc              The Mask                 1931
Siklos,        Fulko lovag           Knight Fulko             1896
  Albert
               A honapok haza        The House of Moons       1927
Agghazy,       Maritta, a korsos     Maritta, the Madonna     1897
  Karoly         Madonna               with jug
               A Ravennai nesz       The Wedding at           1918
                                       Ravenna
Poldini, Ede   Csavargo is           The Vagabond and the     1903
                 kiralyylany           Princess
               Farsangi lakodalom    Love Adrift              1924
               Hamupip Ake           Cinderella               1927
               Vadrozsa              Sleeping Beauty          1927
               Vasorru baba          The Iron-nosed Witch     1927
Kacsoh,        *Janos vitez          Hero John                1904
  Pongrac
               *Rakoczi              Rakoczi                  1906
               *Mary-Ann             Mary-Ann                 1908
Rekai, Nandor  A Nagyidai ciganyok   The Gypsies of           1906
                                       Nagyidai
               Gyorgy barat          Brother George           1910
               *Darius kincse        The Treasure of          1931
                                       Darius
Abranyi, Emil  Monna Vanna           Monna Vanna              1907
               Don Kichote           Don Quixote              1917
               Bizanc                Byzantium                1942
Kalman,        *Tatarjaras           The Gay Hussars          1908
  Emmeriche    *Az obsitos           The Soldier on Leave     1910
               *Zsuzsi kisasszony    Miss Springtime          1915
Bartok, Bela   A kekszakallu herceg  Duke Bluebeard's         1918
                 vira                  Castle, Op. 11
Lehar, Franz   *A pacsirta           The Lark                 1918
Dohnanyi,      A vajda tornya        The Vaivode's Tower,     1922
  Erno                                 Op. 30
               A tenor               The Tenor, Op. 34        1929
Kodaly,        Hary Janos            Hary Janos               1926
  Zoltan       Szekely fono          The Transylvanian        1932
                                       [or Szekely]
                                       Spinning-room
               Czinka Panna          Cinka Parma              1948
Kosa, Gyorgy   A kiraly palastja     The King's Cloak         1927
               Az ket lovagok        The Two Knights          1934
               Cenodoxus             Cenodoxus                1942
               Anselmas diak         Student Anselmus         1945
               Tartuffe              Tartuffe                 1951
               Pazman lovag          Pazman the Knight        1963
               Kocsonya Mihaly       The Marriage of          1971
                 hazassaga             Mihaly Kocsonya
Adam, Jeno     Magyar karacsony      Hungarian Christmas      1931
               Maria Veronika        Maria Veronika           1938
Veress,        Hangjegyek lazadasa   Revolt of the            1931
  Sandor                               Musical Notes
Kenessey,      Arany meg az asszony  Gold and the Woman       1942
  Jeno
Farkas,        A bavos szekreny      The Magic Cupboard     1942/1984
  Ferenc       Furfangos diakok      Artful Students          1949
               Csinom Palko          Palko Csinom           1951/1960
               *Zeng az erdo         The Resounding           1952
                                       Forest
               *Vok iskolaja         School for               1958
                                       Sons-in-law
               Vidroczki             Vidroczki              1964/1978
               A Noszty fiu esete    The Case of the
                 Toth Marival        Noszty boy with Mary     1971
                                       Toth
               Egy ur Velencebol,    A Gentleman from         1991
                 Casanova              Venice, Casanova
Lajtha,        A kek kalap           *The Blue Hat            1950
  Lasz1o
Kadosa, Pa1    A Huszti kaland       The Adventure at         1951
                                       Huszt
Kokai, Rezso   Leszen dgyu           There Shall be Guns      1951
                                       [or Cannons]
Sarkozy,       Szelistyei asszonyok  The Women of             1951
  Istvan                               Szelistyei
Ranki, Gyorgy  Pomade kiraly uj      King Pomade's New        1953
                 ruhaja                Clothes
               Egy szerelem harom    Three Nights of Love     1961
                 ejszakaja
               Az ember tragediaja   The Tragedy of Man       1970
               A holdbeli csonakos   The Boatman of the       1979
