Printer Friendly

Humans as source of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in cattle, Spain.

To the Editor: Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the main causative agent of tuberculosis in humans. However, little attention has been paid to its transmission from humans to animals. We report M. tuberculosis infections in 3 cattle farms in Spain. The epidemiologic investigation traced humans as the source of infection, with 1 of the strains showing multidrug resistance.

Recent studies have reported isolation of M. tuberculosis in cattle with prevalences of 4.7%-30.8% in African and Asian countries (1-3). In cattle, this infection occurs in countries with the highest incidence of human tuberculosis in the world. In Europe, only 14 cases of M. tuberculosis infection have been described in 3 eastern countries since implementation of eradication programs (4,5). The only reported cases of M. tuberculosis in cattle in western Europe were described in Great Britain and date back to the 1950s (6).

During 2007-2009, three cases of tuberculosis caused by M. tuberculosis were detected in 3 unrelated cattle farms, 2 of them free of tuberculosis (farms 1 and 2). As part of the surveillance system of bovine tuberculosis, a pool of tissue samples from each cow (respiratory lymph nodes and lung) were homogenized with sterile distilled water, and culture was carried out by the BACTEC mycobacteria growth indicator tube 960 system (Beckton Dickinson, Madrid, Spain). Members of the M. tuberculosis complex were identified and genotyped by direct variable repeat spacer olig-nucleotide typing and mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable number tandem repeat (MIRU-VNTR) typing (7).

The 3 M. tuberculosis-infected animals were <9 months of age (Table). As described (6), the possibility of infection in young animals could be more probable than infection in older cows.

M. tuberculosis-infected animals from farms 1 and 3 were detected by the intradermal tuberculin test (Table). The animal without immunologic response (farm 2) was detected because an M. bovis infection was confirmed in the herd, and all animals were slaughtered. Confirmation of infection by culture without immunologic response is rare, although the high sensitivity of the mycobacteria growth indicator tube system could detect a low bacterial load in the initial stages of infection. Recent implementation of liquid systems in animal health laboratories has enabled detection of M. tuberculosis when it is compared with results using only conventional methods. Moreover, no tuberculosis-compatible lesions were observed in the 3 animals, similar to previous studies (6). On the basis of these facts, M. tuberculosis transmission was not detected among cattle in the following intradermal tuberculin tests.

Co-infection with other mycobacteria (M. avium subsp. hominissuis) was found in the same animal from farm 1 (Table). This co-infection suggested the immunocompromised status of the animal and hence a high susceptibility to M. tuberculosis infection. Moreover, M. bovis was isolated from 52% (16/31) of all animals from farm 2 that showed a positive reaction to the intradermal tuberculin skin test, making remarkable the absence of co-infection with M. bovis in the M. tuberculosis-infected animal. Therefore, the lack of M. tuberculosis transmission within this herd contrasts with the M. bovis dissemination.

The veterinary services reported these findings to the National Public Health System, and an epidemiologic investigation was conducted on the cattle farms to determine the source of infection. In all cases, staff of the farms had active tuberculosis (Table). Three different strains were characterized: SIT2537 (octal code 777617777720771), 253533233433236252211423 (farm 1); SIT1564, 3'5233423245545725121 3423 (farm 2); and SIT58, 254343 243232325262213423 (farm 3) (Table). The MIRU-VNTR pattern and spoligotype are shared by Spanish human and cattle isolates from farm 1; SIT2537 is an uncommon profile that has been detected in Brazil and Spain (according to the SITVIT2 database). The human strain showed multidrug resistance to isoniazid, rifampin, and ethionamide. In cattle and human isolates, genes associated with isoniazid and rifampin resistance were studied (8) and rpoB analysis confirmed rifampin resistance (Ser531Leu). In farm 2, the origin of the farm worker was eastern Europe and the cattle isolate showed an SIT1564 profile, which is found only in 6 human isolates in the SpolDB4 database, all from Poland, Bulgaria, and Russia. On farm 3, human and cattle isolates from Spain shared identical spoligotype and MIRU-VNTR patterns. The profile SIT58 is frequent in Spain (9) and other countries with historical links to Spain, mainly the south American countries (79/114 according to Spol DB4).