                                       Moon
               Vegelszamolas         Terminal                 1982
Horusitzky,    Bathory Zsigmond      Zsigmond Bathory       1955/1957
Zoltan           (+ 3 radio operas)
Hajdu, Mihaly  Kadar Kata            Mother, Listen           1957
Lang, Istvan   Pathelin mester       Master Pathelin          1958
               A nagy dramairo       The Great Dramatist
                                       (television opera)   1960/1974
               A gyava               The Coward               1968
               Alom a szinhazrol     A Dream about the        1984
                                       Theater
                                       (television opera)
Szonyi,        Firenzei tragedia     The Florentine           1960
  Erzsebet                             Tragedy
               Vidam sirato          Gay Lament               1980
               Adashiba              Break in                 1982
                                       Transmission
               Elfrida               Elfrida                  1985
Petrovics,     C'est la guerre       C'est la guerre,         1961
  Emil                                 Op. 11
               Lysistrate            Lysistrate, Op. 12       1962
               Ban es banhodes       Crime and                1969
                                       Punishment, Op. 19
Szokolay,      Vernasz               Blood Wedding,           1964
  Sandor                               Op. 26
               Hamlet                Hamlet, Op. 31           1968
               Samson                Samson, Op. 41           1973
               Csaloka Peter         Cheating Peter,          1978
                                       Op. 58
               Ecce homo             Ecce homo, Op. 92        1984
               Nathan der Wise       Nathan the Wise,         1994
                                       Op. 121
               Margit, a hasanak     Margit, a Sacrifice
                 szentelt aldozat      for the Homeland,      1995
                                       Op. 132
               Szavitri              Savitri, Op. 142         1998
Szabo, Ferenc  Legy jo mindhalalig   Be Good until your       1969
                                       Death
Lendvay,       A bavos szek          The Magic Chair          1972
  Kami11o      A tissztessegtudo     The Respectful           1978
                 utcalany              Prostitute
Eotvos, Peter  Radames               Radames                  1976
               Harom nover           Three Sisters            1998
               Le balcon             The Balcony              2002
               Angels in America     Angels in America        2004
Durko, Zsolt   Mozes                 Moses                    1977
Vajda, Janos   Barabbas              Barabbas (television     1977
                                       opera)
               Mario es a varazslo   Mario and the            1985
                                       Magician
               Leonce es Lena        Leonce and Lena          1996
Balassa,       As ajton kivul        The Man Outside,         1978
                                       Op. 27
  Sandor       A harmadik bolygo     The Third Planet,        1987
                                       Op. 39
               Karl es Anna          Karl and Anna,           1995
                                       Op. 41
               Foldindulas           Earthquake               2001
Vidovszky,     Narcisz es Echo       Narcissus and Echo     1981/1988
  Laszlo
Bozay, Attila  Csongor es Tunde      Csongor and Tunde,       1985
                                       Op. 31
               Az ot utolso szin     The Five Last            1999
                                       Scenes, Op. 42
Soproni,       Antigone              Antigone                 1987
  Joszef
Sary, Laszlo   Elekepek              Living Pictures          1993
               Adorjanok es Jenok    Adorjans and Jenos       1994
Rozsa, Pal     A hang                The Voice                1993
               Ludas Matyi           Ludas Matyi, Op. 270
                                       (children's opera)     1996
               Ubu kiraly            King Ubu Op. 344         1999
               A kopogas             The Knock, Op. 376       2000
Farago, Bela   A titok               The Secret               1994
               East Side Story       East Side Story          2000
Vajda,         Az oriascsecsemo      The Giant Baby           2002
  Gergely
               Barbie Blue           Barbie Blue              2006
Beischer-Matyo,Bosendorfer           Bosendorfer              2005
               Tragoedia             Tragoedia                2008

(a) Thanks largely to the national recording company Hungaroton,
several of these works have been made available commercially over
the years on LP and CD.

(b) The overture and Act I were by Ferenc (Franz) Doppler, and Act
II by Ferenc Erkel. Karoly Doppler composed Act III.

(c) Liszt composed a piano fantasy on melodies from Szep Ilonka in
1867 (S. 417).

(d) A musical amateur, Baron Orczy was the father of a more famous
daughter, Baroness Orczy, author of The Scarlet Pimpernel.

(e) The many German operettas of Kalman and Lehar, including the
translated revisions of those listed, have not been included.

TABLE 2. Hungarian song.

Composers deemed to have contributed most significantly to Hungarian
song are asterisked.

Composer                Hungarian title   Usual English title Premiere

Adam, Jeno
*Balassa, Sandor        Cantata Y         Cantata Y, Op. 21   1970
                                            (soprano,
                                            orch)
*Bartok, Be1a           Magyar nepdalok   Hungarian           1904-1907
                                            Folksongs
                                            (three sets)
                        Nyolc magyar      Eight Hungarian     1922
                          nepdal            Folksongs
                        Husz magyar       Twenty Hungarian    1929
                          nepdal            Folksongs
                        0t dal            Five Songs, Op. 15  1916
                        Ot dal            Five Songs, Op. 16  1916
*Beischer-Matyo, Tamas
Bozay, Attila           Papirszeletek     Paper Slips, Op. 5  1962
                                            (soprano,
                                           clarinet, cello)
*Decsenyi, Janos
Dohnanyi, Erno          Magyar nepdalok   Hungarian           1922
                                            Folksongs
Durko, Zsolt            Halotti beszed    Burial Prayer       1972
Eotvos, Peter
Farago, Be1a
*Farkas, Ferenc         Gyumolcskosar     Fruit Basket        1946
                          (over 200         (soprano,
                          songs)            chamber
                                            ensemble)
*Feher, Gyorgy Miklos
Grabocz, Miklos
Hollos, Mate
*Jeney, Zoltan          (many works for solo voice and piano
                         or chamber ensemble)
Kacsoh, Pongrac
Kadosa, Pa1
Kecskes, Andras
Kern, Aurel
*Kocsar, Mik1os         Kassak-dalok      Kassak-songs        1976
                                            (soprano,
                                            cimbalom, flute)
Kodaly, Zoltan          Negy dal          Four Songs          1907
                        Megkesett         Seven Songs, Op. 6  1916
                          melodiak
                        Ot dal            Five Songs, Op. 9   1918
                        Harom enek        Three Songs,        1924
                                            Op. 14
                        Magyar nepzene    Hungarian Folk      1932
                                            Music (57 folk
                                            songs)
Kondor, Adam
*Kosa, Gyorgy
*Kurtag, Gyorgy         Bornemisza Peter  The Sayings of      1968
                          mondosai          Peter
                                            Bornemisza,
                                            Op. 7
                        Negy dal          Four songs to       1975
                          Pilinszky       poems by Janos
                                            Pilinszky,
                        Janos verseire      Op. 11
                                            (baritone,
                                            chamber
                                            ensemble)
                        Eszka emlekzaj    S.K. Remembrance    1975
                                            Noise, Op. 12
                                            (soprano,
                                            violin)
Lendvay, Kami11o
Ligeti, Gyorgy          Negy lakodalmi    Four Wedding        1950
                          tanc              Dances
Liszt, Franz [Ferenc]
Maros, Rudolf           Ket sirato        Two Laments         1962
                                            (soprano,
                                            chamber
                                            ensemble)
Megyeri, Krisztina
Mihalovich, Odon
*Orban, Gyorgy          Ot kanon Jozsef   Five Canons to      1997
                          Attila          Poems by Attila
                          verseire        Jozsef (soprano, 9
                                          instrs)
                        Spanyol dalok     Spanish Songs       1997
                        Kilenc dal        Nine Songs [to      1997
                                          words by Sandor
                                            Weores]
*Petrovics, Emil        Fanni             Cantata no. 3,      1978
                          hagyomanyai       The Memoirs of
                                            Fanni
                                            (soprano,
                                            chamber
                                            ensemble)
Pocs, Katalin
*Rozsa, Pa1
Sari, Jozsef
*Sary, Lasz1o
Seiber, Matyas
Sugar, Mik1os
*Sugar, Rezso           Hunyadi: Hosi     Hunyadi: Heroic     1951
                          enek              Song
                        Paraszti haboru   Peasant War         1976
                        Savonarola        Savonarola          1979
*Sulyok, Imre
Szabo, Csaba
*Szokolay, Sandor
*Vajda, Janos
Vidovszky, Laszlo

TABLE 3. Hungarian choral works.