A well-designed program for eradicating bovine tuberculosis helps to detect M. tuberculosis infection by immune response or by bacteriologic culture. The use of liquid systems and results of epidemiologic studies (Spanish Database of Animal Mycobacteriosis, (S. Rodriguez, unpub. data) are recommended for prompt confirmation of the M. tuberculosis complex infection and for enhancing the sensitivity of culture. In addition, the Spanish Ministry of Environment, Rural and Marine Affairs has reinforced the need to improve cooperation between human and animal health systems to minimize the risk for M. tuberculosis complex transmission from animals to humans or vice versa and to control infection in all susceptible animal species (10).

doi: 10.3201/eid1712.101476


We thank L. Carbajo, J. Carpintero, E. Fernandez, and L.M. Alvarez for their continuous encouragement; F. Lozano, N. Moya, A. Gutierrez, J. Gimeno, A. Penedo, A. Menendez, C. Martinez, and J.A. Anguiano for technical help; R. Daza and M.S. Jimenez for providing the human strains and related data; Nalin Rastogi for comparison of spoligotyping results with the SITVIT2 proprietary database; and M. Gilmour for careful revision of the manuscript.

This research was funded by project TB-STEP FP7-KBBE-2007-212414 of the European Union and by the Spanish Ministry of the Environment, and Rural and Marine Affairs and partially by Fondo de Investigaciones Sanitarias (FIS S09/02205). B.R. received a research contract funded by Comunidad de Madrid (IV regional framework program of research and technological innovation 2005-2008).


(1.) Fetene T, Kebede N, Alem G. Tuberculosis infection in animal and human populations in three districts of western Gojam, Ethiopia. Zoonoses Public Health. 2011;58:47-53. doi:10.1111/j.1863-2378. 2009.01265.x

(2.) Chen Y, Chao Y, Deng Q, Liu T, Xiang J, Chen J, et al. Potential challenges to the Stop TB Plan for humans in China; cattle maintain M. bovis and M. tuberculosis. Tuberculosis (Edinb). 2009;89:95-100. doi:10.1016/

(3.) Prasad HK, Singhal A, Mishra A, Shah NP, Katoch VM, Thakral SS, et al. Bovine tuberculosis in India: potential basis for zoo nosis. Tuberculosis (Edinb). 2005;85:421-8. doi:10.1016/

(4.) Pavlik I, Trcka I, Parmova I, Svobodova J, Melicharek I, Nagy G, et al. Detection of bovine and human tuberculosis in cattle and other animals in six central European countries during the years 2000-2004. Vet Med Czech. 2005;50:291-9 [cited 2011 Oct 24]. 50-7-291.pdf

(5.) Pavlik I, Ayele WY, Parmova I, Melicharek I, Hanzlikova M, Kormendy B, et al. Mycobacterium tuberculosis in animal and human population in six Central European countries during 1990-1999. Vet Med Czech. 2003;48:83-89 [cited 2011 Oct 24]. pdf

(6.) Lesslie IW. Tuberculosis in attested herds caused by the human type tubercle bacillus. Vet Rec. 1960;72:218-24.

(7.) Supply P, Allix C, Lesjean S, Cardoso-Oelemann M, Rusch-Gerdes S, Willery E, et al. Proposal for standardization of optimized mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable-number tandem repeat typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J Clin Microbiol. 2006;44:4498-510. doi:10.1128/JCM.01392-06

(8.) Romero B, Aranaz A, de Juan L, Alvarez J, Bezos J, Mateos A, et al. Molecular epidemiology of multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium bovis isolates with the same spoligotyping profile as isolates from animals. J Clin Microbiol. 2006;44:3405-8. doi:10.1128/JCM.00730-06

(9.) Garcia de Viedma D, Bouza E, Rastogi N, Sola C. Analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis genotypes in Madrid and identification of two new families specific to Spain-related settings. J Clin Microbiol. 2005;43:1797-806. doi:10.1128/ JCM.43.4.1797-1806.2005

(10.) Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Rural y Marino. Discussion conference about the eradication of bovine tuberculosis [in Spanish]. Santander, 2010 Jun 29-30, Spain [cited 2011 Oct 24]. http://www. presidencia/jornada_tuberculosis_bovina. htm