Composers deemed to have contributed most significantly to Hungarian
song are asterisked.

Composer                Hungarian title    Usual English      Premiere
                                           title

* Balassa, Sandor       Requiem Kassak     Requiem for          1969
                          Lajosert           Lajos Kassak
* Bardos, Lajos         A nyul neke        Song of the          1946
                                             Rabbit
                        A foldhoz          To the Earth         1951
                        Eji oran           In a Night Hour      1956
* Bartok, Be1a          Falun (Tri         Three Village        1926
                          dedinske           Scenes
                          sceny)
                        Cantata profana    Cantata profana      1931
Beischer-Matyo, Tamas   (c. 15)
Decsenyi, Janos         (c. 15)
Dobos, Kalman           (c. 20)
* Durko, Zsolt          Szechenyi          Szechenyi            1982
                        Pillanatkepek a    Snapshots from       1986
                          kalevalabol        Kalevala
                        The Revelation     The Revelation       1996
                          to St. John        to St. John
Farago, Be1a            (c. 10)
* Farkas, Ferenc        (over 200, from
                          1933-1999)
                          including:
                        Szent Janos        Fountain of St.      1945
                           kutja             John [or St.
                                             John's Well]
                        Bontott zaszlok    Flying Flags         1973
                        Vita poetae        Vita poetae          1976
Feher, Gyorgy Miklos    (c. 15)
Hollos, Mate
* Jeney, Zoltan         (c. 20)
Kadosa, Pal
* Karai, Jozsef         (over 50)
Kiraly, Laszlo
* Kocsar, Miklos        (over 100)
* Kodaly, Zoltan        Psalmus            Psalmuss             1923
                          hungaricus         hungaricu
                        Jezus is a         Jesus and thes       1934
                          kufarok            Trader
                        Matrai kepek       Matra Pictures       1931
                        Budavari Te Deum   Te Deum of           1936
                        (c. 130 total)       Budavar
* Kosa, Gyorgy          (c. 40)
Kurtag, Gyorgy
Lajtha, Laszlo
* Lang, Istvan          In memoriam N.N.   In memoriam N.N.     1971
Lendvay, Kamillo        Te1i reggel 1933   Winter Morning       1966
                                           1933
Nogradi, Peter          (c. 15)
* Orban, Gyorgy         (c. 90)
 *Petrovics, Emil       Jonds kdnyve       The Book of Jonah    1966
                        Ott essem el       Cantata no. 2,       1973
                          en ...             Dying in
                                             Action
                        Mind elmegyiink    Cantata no. 4,       1980
                                             We shall all
                                             pass
Rozsa, Pal              (c. 20)
Sir, Laszlo             (c. 10)
Sugar, Rezso            Hosi enek          Heroic Song          1951
                        (c. 20)
* Sulyok, Imre          (c. 90)
Szabados, Bela

Szabo, Csaba            (c. 25)
* Szabo, Ferenc         Meghalt Lenin      Lenin is Dead        1933
                        Foltamadott a      The Sea Rose Up      1955
                          tenger             [or In Fury
                                             Rose the
                                             Ocean]
Szervansky, Endre
* Szokolay, Sandor      (c. 150)
Szollbsy, Andras        (c. 5)
* Szonyi, Erzsebet      (several for
                          children's
                          chorus)
Toth, Peter             (c. 20)
Vajda, Janos            (c. 20)
Veress, Sandor          (c. 20)
Zombola, Peter          (c. 10)
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Title Annotation:LANGUAGE AND DICTION
Author:DeAth, Leslie; Rethazi, Andrew
Publication:Journal of Singing
Date:Jan 1, 2010
Words:4373
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