Beatriz Romero, Sabrina Rodriguez, Javier Bezos, Rosa Diaz, M. Francisca Copano, Isabel Merediz, Olga Minguez, Sergio Marques, Juan J. Palacios, Dario Garcia de Viedma, Jose Luis Saez, Ana Mateos, Alicia Aranaz, Lucas Dominguez, and Lucia de Juan

Author affiliations: Universidad Complutense, Madrid, Spain (B. Romero, S. Rodriguez, J. Bezos, A. Mateos, A. Aranaz, L. Dominguez, L. de Juan); Consejeria de Medio Ambiente, Vivienda y Ordenacion del Territorio, Madrid (R. Diaz); Laboratorio de Sanidad Animal de Jove, Gijon, Spain (M.F. Copano, I. Merediz); Consejeria de Agricultura y Ganaderia, Valladolid, Spain (O. Minguez, S. Marques); Hospital Universitario Central de Asturias, Oviedo, Spain (J.J. Palacios); Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Madrid, and Centro de Investigacion Biomedica en Red Enfermedades Respiratorias Enfermedades Respiratorias, Madrid (D. Garcia de Viedma); and Ministerio de Medio Ambiente, y Medio Rural y Marino, Madrid (J.L. Saez)

Address for correspondence: Lucia de Juan, VISAVET Health Surveillance Centre and Departamento de Sanidad Animal, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain; email: dejuan@
Table. Relevant information about Mycobacterium
tuberculosis infection in 3 cattle farms in Spain *

Variable Farm 1

Cattle herd
 No. animals 6
 Production Beef
 Previous status TB free
 No. reactors 1
M. tuberculosis infection in cattle
 Year of isolation 2007
 Age, mo 9
 IDTB/interferon-Y Pos/not determined
 TB-compatible lesion No
 Spoligotyping profile SIT2537
 MIRU-VNTR profile ([dagger]) 25353323343323
 Co-infection with Yes
 other mycobacteria (M. avium subsp.
 ([double dagger])
M. tuberculosis infection in human
 Active tuberculosis Yes
 Spoligotyping profile SIT2537
 MIRU-VNTR profile ([dagger]) 25353323343
 Origin Spain

Variable Farm 2

Cattle herd
 No. animals 54
 Production Beef
 Previous status TB-free
 No. reactors 31
M. tuberculosis infection in cattle
 Year of isolation 2008
 Age, mo 4
 IDTB/interferon-Y Neg/neg
 TB-compatible lesion No
 Spoligotyping profile SIT1564
 MIRU-VNTR profile ([dagger]) 3'5233423245
 Co-infection with Yes
 other mycobacteria (M. bovis)

M. tuberculosis infection in human
 Active tuberculosis Yes
 Spoligotyping profile Not available
 MIRU-VNTR profile ([dagger]) 3'523342324
 Origin Eastern Europe

Variable Farm 3

Cattle herd
 No. animals >200
 Production Dairy
 Previous status Non-TB free
 No. reactors 12
M. tuberculosis infection in cattle
 Year of isolation 2009
 Age, mo 3
 IDTB/interferon-Y Pos/not determined
 TB-compatible lesion No
 Spoligotyping profile SIT58
 MIRU-VNTR profile ([dagger]) 254343243232
 Co-infection with No
 other mycobacteria

M. tuberculosis infection in human
 Active tuberculosis Yes
 Spoligotyping profile SIT58
 MIRU-VNTR profile ([dagger]) 254343243232
 Origin Spain

* TB, tuberculosis; IDTB, intradermal
tuberculin tested according to the European
Council Directive 64/432/EEC; pos, positive;
neg, negative; MIRU- VNTR, mycobacterial
interspersed repetitive unit-variable number
tandem repeat.

([dagger]) MIRU-VNTR profile on the
basis of the 24 MIRU-VNTR loci (7).

([double dagger]) Co-infection in the same animal.
COPYRIGHT 2011 U.S. National Center for Infectious Diseases
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2011 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Title Annotation:LETTERS
Author:Romero, Beatriz; Rodriguez, Sabrina; Bezos, Javier; Diaz, Rosa; Copano, M. Francisca; Merediz, Isabe
Publication:Emerging Infectious Diseases
Article Type:Letter to the editor
Geographic Code:4EUSP
Date:Dec 1, 2011
Previous Article:Novel astroviruses in children, Egypt.
Next Article:Porcine and human community reservoirs of Enterococcus faecalis, Denmark.

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2021 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters |